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BEER- TYPES, PRODUCTION & SPOILAGE

PALLAVI DHOTRA ROLL NO. 06 FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION
Beer is the world’s oldest & most widely consumed alcoholic beverage. It is 3rd most popular drink after water & tea. The process of making beer is known as brewing. Beer is produced by fermentation of starches derived from cereal grains. The alcoholic strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV).

TYPES OF BEER

BEER

ALES

LAGER

PALE ALE

MILD ALE

STOUT

LIGHT LAGER

DARK LAGER

INGREDIENTS FOR BEER PRODUCTION
Malt Hops Brewer’s Yeast Brewing Water Adjuncts

BREWING PROCESS
Malting Mashing Filtration Kettle boiling Hops addition Cooling Fermentation Cooling Ageing & Clarification Secondary fermentation Carbonation Packaging & pasteurization (at 60°C for 30 mins)

MALTING
Barley Cleaning Sorting Large Medium Small Steeping in water (at 12-15°C for 2-3 days) Germination Drying of malt (at 71-92°C) Curing of malt (at 80°C for 5 hours) Grind to coarse flour Animal feed

MASHING
Mashing is the process where cereal grist is mixed with hot water to extract sugar for fermentation. The product of mashing is termed as sweet wort. The process of mashing involves:i. Dissolving the substances in the malt that are soluble in warm water. ii. Rendering the substances which are insoluble in their natural state or soluble through enzymatic action.

WORT FILTRATION
The process of separating the liquid part of mash (wort) from the undissolved part (the spent grain) is called lautering. Two types of equipments are used to separate wort from mash solids, these are:i. Lauter Tun:- It is a vertical cylinder with a large diameter to depth ratio and fitted into the tun is a wort collecting system. ii. Mash Filters:- The mash filters consists of a series of alternating plates and roller frames in which a filter of polyethylene or polypropylene is suspended.

WORT BOILING & HOP ADDITION
Wort boiling involves open top vessels, operating at atmospheric pressure, which exploits thermosyphon circulation to keep the wort well agitated. During boiling hops are added which impart flavor, aroma and bitterness to the beer. The objectives of wort boiling are:i. Enzyme inactivation ii. Wort sterilization iii. Protein coagulation (hot break formation) iv. Hop extraction v. Water evaporation vi. Flavor compound formation vii. Undesired volatile evaporation

HOP SEPERATION & COOLING
After boiling, wort is passed through hop separator to remove both hops and precipitated proteins (trub). The wort is cooled to 10-15°C, in a plate heat exchanger. During cooling process, proteins and tannins are precipitated as fine coagulum referred to as the ‘cold break’. During cooling the oxygenation of the wort is carried out to permit the yeast to ferment efficiently.

FERMENTATION
After cooling the wort is ready for fermentation & is moved to fermenter. Brewer’s Yeast is inoculated into the cooled wort. For ale production Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inoculated & for lager production Saccharomyces uvarum is inoculated. As fermentation proceeds specific gravity is decreased due to the utilization of carbohydrates by the yeast There is production of ethanol and other compounds with density less than water. Carbon dioxide is also evolved during fermentation which is utilized for carbonation. When yeast settles down, the beer obtained is called Green Beer which is subjected to another storage tank having temperature 0-2°C. This stage is called fassing.

AGEING & FINISHING
Ageing involves the storage of beer in vats having temperature 0°C, during which beer is mellowed or matured. Finishing involves the clarification of beer to remove residual yeast & residual protein-tannin complex. Hops are also added to retain the flavor Secondary fermentation is done if required as a part of ageing to make beer fully carbonated. After final fermentation beer is packed in cans & bottles and is pasteurized at 60°C for 30 minutes.

SPOILAGE OF BEER
Beer spoilage is caused due to following reasons:i. Spoilage caused by bacteria:- lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, Zymomonas anaerobia, Pediococcus cerevisiae causes beer spoilage. ii. Spoilage caused by wild yeast:- wild yeast causes spoilage at any level of beer production, such yeasts are- Saccharomyces diastaticus, Candida lambica, Dekkera intermedia. In production of ales, Saccharomyces uvarum acts as a wild yeast where as in production of lagers Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts wild yeast.

REFERENCES
Pandey V.K, Pandey A, Biotechnology :Food Fermentation, Volume II, Educational Publishers & Distributors. Marwaha S.S, Arora J.K, Food Processing : Biotechnological Applications, Asiatech Publishers Inc. Bagchi S.N, Sharma A, Food & Beverage Service, Aman Publications. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/beer&eizdEfs http://www.studentsguide.in/microbiology/industrialmicro biology/steps-in-beerproductiom.htm http://www.ifrn.bbsrc.ac.uk/saftey/comicro/beer.25pdf

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