You are on page 1of 4



control. Holes are drilled through the board using an automated drilling machine. Iron salts can be added to break the chelate. Production begins with a sheet of plastic laminated with a thin layer of copper foil. producing hazardous waste sludge. resulting in a growth in volume of the plating solution. the copper is in a particulate form and can be removed by filtration or centrifuge. making simple hydroxide precipitation ineffective. The rinse water from a scrubber unit can be a significant source of copper waste. nickel. the board is cleaned and etched to promote good adhesion and then is plated with an additional layer of copper. Equipment is available to remove this copper particulate. the board is scrubbed to remove fine copper particles left by the drill. The creation of circuit patterns is accomplished using both additive and subtractive methods. chrome. double-sided.per plating is employed to provide a thin continuous conductive layer over the surface of the board and through the holes. Plating depletes the metal and alkalinity of the electroless bath. allowing recycle of the rinse water to the scrubber. Printed circuit boards are employed in the manufacturing of business machines and computers. but only at the cost of producing a significant volume of sludge. The conductive circuit is generally copper. and other metals are sometimes used. once mixed with other waste streams. This growth is a significant source of copper-bearing wastewater in the circuit board industry. Regeneration of the ion exchange resin with sulfuric acid produces a concentrated copper sulfate solution without the chelate. Since the holes are not conductive. Treatment of this stream (and the rinsewater from electroless plating) is complicated by the presence of chelating agents. In the scrubber. or else concentrated to produce a useful product. There are three basic varieties of printed circuit boards: single-sided. Production of printed circuit boards involves the plating and selective etching of flat circuits of copper supported on a nonconductive sheet of plastic. as well as communication. the copper can dissolve and contribute to the dissolved copper load on the treatment plant.PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MANUFACTURING A. Copper sulfate and caustic are added (usually automatically) as solutions. and creating conductive connections between them. typically by using a chelating ion exchange resin. The spatial and density requirement and the circuitry complexity determine the type of board produced. . and home entertainment equipment. and multi-layered. The holes are used to mount electronic components on the board and to provide a conductive circuit from one layer of the board to another. although aluminum. electroless cop. Following drilling. Electroless copper plating involves using chelating agents to keep the copper in solution at an alkaline pH. After being scrubbed. Ion exchange is used to strip the copper from the chelating agent. This regenerant can then be either treated by hydroxide precipitation. PROCESS DESCRIPTION Printed circuit boards are electronic circuits created by mounting electronic components on a nonconductive board. However.

Ammonia-based etching solutions are most widely used. At this concentration. A thin layer of tin lead solder or pure tin is plated over the copper as an etch resist. . Disadvantages of the sulfuric acid-peroxide etching solution are that it is relatively slow when compared with ammonia. and then mixes it with carbon granules on which the copper plates out in a form suitable for reclaiming. An alternative to ammonia etching is sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide etching solutions. the etchant is reused.Growth from electroless copper plating is typically too concentrated in copper to treat directly byion exchange. One method. and controlling temperature can be difficult. replenishes growth with formaldehyde and caustic soda to enhance its autocatalytic plating tendency. The plating resist is then removed to expose the copper not part of the final circuit pattern. Following electroless plating a plating resist is applied to the panel and photo-imaged to create the circuit design. This latter etchant is continuously replenished by adding concentrated peroxide and acid as the copper concentration increases to about 80 g/L. reported by Hewlett-Packard. the solution is cooled to precipitate out copper sulfate. Use of ammonia complicates waste treatment and makes recovery of copper difficult. The exposed copper is then removed by etching to reveal the circuit pattern. Different methods have been employed to reduce the concentration of copper sufficiently either to discharge the effluent directly to the sewer or to treat it with ion exchange. Copper is then electroplated on the board to its final thickness. After replenishing with peroxide and acid.

05 % 3.69% 17. (C&B Equip) Strategic Electronics (SE) Automotive Electronics (AE) Volume ( 000) SQM FY'10 2009-10 FY'11 2010-11 (E) FY'12 2011-12 (E) FY'13 2012-13 (E) FY'14 2013-14 (E) FY'15 2014-15 (E) CAGR 14470 731 533 1570 177 17780 17724 790 580 1950 185 21589 21800 850 630 2440 195 26355 26800 950 685 2930 200 32095 32500 1050 730 3550 210 38665 38350 1150 780 4250 220 45470 17.& Broadcast eqpt.55% 18.00 % .64 % 7.Indian PCB Market Size An Impressive 17% CAGR growing PCB demand Domestic Demand S/N Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 Consumer Electronics (CE) Industrial Electronics/ Automation (IE) Computers and periferals Comn.84% 6.