BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY PROFILE Prepared for the Inward Investment Facility Linden Economic Advancement Programme

DUCK FARMING

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION REGION 10 BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE OPPORTUNITY: DUCK FARMING PRODUCTION PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR FACTORY SETUP ANNUAL FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS FINANCING SOURCES 3 3 4 5 6 7 12 14 16 2 .

the town is redefining itself as a key port of call in and out of the hinterland. estimated investment and production costs. small-scale mining. Rockstone. 107km (66miles) from the capital city Georgetown. THE TOWN OF LINDEN Linden. With an area of over 16. These profiles address generic issues such as the appropriate technology involved and where possible.0001 is the Region’s main population centre and is located inland from the coast.miles). logging. It has abundant land and natural resources. transportation and distribution along with manufacturing and construction. LEAP Inward Investment Facility (IIF) recognizes that potential investors need information on business opportunities. agriculture. and is the natural gateway into the hinterland’s forest and mineral reserves. logging. Selection of technology. or services to name a few. transportation industry. potential markets.500sq. Boasting excellent river and road transport links out to the coast. At present. Anarika.INTRODUCTION There are numerous exciting business opportunities in Region 10 for investors who wish to invest in agriculture. Originally a mining town. financing plans. furniture manufacture. thereby transforming the town into a centre for industrial 1 Census 2000 – Statistical Bureau 3 . fishing. feasibility studies and other related issues remain the responsibility of the investor. Aware that the time of the “Bauxite economy” is over. Besides the town of Linden there are significant communities in Coomacka.miles) it is centrally located and contiguous to most other administrative regions.km (55sq. Ituni. the population is increasingly involved in small business activities like merchandising. Aroima and Kwakwani. manufacturing.835sq. However they are not intended to be replacements for project feasibility studies. REGION 10 Region 10 is the logical hub for Guyana’s development. the main economic activities are mining. whose economy had been based on the bauxite industry. the town is situated on the two banks of the Demerara River. This series of Business Opportunity Profiles is intended to help investors identify viable opportunities in the various sectors. with a population of approximately 30. and construction. Spread over an area of 142sq. agro-processing. sawmilling. tourism. Great Falls.km (6. it is also the natural choice for Atlantic–bound South American trade. Old England. Mabura.

• • • BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT The Government of Guyana has approved various general and sectoral incentives as part of its comprehensive strategy aimed at reviving the economic fortunes of Region 10. Linden is also a supply centre for hinterland communities and itinerant miners. These incentives can be found in: • • • Customs (Amendment) Act No. Linden has an essentially young population with 85% of its residents under 45 yrs.and service activities. The location of the town on both banks of the Demerara River provides for easy transportation arrangements and lends itself to development of an entrepôt facility for Atlantic-bound Brazilian goods. and land is available for potential development. There is a well developed network of utility services including stable electric power. machinery. waiver of Customs duties and Consumption taxes on vehicles imported exclusively for use in the business. water supply and telecommunication services. Special Incentives for Region 10 and specifically for Linden. The town itself possesses abundant natural potential in mineral and forest resources in its immediate environs. 6 of 1999. 1 of 2004 Customs Duties (Amendment) (No. Ituni and Kwakwani are: • Waiver of Customs duties and Consumption taxes on all imported items of plant. • 4 . Investment Act No. Some of its specific strengths are: • • • The size and layout of the town lends itself to easy manageability of its resources. Linden-based Industries are less prone to natural disasters than those along the coastal areas. equipment and spare parts.1) Order 2004. For manufacturing and agricultural investments.

only the non-availability of the meat and its consequent high price keeping it out of the reach of many. they require a clean dry sheltered area where they can retreat.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Worldwide ducks are increasingly being reared as viable alternatives to chicken as poultry meat. Linden has the lowest cost of commercial electricity in the country. 5 . A full feasibility study will be required prior to startup to determine actual startup costs. 4. there are some basic requirements in duck farming: 1. No farms exist in the Region 10 area that can cater to the demands of hinterland communities. dry sheltered area. clean and preen their feathers. A diet that provides all of the duck's daily nutritional needs. on ponds or in wet areas. This allows them to waterproof their plumage. These are raised under a wide variety of conditions. There are a few duck farms on the coast and these cater to the coastal and Georgetown markets. Protection from extremes in weather conditions and predators. working capital and financing requirements etc. An operation that can supply the meats at prices that make it comparable to chicken will capitalize on the high local demand for the product. Adequate light stimulation. as it is nearly twice the price of chicken. Recovery of investment less than 5 years Year round availability of cheap feed materials. A clean. Demand & Market Potential In keeping with an international trend. Advantages to investing in this industry: • • • • • • Good average returns on investment over the life of the project. The labour involved is not expensive.e. Protection from disease established and maintained by a bio-security program that will prevent the introduction of diseases into the premises where ducks are kept. ranging from backyard scavenger type operations where the birds forage for scraps and feed to large commercial duck farms. A duck farming operation may be set up for as little as $2 million. Water for swimming is not essential. local consumption of duck meat has increased significantly in recent years. There are additional government incentives for agro-processing operations. 5. as it is mostly unskilled and widely available. especially for layers. 2. Clean water for drinking. which protects their skin from injury and helps keep their body warm. 3. i. rest. but can be beneficial in areas where temperatures are high. This project predicates sales at wholesale chicken prices that put the meat at the reach of the average buyer. 6. water that is free of germs and toxins harmful to ducks. Although ducks can spend most of their time outdoors. There are highly intensive modern commercial duck producing systems particularly in North America. Regardless of the category of duck keeping however.

and shoveler. In terms of feed conversion efficiency the peking is a better commercial item but as some consumers prefer the lower fat level of the muscovy. Yield Since the yields of the different types of duck vary widely. Duck farms are still few in number and those that exist cater to the demands of the coastal communities and the capital city Georgetown. THE OPPORTUNITY: DUCK FARMING In recent years worldwide consumption of duck meat and eggs has increased steadily. the most common being the muscovy which originated in South America and the peking which originated in China. Hinterland communities are completely unserved by any suppliers local or foreign. Ducks can either be sold live or plucked. and duck farming is increasingly employed as an alternative occupation for low-income people around the world. Though there are about 50 species of these short-legged water birds with webbed feet and flattened bills. but many commercial duck industries worldwide use the peking duck that has a better feed-conversion ratio and is therefore more profitable for commercial duck farming. ducks are an assured investment. shelduck. peking. Duck farming is undertaken mainly for meat production since the eggs that have a higher level of cholesterol than chicken eggs. An excellent opportunity exists for establishing farms that can meet potential and actual demands for this increasingly popular meat. Linden has no local duck farms and there are none to serve the hinterland communities. 6 . muscovy. As with all livestock there are dangers and risks involved but once reasonable care is taken to ensure good husbandry practices. whole festivals and competitions are arranged around duck consumption. the latter being the preferred delivery method. which is also known as the ‘’common duck’’. effective breeding of ducks requires a fair amount of practical experience in duck rearing. It is an excellent area of business in which to invest. Worldwide experience has shown that almost anyone can rear a few ducks successfully as these are hardier fowl than chickens. as witnessed by the numerous poultry farmers in the area. (which also includes the larger geese and swans) the most popular species in the tropics are the mallard. The area has all the requirements for successful poultry fowl production. are an acquired taste. it may be profitable to offer the local market some quantity of the latter. the choices are essentially between the peking and the muscovy. A labour force of two [2] permanent workers is required for a fattening unit of 1000 to 1500 ducks. There are numerous species of the muscovy. Although the fattening of ducks can be undertaken with minimum training and experience. Crosses between the muscovy and the peking grow faster than both parents but are called ‘’mule ducks’’ because they are unable to reproduce. Locally as well..

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DUCK FARMING The peking duck reaches market size at the end of eight (8) weeks whereas the muscovy reaches market size at the end of twelve (12) weeks. benefits include improved feed conversion and more predictable and usually better weight gain. Modern total-confinement housing is usually of the clear-span-truss construction. is very helpful when designing buildings. When properly designed and managed. A labour force of two [2] permanent workers is required for a fattening unit of 1000 to 1500 ducks. The advice of an agricultural engineer or experienced agriculture extension worker. Although the fattening of ducks can be undertaken with minimum training and experience. is that serious losses can result if ducks 7 . Ventilation systems are usually the negative pressure type with adjustable or automatically controlled air inlets and exhaust fans located along the sidewalls. In addition to allowing year-round production and marketing at an earlier age. And because waterfowl typically drink and excrete more water than land fowl. and then allowed a period of time out doors to forage for additional food. weighs substantially less than the male. The ability to exclude wild birds from buildings is alone a large factor in preventing the introduction and spread of diseases. The experience of duck farmers in other tropical countries. effective breeding of ducks requires a fair amount of practical experience in duck rearing. The peking duck has a better feed-conversion ratio and is therefore more profitable for commercial duck farming. Age groups are kept isolated. the females that may account for about 50% of the flock. Commercial duck housing is usually one of two types: total confinement and semiconfinement. or a combination of litter and wire mesh with waterers located on the wire. modern duck housing provides ducks with a high degree of protection from the detrimental effects of extremes in weather and entry of duck diseases. Floor design is usually one of two types: all wire mesh. The main disadvantage of the muscovy duck is that after its optimum growing period of twelve (12) weeks. Ducks over 4 weeks of age may spend much of their time outdoors with minimal use of shelter. care must be taken to ensure that free ranging exposure does not lead to their contracting any of a wide range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. either in separate buildings or in separate rooms with solid partitions between them. extra demand is placed on the ventilation and heating system to remove the extra moisture and maintain proper temperatures. Similarly to full confinement systems. particularly the Far East. who is familiar with duck housing. well insulated and mechanically ventilated. However. its fat content is higher than the muscovy and there is often a higher demand for the muscovy because of its leaner (and also tougher) meat. Semi-confinement duck housing is similar to the above in many respects with the exception that ducks over 2-3 weeks of age are allowed outdoors during the day. The production system common in tropical countries is semi confinement as the ducks are fed on ration indoors for part of the day and.

they will serve as a satisfactory substitute. are available at a reasonable price. canals and streams where they are prone to contracting viral. If duck rations are not available. This approach is dependent upon the availability of feed ingredients and vitamin and mineral premixes at affordable prices. Once the activity is on a commercial basis there are a number of choices of feeding practices: (1) If feeds are available and affordable. Commercial farming demands stricter control of the husbandry involved in duck rearing to eliminate the losses due to multiple and complex infections which lead to both high mortality and low yields. pasteurellosis. this may be a good option. a form of cholera. which when fed with additional grain constitute a nutritionally complete diet. Aspergillosis which is a serious respiratory problem for ducklings is encouraged by mouldy environments and feeds. are available. high or low energy can be calculated using widely available nutrient / energy ratios. fungal and parasitic diseases. lakes. lignin). 8 . however. Energy Like chickens. bacterial. complete duck rations may be mixed on the farm. Small batches can be mixed by turning the feed on a clean floor with a shovel. Nutrient requirements of ducks Though ducks are hardy birds and will survive. However as requirements more closely tailored to ducks. which cause severe economic losses in ducks is spread by loose control of birds and consequent cross-contamination without vaccinations. Because correct nutrient levels for a particular ration depend on the energy level of that ration (ducks eat progressively more feed as the energy level is lowered and progressively less as it is raised). and chicken feeds are. but in slightly different amounts. particularly in terms of the ratio of each nutrient to the energy concentration of the diet. on scavenging diets common in backyard operations. and nutrition related ailments. The grain can be purchased from rice farmers and the wheat milling company. ducks have simple stomachs. commercial production requires scientific approaches to optimise yields. and even appear to thrive.are left to forage in semi-scavenging style in and around backyards. (2) If poultry feed concentrates. each type of ration. In contrast to chickens. but they can be raised acceptably on poultry ration. Essentially they require the same nutrients as chickens. and even to each particular breed. (3) For those with sufficient knowledge of nutrition and feed formulation. ducks over 4 weeks of age have an exceptional capacity to consume large quantities of foodstuffs. these are usually preferred by commercial duck producers. botulism and coccidiosis. farmers should purchase nutritionally complete commercially prepared duck feeds. rice and paddy fields. Attention has to be paid to energy requirements (they are active birds much more so than chickens) protein and mineral / vitamin requirements. Ducks scavenging feeding habits make them particularly susceptible to endoparasites (worms) as well as paratyphoid. and therefore cannot digest appreciable amounts of dietary fiber (cellulose. mined-out ponds. resistance to diseases and allergies.

are available at favorable prices. If a duck producer mixes his own feed. they can be incorporated into duck rations at fairly high levels. Certain of these. The proteins in the diet are broken down during digestion to amino acids that are absorbed and used by the duck to make its own body proteins. Protein levels that meet the ducks amino acid requirements may vary slightly.) is available to poultry. so long as the ration is well balanced. Rapeseed meal is another feedstuff that is potentially toxic to ducks. depending upon the amino acid content of the ingredients used in each formulation. ducks may be able to consume enough of such foodstuffs to partially or even fully meet their energy requirements. Minerals and vitamins Close attention should be paid to calcium. like other poultry. phosphorus and sodium. such as cereal by-products.When such foodstuffs contain even small amounts of available energy. Such diets will also result in better feed-conversion (less feed required to produce a pound of duck). and often the most economical as well. a toxin to which ducks are highly sensitive and should not be used unless tests have proven it to be free of aflatoxin. Books on duck and poultry nutrition provide helpful advice for preparing vitamin and mineral mixes. A rule of thumb used by nutritionists is that only about 1/3 of the phosphorus in foodstuffs of plant origin (cereal grains. in the ration. Protein Ducks. When formulating feeds for ducks. primary attention is paid to meeting the ducks essential amino acid requirements. Peanut meal is often contaminated with aflatoxin. such as those in muscle and feathers. Note that the phosphorus requirement is expressed in terms of available phosphorus. ducks grown for meat are more likely to attain optimal performance when their diet contains a high proportion of cereal grains that are high in available energy such as corn. is to add vitamins and trace minerals in the form of commercially prepared premixes. it will be necessary to include foodstuffs. Feed quality and toxicity Some feed ingredients contain substances that are toxic to ducks. the next best choice is to purchase the vitamin and mineral sources and make your own premixes. However when low energy foodstuffs. A large amount of the phosphorus in plants is bound in the form of phytic acid that is unavailable to ducks and other fowl. must be supplied in the diet because the duck cannot make them from other sources. Genetically improved varieties of rapeseed (Canola) contain much lower levels of these toxins. however. called essential amino acids. high in the vitamins and minerals that are lacking. soybean meal etc. do not actually require "protein" but the individual amino acids dietary proteins contain. Some older varieties of rapeseed meal contain erucic acid and goitrogens at levels high enough to be harmful to poultry. the simplest way. Ducks are much more sensitive to erucic acid than are chickens and turkeys. Generally. 9 . If it is not possible to use prepared premixes. If neither of the above choices are feasible. Close to 100% of the phosphorus in inorganic (mineral) sources such as dicalcium phosphate is available. and should not be included in duck rations.

bakery waste. The more critical issue regarding F) the need for water has to do with the feeding of pelleted feeds. feed only what ducks will clean up in a day. reduces their growth rate. especially in hot climates like ours. which cakes and accumulates on the outer ridges of the mouth. taking care to mix only what ducks will clean up within a day. Mash or Pellets It is a well established fact that ducks grow faster. until the temperature has dropped below 27°C (80° or else made available all night. If table scraps. The problem with feeding dry mash to ducks is that it forms a sticky paste when mixed with saliva. If grains that are too high in moisture are stored.One of the most common causes of poor feed quality is failure to dry grains and other feedstuffs properly before storage. causing feed wastage. and in the case of market ducks. Make sure that the grains and other foodstuffs used in duck feeds are properly dried and are free of molds and other contamination. In attempting to free their bills of caked feed. when fed pelleted rations than when their feed is in mash form. Enough water is mixed with the mash just before to form a thick mush without making it watery. If such feed remains in troughs longer. In some management systems it is advantageous to shut off feed and water at night to help maintain litter inside buildings in a dry condition. the grain will heat up and mold and some of its nutritive value will be destroyed. Water Plenty of clean drinking water should be available to ducks at least 8-12 hours per day. Though ducks do not require water for swimming in order to grow and reproduce normally. Pelleting all duck rations is common practice in commercial duck production. Water temperatures of 10-21°C (50-70° are ideal for ducks. it will likely become moldy. wet mash or other feeds high in moisture are fed.7°C (107° F). ducks make frequent trips to water to wash their bills. F). Thus. this practice is not harmful and has no effect on performance during periods of moderate temperatures. Phases of Duck rearing There are three phases in the production process as follows: (1) (2) (3) Breeding and Hatching Brooding Growing/Fattening 10 . Ducks can expel excess heat through their bill and feet when allowed contact with water that is appreciably below their body temperature 41. Feedstuffs that are to be stored for long periods should contain no more than 10-12% moisture. If done properly. During periods when temperatures are above 32° (90° drinking water should be available in the evening C F). it has been shown that they benefit from being able to wade around. For small flock owners who are not able to pellet their duck feeds. providing some water for wading or swimming can be beneficial. This applies to breeder ducks or market ducks over 3 weeks of age. Feeding mash also reduces feed intake. and utilize their feed more efficiently. without turning or aeration. one solution to the problems of feeding dry mash is to feed wet mash.

The muscovy is sexually mature in 6 months. Note that the peking reaches market size at the end of 8 weeks with an average market weight of 3. On large farms eggs are usually incubated artificially but on most small farms. 33m² (3 ½ sq. The average weight of the muscovy female is 2.3kg (9lb8oz). Curtains made out of industrial plastic. In practice. disinfected and rested 5 to 7 days between batches to help in preventing diseases. Growing / Fattening In practice many farmers undertake the brooding and fattening phases in the same pen where 0.ft. and is a nervous setter that lays up to 130 eggs per year. but is a calm setter that will lay up to 200 eggs per year. while the muscovy reaches market size at the end of 12 weeks.4m [height] (12”x12”x 15”) should be constructed in long rows. Space required for each duckling is 0.1m² (1 sq.3m x 0. sacking or cardboard can be used to protect the ducklings from strong winds.) and yard space of 1.Breeding / Hatching Breeding stock is usually chosen from fattening stock at 7 to 8 weeks old. though ducks are nocturnal and can find feed and water in the dark. Brooding Requirements Move ducklings from breeder pen to brooding pen as soon as possible keeping ducklings warm at an average room temperature of 28-30° (82-86° C F).2m² (2 sq. and it is recommended that some supplemental light is provided for at least the first 2 to 3 weeks. artificial light is important the first few days to assist ducklings in getting started drinking and eating. Ratio of 1 drake to 4 hens.ft.5kg (5lb8oz) and the male is 4. Typical requirements are: Type of feed: 16% to 17% protein and 2.ft. It is best to provide clean drinking water each day for all ducks.) and a maximum of 500 ducklings should be kept together as this helps in reducing mortality rates.3m x 0.) living space and 0.) yard space is required per duck.ft. Also. Adequate litter must be provided on floor and pens should be cleaned.0m² (11 sq. most farmers feed ad lib but the feed conversion ratio should not exceed 3:1. selection being based on those that have the best weight and vigor at that age.1m² (1 sq.75% calcium Simple nest boxes 0. The peking is sexually mature in 5 months. Each breeding duck requires a pen space of 0. Drakes for breeding should replaced from outside of flock to prevent inbreeding that may lead to reduced fertility. Up to 500 breeders can be kept together but smaller flocks of 50 to 100 produce a higher percentage of fertile eggs.) for foraging. Ducklings are fed a high-energy starter with 20 crude proteins until two [2] weeks old. eggs are naturally incubated.ft.0kg (6lb9oz). Adequate litter must be provided on floor. 11 .

duck pens can be constructed with galvanized roofs supported by cheap hardwood posts and fenced with chain link wire. Location and Layout A duck farm usually comprises pens. 12 . yard space for foraging and ponds / water troughs for swimming. Proper ventilation of commercial duck buildings requires the expertise of an agricultural engineer or someone with knowledge and experience in designing and ventilating poultry buildings. Pens should be constructed in an East – West direction to protect the birds from direct sunrays and reduce the amount of rain that can be blown into the pens. Ponds/water troughs should be located at the end of the yard opposite the pens. Ventilation systems for ducks should deliver a minimum of 0. 2.02 inches static pressure. It is highly recommended that appropriate fencing from theft and security surveillance be implemented. Yards should slope gently away from the pens to provide good drainage.REQUIREMENTS FOR DUCK FARMING Some of the critical factors for setting up of a duck farming enterprise are: 1. While the latter is optional because ducks can survive without water for swimming. from the floor up to 0. A finer mesh wire should be placed along the perimeter of the fence.8m (5’10”) for proper air circulation. The height of the pen should be at least 1. 3.2 cfm/lb duck weight at . Certified electrical contractors many of who are available in Linden should be employed to install appropriate supply wiring based on the needs of the operation. some forced air ventilation may be necessary when ducks are kept in a house enclosed on all sides. For smaller operations such as that being considered.5m (20”) in height for added protection from predators. experience has shown that the presence of ponds / troughs help to maintain ducks in healthier condition. Building While duck houses or shelters for small flocks usually do not require mechanical ventilation as used in large commercial duck buildings.05 inches (water gauge) static pressure and a maximum ventilation rate (when temperatures are above the desired point) of 0.8 cfm/lb duck weight at . Electrical supply The pen buildings should be wired appropriately to provide artificial lighting for young birds and power for the plucking equipment that is typically electrically operated as well as on-site refrigeration storage of plucked birds.

4. 2. for catching feed that is dropped or billed out. Stainless Steel buckets and other containers for providing water. Hand tools such as paring knives used in slaughtering. 4. Providing an apron in front of the feeding area. can or jar-type waterers can be used so long as the drinking area is wide enough (at least 4 cm / 1½”) for the duck to submerge its bill. 5. Equipment 1. as long as the size of the duck's bill is considered. If waterers are located indoors where the floor is bedded with litter. will reduce feed wastage. Waterers designed for chickens and turkeys are usually satisfactory for ducks. they should be located on a wire-mesh screen to reduce wetting of the litter. Trough. provided sufficient room is allowed for the larger bill of ducks and their "shoveling" eating motion. Most feeders used for other poultry are satisfactory for ducks. 13 . 3. Plucking machine (manually operated). feed etc.

0 kg and 2.261.280 $5.750 50% / $937.000 $2.700kg 4.224.280 4½ months 38% $2. The peking duck will offer significantly better returns than the muscovy due to its better feed conversion ratio and the shorter time it takes to mature. It should be noted that the actual choice of bird will be farmerdetermined at the time of the investment based on prevailing market forces.253kg 750 x 90% x 2.570 Total cost per batch: Average margin per batch: Investment Year 1 Revenues Expenditure Net Profit Breakeven Point Breakeven Break even point Period Percentage Sales $2.885.0kg Total weight per batch Wholesale Price: Total revenues per batch: $440 / kg $1. Four batches of ducks per year (1500 per batch) will be produced at a very conservative expected survival rate of 90 %.ANNUAL FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS The assumption is made that the common muscovy duck will be the bird of choice initially since its leaner meat should appeal to more health conscious persons who increasingly eschew fats in meat diets.000 $258.3kg 750 x 90% x 4.000 $7.320 Average feed cost per kg of body weight: $50 / kg Total acquisition costs per batch: Feed Cost: Hens: Drakes: 750 x 6.871. The yields will be 1:1 male (drakes) to female (hens) with average weights of 4.600 14 .750 $450 000 $933.485. Input: Output: Day old ducklings Hens: Drakes: @ $150 1.553kg 2.050.3kg from a feed conversion ratio of 3:1.9kg x $50 750 x 12kg x $50 $225.

000 1. And if chosen.000 205. and whether or not the investor chooses insurance and at what level.000 350. Insurance.490 units The major capital and operational items associated with this level of operations are: Investment Items Land and buildings Equipment & machinery Working capital for 3 months Total capital investment Receipts per annum Cost of production per annum Annual Fixed costs Profit per annum Break Even point Rate of Return Labour Manager salary $35. will directly affect breakeven and rate of return calculations.000 per batch.485.000 75.000 1.Break even point Production 6.050. $105.280 3. These additional expenses are directly deductible from the margins indicated above.280 38% 109% Supplementary expenses (many semi-variable) will include provisions for Lease of land. Inputs Ducklings Feed costs Medication Litter Other Considerations Transportation Depreciation 10yr Miscellaneous 100.000 2.885.224.000 per batch 2 labourers / farm hands @ $6. Water supply.000 900.000 50.000 576.000 600. Electricity.000 7.000 420. 15 .835.000 100.376.000 2.000 2.000/ wk Total labor cost $144.100. Licenses and Permits but will depends on options such as location and proximity to natural water supplies such as creeks etc. and choices of natural or forced air ventilation with implications for use of electrical fans etc.000/ mth.

Small Business Development Trust Institute of Private Enterprise Development National Bank of Industry and Commerce Citizens Bank • • • • 16 . either singly or in combination. • The Linden Economic Advancement Fund (LEAF) provides financing for Region 10 projects.FINANCING SOURCES The following are some of the funding sources from which a borrower may access financing for an operation of this nature.

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