Int. J. Miner. Process. 74S (2004) S209 – S217 www.elsevier.

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Coarse crushing of brittle rocks by compression
Georg Unlanda,*, Piotr Szczelinab
a

Technische Universitat Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany ¨ b Krupp Fordertechnik Ennigerloh, Germany ¨

Abstract Several machines, such as jaw, gyratory or roll crushers use the physical effect of compression to crush hard and brittle rocks. Because of the tremendous expenditures of money and equipment necessary to investigate the comminution of large particles hardly any scientific investigations were carried out so far. Therefore, these crushers are still sized rather by empirical than by scientific approaches. In order to investigate the principles of comminution by compression of large rocks a test apparatus was built and rocks of different dimensions were tested. Since machines which use the effect of compression apply a defined displacement to a rock the main crushing properties were gained as a function of the applied throw and the particle size of the rock: likelihood of breakage, maximum crushing force, mass specific crushing work, crushed fragment size distribution, crushed fragment shape distribution. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: coarse crushing; brittle rocks; compression

1. Introduction The first processing step of a mineral processing plant is usually the crushing of the raw material. Rocks with diameters as large as 2 m are blasted and/or excavated in a mine or in a quarry and need to be reduced in size by crushers suitable for the following processing steps. Typical product sizes of a crushing plant are e.g. 0–25 mm if the product has to be used as feed material for ball

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 3731392558; fax: +49 3731393500. E-mail address: unland@iam.tu-freiberg.de (G. Unland). 0301-7516/$ - see front matter D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.minpro.2004.07.030

mills or 2 till 65 mm if the product is used as aggregates. The design of a crushing plant is based on the material to be crushed. Several types of crushers using different physical effects of comminution (e.g. compression, impact) can be chosen. Crushers which apply the effect of compression during comminution are strongly recommended for hard, brittle and abrasive rocks, i.e. rocks with a significant amount and size of minerals with a hardness according to Mohs of 6 till 7 and higher. Especially crushers in the first and second stage (jaw, gyratory and roll crushers) use the effect of comminution by compression of single particles within the processing zone of the machine.

1). Test apparatus. 87). on the hypothesis according to Kick or more common according to Bond. a test apparatus was built to enable the comminution of single particles by defined enforced displacements. hardly any scientifically based method is used to size those machines. roll or gyratory crushers the rock particles are mainly crushed as single individual particles and not in a particle bed. On each particle a throw is applied no matter how much energy is required or how high the crushing forces are necessary. example) (Szczelina. 74S (2004) S209–S217 based. The container which carries the rock is not moving and is supported by force measurement devices. Most companies use indeed empirical methods. 2. 2. e. the test work itself and the handling problems of the samples. Force-displacement-function (diorite. In a first step. . P. As samples. Process. an apparatus was built which enforces a defined displacement (compression) on a rock particle (Fig.g. The piston is movable and guided by four columns.S210 G. Some methods are Fig. Miner. p. Szczelina / Int. Test apparatus In the processing zones of crushers such as jaw. 2000. fraction 140/200. This piston is moved by a hydraulic cylinder system which can apply a force maximum of 4000 kN and a Fig. The reasons for this problem are associated with the tremendous expenditures for a suitable test apparatus. Although these crushers are built for more than 100 years. 1. Unland. In order to investigate and simulate the process of crushing within the processing zone of a crusher. J. rocks of diorite with various diameters were tested.

feldspar. The resistance is usually characterized by the compressive strength of the rock. i. rocks of a diameter of approximately 20 till 600 mm were collected in a quarry. Breakage is a physical process and is defined here as the first crack through a rock. mass specific breakage energy (energy absorbed at crack initiation) and the granulometric properties of the broken product. and 450/ 560 were used for testing. hornblende. Only the more bcubicalQ rocks were used as samples. Since the material was slightly anisotropic. Schonert. In addition to the primary breakage of a particle additional breakages can occur depending on the magnitude of the Fig. 1989. Unland and Raaz. Breakage and crushing properties The sizing of a machine needs to be based on the properties of the particulate material. 250/320. Szczelina / Int. ¨ The breakage or fracture properties comprise the resistance against breakage. 1984.. Test material The material to be crushed can be characterized by its dimensions. the platy material after blasting in the quarry was eliminated. P. Miner. Therefore. augite) is on average slitely elongated (E=1155) (Fig. Although the macroscopic impression of the rock indicates an isotropic texture and fabric. Process.5 m. The selected diorite shows values of 180 till 240 MPa. e. Schwedes. Thin sections of diorite (Hohwald/Saxony) (Szczelina. Therefore. 56/80. a bmediumhardQ hardrock. 1998). The particles are then classified into the different fractions [mm].G. 140/200. The spatial orientation of the minerals is mainly isotropic (K iso=86%). 2000. 82). p. A 14b). its shape. a distinction between the breakage or fracture and the crushing properties is necessary. 4. its anisotropy of its breaking behaviour and its resistance against comminution. The isotropy of the material is investigated by stereological means on three thin sections (Fig. the crystal shape of the minerals (quartz. Therefore. 1992. mica. – – – likelihood of breakage. 2). That is why the breakage parameters can be considered as mechanical or physical features of a particulate material (see Bourgeois et al. 74S (2004) S209–S217 S211 displacement of more than 0. 4). 2000. 200/250. 3. The dimensions of the rocks have an important influence on the crushing forces. J. The movement of the piston is measured by a linear displacement pickup. breakage fragment size distribution (breakage function). 3) (Unland. The shape of the samples has an impact on the force-displacement behaviour during comminution as well. 80/140. Crushing is a technical process. it is possible to measure crushing forces F and displacements h simultaneously (Fig. breakage fragment shape distribution. however a value which is not too excellent in respect to the isotropy. . The diameter is defined here as a diameter of a mass equivalent sphere of the same material. 3. – – Breakage is defined as a loss of broken fragments exceeding 10%w of the initial mass of the sample (Schubert. Rocks of the fractions 25/40. 1984). Unland. maximum breakage force (force necessary for crack initiation).

Process. Miner. Unland.S212 G. 2000. J. P. 4. 74S (2004) S209–S217 Fig. Mathematical description of diorite (Hohwald/Saxony) (Szczelina. A 14b). . Szczelina / Int.

The crushing parameters consist of the resistance against crushing. 5. maximum crushing force. The example of the forces shows the difference. Process. The maximum breakage force is the necessary force to initiate the first complete crack through a rock Fig. the crushing parameters are technical features. whereas the displacement is the bstressingQ factor. The main influencing factors are the applied displacement and the diameter of the samples. Fig. – – – – – likelihood of breakage (breakage as the first step of crushing). p. Maximum related crushing force (h r=20%) (Szczelina. crushed fragment shape distribution. mass specific crushing work and the granulometric properties of the crushed product. In case of comminution by compression the bstressingQ factor is the displacement applied to the particle. Likelihood of breakage (all fractions) (Szczelina.G. Therefore. 1998). these parameters are summarized in the following. crushed fragment size distribution (crushing function). 88). J. In order to determine the crushing properties statistically sound it is necessary to run several tests on samples with the same diameter. Szczelina / Int. Since the crushing parameters are necessary to size the machines. Unland. The number of tests is determined by a confidence probability of S=95% at a relative confidence interval of a r=20% for the mean value of the maximum crushing forces. In bstressingQ factor. . 5. The compression displacement h is used in relationship to the particle diameter D as relative compression displacement h r . Miner. 74S (2004) S209–S217 S213 independently of the magnitude of the applied displacement whereas the maximum crushing force describes the maximum force which occurs during a defined displacement no matter how often the rock particle breaks. In coarse crushing the fragment shape is a function of the fragment size. Test program The test program comprises the determination of the main crushing properties. p. 2000. The products are assessed by their properties of the macro shape (Unland et al.. P. 6. 94). 2000.

99f ). Likelihood of breakage The likelihood of breakage p b is a function of the relative displacement h r (Fig. 6. 104). 74S (2004) S209–S217 Fig. Results 6.2. . Maximum crushing force 6. pp. 2000. J. 2000. At about 20% all For a better use of the crushing forces during the sizing process of a crusher it is more suitable to relate the force to the area of projection giving a projection area related crushing force FA. 6) indicate a lower maximum crushing force FAmax with Fig. general.S214 G. p. approximately 30 till 50 tests per displacement and sample diameter are necessary. The tests show that the likelihood of breakage is not dependent on the particle diameter. Unland. P. Szczelina / Int. 5).1. Mass specific crushing work (Szczelina. 7. Mean particle diameter d 50 (Szczelina. The results (Fig. particles are broken. 8. Miner. Process.

The experiments show a reduced specific crushing work W spm with increasing particle diameters D and decreasing enforced displacements h r (Fig. 7). . 9.3. The function W m=k nD À0.9675. Standard deviation (Szczelina. Unland. The graph indicates additionally the standard deviation at a relative displacement of 20%. p.7 can be used as a good interpolation of the mean values. 2000. 106).5 at a coefficient of determination of R 2=0. Maximum particle diameter (Szczelina. A 27). Additionally. Miner. Szczelina / Int. Crushed fragment size distribution All broken fragments from a particle with a diameter D and an applied enforced relative dis- Fig. the force FAmax increases with a higher relative displacement h r . 2000. 6. P. For a relative displacement of h r=20% the standard deviation is shown in the diagram as well as the approximation with the function FAmax=132D À0. 74S (2004) S209–S217 S215 Fig. Mass specific crushing work The crushing work can be related to the mass of the particle. a larger particle diameter D. 10.G. J. 6. Process.4.

Crushed fragment shape distribution Besides the particle diameter the particle shape is an important feature of the product quality. 74S (2004) S209–S217 placement h r were collected and a size distribution was determined. i. 84% respectively). 108). The percentage of misshapen particles increases with smaller fragments and with higher relative displacements. One possibility is related to the German standard DIN 52114. The size distribution can be very well described by a truncated logarithmic normal distribution. J. Fig. particle diameter. d 84 are diameter of particle related to the undersize mass percentage of 50%. 2000. p. The related mean (Fig. . Szczelina / Int. d 16. 11. the crushed fragment size distribution (crushing function) can be discribed by the parameters d 50/D.e. whereas lnd À lln . 10) increases with the relative displacement hr and is independent of the particle diameter too. d0 À d d50 : d16 u¼ d ¼ d0 resp: lln ¼ lnd50 and rln ¼ ln rln ¼ ln (d 0 is max. There are different possibilities to assess the particle shape.e. 11 shows the percentage of misshapen particles p ms within the different product fractions d at various applied relative displacements h r. 1 Fr ðd Þ ¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffi 2p with tu ¼ ln d=d50 rln Z u Àl eÀ 2 dt 2 tu Therefore. Unland. d 50. Fig. the ratio between the largest and smallest particle dimension. Process. Miner. d 0/D and r ln. rln d84 d50 d .S216 G. 8) and maximum (Fig. Crushed fragment shape distribution (fraction 250/320) (Szczelina. 16%. 9) particle diameters depend on the relative displacement h r and are not functions of the particle diameters. All particles with a ratio bigger than 3 are defined as misshapen. 6. The standard deviation (Fig.5. P. i.

(Berlin). Winnacker. Szczelina. 1984. J. Herbst. The investigation of the maximum crushing force shows the same tendencies than the known effects on smaller particles (Schonert. Unland. i. Proceedings of the XXI International Mineral Processing Congress. Unland. Technische Universit7t Bergakademie Freiberg. 674 – 682. T. 1989. The investigations of coarse particles yield a basis to size crushers. p. G. 1984. In general. 74S (2004) S209–S217 S217 7. In: Kawatra. Littleton.. Szczelina. Zeitschrift fqr Geologische Wissenschaften (26).5 m. there is no crushing within the upper part of the processing zone of a crusher which uses the effect of compression. P.. VEB Deutscher Verlag fqr Grundstoffindustrie. The crushed fragment size distribution can be well described by the two feed diameter related parameters mean fragment diameter and upper fragment diameter and the parameter standard deviation of a truncated logarithmic normal distri- bution. Unland. (Ed. K. Rome. R.G. Zerkleinern. Miner. Schubert. R. 1984.e. 2000. The investigations of the fragment shapes support the observation on crushers that the product is mainly misshapen according to DIN 52114 with crushers which use the single particle comminution by compression within the processing zone. Mqnchen. 1998. Szczelina / Int. The parameters depend on the relative displacement and are not functions of the rock diameter. G. There is only the shaping of the rock till it reaches the zone where the displacement is large enough. J. Walluf. Comminution—Theory and Practice. show that the decline of strength and specific work with the particle diameter is not equal with all kinds of rocks but is dependent on the material. Auslegung von Backenbrechern durch Modellierung des Kfrnerverhaltens.. Z1 – Z78. Bestimmung der Kornform und Bruchfl7chigkeit. (Ed. The mathematical characterization of raw materials—a basis to design machines. Band 1.). Low-Impact-Energy Single-Particle Fracture. K. 315 – 328. i. .). Umdruck.. H. Stenger.. coarser crushing needs less specific energy than finer crushing. H. Zement-Kalk-Gips International (51). However. Steiner. further investigations at the Institute of Mineral Processing Machines. Unland. Schfnert. e. S. ¨ 74). 2000. Folgner.. pp. A 1-1-8... J. It was not possible to find a diameter within the investigated particle size range where the specific crushing work is independent of the particle diameter.P. i. V. Technische Universit7t Braunschweig. 80 – 87. King. pp. In: Harnisch. 99 – 108. 1998. The specific crushing work decreases with a larger rock diameter too. Carl Hanser Verlag. those machines cannot be used as crushers which produce well shapen particles. Leipzig. With a relative compression displacement of 20% all particles are broken independently from their initial diameter. P.e. In: Massacci.A.. pp. 1992. R. G. Dissertation. Chemische Technologie. Process. Schwedes. the hypothesis of Kick could not be supported with this type of rock and up to a rock diameter of approximately 0. References Bourgeois. which are not published yet. F. (Eds.. Die formale Charakterisierung der Gesteine. Raaz. P.. The projection area related crushing force decreases with the particle diameter. Conclusions The systematic investigation of the comminution of coarse irregular particles by compression yields information on the resistance of rocks against crushing and the granulometric properties of the crushed product. 2000.. Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik. Aufbereitung fester mineralischer Rohstoffe. pp. Since the results depend on the material to be crushed as well further investigations are necessary in order to assess the influence of the rock material...K.).