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Conditions of Combustion
The burning of a substance is called combustion. It is an exothermic process (chemical reactions which give out heat to the surroundings are called exothermic reactions). E.g., Burning of coal

Burning of butane gas

(g - gas form) The common observation in the above reactions is that oxygen combines with carbon to release heat. These chemicals like coal or butane are known as fuels. Most of the fuels contain carbon and release carbon dioxide on combustion. The cleanest fuel is hydrogen because the product is water which is non polluting.

But the manufacture of hydrogen involves the production of carbon dioxide.
Sub Topics
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Conditions Choice of a Good Fuel Considering the Burning of Methane Characteristics of an ideal fuel Advantages of liquid and gaseous fuels over solid fuels Disadvantages of liquid and gaseous fuels over solid fuels Efficient use of Fuels

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There are some conditions associated with the process of combustion.

Wood. The vapors of these substances in air can catch fire with a minor spark and hence can cause serious accident. which may cause respiratory problems. . coke. ether etc. If the burning charcoal is covered with a vessel. Such substances are known as spontaneously inflammable ones. It is due to the spontaneous combustion of gun powder inside the fire-cracker that it explodes. wood or coke undergo slow combustion where a part of the fuel may not burn completely thereby producing smoke. Sodium and phosphorous are spontaneously inflammable substances. They are nothing but the substances which help combustion of a combustible substance. the burning of charcoal stops after sometime. This proves that burning can take place only in the presence of a supporter of combustion. Oxygen and air are the supporter of combustion.The substance to be burnt must be combustible (the substance must catch fire easily). The substances having low ignition temperature are called inflammable substances. kerosene. paper. alcohol. No substance can burn below its ignition temperature. the reaction is complete. carbon disulphide. The presence of a supporter of combustion is another condition for combustion to take place. benzene synthetic fibres are some of the substances having low ignition temperature. hydrogen. If the ignition temperature is below the room temperature the substance can catch fire even without an external source of heat energy. natural gas. Alcohol. Space Shuttle Another condition for combustion to take place is that the combustible substance should be heated so that its temperature reaches its ignition temperature. diesel. petrol. When a burning piece of charcoal is brought in contact with oxygen gas collected in the jar. the gas does not burn but the burning of charcoal is rekindled. ether. In a spontaneous combustion. Air contains 21% of oxygen (a supporter of combustion) by volume and 78% of nitrogen by volume which is neither combustible nor a supporter of combustion. This not only causes wastage of the fuel but also pollutes the atmosphere by producing highly poisonous carbon monoxide. liquified petroleum gas. coal. thereby the supply of oxygen is cut off. Candle. During incomplete combustion a part of the unburnt carbon passes into the atmosphere in the form of soot. That is why combustible substances burn at moderate rate in air but burn at a very fast rate in oxygen. are some of the combustible substances.

animal dung Moreover different fuels give different amounts of heat on burning. E. The heat liberated in joules when one gram of fuel is burnt is called the 'calorific value' of the fuel. E.Choice of a Good Fuel Back to Top Fuels come in many varieties such as wood. Solid fuels Wood Agricultural Residues Charcoal Coal Coke Paraffin wax Liquid fuels Liquid hydrogen Petrol oil Kerosene oil Diesel oil Alcohol Furnace oil Gas fuels Water gas Producer gas Coal gas Compressed natural gas Bio gas Hydrogen gas On the basis of the source of the fuel. it can be classified as solid. cow dung. fuel. Water gas and producer gas from coke. Coal.g. coke from coal. coal. By noting the initial (t1) and final temperature (t2) of the heated water. On the basis of the physical state of fuel.. Primary Fuels Secondary Fuels These fuels occur in the These are obtained from natural fuels by various physical and same form as they occur in chemical processes nature. Petrol and diesel are used in automobiles and locomotives.. kerosine and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG). charcoal from wood gas. and the . Calorific values of different fuels can be determined experimentally. fuels can be classified as primary and secondary fuels. natural diesel and furnace oil from petroleum. liquid and gas fuels. petrol. Bio gas from animal dung.g. kerosine. A known mass of fuel (x) whose calorific value is to be determined is burnt below the beaker containing a known mass (m) of water. Specially prepared fuels are used in rockets. oil and natural gas are used in industries. agricultural wastes. Wood. charcoal. coal gas from coal. These are used for cooking purposes.

When oxygen forms a molecular bond with hydrogen. The removal of an electron from an atom requires energy and attraction of an electron to another electron releases energy.25 KJ/mole and that of C = O bonds is 803. Chemists measure this ability of an atom by its electronegativity.H bonds and two O = O bonds are broken to form 2C = O and 4 O . Hydrogen holds its single electron loosely and oxygen atom holds its eight electrons tightly.33 . Fuel (solid) Charcoal Coal Calorific value KJ/g 33 25 .H bonds. Energy required to break C .33 Fuel (liquid) Kerosene Fuel oil .H bond is 4. it holds the electron contributed by hydrogen very tightly to the bond and hence hydrogen atom is oxidized and oxygen atom is reduced.5 KJ/mole and that of O = O bond is 497 KJ/mole. oxygen has the highest electronegativity.known value of the specific heat of water (s) the heat gained by the water (Q) can be calculated. The calorific values of some of the common Calorific value KJ/g 48 45 Fuel (gas) Calorific value KJ/g 150 55 Hydrogen Methane Butane LPG Biogas Wood 17 Ethanol 30 55 Dung coke 6-8 35 . Considering the Burning of Methane Back to Top C . Energy released in the formation of O . Thereby there is a net release of energy.H bond is 467. The calorific value of the used fuel is fuels thus calculated are listed below. In the process of oxidation of hydrogen the energy lost is less since it is loosely bound and energy released in the reduction of oxygen is more.40 Why all the calorific values different for different fuels? Why do they give different amounts of heat? Hydrogen and oxygen differ in their ability to hold electrons.

Characteristics of an ideal fuel Back to Top The parameters like calorific value and rate of combustion make one fuel better than the other. The calorific value of liquid and gaseous fuels is higher and can be easily transported through pipelines.KJ/mole. This explains why different fuels have different calorific value. So the above reaction releases a net energy of 803. They have low ignition temperature compared to solid fuels. They also produce very little smoke.volatile material Absence of poisonous products on combustion Ready availability Low cost Abundant availability and Easy storage and transport No available fuel has all the above said characteristics. Some attributes of an ideal fuel are: y y y y y y y y y High calorific value Proper ignition temperature Moderate rate of combustion Low content of non . Advantages of liquid and gaseous fuels over solid fuels Back to Top Unlike solid fuels liquids and gaseous fuels leave behind no ash.66 KJ/mole making it an exothermic reaction. Hence a comparative study is made to choose a good fuel. Disadvantages of liquid and gaseous fuels over solid fuels Back to Top .

Efficient use of Fuels Back to Top The stocks of fuels are limited and hence use of energy saving devices is a must. Incomplete combustion of fuel results in wastage of fuel leading to air pollution due to the liberation of carbon monoxide. Since they require special leak proof containers their storage is difficult.Liquid and gaseous fuels form explosive mixtures making them difficult to handle. Avoidance of incomplete combustion of fuel would go a long way to preserve precious fuels. As far as possible use only renewable sources of energy. They are expensive compared to solid fuels. . More efficient heating installations should be employed while cooking.