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Security Watching All the Time (S.W.A.T.

)
A Project Report Submitted By
Alauddin, Mohammad 10935-2 Faisal, Md. Shahed 10879-2 Sarker, Sanjay Kumar 11560-2 080808-

Under the Supervision of
Lecturer Faculty of Engineering American International University-Bangladesh

Kamrul Hasan

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Faculty of Engineering

American International UniversityBangladesh
Fall Semester – 2011

Declaration
This is to certify that this project is our original work. No part of this work has been submitted elsewhere partially or fully for achieving an award or any other degree or diploma. Any material reproduced in this project has been properly acknowledged.

Student’s Name & Signature

------------------------------------Alauddin, Mohammad ID: 08-10935-2 Dept: EEE

------------------------------------Faisal, Md. Shahed ID: 08-10879-2 Dept: EEE

------------------------------------Sarker, Sanjay Kumar ID: 08-11560-2 Dept: EEE

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Approval
The project titled ‘Security Watching All the Time (S.W.A.T.)’ has been submitted to the following respected members of the Board of Examiners of the Faculty of Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering on November 2011 by the following students and has been accepted as satisfactory.

Alauddin, Mohammad ID: 08-10935-2 Dept: EEE Faisal, Md. Shahed ID: 08-10879-2 Dept: EEE

-------------------------------Md. Mohiuddin Uzzal Lecturer & External Faculty of Engineering American International University-Bangladesh • Sarker, Sanjay Kumar ID: 08-11560-2 Dept: EEE

-------------------------------Kamrul Hasan Lecturer & Supervisor Faculty of Engineering American International University-Bangladesh -------------------------------Dr. Carman Z. Lamagna

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Vice Chancellor American International University-Bangladesh

-------------------------------Dr. A B M Siddique Hossain Dean Faculty of Engineering American International University-Bangladesh

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Acknowledgement
We are heartily thankful to our supervisor, Kamrul Hassan, Lecturer, Department of EEE, American International University-Bangladesh, whose unflinching encouragement, guidance from the initial to the final level enabled us to develop an understanding of the subject and make us capable of completing the project. His originality has triggered and nourished our intellectual maturity without which this would not have been possible. It is a pleasure to thank Dr. Carmen Z. Lamagna, honorable Vice Chancellor, American International University-Bangladesh, who exceptionally inspired and enriched our growth as a student. We owe our deepest gratitude to Prof. Dr. ABM Siddique Hossain, Dean, Department of EEE, American International University-Bangladesh; Mr. Md. Mohiuddin Uzzal, Lecturer, Department of EEE, American International University-Bangladesh, for their unequivocal support. Our heartfelt gratitude goes to all of those who had no direct involvement in our project but had an immense impact on our entire work, especially our parents through inseparable love and undying support, our friends who helped us realizing our destination and dreams. We express our apology to those whose names we could not mention, but every single person of them has been a great help for us. Last, but by no means least, we express our heartiest gratefulness to the Almighty, without his divine blessings it would not have been possible for us to complete this project successfully. For any errors or inadequacies that may remain in this work, of course, the responsibility is entirely our own.

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Abstract
Security problem has been a matter of concern over the years in Bangladesh. Indoor security is one of them. We aspire to achieve a goal of the high level security for a home/room/bank with our project. With the invention of new and sophisticated way of robbery, it has been threatened immensely for people. The objective of this project is to design a security monitoring system with which the owner do not have to worry about his indoor goods. The best part of our project is it is made with typical electrical components; hence, it’s quite simple, yet, very powerful. Moreover, it will be cost effective, so more and more people will be able to use it for their security needs. Our target was to make the circuit as simple as possible. So we selected the components very carefully. We implemented three phase of security in the whole monitoring system. Whenever an outsider enters the room the owner will be notified by a buzzer. A wireless close circuit camera will automatically record indoor activities and will show on a display monitor accessible to the owner. Also a counter will count the number of outsiders entered the room. We have tested our monitoring system in a room and verified the operation of this project. The experimental results showed that our security system can effectively enhance indoor security.

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Overview of the Project Report
The project report consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the project and a brief description of the different areas that made up the project. Chapter 2 will introduce the components that were used in the project. There will be an articulation of each component as well as their functions. Chapter 3 will introduce the sensor and principle of the counter used in the system. Chapter 4 will give an idea about the operation and diagram of each circuit. There will also be an explicative description on the different modes of operation. Chapter 5 will reveal the discussions and limitations of the project, and then the future plans about how this project can be improved further. Lastly a small conclusion of the whole project work.

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Table of Content
DECLARATION………………………………………………………………………… …………………………...I APPROVAL……………………………………………………………………………… …………………………..II ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………… ……………………..III ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………….IV OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT……………………………………………………………………………….V CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1Introduction………………………………………………………………………… ………………………...1 1.2Motivation…………………………………………………………………………… ………………………...1 1.3Objective…………………………………………………………………………… …………………………..2 CHAPTER 2: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS 2.1 Resistors………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………...3 2.1.1 Unit……………………………………………………………………………… …………………..3 2.1.2 Classification of Resistors…………………………………………………………………..4

2.1.3 Function of Resistors………………………………………………………………………… 5 2.1.4 Power Dissipation………………………………………………………………………. …….7 2.2 Capacitor………………………………………………………………………………… ……………….…….8 2.2.1 Unit……………………………………………………………………………… …………….…….9 2.2.2 Types of Capacitor………………………………………………………………………. ……9 2.2.3 Capacitor Characteristics………………………………………………………………… 11 2.2.4 Theory of Operation………………………………………………………………………... 13 2.3 Diode……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………14 2.3.1 Function of Diodes…………………………………………………………………………..1 5 2.3.2 Types of Diodes…………………………………………………………………………… ….15 2.3.3 Current-voltage Characteristics………………………………………………………..15

2.3.4 Application of Diodes………………………………………………………………………16 2.3.5 Full Wave Rectifier………………………………………………………………………….. 16 2.4 Voltage Transformer…………………………………………………………………………… ……….17 2.4.1 Single Phase Voltage Transformer…………………………………………………...18 2.4.2 Principal of Transformer Action………………………………………………………19 2.5 Light Emitting Diode (LED) …………………………………………………………………………...21 2.5.1 Types of LEDs……………………………………………………………………………… ….21 2.5.2 Colors of LEDs………………………………………………………………………………. ...22 2.5.3 Sizes, Shapes and Viewing Angles of LEDs………………………………………...22 2.5.4 Considerations for Use…………………………………………………………………….23 2.5.5 Advantages……………………………………………………………………… ……………..24 2.6 Voltage Regulator………………………………………………………………………………… ………25 2.6.1 Measures of Regulator Quality…………………………………………………………25

2.6.2 DC Voltage Stabilizers……………………………………………………………………...2 7 2.7 Relay……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………27 2.7.1 Electromagnetic Relay Construction………………………………………………...27 2.7.2 Relay Contact Types………………………………………………………………………..29 2.8 MOSFET………………………………………………………………………………… …………………….29 2.8.1 Basic Structure………………………………………………………………………… ……..30 2.8.2 Types of MOSFET………………………………………………………………………….. ..30 2.8.3 Modes of Operation………………………………………………………………………... 33 2.9 Buzzer…………………………………………………………………………………… …………………….35 2.9.1 Types of Buzzers…………………………………………………………………………… ..35 2.9.2 Working Principle of Passive Electromagnetic Buzzer………………………36 2.9.3 Application……………………………………………………………………… ……………...36

2.10 Close Circuit Camera…………………………………………………………………………………... 36 2.10.1 Video Cameras………………………………………………………………………… ……37 2.10.2 Digital Still Cameras………………………………………………………………………38 CHAPTER 3: SENSOR AND COUNTER 3.1 Sensor…………………………………………………………………………………… …………………….39 3.1.1 Types of Sensors…………………………………………………………………………… ..39 3.1.2 Passive Infrared (PIR) Sensor…………………………………………………………..40 3.2 Counter…………………………………………………………………………………… …………………..43 3.2.1 Analog-to-Digital Converter…………………………………………………………….43 3.2.2 Seven-segment Display……………………………………………………………………46 CHAPTER 4: CIRCUIT OPERATION 4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………… ……………………49 4.2 Component Used……………………………………………………………………………………… …..49

4.3 Operation………………………………………………………………………………… …………………..50 CHAPTER 5: OVERALL CONCLUSION 5.1 Discussion……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………52 5.2 Limitation……………………………………………………………………………… …………………….52 5.3 Future Plans……………………………………………………………………………………… …………52 5.4 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………53 APPENDICES Appendix A…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………...54 Appendix B…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………...57 REFERENCE…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………60

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Introduction
The theory of electrical circuits represents one of the most important parts of any electrical engineering education. A theory is a general statement of principle abstracted from observation. And a model to be useful, it must be realistic and yet very simple enough to understand and manipulate. These requirements are not easily fulfilled as realistic models are seldom simple and simple models are seldom realistic. Our project is built up to overcome this. A project should not only be something that will grow us as an engineer, it should be something that will benefit the mankind. The project was undertaken after understanding this universal truth. We have tried to enable the security of the room of home/office/shop/bank with a high rate of accuracy. There will be an automatic monitoring on anyone entering the room and whatever activities he performs inside. So using this security arrangement the owner does not have to worry about the security of the room. He will just monitor any signal that is coming in the circuit carried by him. By monitoring the output an owner can check if someone is trying to breach the security.

1.2 Motivation
Robbery has become very common in Bangladesh. Office lockers are not safe now for keeping the important documents. This is a dismaying condition. The increasing rate of robbery has just caught our mind that how this situation can be handled. Firstly we thought about the available monitoring systems in 1

our country. But we found that there is some lacking in those systems. Moreover, they are expensive. So things are more problematic for the normal people. These were the incentives that motivated us to do something with room security system.

1.3 Objective
The main objective of our project is to ensure the room security at a very high level but with a low cost. We will design the monitoring system with basic electrical components so that the cost remains low. To differentiate our work with other’s work we will specify the manual instruction. Considering the different environment different modes will be arranged so that user does not have to bother. There’s an important feature in this project – a camera will record all the internal activities of a room when someone’s inside it. There will be a buzzer which will start making sound and a signal will also be sent in the circuit holding by the user.

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Chapter 2 Electrical and Electronic Components
2.1 Resistors
A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor. When a resistor is introduced to a circuit the flow of current is reduced. The higher the value of the resistor is the smaller/lower the flow of current. It produces a voltage across it’s terminals that is proportional to the current passing through it in accordance with Ohm’s law, V=IR The symbol used in schematic and electrical drawings for a resistor can either be a ‘zigzag’ type line (US, Japan) or a rectangular box (Europe).

Figure 2.1: Standard resistor symbols

2.1.1 Unit
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Ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm. Commonly used multiples and submultiples in electrical and electronic usage are the milliohm (1 mΩ = 10-3 Ω), kilo-ohm (1 kΩ = 103 Ω) and mega-ohm (1 MΩ = 106 Ω).

2.1.2 Classification of Resistors
The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, tolerance, maximum working voltage and power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, inductance and capacitance. Although resistors come in various forms they can be divided into two basic types — a) Fixed resistors b) Variable resistors or Potentiometers Fixed resistors: A fixed resistor is a component with two wires which obeys Ohm’s law. Electronic engineers and manufacturers have adopted some standards for fixed resistors. Variable resistors: Variable resistors are usually a stubby cylindrical shape with a rod poking out one end and with three metal tags.

(a) Fixed resistors 2

(b) Variable resistor

Figure 2.2: Two basic types of resistors All modern resistors can be classified into four broad groups — Carbon Composition Resistor: Made of carbon dust or graphite paste, low wattage values. Film or Cermet Resistor: Made from conductive metal oxide paste, very low wattage values. Wire-wound Resistor: Metallic bodies for heat sink mounting, very high wattage ratings. Semiconductor Resistor: High frequency/precision surface mount thin film technology.

(a) Carbon Composite Resistor Resistor

(b) Film or Cermet

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(c) Wire-wound Resistor Resistor Figure 2.3: Different types of resistors

(d) Semiconductor

2.1.3 Function of Resistors
As we mentioned before the behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm’s law: V=IR Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I), where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R). Equivalently, Ohm’s law can be stated as: I=VR This formulation of Ohm’s law states that, when a voltage (V) is maintained across a resistance (R), a current (I) will flow through the resistance. This formation is often used in practice. For example, if V is 12 volts and R is 400 ohms, a current of 12/400 = 0.03 amperes will flow through the resistance R. Resistors in a parallel configuration have the same potential difference (voltage). To find their total equivalent resistance (Req),

Figure 2.5: Parallel Connection of Resistors The parallel property can be represented in equations by two vertical lines “||” (as in geometry) to simplify equations. For two resistors, 4

Req=R1||R2=R1R2R1+R2 The current through resistors in series stays the same, but the voltage across each resistor can be different. The sum of the potential differences is equal to the total voltage. To find their total resistance (Req),

Figure 2.6: Series connection of Resistors A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one of the other. For instance,

Figure 2.7: Combination of series and parallel connection The practical application to resistors is that a resistance of any non-standard value can be obtained by connecting standard values in series or in parallel.

2.1.4 Power Dissipation
The power P dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of a resistor network) is calculated as: P=I2V=IV=VR 5

The first form is a restatement of Joule's first law. Using Ohm's law, the two other forms can be derived. The total amount of heat energy released over a period of time can be determined from the integral of the power over that period of time: W=t1t2vt it dt If the average power dissipated by a resistor is more than its power rating, damage to the resistor may occur, permanently altering its resistance; this is distinct from the reversible change in resistance due to its temperature coefficient when it warms. Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it can burn the circuit board or adjacent components, or even cause a fire. There are flameproof resistors that fail (open circuit) before they overheat dangerously.

2.2 Capacitor
The capacitor is a passive electronic component that holds a charge in the form of an electrostatic field. They are often used in combination with transistors in DRAM, acting as storage cells to hold bits. Capacitors typically consist of conducting plates separated by thin layers of dielectric material, such as dry air or mica. The plates on opposite sides of the dielectric material are oppositely charged and the electrical energy of the charged system is stored in the polarized dielectric. When a voltage is applied across the two plates of a capacitor a concentrated field flux is created between them, allowing a significant difference of free electrons (a charge) to develop between the two plates.

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Figure 2.8: Different types of capacitors The schematic symbol for a capacitor is two short parallel lines (representing the plates) separated by a gap (dielectric). At that two parallel lines (plates) are attached two pins for connection to other components.

Figure 2.9: Capacitor symbols

2.2.1 Unit
The unit of capacitor is farad (F). It is named after Michael Faraday, a nineteenth century English chemist and physicist. A capacitor has a capacitance of 1 farad if 1 coulomb of charge is deposited on the plates by a potential difference of 1 volt across the plates. The farad, however, is generally too large a measure of capacitance for most practical applications. So microfarad (10-6 F) or picofarad (10-12 F) is more commonly used. 3

2.2.2 Types of Capacitor
There are a very large variety of different types of capacitor available in the market place and each one has its own set of characteristics and applications from small delicate trimming capacitors up to large power metal-can type capacitors used in high voltage power correction and smoothing circuits. Like resistors, there are also variable types of capacitors which allow us to vary their capacitance value for use in radio or "frequency tuning" type circuits. Capacitor types are — Film Capacitor: Film Capacitors are the most commonly available of all types of capacitors, consisting of a relatively large family of capacitors with the difference being in their dielectric properties. These include polyester (Mylar), polystyrene, polypropylene, polycarbonate, metallized paper, Teflon etc. Film type capacitors are available in capacitance ranges from as small as 5pF to as large as 100uF depending upon the actual type of capacitor and its voltage rating.

Figure 2.10: Film capacitors (Radial Lead type and Axial Lead type) Ceramic Capacitors: Ceramic Capacitors are made by coating two sides of a small porcelain or ceramic disc with silver and are then stacked together to make a capacitor. Ceramic capacitors have a high dielectric constant (HighK) and are available so that relatively high capacitances can be obtained in a small physical size. Ceramic capacitors have values ranging from a few

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picofarads to one or two microfarads but their voltage ratings are generally quite low. Electrolytic Capacitors: Electrolytic capacitors are high voltage capacitors. The majority of electrolytic types of capacitors are polarized. These are generally used in DC power supply circuits due to their large capacitances and small size to help reduce the ripple voltage or for coupling and decoupling applications. One main disadvantage of electrolytic capacitors is their relatively low voltage rating.

Figure 2.11: Electrolytic capacitor

Dielectric Capacitor: Dielectric Capacitors are usually of the variable type were a continuous variation of capacitance is required for tuning transmitters, receivers and transistor radios. Variable dielectric capacitors are multi-plate air-spaced types that have a set of fixed plates (the stator vanes) and a set of movable plates (the rotor vanes) which move in between the fixed plates. The position of the moving plates with respect to the fixed plates determines the overall capacitance value. The capacitance is generally at maximum when the two sets of plates are fully meshed together. High voltage type tuning capacitors have relatively large spacing or air-gaps between the plates with breakdown voltages reaching many thousands of volts.

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Figure 2.12: Dielectric capacitor

2.2.3 Capacitor Characteristics
There are a bewildering array of capacitor characteristics and specifications associated with the humble capacitor, so here are just a few of the more important ones — 1. Working Voltage, (WV): The working voltage is the maximum continuous voltage either DC or AC that can be applied to the capacitor without failure during its working life. DC and AC voltage values are usually not the same for a capacitor as the AC voltage value refers to the R.M.S. value. Common working DC voltages are 10V, 16V, 25V, 35V, 50V, 63V, 100V, 160V, 250V, 400V and 1000V and are printed onto the body of the capacitor. 2. Tolerance, (±%): As with resistors, capacitors also have a tolerance rating expressed as a plus-or-minus value either in picofarads (±pF) for low value capacitors, generally less than 100pF or as a percentage (±%) for higher value capacitors, generally higher than 100pF. Capacitors are rated according to how near to their actual values they are compared to the rated nominal capacitance with colored bands or letters used to indicated their actual tolerance. The most common tolerance variation for capacitors is 5% or 10% but some plastic capacitors are rated as low as ±1%.

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3. Leakage Current: The dielectric used inside the capacitor to separate the conductive plates is not a perfect insulator resulting in a very small current flowing or "leaking" through the dielectric due to the influence of the powerful electric fields built up by the charge on the plates when applied to a constant supply voltage. This small DC current flow in the region of nanoamps (nA) is called the capacitors Leakage Current. It is a result of electrons physically making their way through the dielectric medium, around its edges or across its leads and which will over time fully discharging the capacitor if the supply voltage is removed. The film/foil type capacitor has extremely low leakage currents while the leakage current of aluminium electrolytics increases with temperature. 4. Working Temperature, (T): Changes in temperature around the capacitor affect the value of the capacitance because of changes in the dielectric properties. If the air or surrounding temperature becomes too hot or too cold the capacitance value of the capacitor may change so much as to affect the correct operation of the circuit. The normal working range for most capacitors is -30°C to +125°C with nominal voltage ratings given for a Working Temperature of no more than +70°C. Generally electrolytics cannot be used below about -10°C, as the electrolyte jelly freezes. 5. Temperature Coefficient, (TC): The Temperature Coefficient of a capacitor is the maximum change in its capacitance over a specified temperature range. It is generally expressed linearly as parts per million per degree centigrade (PPM/°C), or as a percent change over a particular range of temperatures. Some capacitors are nonlinear (Class 2 capacitors) and increase their value as the temperature rises giving them a temperature coefficient that is expressed as a positive "P". Some capacitors decrease their value as the temperature rises giving them a temperature coefficient that is expressed as a negative "N". For example "P100" is +100 ppm/°C or "N200", which is -200 ppm/°C etc. However, some capacitors do not change

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their value and remain constant over a certain temperature range; such capacitors have a zero temperature coefficient or "NPO". 6. Polarization: Polarization generally refers to the electrolytic type capacitors but mainly the aluminium electrolytics, with regards to their electrical connection. The majority are polarized types, that is the voltage connected to the capacitor terminals must have the correct polarity, i.e. positive to positive and negative to negative. Incorrect polarization can cause the oxide layer inside the capacitor to break down resulting in very large currents flowing through the device resulting in destruction. 7. Equivalent Series Resistance, (ESR): The Equivalent Series

Resistance, or ESR, of a capacitor is the AC impedance of the capacitor when used at high frequencies and includes the resistance of the dielectric material, the DC resistance of the terminal leads, the DC resistance of the connections to the dielectric and the capacitor plate resistance all measured at a particular frequency and temperature. The ESR of electrolytic capacitors increases over time as their electrolyte dries out. Capacitors with very low ESR ratings are available and are best suited when using the capacitor as a filter.

2.2.4 Theory of Operation
The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them, C=QV Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically, causing its capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes,

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C=dqdv Work must be done by an external influence to "move" charge between the conductors in a capacitor. When the external influence is removed the charge separation persists in the electric field and energy is stored to be released when the charge is allowed to return to its equilibrium position. The work done in establishing the electric field, and hence the amount of energy stored, is given by, W=q=0QVdq=q=0QqCdq=12Q2C=12CV2=12VQ The current i(t) through any component in an electric circuit is defined as the rate of flow of a charge q(t) passing through it, but actual charges, electrons, cannot pass through the dielectric layer of a capacitor, rather an electron accumulates on the negative plate for each one that leaves the positive plate, resulting in an electron depletion and consequent positive charge on one electrode that is equal and opposite to the accumulated negative charge on the other. Thus the charge on the electrodes is equal to the integral of the current as well as proportional to the voltage as discussed above. As with any anti-derivative, a constant of integration is added to represent the initial voltage v(t0). This is the integral form of the capacitor equation, vt=q(t)C=1Ct0tiτdτ+v(t0) Taking the derivative of this, and multiplying by C, yields the derivative form, it=dq(t)dt=Cdv(t)dt

2.3 Diode
Diodes are semiconductor devices which might be described as passing current in one direction only. In electronics, a diode 2

is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only on direction. Diodes can be used as voltage regulators, tuning devices in rf tuned circuits, frequency multiplying devices in rf circuits, mixing devices in rf circuits, switching applications or can be used to make logic decisions in digital circuits.

2.3.1 Function of a Diodes
The main function of a diode is to block the current in one direction and allow current to flow in the other direction. Current flowing through the diode is called forward current.

2.3.2 Types of Diodes
There are several types of diodes. Such as — Rectifier diodes: These are the most common type of diodes. They are mainly used to allow flow of current in one direction and by doing that they can convert AC to DC. Detector diodes: These are more sensitive than normal rectifier diodes. They are used in radios and televisions to convert radio signals to audio or television signals. Zenner diodes: These diodes are the opposite of the normal diodes, because they are designed to conduct current in the backwards direction but only at a very precise voltage. Capacitance diodes: it act as tunable capacitance and are also used in radios and TVs to allow electronic automatic tuning.

2.3.3 Current-voltage Characteristics
The graph below shows the electrical characteristics of a typical diode — 2

Figure 2.14: Diode characteristic graph When a small voltage is applied to the diode in the forward direction, current flows easily. Because the diode has a certain amount of resistance, the voltage will drop slightly as current flows through the diode. A typical diode causes a voltage drop of about 0.6 - 1V (VF) (In the case of silicon diode, almost 0.6V). This voltage drop needs to be taken into consideration in a circuit which uses many diodes in series. Also, the amount of current passing through the diodes must be considered. When voltage is applied in the reverse direction through a diode, the diode will have a great resistance to current flow. Different diodes have different characteristics when reversebiased. A given diode should be selected depending on how it will be used in the circuit. The current that will flow through a diode biased in the reverse direction will vary from several mA to just µA, which is very small.

2.3.4 Application of Diodes
Some ways in which the diode can be used are listed here. • • • A diode can be used as a rectifier that converts AC (Alternating Current) to DC (Direct Current) for a power supply device. Diodes can be used to separate the signal from radio frequencies. Diodes can be used as an on/off switch that controls current. 3

2.3.5 Full Wave Rectifier
In a full wave rectifier circuit two diodes are used, one for each half of the cycle. A transformer is used whose secondary winding is split equally into two halves with a common center tapped connection, (C). This configuration results in each diode conducting in turn when its anode terminal is positive with respect to the transformer center point C producing an output during both half-cycles. The full wave rectifier circuit consists of two power diodes connected to a single load resistance (RL) with each diode taking it in turn to supply current to the load. When point A of the transformer is positive with respect to point C, diode D1 conducts in the forward Figure 2.15: Full wave rectifier circuit and the resultant output direction as indicated by the arrows. waveform When point B is positive (in the negative half of the cycle) with respect to point C, diode D2 conducts in the forward direction and the current flowing through resistor R is in the same direction for both half-cycles. As the output voltage across the resistor R is the phasor sum of the two waveforms combined, this type of full wave rectifier circuit is also known as a "bi-phase" circuit. As the spaces between each halfwave developed by each diode is now being filled in by the other diode the average DC output voltage across the load resistor is now double that of the single half-wave rectifier circuit and is about 0.637Vmax of the peak voltage, assuming no losses. Vd.c.=2Vmaxπ=0.637Vmax=0.9VRMS

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Where: Vmax is the maximum peak value in one half of the secondary winding and VRMS is the rms value. The peak voltage of the output waveform is the same as before for the half-wave rectifier provided each half of the transformer windings have the same rms voltage value. To obtain a different DC voltage output different transformer ratios can be used.

2.4 Voltage Transformer
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors (the transformer's coils). The main purpose of a voltage transformer is to transfer electrical power between different circuits by converting one AC voltage source into another AC voltage at the same frequency. Transformers are basically mechanical devices that consist of one or more coil(s) of wire wrapped around a common ferromagnetic laminated core. These coils are usually not electrically connected together however, they are connected magnetically through the common magnetic flux Qm confined to a central core. Voltage transformers work on Faraday’s principal of electromagnetic induction. When a current flows through a coil, a magnetic flux (Φ) is produced around the coil. If we now place a second similar coil next to the first so that this magnetic flux cuts the second coil of wire, an e.m.f. voltage will be induced in the second coil. This effect is known as “mutual induction” and is the basic operation principal of voltage transformers. Figure 2.16: Typical Voltage Transformer proportional to the number of turns and to the rate of change of magnetic The value of the induced e.m.f in the second coil is flux. In a voltage transformer these two coils known as the primary and 4

secondary windings are tightly wrapped around a single core material such as steel or iron which improves the magnetic coupling between these two coils. Therefore, each coil has the same number of volts per turn in it producing two different voltages that are proportional to each other.

2.4.1 Single Phase Voltage Transformer

Figure 2.17: Single phase voltage transformer The single-phase voltage transformer has two coils or windings, a primary winding and a secondary winding that are not in electrical contact with each other. When an electric current passed through the primary winding, a magnetic field is developed which induces a voltage into the secondary winding. Voltage Transformers alter both voltage and current of AC waveforms. The voltage induced in the secondary winding can be greater or lower than the voltage in primary winding. As each winding has the same number of volts per turn, the volt-ampere (VI) product in each winding will also be the same assuming no power losses. Then the power consumed by the secondary connected load will be equal the power supplied by the primary winding (Pin = Pout) and is given as: Primary Power=Secondary Power 5

VPIPcosϕ=VSIScosϕ Where, Vp is the primary voltage, Ip is the primary current Vs is the secondary voltage, Is is the secondary current cosϕ is the power factor of the load

2.4.2 Principal of Transformer Action
The frequency of the secondary waveform will be “in-phase” with the frequency of the primary waveform then the cosϕ term cancels out on both sides of the above equation. We now know that the output voltage from the secondary winding is directly proportional to the number of turns of wire in the secondary coil. If we increase or decrease this number of turns, a larger or smaller voltage will be induced into the secondary winding. Then we can define the “Turns Ratio” as the number of windings of the primary coil (N p) divided by number of windings of the secondary coil (N s). Then the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is the same as the ratio of the number of turns in each winding. This ratio is known commonly as the Transformation Ratio and is presented as Np:Ns (no units as it is a ratio). Then voltage transformers are all about ratios, that is the ratio of windings called the “turns ratio” to the ratio of the voltage called the “voltage ratio” and this is given as: Turns ratio=VPVS=NPNS ∴VS=VP.NSNP If this turns ratio is equal to one (unity) that is the number of secondary turns equals the number of primary turns giving a turns ratio of 1:1, the 2

secondary voltage will be of the same value as the primary voltage producing an isolation transformer. However, if the ratio is greater than unity and Vs is greater than Vp, this produces a step up transformer. Likewise, if the ratio is less than unity, and Vs is less than Vp, this produces a step down transformer. Transformers do not change power they transfer the same amount of power (assumes ideal transformer) from the primary side to the secondary side. As electrical power is the product of volts x amps, if the voltage changes then the current must change to maintain the same amount of power. That is the current changes opposite to the voltage change and if one goes up, the other goes down. So if the secondary voltage is greater than the primary voltage then the secondary current is less than the primary current. If the secondary voltage is less than the primary voltage then the secondary current is greater than the primary current. This is called the “current ratio” and is opposite to the previous voltage and turns ratios. The ratios of voltage, current and turns for a voltage transformer can be defined as: Primary TurnsSecondary Turns=Primary VoltageSecondary

Voltage=Secondary CurrentPrimary Current NPNS=VPVS=ISIP

2.5 Light Emitting Diode (LED)
A light-emitting diode or LED is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color 2

of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.

Figure 2.18: Different types of LEDs

2.5.1 Types of LEDs
Miniature LEDs: These are mostly single-die LEDs used as indicators, and they come in various-sizes from 2 mm to 8 mm, through-hole and surface mount packages. They usually don't use a separate heat sink. A typical current rating ranges from around 1 mA to above 20 mA. The small size sets a natural upper boundary on power consumption due to heat caused by the high current density and need for heat sinking. Mid-range LEDs: Medium power LEDs are often through-hole mounted and used when an output of a few lumens is needed. They sometimes have the diode mounted to four leads (two cathode leads, two anode leads) for better heat conduction and carry an integrated lens. An example of this is the Superflux package, from Philips Lumileds. These LEDs are most commonly used in light panels, emergency lighting and automotive tail-lights. Due to the larger amount of metal in the LED, they are able to handle higher currents (around 100 mA). The higher current allows for the higher light output required for tail-lights and emergency lighting. 3

High power LEDs: High power LEDs (HPLED) can be driven at currents from hundreds of mA to more than an ampere, compared with the tens of mA for other LEDs. Some can emit over a thousand lumens. Since overheating is destructive, the HPLEDs must be mounted on a heat sink to allow for heat dissipation. If the heat from a HPLED is not removed, the device will fail in seconds. One HPLED can often replace an incandescent bulb in a torch, or be set in an array to form a powerful LED lamp.

2.5.2 Colors of LEDs
LEDs are available in red, orange, amber, yellow, green, blue and white. The color of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material, not by the coloring of the package (the plastic body). LEDs of all colors are available in uncolored packages which may be diffused (milky) or clear (often described as 'water clear'). The colored packages are also available as diffused (the standard type) or transparent. Tri-color LEDs: The most popular type of tri-color LED has a red and a green LED combined in one package with three leads. They are called tricolor because mixed red and green light appears to be yellow and this is produced when both the red and green LEDs are on. Bi-color LEDs: A bi-color LED has two LEDs wired in 'inverse parallel' (one forwards, one backwards) combined in one package with two leads. Only one of the LEDs can be lit at one time and they are less useful than the tri-color LEDs described above.

2.5.3 Sizes, Shapes and Viewing Angles of LEDs
LEDs are available in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. The standard LED has a round cross-section of 5mm diameter and this is probably the best type for general use, but 3mm round LEDs are also popular.

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Round cross-section LEDs are frequently used and they are very easy to install on boxes by drilling a hole of the LED diameter, adding a spot of glue will help to hold the LED if necessary. LED clips are also available to secure LEDs in holes. Other cross-section shapes include square, rectangular and triangular. As well as a variety of colors, sizes and shapes, LEDs also vary in their viewing angle. This tells you how much the beam of light spreads out. Standard LEDs have a viewing angle of 60° but others have a narrow beam of 30° or less.

2.5.4 Considerations for Use
Power sources: The current/voltage characteristic of an LED is similar to other diodes, in that the current is dependent exponentially on the voltage. This means that a small change in voltage can cause a large change in current. If the maximum voltage rating is exceeded by a small amount, the current rating may be exceeded by a large amount, potentially damaging or destroying the LED. The typical solution is to use constant current power supplies, or driving the LED at a voltage much below the maximum rating. Since most common power sources (batteries, mains) are not constant current sources, most LED fixtures must include a power converter. However, the I/V curve of nitride-based LEDs is quite steep above the knee and gives an If of a few milliamperes at a Vf of 3V, making it possible to power a nitride-based LED from a 3V battery such as a coin cell without the need for a current limiting resistor. Electrical polarity: As with all diodes, current flows easily from p-type to ntype material. However, no current flows and no light is emitted if a small voltage is applied in the reverse direction. If the reverse voltage grows large enough to exceed the breakdown voltage, a large current flows and the LED may be damaged. If the reverse current is sufficiently limited to avoid damage, the reverse-conducting LED is a useful noise diode. 3

Safety: The vast majority of devices containing LEDs are "safe under all conditions of normal use", and so are classified as "Class 1 LED product". At present, only a few LEDs—extremely bright LEDs that also have a tightly focused viewing angle of 8° or less—could, in theory, cause temporary blindness, and so are classified as "Class 2". In general, laser safety regulations—and the "Class 1", "Class 2", etc. system—also apply to LEDs.

2.5.5 Advantages
Efficiency: LEDs emit more light per watt than incandescent light bulbs. Their efficiency is not affected by shape and size, unlike fluorescent light bulbs or tubes. Color: LEDs can emit light of an intended color without using any color filters as traditional lighting methods need. This is more efficient and can lower initial costs. Size: LEDs can be very small (smaller than 2 mm2) and are easily populated onto printed circuit boards. On/Off time: LEDs light up very quickly. A typical red indicator LED will achieve full brightness in under a microsecond. LEDs used in communications devices can have even faster response times. Cycling: LEDs are ideal for uses subject to frequent on-off cycling, unlike fluorescent lamps that fail faster when cycled often, or HID lamps that require a long time before restarting. Dimming: LEDs can very easily be dimmed either by pulse-width modulation or lowering the forward current. Cool light: In contrast to most light sources, LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of IR that can cause damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. Wasted energy is dispersed as heat through the base of the LED.

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Slow failure: LEDs mostly fail by dimming over time, rather than the abrupt failure of incandescent bulbs. Lifetime: LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35,000 to 50,000 hours of useful life, though time to complete failure may be longer. Fluorescent tubes typically are rated at about 10,000 to 15,000 hours, depending partly on the conditions of use, and incandescent light bulbs at 1,000–2,000 hours. Shock resistance: LEDs, being solid state

components, are difficult to damage with external shock, unlike fluorescent and incandescent bulbs which are fragile. Focus: The solid package of the LED can be designed to focus its light. Incandescent and fluorescent sources often require an external reflector to collect light and direct it in a usable manner.

2.6 Voltage Regulator
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.

2.6.1 Measures of Regulator Quality

Figure 2.19: Voltage Regulator

The output voltage can only be held roughly constant; the regulation is specified by two measurements:

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Load regulation is the change in output voltage for a given change in load current (for example: "typically 15mV, maximum 100mV for load currents between 5mA and 1.4A, at some specified temperature and input voltage"). Line regulation or input regulation is the degree to which output voltage changes with input (supply) voltage changes - as a ratio of output to input change (for example "typically 13mV/V"), or the output voltage change over the entire specified input voltage range (for example "plus or minus 2% for input voltages between 90V and 260V, 50-60Hz"). Other important parameters are: Temperature coefficient of the output voltage is the change in output voltage with temperature (perhaps averaged over a given temperature range), while... Initial accuracy of a voltage regulator (or simply "the voltage accuracy") reflects the error in output voltage for a fixed regulator without taking into account temperature or aging effects on output accuracy. Dropout voltage is the minimum difference between input voltage and output voltage for which the regulator can still supply the specified current. A Low Drop-Out (LDO) regulator is designed to work well even with an input supply only a volt or so above the output voltage. The input-output differential at which the voltage regulator will no longer maintain regulation. Further reduction in input voltage will result in reduced output voltage. This value is dependent on load current and junction temperature. Absolute maximum ratings are defined for regulator components, specifying the continuous and peak output currents that may be used (sometimes internally limited), the maximum input voltage, maximum power dissipation at a given temperature, etc.

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Output noise (thermal white noise) and output dynamic impedance may be specified as graphs versus frequency, while output ripple noise (mains "hum" or switch-mode "hash" noise) may be given as peak-to-peak or RMS voltages, or in terms of their spectra. Quiescent current in a regulator circuit is the current drawn internally, not available to the load, normally measured as the input current while no load is connected (and hence a source of inefficiency; some linear regulators are, surprisingly, more efficient at very low current loads than switch-mode designs because of this). Transient response is the reaction of a regulator when a (sudden) change of the load current (called the load transient) or input voltage (called the line transient) occurs. Some regulators will tend to oscillate or have a slow response time which in some cases might lead to undesired results. This value is different from the regulation parameters, as that is the stable situation definition. The transient response shows the behavior of the regulator on a change. This data is usually provided in the technical documentation of a regulator and is also dependent on output capacitance.

2.6.2 DC voltage Stabilizers
Many simple DC power supplies regulate the voltage using a shunt regulator such as a zener diode, avalanche breakdown diode, or voltage regulator tube. Each of these devices begins conducting at a specified voltage and will conduct as much current as required to hold its terminal voltage to that specified voltage. The power supply is designed to only supply a maximum amount of current that is within the safe operating capability of the shunt regulating device (commonly, by using a series resistor).

2.7 Relay
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A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

2.7.1 Electromechanical Relay Construction
Relays may be "Normally Open", or "Normally Closed". One pair of contacts is classed as Normally Open, (NO) or make contacts and another set which are classed as Normally Closed, (NC) or break contacts. In the normally open position, the contacts are closed only when the field current is "ON" and the switch contacts are pulled towards the inductive coil. In the normally closed position, the contacts are permanently closed when the field current is "OFF" as the switch contacts return to their normal position. These terms Normally Open, Normally Closed or Make and Break Contacts refer to the state of the electrical contacts when the relay coil is "de-energized", i.e, no supply voltage connected to the inductive coil.

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Figure 2.20: Electromechanical Relay Construction The relays contacts are electrically conductive pieces of metal which touch together completing a circuit and allow the circuit current to flow, just like a switch. When the contacts are open the resistance between the contacts is very high in the Mega-Ohms, producing an open circuit condition and no circuit current flows. When the contacts are closed the contact resistance should be zero, a short circuit, but this is not always the case. All relay contacts have a certain amount of "contact resistance" when they are closed and this is called the "On-Resistance". With a new relay and contacts this ON-resistance will be very small, generally less than 0.2Ω's because the tips are new and clean. As the contact tips begin to wear, and if they are not properly protected from high inductive or capacitive loads, they will start to show signs of arcing damage as the circuit current still wants to flow as the contacts begin to open when the relay coil is de-energized. This arcing or sparking will cause the contact resistance of the tips to increase further as the contact tips become damaged. If allowed to continue the contact tips may become so burnt and damaged to the point where they are physically closed but do not 3

pass any or very little current. To reduce the effects of contact arcing and high "On-resistances", modern contact tips are made of, or coated with, a variety of silver based alloys to extend their life span as given in the following table.

2.7.2 Relay Contact Types
As well as the standard descriptions of Normally Open, (NO) and Normally Closed, (NC) used to describe how the relays contacts are connected, relay contact arrangements can also be classed by their actions. Electrical relays can be made up of one or more individual switch contacts with each "contact" being referred to as a "pole". Each one of these contacts or poles can be connected or "thrown" together by energizing the relays coil and this gives rise to the description of the contact types as being: • • • • SPST - Single Pole Single Throw SPDT - Single Pole Double Throw DPST - Double Pole Single Throw DPDT - Double Pole Double Throw

with the action of the contacts being described as "Make" (M) or "Break" (B). Then a simple relay with one set of contacts as shown above can have a contact description of: "Single Pole Double Throw - (Break before Make)", or SPDT - (B-M)

Figure 2.21: Relay Contact Configurations 4

2.8 MOSFET
The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor or MOSFET is a transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. In MOSFETs, a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a conducting channel between the two other contacts called source and drain. The channel can be of n-type or p-type, and is accordingly called an nMOSFET or a pMOSFET (also commonly known as nMOS, pMOS). It is by far the most common transistor in both digital and analog circuits.

2.8.1 Basic Structure
MOSFETs use an electrical field produced by a gate voltage to alter the flow of charge carriers, electrons for N-channel or holes for P-channel, through the semiconductive drain-source channel. The gate electrode is placed on top of a very thin insulating layer and there are a pair of small N-type regions just under the drain and source electrodes. it is possible to bias the gate of a MOSFET in either polarity, +ve or -ve. This makes MOSFETs especially valuable as electronic switches or to make logic gates because with no bias they are normally non-conducting and this high gate input resistance means that very little or no control current is needed as MOSFETs are voltage controlled devices.

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Figure 2.23: Basic MOSFET structure

2.8.2 Types of MOSFET
Both the P-channel and the N-channel MOSFETs are available in two basic forms, the Enhancement type and the Depletion type. Depletion type MOSFET: The Depletion-mode MOSFET, which is less common than the enhancement types is normally switched "ON" without the application of a gate bias voltage making it a "normally-closed" device. However, a gate to source voltage (VGS) will switch the device "OFF". For an N-channel MOSFET, a "positive" gate voltage widens the channel, increasing the flow of the drain current and decreasing the drain current as the gate voltage goes more negative. In other words, for an N-channel depletion mode MOSFET: +VGS means more electrons and more current. While a -VGS means less electrons and less current. The opposite is also true for the Pchannel types. Then the depletion mode MOSFET is equivalent to a "normally-closed" switch.

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Figure 2.24: Characteristics graph and symbol of Depletion type MOSFET Enhancement type MOSFET: The more common Enhancement-mode MOSFET is the reverse of the depletion-mode type. Here the conducting channel is lightly doped or even undoped making it non-conductive. This results in the device being normally "OFF" when the gate bias voltage is equal to zero. A drain current will only flow when a gate voltage (VGS) is applied to the gate terminal greater than the threshold voltage (VTH) level in which conductance takes place making it a transconductive device. This positive +ve gate voltage pushes away the holes within the channel attracting electrons towards the oxide layer and thereby increasing the thickness of the channel allowing current to flow. This is why this kind of

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transistor is called an enhancement mode device as the gate voltage enhances the channel. Increasing this positive gate voltage will cause the channel resistance to decrease further causing an increase in the drain current, ID through the channel. In other words, for an N-channel enhancement mode MOSFET: +VGS turns the transistor "ON", while a zero or -VGS turns the transistor "OFF". Then, the enhancement-mode MOSFET is equivalent to a "normally-open" switch.

Figure 2.25: Characteristics graph and symbol of Enhancement type MOSFET

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Enhancement-mode MOSFETs make excellent electronics switches due to their low "ON" resistance and extremely high "OFF" resistance as well as their infinitely high gate resistance.

2.8.3 Modes of Operation
The operation of a MOSFET can be separated into three different modes, depending on the voltages at the terminals. For an enhancement-mode, nchannel MOSFET, the three operational modes are: Cutoff, subthreshold, or weak-inversion mode (WhenVGS<Vth):

According to the basic threshold model, the transistor is turned off, and there is no conduction between drain and source. In reality, the Boltzmann distribution of electron energies allows some of the more energetic electrons at the source to enter the channel and flow to the drain, resulting in a subthreshold current that is an exponential function of gate–source voltage. While the current between drain and source should ideally be zero when the transistor is being used as a turned-off switch, there is a weak-inversion current, sometimes called subthreshold leakage. In weak inversion the current varies exponentially with gate-to-source bias VGS as given approximately by: ID≈ID0eVGS-VthnVT Where ID0 = current atVGS=Vth, the thermal voltage VT=kT/q and the slope factor n is given by, n=1+CDCOX With CD = capacitance of the depletion layer and COX = capacitance of the oxide layer. Triode mode or linear region (When VGS>Vth andVDs<(VGS-Vth)): The transistor is turned on, and a channel has been created which allows current to flow between the drain and the source. The MOSFET operates like a 5

resistor, controlled by the gate voltage relative to both the source and drain voltages. The current from drain to source is modeled as: ID=µnCoxWL(VGS-VthVDS-VDS22) Where µn is the charge-carrier effective mobility, W is the gate width, L is the gate length and Cox is the gate oxide capacitance per unit area. The transition from the exponential subthreshold region to the triode region is not as sharp as the equations suggest. Saturation or active mode (When VGS>Vth andVDs>(VGS-Vth)): The switch is turned on, and a channel has been created, which allows current to flow between the drain and source. Since the drain voltage is higher than the gate voltage, the electrons spread out, and conduction is not through a narrow channel but through a broader, two- or three-dimensional current distribution extending away from the interface and deeper in the substrate. The onset of this region is also known as pinch-off to indicate the lack of channel region near the drain. The drain current is now weakly dependent upon drain voltage and controlled primarily by the gate–source voltage, and modeled approximately as: ID=µnCox2WLVGS-Vth2(1+λ(VDS-VDSsat)) The additional factor involving λ, the channel-length modulation parameter, models current dependence on drain voltage due to the early effect, or channel length modulation. According to this equation, a key design parameter, the MOSFET transconductance is: gm=2IDVGS-Vth=2IDVov where the combination VOV=VGS-Vth is called the overdrive voltage, and where VDSsat=VDS-Vth accounts for a small discontinuity in ID which would otherwise appear at the transition between the triode and saturation regions.

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Another key design parameter is the MOSFET output resistance rout given by: rout=1/λID

2.9 Buzzer
A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke.

A buzzer

Symbol

Figure 2.26: An electronic buzzer

2.9.1 Types of Buzzers
Mechanical: A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer. Electromechanical: Early devices were based on an electromechanical system identical to an electric bell without the metal gong. Similarly, a relay may be connected to interrupt its own actuating current, causing the contacts to buzz. Often these units were anchored to a wall or ceiling to use it as a sounding board. The 7

word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that electromechanical buzzers made. Piezoelectric: A piezoelectric element may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or other audio signal source, driven with a piezoelectric audio amplifier. Sounds commonly used to indicate that a button has been pressed are a click, a ring or a beep.

2.9.2 Working Principle of Passive Electromagnetic Buzzer
Ac signal through the bypass line in the stent in the stent core package produce a column of alternating magnetic flux, the alternating magnetic flux and magnetic flux for a constant stack, so that films of molybdenum to a given exchange of signals with the frequency of vibration and sound resonator. Products of the frequency response and sound pressure curve and the value gap, molybdenum films inherent vibration frequency (which can be rough refraction. For small film thickness of molybdenum), Shell (Tune Helmholtz resonance) frequency of the magnetometer magnetic wire is directly related to the diameter oscillator, composed the of electromagnetic coil, buzzer by electromagnetic such as the electromagnetic magnet, vibration,

composition of membrane and shell. Access to power, the audio signal generated by oscillator current through the electromagnetic coil to generate magnetic fields of electromagnetic coils. Membrane vibration in the electromagnetic coil and magnet interaction, the buzzer sound vibration periodically.

2.9.3 Application
• • Annunciator panels Electronic metronomes 2

• • •

Game shows Microwave ovens and other household appliances Sporting events such as basketball games

2.10 Close Circuit Camera
Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras can produce images or recordings for surveillance purposes, and can be either video cameras, or digital stills cameras.

Figure 2.27: Different types of CC camera

2.10.1 Video Cameras
Video cameras are either analogue or digital, which means that they work on the basis of sending analogue or digital signals to a storage device such as a video tape recorder or desktop computer or laptop computer. Analogue: Can record straight to a video tape recorder which is able to record analogue signals as pictures. If the analogue signals are recorded to 1

tape, then the tape must run at a very slow speed in order to operate continuously. This is because in order to allow a 3 hour tape to run for 24 hours, it must be set to run on a time lapse basis which is usually about 4 frames a second. In one second, the camera scene can change dramatically. A person for example can have walked a distance of 1 meter, and therefore if the distance is divided into 4 parts i.e. 4 frames or 'snapshots' in time, then each frame invariably looks like a blur, unless the subject keeps relatively still. Digital: These cameras do not require a video capture card because they work using a digital signal which can be saved directly to a computer. The signal is compressed 5:1, but DVD quality can be achieved with more compression (MPEG-2 is standard for DVD-video, and has a higher compression ratio than 5:1, with a slightly lower video quality than 5:1 at best, and is adjustable for the amount of space to be taken up versus the quality of picture needed or desired). The highest picture quality of DVD is only slightly lower than the quality of basic 5:1-compression DV. Network: IP cameras or network cameras are analogue or digital video cameras, plus an embedded video server having an IP address, capable of streaming the video (and sometimes, even audio). Because network cameras are embedded devices, and do not need to output an analogue signal, resolutions higher than CCTV analogue cameras are possible. A typical analogue CCTV camera has a PAL (768×576 pixels) or NTSC (720×480 pixels), whereas network cameras may have VGA (640×480 pixels), SVGA (800×600 pixels) or quad-VGA (1280×960 pixels, also referred to as 'megapixel') resolutions.

2.10.2 Digital Still Cameras
These cameras can be purchased in any high street shop and can take excellent pictures in most situations. The pixel resolution of the current models has easily reached 7 million pixels (7-mega pixels). Some point and 2

shoot models like those produced by Canon or Nikon boast resolutions in excess of 10 million pixels. At these resolutions, and with high shutter speeds like 1/125th of a second, it is possible to take jpg pictures on a continuous or motion detection basis that will capture not only anyone running past the camera scene, but even the faces of those driving past. These cameras can be plugged into the USB port of any computer (most of them now have USB capability) and pictures can be taken of any camera scene. All that is necessary is for the camera to be mounted on a wall bracket and pointed in the desired direction.

2.10.3 Wireless Security Cameras
Many consumers are turning to wireless security cameras for home surveillance also. Wireless cameras do not require a video cable for video/audio transmission, simply a cable for power. Wireless cameras are also easy and inexpensive to install. Previous generations of wireless security cameras relied on analog technology; modern wireless cameras use digital technology which delivers crisper audio, sharper video, and a secure and interference-free signal.

Chapter 3 Sensor and Counter
3.1 Sensor
A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument.

3.1.1 Types of Sensors

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Input type transducers or sensors, produce a proportional output voltage or signal in response to changes in the quantity that they are measuring (the stimulus) and the type or amount of the output signal depends upon the type of sensor being used. Generally, all types of sensors can be classed as two kinds, passive and active. Active: Active sensors require some form of external power to operate, called an excitation signal which is used by the sensor to produce the output signal. Active sensors are self-generating devices because their own properties change in response to an external effect and produce an output voltage, for example, 1 to 10v DC or an output current such as 4 to 20mA DC. For example, a strain gauge is a pressure-sensitive resistor. It does not generate any electrical signal, but by passing a current through it (excitation signal), its resistance can be measured by detecting variations in the current and/or voltage across it relating these changes to the amount of strain or force. Passive: Unlike the active sensor, a passive sensor does not need any additional energy source and directly generates an electric signal in response to an external stimulus. For example, a thermocouple or photodiode. Passive sensors are direct sensors which change their physical properties, such as resistance, capacitance or inductance etc. As well as analogue sensors, Digital Sensors produce a discrete output representing a binary number or digit such as a logic level "0" or a logic level "1".

3.1.2 Passive Infrared (PIR) Sensor
A Passive Infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an electronic device that measures infrared (IR) light radiating from objects in its field of view. PIR sensors are often used in the construction of PIR-based motion detectors. Apparent motion is detected when an infrared source with one temperature, such as a human, passes in front of an infrared source with another temperature, such as a wall. This is not to say that the sensor detects the heat from the object passing in front of it but that the object breaks the field which the sensor has 2

determined as the "normal" state. Any object, even one exactly the same temperature as the surrounding objects will cause the PIR to activate if it moves in the field of the sensors. All objects above absolute zero emit energy in the form of radiation. Usually infrared radiation is invisible to the human eye but can be detected by electronic devices designed for such a purpose. The term passive in this instance means that the PIR device does not emit an infrared beam but merely passively accepts incoming infrared radiation. “Infra” meaning below our ability to detect it visually, and “Red” because this color represents the lowest energy level that our eyes can sense before it becomes invisible. Thus, infrared means below the energy level of the color red, and applies to many sources of invisible energy.

Figure 3.1: A PIR Sensor General description: The PIR (Passive Infra-Red) Sensor is a pyroelectric device that detects motion by measuring changes in the infrared levels emitted by surrounding objects. This motion can be detected by checking for a high signal on a single I/O pin. 3

In a PIR-based motion detector (usually called a PID, for Passive Infrared Detector), the PIR sensor is typically mounted on a printed circuit board containing the necessary electronics required to interpret the signals from the pyroelectric sensor chip. The complete assembly is contained within a housing mounted in a location where the sensor can view the area to be monitored. Infrared energy is able to reach the pyroelectric sensor through the window because the plastic used is transparent to infrared radiation (but only translucent to visible light). This plastic sheet also prevents the intrusion of dust and/or insects from obscuring the sensor's field of view, and in the case of insects, from generating false alarms. A few mechanisms have been used to focus the distant infrared energy onto the sensor surface. The window may have multiple Fresnel lenses molded into it. Alternatively, some PIDs are manufactured with internal plastic, segmented parabolic mirrors to focus the infrared energy. Where mirrors are used, the plastic window cover has no Fresnel lenses molded into it. This filtering window may be used to limit the wavelengths to 8-14 micrometers which is closest to the infrared radiation emitted by humans (9.4 micrometers being the strongest). Feature: • • • • Single bit output Small size makes it easy to conceal Compatible with all Parallax microcontrollers 3.3V & 5V operation with <100uA current draw

Theory of Operation: Pyroelectric devices, such as the PIR sensor, have elements made of a crystalline material that generates an electric charge when exposed to infrared radiation. The changes in the amount of infrared striking the element change the voltages generated, which are measured by an 2

on-board amplifier.

The devicecontains a special filter called a Fresnel

lens, which focuses the infrared signals onto the element. As the ambient infrared signals change rapidly, the on-board amplifier trips the output to indicate motion. A person entering a monitored area is detected when the infrared energy emitted from the intruder's body is focused by a Fresnel lens or a mirror segment and overlaps a section on the chip that had previously been looking at some much cooler part of the protected area. That portion of the chip is now much warmer than when the intruder wasn't there. As the intruder moves, so does the hot spot on the surface of the chip. This moving hot spot causes the electronics connected to the chip to de-energize the relay, operating its contacts, thereby activating the detection input on the alarm control panel. Conversely, if an intruder were to try to defeat a PID, perhaps by holding some sort of thermal shield between himself and the PID, a corresponding 'cold' spot moving across the face of the chip will also cause the relay to de-energize — unless the thermal shield has the same temperature as the objects behind it. Calibration: The PIR Sensor requires a ‘warm-up’ time in order to function properly. This is due to the settling time involved in ‘learning’ its environment. This could be anywhere from 10-60 seconds. During this time there should be as little motion as possible in the sensors field of view. Sensitivity: The PIR Sensor has a range of approximately 20 feet. This can vary with environmental conditions. The sensor is designed to adjust to slowly changing conditions that would happen normally as the day progresses and the environmental conditions change, but responds by making its output high when sudden changes occur, such as when there is motion. Application: PIDs come in many configurations for a wide variety of applications. The most common, used in home security systems, have 2

numerous Fresnel lenses or mirror segments and an effective range of about thirty feet. Some larger PIDs are made with single segment mirrors and can sense changes in infrared energy over one hundred feet away from the PID. There are also PIDs designed with reversible orientation mirrors which allow either broad coverage (110° wide) or very narrow 'curtain' coverage. PIDs can have more than one internal sensing element so that, with the appropriate electronics and Fresnel lens, it can detect direction. Left to right, right to left, up or down and provide an appropriate output signal.

3.2 Counter
A counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal. The counter we used in this project has two major components — • • Analog to Digital Converter, and Seven-segment Display

3.2.1 Analog to Digital Converter
An Analog to Digital or ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage or current to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered ADCs. The digital output may use different coding schemes. Typically the digital output will be a two's complement binary number that is proportional to the input, but there are other possibilities. An encoder, for example, might output a Gray code.

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Figure3.2: Analog to Digital Converter Resolution: The resolution of the converter indicates the number of discrete values it can produce over the range of analog values. The values are usually stored electronically in binary form, so the resolution is usually expressed in bits. In consequence, the number of discrete values available, or "levels", is a power of two. For example, an ADC with a resolution of 8 bits can encode an analog input to one in 256 different levels, since 28 = 256. The values can represent the ranges from 0 to 255 (i.e. unsigned integer) or from −128 to 127 (i.e. signed integer), depending on the application. Response type: Most ADCs are linear types. The term linear implies that the range of input values has a linear relationship with the output value. Accuracy:

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An ADC has several sources of errors. Quantization error and (assuming the ADC is intended to be linear) non-linearity are intrinsic to any analog-todigital conversion. There is also a so-called aperture error which is due to a clock jitter and is revealed when digitizing a time-variant signal (not a constant value). These errors are measured in a unit called the least significant bit (LSB). In the above example of an eight-bit ADC, an error of one LSB is 1/256 of the full signal range, or about 0.4%. Sampling rate: The analog signal is continuous in time and it is necessary to convert this to a flow of digital values. It is therefore required to define the rate at which new digital values are sampled from the analog signal. The rate of new values is called the sampling rate or sampling frequency of the converter. A continuously varying bandlimited signal can be sampled (that is, the signal values at intervals of time T, the sampling time, are measured and stored) and then the original signal can be exactly reproduced from the discretetime values by an interpolation formula. The accuracy is limited by quantization error. However, this faithful reproduction is only possible if the sampling rate is higher than twice the highest frequency of the signal. This is essentially what is embodied in the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. Since a practical ADC cannot make an instantaneous conversion, the input value must necessarily be held constant during the time that the converter performs a conversion (called the conversion time). An input circuit called a sample and hold performs this task—in most cases by using a capacitor to store the analog voltage at the input, and using an electronic switch or gate to disconnect the capacitor from the input. Many ADC integrated circuits include the sample and hold subsystem internally. Aliasing:

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All ADCs work by sampling their input at discrete intervals of time. Their output is therefore an incomplete picture of the behavior of the input. There is no way of knowing, by looking at the output, what the input was doing between one sampling instant and the next. If the input is known to be changing slowly compared to the sampling rate, then it can be assumed that the value of the signal between two sample instants was somewhere between the two sampled values. If, however, the input signal is changing rapidly compared to the sample rate, then this assumption is not valid. If the digital values produced by the ADC are, at some later stage in the system, converted back to analog values by a digital to analog converter or DAC, it is desirable that the output of the DAC be a faithful representation of the original signal. If the input signal is changing much faster than the sample rate, then this will not be the case, and spurious signals called aliases will be produced at the output of the DAC. The frequency of the aliased signal is the difference between the signal frequency and the sampling rate. For example, a 2 kHz sine wave being sampled at 1.5 kHz would be reconstructed as a 500 Hz sine wave. This problem is called aliasing. Dither: In A-to-D converters, performance can usually be improved using dither. This is a very small amount of random noise (white noise), which is added to the input before conversion. Its effect is to cause the state of the LSB to randomly oscillate between 0 and 1 in the presence of very low levels of input, rather than sticking at a fixed value. Rather than the signal simply getting cut off altogether at this low level (which is only being quantized to a resolution of 1 bit), it extends the effective range of signals that the A-to-D converter can convert, at the expense of a slight increase in noise effectively the quantization error is diffused across a series of noise values which is far less objectionable than a hard cutoff. The result is an accurate 2

representation of the signal over time. A suitable filter at the output of the system can thus recover this small signal variation.

3.2.2 Seven-segment Display
A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information.

Figure 3.3: A typical seven-segment LED display Concept and Visual Structure: A seven segment display, as its name indicates, is composed of seven elements. Individually on or off, they can be combined to produce simplified representations of the Arabic numerals. Often the seven segments are arranged in an oblique (slanted) arrangement, which aids readability. In most applications, the seven segments are of nearly uniform shape and size (usually elongated hexagons, though trapezoids and rectangles can also be used), though in the case of adding machines, the vertical segments are 2

longer and more oddly shaped at the ends in an effort to further enhance readability. Each of the numbers 0, 6, 7 and 9 may be represented by two or more different glyphs on seven-segment displays. The seven segments are arranged as a rectangle of two vertical segments on each side with one horizontal segment on the top, middle, and bottom. Additionally, the seventh segment bisects the rectangle horizontally. There are also fourteen-segment displays and sixteen-segment displays (for full alphanumeric); however, these have mostly been replaced by dot-matrix displays.

Figure 3.4: Schematic diagram of seven-segment display Implementation: In a simple LED package, typically all of the cathodes (negative terminals) or all of the anodes (positive terminals) of the segment LEDs are connected together and brought out to a common pin; this is referred to as a "common cathode" or "common anode" device. Hence a 7 segments plus decimal point package will only require nine pins (though commercial products typically 2

contain more pins, and/or spaces where pins would go, in order to match industry standard pinouts). Numbers to 7-segment-code: A single byte can encode the full state of a 7-segment-display. The most popular bit encodings are gfedcba and abcdefg - both usually assume 0 is off and 1 is on. The following table gives the hexadecimal encodings for displaying the digits 0 to F:

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Chapter 4 Circuit Operation
4.1 Introduction
Security monitoring system is used all over the world to ensure the security of our family and valuables. Still now security assurance is a curse for our country. Available security systems are not user friendly and affordable enough for every class to maintain. Hence we designed a security monitoring system based on PIR sensor which is affordable and at the same time flexible enough to purchase.

4.2 Component Used
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • AC source Fuse Fixed resistor, variable resistor & capacitor Voltage transformer Full wave rectifier Voltage regulator Breadboard Relay PIR sensor MOSFET LED Analog-to-Digital converter Seven-segment display Buzzer 2

• •

Close-circuit camera Display monitor

4.3 Operation
• • • • • An AC voltage source supplies the main power. A step down transformer takes the source voltage on its primary side and it divides the voltage into two portions on its secondary side. Both portion of the AC voltage are taken by two rectifiers and converted into DC voltage. One of the DC voltages is passed through a voltage regulator to drive the sensor. Another DC voltage is used to power up a relay. The sensor output is connected to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The ADC converts the analog output received from the sensor to a digital pulse and passes it to a seven-segment display through a driver IC to show the counting. • The sensor output is also connected to the gate of an enhancement type MOSFET which conducts current from drain to source when it gets a signal from the sensor. • One terminal of the relay is connected to the drain of the MOSFET and when the MOSFET switches on the relay powers up the buzzer circuit as well as the camera controller. • The buzzer rings a bell, the LEDs lit on and the camera starts recording surrounding activities. The output of the camera is shown on a display monitor.

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Figure 4.1: Schematic diagram of the system

Chapter 5 Overall Conclusion
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5.1 Discussion
It’s not always very easy task to establish a project with an arrant success. Different environment brings different types there are many obstacles that have to be considered. Different environment arise different types of problems. Besides, the use of the components must be precisely valued. The PIR sensor has a definite rating of power. The power consumed by the sensor is passed through a voltage regulator. So we had to limit the current flow to an accurate value by calculating resistor values. We came to understand this fact after damaging a sensor for over dissipation of power in the circuit.

5.2 Limitation
Almost every project comes out with some limitations or disadvantages. Our project is not an exception of that. The circuit in our project has some constrains. The perfect execution of a wireless system depends on both the transmitter and the receiver. The PIR sensor we used is quite sensitive and detects every possible movement at its range. We had to lessen the range by controlling its triggering voltage.

5.3 Future Plans
A perfect security system is hard to build. Our monitoring system will do a good job to provide a medium-level security but when it comes to security there are always scopes for improvement. We may try to use Global Positioning System (GPS) and microcontroller to automate the system even more effectively. If we can utilize GPS technology then length coverage problem will be removed.

5.4 Conclusion

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The main objective of our project was to design and implement an indoor security system using general electronic components which are easy to use and cost effective. Our system is very reliable that can be afforded by every class of our society. So if anyone intends to have a secured system, the one that we designed is one of the most efficient one, with prompt response without any delay.

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Appendices
Appendix A
Data sheet for Series Voltage Regulator 7812

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Appendix B
Data sheet for ADC 0804

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Reference
1. Muhammad H. Rashid, “Power Electronics”, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi-110 001, pp-631. 2. B.L. Theraja & A.K. Theraja, “A Text Book of Electrical Technology”, Volume II AC & DC Mechanics 2004, S. Chand & Company Ltd. Pp1028, 1035. 3. H. K. Gummel and R.C. Poon, “An Integral Charge Control Model of Bipolar Transistor”, Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol 49, pp. 827-852, May-June 1970. 4. R. S. Muller, Kamins TI & Chan M (2003). Device Electronic (Third Edition ed.). New York: Wiley. P. 280 ff. 5. A.S. Sedra and K.C. Smith (2004), “Microelectronic Circuit” (5th ed.). New York: Oxford. Eqs. 4.103-4.110, p.305. 6. http://www.futurlec.com/Transistor 7. http://www.semico.com 8. http://www.national.com/pf/ADC/ADC0804.html 9. “Electronics and Communications Simplified” by A.K. Maini, 9th Ed. 10.“Home Security: Alarms, Sensors and Systems” by Vivian Capel, Newnes, 1997. 11.http://www.wikipedia.org 12.http://extremeelectronics.co.in 13.http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws 14.http://www.datasheetcatalog.com 15.http://www.datasheet.org.uk

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