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BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY PROFILE Prepared for the Inward Investment Facility Linden Economic Advancement Programme

DUCK FARMING

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION REGION 10 BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE OPPORTUNITY: DUCK FARMING PRODUCTION PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR FACTORY SETUP ANNUAL FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS FINANCING SOURCES 3 3 4 5 6 7 12 14 16 2 .

835sq. At present. Anarika. It has abundant land and natural resources. the population is increasingly involved in small business activities like merchandising. Selection of technology. Aroima and Kwakwani. manufacturing. Spread over an area of 142sq. Aware that the time of the “Bauxite economy” is over. These profiles address generic issues such as the appropriate technology involved and where possible.km (55sq. estimated investment and production costs.miles) it is centrally located and contiguous to most other administrative regions. logging. However they are not intended to be replacements for project feasibility studies. financing plans. LEAP Inward Investment Facility (IIF) recognizes that potential investors need information on business opportunities. it is also the natural choice for Atlantic–bound South American trade. REGION 10 Region 10 is the logical hub for Guyana’s development. the town is situated on the two banks of the Demerara River. potential markets. sawmilling. the town is redefining itself as a key port of call in and out of the hinterland. Rockstone.INTRODUCTION There are numerous exciting business opportunities in Region 10 for investors who wish to invest in agriculture. 107km (66miles) from the capital city Georgetown. fishing.km (6. With an area of over 16. This series of Business Opportunity Profiles is intended to help investors identify viable opportunities in the various sectors. small-scale mining. feasibility studies and other related issues remain the responsibility of the investor. Originally a mining town. agro-processing.0001 is the Region’s main population centre and is located inland from the coast. transportation and distribution along with manufacturing and construction. Old England. THE TOWN OF LINDEN Linden.miles). Boasting excellent river and road transport links out to the coast. thereby transforming the town into a centre for industrial 1 Census 2000 – Statistical Bureau 3 . and is the natural gateway into the hinterland’s forest and mineral reserves. the main economic activities are mining. or services to name a few. agriculture. transportation industry. tourism. furniture manufacture.500sq. Ituni. Great Falls. whose economy had been based on the bauxite industry. logging. with a population of approximately 30. and construction. Besides the town of Linden there are significant communities in Coomacka. Mabura.

Linden is also a supply centre for hinterland communities and itinerant miners. The town itself possesses abundant natural potential in mineral and forest resources in its immediate environs. The location of the town on both banks of the Demerara River provides for easy transportation arrangements and lends itself to development of an entrepôt facility for Atlantic-bound Brazilian goods. • 4 . Linden-based Industries are less prone to natural disasters than those along the coastal areas.and service activities. Linden has an essentially young population with 85% of its residents under 45 yrs. • • • BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT The Government of Guyana has approved various general and sectoral incentives as part of its comprehensive strategy aimed at reviving the economic fortunes of Region 10. These incentives can be found in: • • • Customs (Amendment) Act No. waiver of Customs duties and Consumption taxes on vehicles imported exclusively for use in the business. Ituni and Kwakwani are: • Waiver of Customs duties and Consumption taxes on all imported items of plant. machinery.1) Order 2004. Investment Act No. and land is available for potential development. 1 of 2004 Customs Duties (Amendment) (No. Some of its specific strengths are: • • • The size and layout of the town lends itself to easy manageability of its resources. equipment and spare parts. There is a well developed network of utility services including stable electric power. 6 of 1999. For manufacturing and agricultural investments. Special Incentives for Region 10 and specifically for Linden. water supply and telecommunication services.

Advantages to investing in this industry: • • • • • • Good average returns on investment over the life of the project. There are highly intensive modern commercial duck producing systems particularly in North America. which protects their skin from injury and helps keep their body warm. Protection from extremes in weather conditions and predators. there are some basic requirements in duck farming: 1. No farms exist in the Region 10 area that can cater to the demands of hinterland communities. they require a clean dry sheltered area where they can retreat. This project predicates sales at wholesale chicken prices that put the meat at the reach of the average buyer. dry sheltered area. but can be beneficial in areas where temperatures are high. as it is mostly unskilled and widely available. Demand & Market Potential In keeping with an international trend. ranging from backyard scavenger type operations where the birds forage for scraps and feed to large commercial duck farms. 5. Adequate light stimulation. clean and preen their feathers. as it is nearly twice the price of chicken. A full feasibility study will be required prior to startup to determine actual startup costs. Clean water for drinking. A diet that provides all of the duck's daily nutritional needs. local consumption of duck meat has increased significantly in recent years. A clean. This allows them to waterproof their plumage. especially for layers. rest.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Worldwide ducks are increasingly being reared as viable alternatives to chicken as poultry meat. only the non-availability of the meat and its consequent high price keeping it out of the reach of many. working capital and financing requirements etc. 3. There are a few duck farms on the coast and these cater to the coastal and Georgetown markets. Water for swimming is not essential. The labour involved is not expensive. i. These are raised under a wide variety of conditions. 2. Linden has the lowest cost of commercial electricity in the country. 4. on ponds or in wet areas.e. Although ducks can spend most of their time outdoors. water that is free of germs and toxins harmful to ducks. Protection from disease established and maintained by a bio-security program that will prevent the introduction of diseases into the premises where ducks are kept. A duck farming operation may be set up for as little as $2 million. Regardless of the category of duck keeping however. Recovery of investment less than 5 years Year round availability of cheap feed materials. 6. 5 . An operation that can supply the meats at prices that make it comparable to chicken will capitalize on the high local demand for the product. There are additional government incentives for agro-processing operations.

. the latter being the preferred delivery method. as witnessed by the numerous poultry farmers in the area. and shoveler. ducks are an assured investment. There are numerous species of the muscovy. and duck farming is increasingly employed as an alternative occupation for low-income people around the world. Duck farms are still few in number and those that exist cater to the demands of the coastal communities and the capital city Georgetown. As with all livestock there are dangers and risks involved but once reasonable care is taken to ensure good husbandry practices. which is also known as the ‘’common duck’’. Linden has no local duck farms and there are none to serve the hinterland communities. It is an excellent area of business in which to invest. Locally as well. (which also includes the larger geese and swans) the most popular species in the tropics are the mallard. but many commercial duck industries worldwide use the peking duck that has a better feed-conversion ratio and is therefore more profitable for commercial duck farming. Crosses between the muscovy and the peking grow faster than both parents but are called ‘’mule ducks’’ because they are unable to reproduce. the choices are essentially between the peking and the muscovy. it may be profitable to offer the local market some quantity of the latter. effective breeding of ducks requires a fair amount of practical experience in duck rearing. peking. An excellent opportunity exists for establishing farms that can meet potential and actual demands for this increasingly popular meat. shelduck. Duck farming is undertaken mainly for meat production since the eggs that have a higher level of cholesterol than chicken eggs. Worldwide experience has shown that almost anyone can rear a few ducks successfully as these are hardier fowl than chickens. Although the fattening of ducks can be undertaken with minimum training and experience. Ducks can either be sold live or plucked. The area has all the requirements for successful poultry fowl production. the most common being the muscovy which originated in South America and the peking which originated in China. Though there are about 50 species of these short-legged water birds with webbed feet and flattened bills. A labour force of two [2] permanent workers is required for a fattening unit of 1000 to 1500 ducks. 6 . are an acquired taste. Yield Since the yields of the different types of duck vary widely. THE OPPORTUNITY: DUCK FARMING In recent years worldwide consumption of duck meat and eggs has increased steadily. Hinterland communities are completely unserved by any suppliers local or foreign. In terms of feed conversion efficiency the peking is a better commercial item but as some consumers prefer the lower fat level of the muscovy. whole festivals and competitions are arranged around duck consumption. muscovy.

The main disadvantage of the muscovy duck is that after its optimum growing period of twelve (12) weeks. The production system common in tropical countries is semi confinement as the ducks are fed on ration indoors for part of the day and. weighs substantially less than the male. is that serious losses can result if ducks 7 . its fat content is higher than the muscovy and there is often a higher demand for the muscovy because of its leaner (and also tougher) meat. The advice of an agricultural engineer or experienced agriculture extension worker. Ventilation systems are usually the negative pressure type with adjustable or automatically controlled air inlets and exhaust fans located along the sidewalls. who is familiar with duck housing. Floor design is usually one of two types: all wire mesh. And because waterfowl typically drink and excrete more water than land fowl. Ducks over 4 weeks of age may spend much of their time outdoors with minimal use of shelter. The peking duck has a better feed-conversion ratio and is therefore more profitable for commercial duck farming. either in separate buildings or in separate rooms with solid partitions between them. and then allowed a period of time out doors to forage for additional food. is very helpful when designing buildings. care must be taken to ensure that free ranging exposure does not lead to their contracting any of a wide range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Commercial duck housing is usually one of two types: total confinement and semiconfinement. In addition to allowing year-round production and marketing at an earlier age. extra demand is placed on the ventilation and heating system to remove the extra moisture and maintain proper temperatures. A labour force of two [2] permanent workers is required for a fattening unit of 1000 to 1500 ducks. benefits include improved feed conversion and more predictable and usually better weight gain. Age groups are kept isolated. particularly the Far East. or a combination of litter and wire mesh with waterers located on the wire. Similarly to full confinement systems. well insulated and mechanically ventilated. the females that may account for about 50% of the flock. When properly designed and managed.PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DUCK FARMING The peking duck reaches market size at the end of eight (8) weeks whereas the muscovy reaches market size at the end of twelve (12) weeks. The experience of duck farmers in other tropical countries. The ability to exclude wild birds from buildings is alone a large factor in preventing the introduction and spread of diseases. effective breeding of ducks requires a fair amount of practical experience in duck rearing. Semi-confinement duck housing is similar to the above in many respects with the exception that ducks over 2-3 weeks of age are allowed outdoors during the day. modern duck housing provides ducks with a high degree of protection from the detrimental effects of extremes in weather and entry of duck diseases. Although the fattening of ducks can be undertaken with minimum training and experience. Modern total-confinement housing is usually of the clear-span-truss construction. However.

ducks have simple stomachs. However as requirements more closely tailored to ducks.are left to forage in semi-scavenging style in and around backyards. Commercial farming demands stricter control of the husbandry involved in duck rearing to eliminate the losses due to multiple and complex infections which lead to both high mortality and low yields. each type of ration. pasteurellosis. which when fed with additional grain constitute a nutritionally complete diet. and even to each particular breed. and even appear to thrive. (3) For those with sufficient knowledge of nutrition and feed formulation. commercial production requires scientific approaches to optimise yields. Ducks scavenging feeding habits make them particularly susceptible to endoparasites (worms) as well as paratyphoid. high or low energy can be calculated using widely available nutrient / energy ratios. but in slightly different amounts. Nutrient requirements of ducks Though ducks are hardy birds and will survive. Attention has to be paid to energy requirements (they are active birds much more so than chickens) protein and mineral / vitamin requirements. botulism and coccidiosis. Because correct nutrient levels for a particular ration depend on the energy level of that ration (ducks eat progressively more feed as the energy level is lowered and progressively less as it is raised). ducks over 4 weeks of age have an exceptional capacity to consume large quantities of foodstuffs. resistance to diseases and allergies. farmers should purchase nutritionally complete commercially prepared duck feeds. lakes. mined-out ponds. and nutrition related ailments. bacterial. 8 . Aspergillosis which is a serious respiratory problem for ducklings is encouraged by mouldy environments and feeds. Energy Like chickens. on scavenging diets common in backyard operations. Once the activity is on a commercial basis there are a number of choices of feeding practices: (1) If feeds are available and affordable. and therefore cannot digest appreciable amounts of dietary fiber (cellulose. these are usually preferred by commercial duck producers. but they can be raised acceptably on poultry ration. The grain can be purchased from rice farmers and the wheat milling company. Essentially they require the same nutrients as chickens. particularly in terms of the ratio of each nutrient to the energy concentration of the diet. rice and paddy fields. which cause severe economic losses in ducks is spread by loose control of birds and consequent cross-contamination without vaccinations. however. a form of cholera. In contrast to chickens. If duck rations are not available. they will serve as a satisfactory substitute. Small batches can be mixed by turning the feed on a clean floor with a shovel. complete duck rations may be mixed on the farm. lignin). This approach is dependent upon the availability of feed ingredients and vitamin and mineral premixes at affordable prices. (2) If poultry feed concentrates. are available. canals and streams where they are prone to contracting viral. and chicken feeds are. this may be a good option. fungal and parasitic diseases. are available at a reasonable price.

Rapeseed meal is another feedstuff that is potentially toxic to ducks.When such foodstuffs contain even small amounts of available energy. Books on duck and poultry nutrition provide helpful advice for preparing vitamin and mineral mixes. such as cereal by-products. such as those in muscle and feathers. ducks grown for meat are more likely to attain optimal performance when their diet contains a high proportion of cereal grains that are high in available energy such as corn. so long as the ration is well balanced. Such diets will also result in better feed-conversion (less feed required to produce a pound of duck). do not actually require "protein" but the individual amino acids dietary proteins contain.) is available to poultry. in the ration. However when low energy foodstuffs. ducks may be able to consume enough of such foodstuffs to partially or even fully meet their energy requirements. Note that the phosphorus requirement is expressed in terms of available phosphorus. primary attention is paid to meeting the ducks essential amino acid requirements. called essential amino acids. a toxin to which ducks are highly sensitive and should not be used unless tests have proven it to be free of aflatoxin. phosphorus and sodium. Some older varieties of rapeseed meal contain erucic acid and goitrogens at levels high enough to be harmful to poultry. high in the vitamins and minerals that are lacking. they can be incorporated into duck rations at fairly high levels. it will be necessary to include foodstuffs. is to add vitamins and trace minerals in the form of commercially prepared premixes. must be supplied in the diet because the duck cannot make them from other sources. Certain of these. Feed quality and toxicity Some feed ingredients contain substances that are toxic to ducks. Protein Ducks. and should not be included in duck rations. and often the most economical as well. A rule of thumb used by nutritionists is that only about 1/3 of the phosphorus in foodstuffs of plant origin (cereal grains. depending upon the amino acid content of the ingredients used in each formulation. soybean meal etc. are available at favorable prices. A large amount of the phosphorus in plants is bound in the form of phytic acid that is unavailable to ducks and other fowl. The proteins in the diet are broken down during digestion to amino acids that are absorbed and used by the duck to make its own body proteins. the simplest way. like other poultry. When formulating feeds for ducks. If a duck producer mixes his own feed. 9 . Protein levels that meet the ducks amino acid requirements may vary slightly. the next best choice is to purchase the vitamin and mineral sources and make your own premixes. Ducks are much more sensitive to erucic acid than are chickens and turkeys. however. Minerals and vitamins Close attention should be paid to calcium. Peanut meal is often contaminated with aflatoxin. Genetically improved varieties of rapeseed (Canola) contain much lower levels of these toxins. Close to 100% of the phosphorus in inorganic (mineral) sources such as dicalcium phosphate is available. Generally. If it is not possible to use prepared premixes. If neither of the above choices are feasible.

feed only what ducks will clean up in a day. This applies to breeder ducks or market ducks over 3 weeks of age. Make sure that the grains and other foodstuffs used in duck feeds are properly dried and are free of molds and other contamination. Though ducks do not require water for swimming in order to grow and reproduce normally. Enough water is mixed with the mash just before to form a thick mush without making it watery. If such feed remains in troughs longer. Mash or Pellets It is a well established fact that ducks grow faster. and utilize their feed more efficiently. which cakes and accumulates on the outer ridges of the mouth. one solution to the problems of feeding dry mash is to feed wet mash. In attempting to free their bills of caked feed. Feeding mash also reduces feed intake. the grain will heat up and mold and some of its nutritive value will be destroyed. ducks make frequent trips to water to wash their bills. If grains that are too high in moisture are stored. when fed pelleted rations than when their feed is in mash form. Phases of Duck rearing There are three phases in the production process as follows: (1) (2) (3) Breeding and Hatching Brooding Growing/Fattening 10 . without turning or aeration. The problem with feeding dry mash to ducks is that it forms a sticky paste when mixed with saliva. Ducks can expel excess heat through their bill and feet when allowed contact with water that is appreciably below their body temperature 41. this practice is not harmful and has no effect on performance during periods of moderate temperatures. If table scraps. reduces their growth rate. Feedstuffs that are to be stored for long periods should contain no more than 10-12% moisture. taking care to mix only what ducks will clean up within a day. During periods when temperatures are above 32° (90° drinking water should be available in the evening C F).One of the most common causes of poor feed quality is failure to dry grains and other feedstuffs properly before storage. until the temperature has dropped below 27°C (80° or else made available all night. For small flock owners who are not able to pellet their duck feeds. providing some water for wading or swimming can be beneficial.7°C (107° F). wet mash or other feeds high in moisture are fed. Pelleting all duck rations is common practice in commercial duck production. F). bakery waste. and in the case of market ducks. The more critical issue regarding F) the need for water has to do with the feeding of pelleted feeds. Thus. Water Plenty of clean drinking water should be available to ducks at least 8-12 hours per day. it will likely become moldy. In some management systems it is advantageous to shut off feed and water at night to help maintain litter inside buildings in a dry condition. Water temperatures of 10-21°C (50-70° are ideal for ducks. it has been shown that they benefit from being able to wade around. causing feed wastage. If done properly. especially in hot climates like ours.

The peking is sexually mature in 5 months.) for foraging. most farmers feed ad lib but the feed conversion ratio should not exceed 3:1. 33m² (3 ½ sq.1m² (1 sq. Ducklings are fed a high-energy starter with 20 crude proteins until two [2] weeks old. The average weight of the muscovy female is 2.) yard space is required per duck. Curtains made out of industrial plastic.ft. selection being based on those that have the best weight and vigor at that age. Space required for each duckling is 0.ft. In practice.0kg (6lb9oz).0m² (11 sq.4m [height] (12”x12”x 15”) should be constructed in long rows. but is a calm setter that will lay up to 200 eggs per year.) and yard space of 1. Also.ft.Breeding / Hatching Breeding stock is usually chosen from fattening stock at 7 to 8 weeks old.) living space and 0. The muscovy is sexually mature in 6 months. and is a nervous setter that lays up to 130 eggs per year.ft. Growing / Fattening In practice many farmers undertake the brooding and fattening phases in the same pen where 0. Drakes for breeding should replaced from outside of flock to prevent inbreeding that may lead to reduced fertility. On large farms eggs are usually incubated artificially but on most small farms. while the muscovy reaches market size at the end of 12 weeks. It is best to provide clean drinking water each day for all ducks. artificial light is important the first few days to assist ducklings in getting started drinking and eating.2m² (2 sq.3m x 0. Adequate litter must be provided on floor. Each breeding duck requires a pen space of 0. Up to 500 breeders can be kept together but smaller flocks of 50 to 100 produce a higher percentage of fertile eggs. and it is recommended that some supplemental light is provided for at least the first 2 to 3 weeks. though ducks are nocturnal and can find feed and water in the dark. 11 .3kg (9lb8oz).75% calcium Simple nest boxes 0.) and a maximum of 500 ducklings should be kept together as this helps in reducing mortality rates. Note that the peking reaches market size at the end of 8 weeks with an average market weight of 3. Adequate litter must be provided on floor and pens should be cleaned.ft. eggs are naturally incubated.1m² (1 sq.3m x 0.5kg (5lb8oz) and the male is 4. sacking or cardboard can be used to protect the ducklings from strong winds. Ratio of 1 drake to 4 hens. Typical requirements are: Type of feed: 16% to 17% protein and 2. Brooding Requirements Move ducklings from breeder pen to brooding pen as soon as possible keeping ducklings warm at an average room temperature of 28-30° (82-86° C F). disinfected and rested 5 to 7 days between batches to help in preventing diseases.

Electrical supply The pen buildings should be wired appropriately to provide artificial lighting for young birds and power for the plucking equipment that is typically electrically operated as well as on-site refrigeration storage of plucked birds. Building While duck houses or shelters for small flocks usually do not require mechanical ventilation as used in large commercial duck buildings. 12 . Yards should slope gently away from the pens to provide good drainage. For smaller operations such as that being considered. some forced air ventilation may be necessary when ducks are kept in a house enclosed on all sides. yard space for foraging and ponds / water troughs for swimming. It is highly recommended that appropriate fencing from theft and security surveillance be implemented. The height of the pen should be at least 1. A finer mesh wire should be placed along the perimeter of the fence.05 inches (water gauge) static pressure and a maximum ventilation rate (when temperatures are above the desired point) of 0.REQUIREMENTS FOR DUCK FARMING Some of the critical factors for setting up of a duck farming enterprise are: 1.8m (5’10”) for proper air circulation.5m (20”) in height for added protection from predators. Ventilation systems for ducks should deliver a minimum of 0. experience has shown that the presence of ponds / troughs help to maintain ducks in healthier condition. duck pens can be constructed with galvanized roofs supported by cheap hardwood posts and fenced with chain link wire. Location and Layout A duck farm usually comprises pens. 3. from the floor up to 0. While the latter is optional because ducks can survive without water for swimming. Ponds/water troughs should be located at the end of the yard opposite the pens. Proper ventilation of commercial duck buildings requires the expertise of an agricultural engineer or someone with knowledge and experience in designing and ventilating poultry buildings. Pens should be constructed in an East – West direction to protect the birds from direct sunrays and reduce the amount of rain that can be blown into the pens. 2.02 inches static pressure. Certified electrical contractors many of who are available in Linden should be employed to install appropriate supply wiring based on the needs of the operation.2 cfm/lb duck weight at .8 cfm/lb duck weight at .

Equipment 1. they should be located on a wire-mesh screen to reduce wetting of the litter. 3. for catching feed that is dropped or billed out. Most feeders used for other poultry are satisfactory for ducks. as long as the size of the duck's bill is considered. feed etc. can or jar-type waterers can be used so long as the drinking area is wide enough (at least 4 cm / 1½”) for the duck to submerge its bill.4. will reduce feed wastage. provided sufficient room is allowed for the larger bill of ducks and their "shoveling" eating motion. Trough. 13 . Hand tools such as paring knives used in slaughtering. Waterers designed for chickens and turkeys are usually satisfactory for ducks. 5. 2. Providing an apron in front of the feeding area. Stainless Steel buckets and other containers for providing water. If waterers are located indoors where the floor is bedded with litter. Plucking machine (manually operated). 4.

280 $5.320 Average feed cost per kg of body weight: $50 / kg Total acquisition costs per batch: Feed Cost: Hens: Drakes: 750 x 6.0kg Total weight per batch Wholesale Price: Total revenues per batch: $440 / kg $1.9kg x $50 750 x 12kg x $50 $225.871.224.3kg 750 x 90% x 4. The yields will be 1:1 male (drakes) to female (hens) with average weights of 4.750 $450 000 $933.000 $2. Input: Output: Day old ducklings Hens: Drakes: @ $150 1.280 4½ months 38% $2.050.750 50% / $937.553kg 2.0 kg and 2.261.485.3kg from a feed conversion ratio of 3:1.000 $258.570 Total cost per batch: Average margin per batch: Investment Year 1 Revenues Expenditure Net Profit Breakeven Point Breakeven Break even point Period Percentage Sales $2.253kg 750 x 90% x 2.000 $7. Four batches of ducks per year (1500 per batch) will be produced at a very conservative expected survival rate of 90 %.885.ANNUAL FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS The assumption is made that the common muscovy duck will be the bird of choice initially since its leaner meat should appeal to more health conscious persons who increasingly eschew fats in meat diets. It should be noted that the actual choice of bird will be farmerdetermined at the time of the investment based on prevailing market forces.600 14 .700kg 4. The peking duck will offer significantly better returns than the muscovy due to its better feed conversion ratio and the shorter time it takes to mature.

These additional expenses are directly deductible from the margins indicated above. Inputs Ducklings Feed costs Medication Litter Other Considerations Transportation Depreciation 10yr Miscellaneous 100.000 2.835.000 50.000 420.000 350.000 7. And if chosen.000 2.000 600.050.490 units The major capital and operational items associated with this level of operations are: Investment Items Land and buildings Equipment & machinery Working capital for 3 months Total capital investment Receipts per annum Cost of production per annum Annual Fixed costs Profit per annum Break Even point Rate of Return Labour Manager salary $35. Water supply.376.000 100.280 3.000 75.224. Licenses and Permits but will depends on options such as location and proximity to natural water supplies such as creeks etc.000 900.100.000 2.000 576. and choices of natural or forced air ventilation with implications for use of electrical fans etc.280 38% 109% Supplementary expenses (many semi-variable) will include provisions for Lease of land. will directly affect breakeven and rate of return calculations. 15 . and whether or not the investor chooses insurance and at what level. Insurance.Break even point Production 6.000 1.885.000 per batch. Electricity.000/ mth.000 per batch 2 labourers / farm hands @ $6.000 1.000/ wk Total labor cost $144.485. $105.000 205.

FINANCING SOURCES The following are some of the funding sources from which a borrower may access financing for an operation of this nature. • The Linden Economic Advancement Fund (LEAF) provides financing for Region 10 projects. either singly or in combination. Small Business Development Trust Institute of Private Enterprise Development National Bank of Industry and Commerce Citizens Bank • • • • 16 .