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Equilibrium  of  Particles  

Lecture  2  

11/25/11  

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➔ A  par0cle  is  said  to  be  in  equilibrium   when  the  resultant  of  all  the  forces  ac0ng   on  it  is  zero.   ➔ If  two  forces  are  the  only  forces  ac0ng  on   a  body  in  equilibrium.     A   150  N   3   150  N   .  then  the  forces  are   equal  and  opposite.

 when  drawing   the  force  polygon.   F2   F1   F2   A   F1   F3   4   A   F3   .➔ If  there  are  three  forces.  it  will  close  if  the   par0cle  is  in  equilibrium.

 if  there  are  several  forces.➔ In  general.  when   drawing  the  force  polygon.  it  will  close  if  the   par0cle  is  in  equilibrium.   F2   A   F1   F4   F3   F2   F4   F1   A   F3   5   .

 for  equilibrium:   Vector  form:   R = ∑F = 0 RX = ∑ FX = 0 ∑ (R i ) + (R j ) = 0 X Y Scalar  form:   RY = ∑ FY = 0 6   .   ➔ Mathema0cally.➔ The  force  polygon  is  a  graphical   representa0on  of  the  equilibrium  of   forces  ac0ng  on  a  par0cle.

Is  this  par0cle  in  equilibrium?   .

➔ Space diagram represents the sketch of the physical problem. ➔ Free body diagram shows the particle and all the forces acting on it Steps: 1. Isolate / detach the body from any contact.   8   .

g. Indicate all the forces that act on the particle. These include active forces .tend to set the particle in motion e. 9   .2. from cables and weights and reactive forces caused by constraints or supports that prevent motion.

Assume direction of force which may be corrected later.3. Label known forces with their magnitudes and directions. 10   . Use letters to represent magnitudes and directions of unknown forces.

2 . Free-Body Diagram: A sketch showing only the forces on the selected particle.11 .Space Diagram: A sketch showing the physical conditions of the problem.

What is the tension in the rope? 2 .SOLUTION: •  Construct a free-body diagram for the particle at the junction of the rope and cable. •  Apply the conditions for equilibrium by creating a closed polygon from the forces applied to the particle. a 3500-lb automobile is supported by a cable. In a ship-unloading operation.12 . •  Apply trigonometric relations to determine the unknown force magnitudes. A rope is tied to the cable and pulled to center the automobile over its intended position.

TAC 3500 lb TAB = = sin 120° sin 2° sin 58° TAB = 3570 lb TAC = 144 lb 2 .SOLUTION: •  Construct a free-body diagram for the particle at A.13 . •  Apply the conditions for equilibrium. •  Solve for the unknown force magnitudes.

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FBC FAC sin 75o = = 3...26 FAC = = 20312 + 0.27 FAC ..FAC cos 75o .2 + 0.(1) o cos 75 1962 + 0... FBC sin 75o ..73 FAC = 2031...966 ∑ Fy = 0 i.1962 = 0 FBC From Equations (1) and (2)..e. FBC = 3... 3..73 x 587 = 2190 N 16   ....73FAC .. 0.(2) ..27 FAC FAC = 587 N From (1).

cle   is   zero.ons   represent   the   necessary   and   sufficient   condi.   Ry.   Rz   of   the   resultant   are   given   by  the  previous  sec0on  are  zero.ons   for  the  equilibrium  of  a  par.     .   Rx = ∑ Fx = 0 Ry = ∑ Fy = 0 Rz = ∑ Fz = 0 Note:   The   above   equa.cle  involving  no  more  than  3  unknowns.  They  can  be  used  to  solve  problems   dealing  with  the  equilibrium  of  a  par.   The   component   Rx.ng   on   the   par.➔ A   par0cle   is   in   equilibrium   if   the   resultant   of   all   the   forces   ac.cle  in  space.

A  200-­‐kg  cylinder  is  hung  by  means  of  two  cables  AB  and   AC.  which  are  aWached  to  the  top  of  a  ver0cal  wall.  A   horizontal  force  P  perpendicular  to  the  wall  holds  the   cylinder  in  the  posi0on  shown.  Determine  the  magnitude   of  P  and  the  tension  in  each  cable.     8m B 10m 1.2m A 12m 200kg P 2m C .

2m 10m C TAC TAB 12m λ AC A P 2m λ AB O k W i x Free-­‐body  Diagram.  Point  A  was  chosen  as  a  free  body.y 8m B j 1.   .  this  point  is  subjected  to   four  forces.  three  of  which  are  of  unknown  magnitude.

81) j 2m λ AB O W = -1962 N j (2)   k W i x .2m 10m C P=Pi TAC (1)   TAB 12m λ AC A P W = -mg j = 200(9.y 8m B j 1.

y 8m B j 1.  Deno0ng  by  λAB   the  unit  vector  along  AB.2m)  i  +(10m)  j  +(8m)  k   2m x TAB 12m λ AC A P λ AB O |AB|  =  12.6220k j 12.   it   is   necessary   first   to   determine   the   components   and   magnitudes   of   the   vectors    AB  and  AC.862 (3)    ˆ ˆ T AB = TAB λ AB = −0.7775T AB ˆ + 0.6220TAB k j .862  m     k W i λ AB AB ˆ ˆ = = −0.  we  write     AB  =  -­‐(1.2m 10m C TAC In   the   case   of   TAB   and   TAC.7775 ˆ + 0.09330i + 0.09330T AB i + 0.

08455i + 0.7046TAC ˆ − 0.193    m     k W λ AC = AC ˆ ˆ = −0.7046TAC k j .   we  write  in  a  similar  way   TAB 12m λ AC A P λ AB O AC  =  -­‐(1.193 (4)    ˆ ˆ TAC = TAC λ AC = −0.08455TAC i + 0.7046 ˆ − 0.7046k j 14.y 8m B j 1.2m 10m C TAC Deno0ng  by   λAC  the  unit  vector  along  AC.2m)  i  +(10m)  j  +(10m)  k   2m i x |AC|  =  14.

7046TAC )k = 0 ∑F X = 0: − 0.08455TAC + P = 0 ∑F Y = 0: + 0.09330TAB − 0.09330TAB − 0.  Since  A  is  in  equilibrium.7046TAC − 1962) ˆ j ˆ + (0.  we  must  have  :  ΣF  =  0   TAB  +  TAC  +  P  +  W  =0     (− 0.7775TAB + 0.08455TAC + P )iˆ + (0.6220TAB − 0.7046TAC = 1962 ∑F Z = 0: + 0.6220TAB − 0.Equilibrium  Condi0on.   .7775TAB + 0.7046TAC = 0 P = 235 N TAB = 1402 N TAC = 1238 N Solving  simultaneously.

0)m   100 kg   The 100 kg cylinder is suspended from the ceiling by cables attached at points B. and D. 2)m   A (0. 0. and AD?   . 3)m   z   y   x   B (4. C. 0. 0.C(-2. AC. What are the tensions in cables AB. -2)m   D(-3. -4.

  TAC.   AC.Draw  the  Free-­‐Body  Diagram.   y   C   D   z   A   B   TAC   x   TAD   A   -(100)(9.  The  magnitudes   of   the   vectors   TAB.   respec0vely.   and   TAD   are   the   tensions   in   cable   AB.  We  isolate  part  of  the  cable  system  near   point  A  (considered  as  a  par0cle)  and  complete  the  free-­‐body  diagram  by   showing  the  forces  exerted  by  the  tensions  in  the  cables.   and   AD.81) N j   TAB   100 kg   ∑F =T AB + T AC + T AD − 981 j = 0 .

➔ Sir  Eli   ➔ Room:  MH  100   ➔ Consulta0on  Hours:   ➛ TTh:  2:30  PM  –  6  PM   ➛ WF:  1  –  6  PM   .

816 ˆj − 0. -2)m   D(-3. 0)m   100 kg   ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ rB A = (x B − x A )i + ( y B − y A ) ˆ + (z B − z A ) k = 4i + 4 ˆ + 2k (m ) j j   ˆ ˆ T AB = T AB e B A = T AB 0.333k j rB A   T AC = T AC eC A = T AC   T AD = T AD e D A = T AD ) (− 0. 0.514kˆ) ( .667 ˆ + 0.686 ˆj − 0. 0.667i + 0.408kˆ) (− 0. 2)m   A (0.C(-2.408iˆ + 0. 3)m   z   y   x   B (4.514iˆ + 0.667i + 0. 0.667 ˆ + 0.333k j rB A  ˆ ˆ eB A = = 0. -4.

667T AB − 0.667T ∑ F = 0.667T ∑ F = 0.816TAC + 0.333T x AB − 0.408T AC + 0.408T AC + 0.816T AC + 0.514T AD = 0 y AB AB + 0.667T AB + 0.408T AC − 0.686TAD = 981 − 0.686T AD − 981) ˆ j ˆ + (0.333T AB − 0.408T AC − 0.514T AD = 0    TAD  =  168  N     z TAB  =  519  N    TAC  =  636  N .81) N j   = (0.514T AD )k = 0 ∑ F = 0.TAC   TAD   A   TAB   ∑F =T AB + T AC + T AD − 981 j = 0 -(100)(9.514T AD )iˆ + (0.