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Light Measurement
Understanding the Metrics &
Quantifying Light Source Performance
A Pro-Lite Training Course
Presented to Vision Alert Automotive Ltd
October 2010
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
What Will You Learn?
 There‟s a multitude of confusing metrics, jargon and
units used to express the performance of light sources
 Our mission is to understand how to define and
measure the “brightness” and colour of light sources,
what units to use, the relationship between them and
how to measure LED sources correctly
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Photometry SOS
 We will learn how to avoid the common
misunderstandings when specifying product
performance
 This will prevent confusion in the supply chain, save
time & money and ultimately yield improved products
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The Problem with LEDs
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 LEDs cannot be manufactured with consistent optical
properties
 LEDs are physically different to conventional sources
 The photometry of LEDs is different to that performed
on traditional light sources
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
About Pro-Lite
 Goniophotometers
 Integrating Spheres
 Measurement Services
 Photometers & Colorimeters
 Spectroradiometers
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Part 1: Basic Concepts
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Understanding the human visual system and how we
perceive light
 The optical properties of materials – how light interacts
with materials and how this affects “appearance”
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Electromagnetic Radiation
 Visible light is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum
that the human eye can see
 Wavelengths of visible light: 380-780nm (1nm = 10
-9
m)
 Infrared radiation: 0.78-1000µm (1µm = 10
-6
m)
 Ultraviolet radiation: 100-400nm
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The Human Eye
 Primary focussing performed by the cornea, fine
focussing by the lens
 Iris provides variable aperture to control amount of light
 Retina is the photo-sensitive element, comprises rods &
cones with highest concentration at fovea
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
What Can the Eye “See”?
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 UVC & UVB (ì s 315nm) absorbed in the cornea
 UVA (315 s ì s 380nm) absorbed in the lens
 Visible rays (380 s ì s 780nm) absorbed in the retina
 Near IR (780 s ì s 1400nm) absorbed in the retina
 Mid & Far IR (ì > 1400nm) absorbed in the cornea
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
How Do We Perceive Light?
 Visible light is absorbed in the retina of the human eye
and creates a visual stimulus in the brain
 The magnitude of the visual stimulus is higher for green
light than for red or blue light - for the same absolute
(radiometric) power, green light looks brighter
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The Photopic Response, V(ì)
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 The relationship between wavelength and the strength
of the visual stimulus is given by the CIE spectral
luminous efficiency function for photopic vision, V(ì)
[the so-called “V-Lambda” response or observer]
 Applies to the daylight adapted eye, L
v
> 3cd/m
2
 Peak sensitivity at 555nm (green/yellow)
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The Scotopic Response, V’(ì)
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 The dark-adapted relative spectral response of the
human eye is called the CIE spectral luminous efficiency
function for scotopic vision, V‟(ì) [“V-Prime-Lambda”]
 The scotopic response applies for L
v
< 0.01cd/m
2
,
peaks at 507nm (blue/green)
 No colour perception in the dark (rods, not cones)
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Into The Twilight Zone
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 The transition from photopic (L
v
> 3cd/m
2
) to scotopic
(L
v
< 0.01cd/m
2
) is referred to as the mesopic region
 Draft CIE publication 191:2010 Recommended System
for Mesopic Photometry Based on Visual Performance
 Mesopic photometry is an important science for night
time driving
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Optical Properties of Materials
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 The interaction between light and materials determines
how objects appear
 Light can reflect, transmit, scatter, be absorbed, cause
fluorescence, refract, diffract & suffer from interference
 Consider also the level, the spatial and the spectral
distribution of the reflected or transmitted light
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Specular Reflectance
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 If the angle between the incident ray and normal is the
same as the reflected ray, the surface is a specular
reflector
 Most shiny surfaces have a dominant specular reflection
(even glass) although some scatter can be expected
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Diffuse Reflectance
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 A perfect diffuse reflector reflects light in accordance
with Lambert‟s law - it looks equally bright in all
directions
 Even nominally diffuse reflectors generally exhibit a high
degree of specularity at high angles of incidence
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Diffusion & Lambert’s Law
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 A perfect diffuser obeys Lambert‟s cosine law
 The reflected intensity from a Lambertian (diffuse)
material varies with the cosine of the angle to the
surface normal
 The reflected radiance (or luminance) from a
Lambertian material is constant in all directions
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
“Real-Life” Reflectance
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Real materials exhibit varying amounts of specular,
near-specular (i.e. haze) and diffuse components of
reflectance
 The relationship between incident irradiance and the
reflected radiance for a given angle of illumination &
reflection is called the BRDF
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Scatter & BRDF
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 BRDF (bidirectional reflective distribution function) is the
ratio of incident irradiance to reflected radiance for a
specified angle of illumination & reflection
 Units are inverse steradians (sr
-1
); the BRDF of a
perfect Lambertian diffuser is 1/t sr
-1
in all directions
 BTDF refers to a transmitted scatter distribution
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Spectral Reflectance
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Spectral reflectance of a material determines its colour
 For example, red objects appear red because they
preferentially reflect red wavelengths
 The spectrum of the illumination will also influence
colour appearance – this is called colour rendering
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Spectral Transmittance
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Spectral transmittance determines colour
 For example, a filter looks green because it
preferentially transmits green wavelengths
 Coloured filters are used to modify the spectral power of
light sources
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Absorbance & Beer’s Law
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Absorbance is the logarithm
(10)
of the reciprocal of the
transmittance. For example: a transmittance of 0.1
(10%) = absorbance of 1.0; a transmittance of 0.5 (50%)
= absorbance of 0.3
 Beer's Law describes how the absorption of light
through a material varies linearly with the path length
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Fluorescence
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Fluorescence is the emission of light at a longer
wavelength as a result of absorption of light at a shorter
wavelength in a fluorescent material
 Applies for that case whereby the emission occurs at
the same time as the absorption (not to be confused
with luminescence & phosphorescence)
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Refraction & Snell’s Law
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 When light passes between dissimilar materials, the
speed changes and the rays bend – this is refraction
 Refraction depends upon the angle of incidence and the
refractive index of the two media and is given by Snell‟s
law: n sin(u) = n’ sin(u’)
 If n
(air)
= 1, n
(glass)
= 1.5, u
1
= 30° then u
2
= 10.5°
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Interference
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Constructive or destructive interference occurs from
light reflected from the upper and lower surfaces of a
thin film
 Film or layer thickness needs to of the order of the
wavelength of the light for interference to occur
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Diffraction
Basic Concepts
Light & Vision
Optical Properties
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Diffraction is another wave effect. Light rays bend as
they pass around an object or through a narrow slit or
aperture.
 In a diffraction grating, light rays of different
wavelengths are diffracted (bent) at different angles –
this allows the separation of component wavelengths
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Part 2: Photometry
 The measurement of light scaled to the human observer
 Four geometric parameters
 The importance of understanding photometric field
 When & how to convert between units
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
What Can You Measure?
 Total light output of the light source – this is called the
flux
 There are also three other “geometric” measurements:
 Flux received at a surface per unit area
 Flux emitted per unit solid angle
 Flux emitted per unit solid angle per unit area
 Also: flux per unit solid angle or per unit solid angle
per unit area as a function of angle (this is
goniophotometry which we deal with later)
 The flux can be measured absolutely (radiometry) or
scaled to the standard photopic observer (photometry)
 The flux can also be measured spectroradiometrically
and photometric and colorimetric parameters derived
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Luminous Flux (u
v
)
 Luminous flux is the total light emitted by a lamp, a
measurement that is scaled to the standard photopic
observer for daylight vision
 Measured in units of lumens (lm), the photometric
analogue of the Watt. 1Watt at 555nm = 683 lumens
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Luminous Intensity (I
v
)
 Luminous intensity is the luminous flux emitted per unit
solid angle in a specified direction
 Intensity is directional unless the lamp is isotropic
 Intensity is measured in units of lumens per steradian
(lm/sr) or candelas (cd)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Isotropic
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 An isotropic light source emits with equal intensity in all
directions
 An example would be a frosted light bulb
 Not to be confused with a Lambertian or diffused source
which emits with an intensity that follows a cosine
relationship
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Solid Angle (O)
 The unit of solid angle is the steradian
 For a planar angle (o), the steradian is defined as the
ratio of the projected spherical surface area (A) to the
square of the radius of the sphere (r
2
)
 There are 4t steradians in a complete sphere
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Illuminance (E
v
)
 Illuminance is the luminous flux received at a surface
per unit area
 Illuminance varies with distance (inverse squared rule)
and angle of illumination (Lambert‟s cosine rule)
 Illuminance is measured in units of lumens per sq.
meter (lm/m
2
) or lux (lx)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Illuminance versus Distance
 The illuminance from a point source of light decreases
with the square of the distance travelled
 This is the inverse squared rule: E
1
x
1
2
= E
2
x
2
2
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Illuminance versus Angle
 The illuminance from a point source of light decreases
with increasing angle between the light source and the
receiver
 Defined by Lambert‟s cosine rule: E
u
= E
0
• cos(u)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Luminance (L
v
)
 Luminance is the luminous flux emitted per unit solid
angle per unit area – often referred to as “brightness”
 Luminance is measured in units of lumens per steradian
per sq. meter (lm/sr.m
2
), or candelas per sq. meter
(cd/m
2
)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Units Summary
 This is the light measurement matrix
 For every photometric property, there is an equivalent
radiometric one
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
“English” Units
 One foot-Lambert (fL) equals 1/π candelas per square
foot, which equals 3.426 candelas per sq. meter
 One foot-candle (fc) equals one lumen per square foot,
which equals 10.76 lux
 Not forgetting the nit, where 1cd/m
2
= 1nit
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The SI System
 Le System International d'Unites (1961) defines seven
principal units of measure
 The candela is the only optical base unit. First realised
in 1860 using candles made of sperm whale fat.
Subsequent realisations based on lamps. The “new
candle” was defined in 1948 in terms of the brightness
of a blackbody radiator at the freezing temperature of
platinum (2045 K); adopted internationally
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Length meter (m)
Mass kilogram (kg)
Time second (s)
Electric Current Ampere (A)
Temperature Kelvin (K)
Amount of Substance mole (mol)
Luminous Intensity candela (cd)
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The Definition of the Candela
 The candela has been defined since 1976 as the
luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that
emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012
Hertz (555nm) and has a radiant intensity in that
direction of 1/683 Watts per steradian
 By this definition, the candela is no longer strictly a base
unit (it derives from other base units) but is still
considered to be a base unit primarily for historical
reasons
 There isn‟t a radiometric base unit. Instead, the Watt is
derived from the SI base units for mass, length & time:
 Energy (Joules) equals force x distance (Newton
meters)
 Power (Watts) equals the rate of flow of energy,
that is energy / time (Joules per second)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The Metric System
 The metric system was created in France in June 1799,
“for all people, for all time” - thank you Napoleon
 The unit of length was the meter - defined as one ten-
millionth of the length of the meridian through Paris from
the pole to the equator
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
What Should You Measure?
 Deciding what to measure is the critical first step
 Specifically, what is the most appropriate type of
measurement?
 What you can measure is not the same as what you
should measure
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Quiz
Daylight Running Lights
Headlamps – Dipped &
Main Beam
Turn Indicators
Side Lights
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Quiz
Multi-Media Display
Switch Legend
Warning Light
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Luminance or Intensity?
 If you are close to the source – measure luminance
(cd/m
2
)
 If you are far way from the source – measure luminous
intensity (cd)
 But what do we mean by “close” and “far”?
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Near-Field vs. Far-Field
 In the photometric near-field, measure luminance
(cd/m
2
) of an extended source; in the photometric far-
field, measure luminous intensity (cd) of a point source
 Far-field is where inverse squared rule applies, at a
distance of approximately 5-10x (?) source size away
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Photometric Distance
 For x >> 5d the illumination pattern is merged into a
continuum, the illuminance varies according to the
inverse squared rule and the luminous intensity is
constant.
 For x < 5d, the 1/x
2
rule is not valid – the size of the
detector will affect the illuminance & intensity readings
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Measuring LED Intensity
 Intensity measurements apply only to point sources
measured in the far-field - LEDs are NOT normally true
point sources due to focal smear caused by a
combination of reflection and refraction
 Intensity can vary with distance and detector area - in
other words, you can get an instrument-specific reading
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Near-Field Luminous Intensity
 To provide a common frame of reference for LED
intensity measurements, CIE developed the concept of
average (or near-field) intensity in publication CIE
127:1997
 Average intensity no longer agrees with true intensity
 CIE 127 defines two standard conditions for measuring
LED near-field „intensity‟:
 Condition A: 316mm (0.001sr
-1
)
 Condition B: 100mm (0.01sr
-1
)
 Use condition A for narrow view angle LEDs
 CIE 127 also stipulates that the intensity be measured
along the mechanical axis of the LED (as opposed to
the optical axis or direction of peak intensity)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
CIE 127 Average Intensity
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 CIE 127 applies to individual LEDs and not LED
modules, arrays or light engines
 Latest revision to CIE 127:2007 recommends that the
average intensity be measured using a
spectroradiometer rather than photometer or colorimeter
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Determining Photometric Distance
 A formula presented in IALA E-122 provides an
approximation for calculating the photometric distance
of an optical system (e.g. lensed LED): d = 2(fR/r),
where:
 d is the photometric distance
 f is the focal length of the optical system
 R is the radius of the optical aperture
 r is the radius of the light source
 The photometric distance can be determined empirically
by measuring illuminance as a function of distance and
establishing that point beyond which the illuminance
obeys the inverse squared rule (or intensity becomes a
constant)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
What Varies with Distance?
 Luminous flux (lumen) – this is a constant. “Power”
does not vary with distance
 Illuminance (lux) – for a point source, the illuminance
varies with the distance according to the inverse
squared law (assumes far-field)
 Luminous intensity (candela) – this is a constant,
although it assumes that the lamp is a point source and
you are in the far-field
 Luminance (candela per sq. meter) – this is also a
constant provided that the object overfills the field of
view of the collection optics. If the measurement spot
overlaps the object, the luminance will be an average of
the brightness of the object and the surrounding area
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Converting Between Units
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Can you convert between units? It depends:
 Spectral – possible if source is monochromatic or
you know the spectral power distribution
 Geometric – possible provided certain assumptions
apply
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Radiometric to Photometric
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 It is possible to convert between radiometric &
photometric parameters provided that the source is
monochromatic or you know the spectral power
distribution
 It is NOT possible to convert from photometric to
radiometric for a broadband source unless you know the
spectral power distribution. Any number of spectral
power distributions can yield the same photometric
value
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Converting Between Geometries
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 It is sometimes possible to convert between different
types of photometric parameters provided certain
assumptions hold true
 These assumptions may not always be valid, in which
case you have no choice but to measure the parameter
directly
 Examples to follow ....
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Useful Photometric Formulae
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
To calculate the luminous flux (u
v
) from
the radiant flux (u
e
) for a monochromatic
source of wavelength (ì)
u
v
= u
e
· (ì)· 683
To calculate the illuminance (E
v
) from a
point source with an intensity (I
v
) at
distance (x)
E
v
= I
v
/ x
2
(lx)
To calculate the illuminance (E
vu
) on a
surface tilted at angle (u) to the direction
of illumination
E
vu
= E
v0
· cosu (lx)
To calculate the luminance (L
v
) from a
surface of reflectance (µ) that is
illuminated with an illuminance (E
v
)
L
v
= µE
v
/ t (cd/m
2
)
To calculate the luminous intensity (I
v
)
from a beam of (u
v
) luminous flux having
a full beam angle of (O) steradians
I
v
= u
v
/ O (cd)
To calculate a solid angle (O) from a
planar angle (o)
O = 2t [1-cos(o /2)] (sr
-1
)
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Problem #1
 An LED emits 240mW/sr radiant intensity at 365nm.
What is the luminous intensity?
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Problem #2
 A visible laser diode emits 2mW radiant flux at 650nm. A
second visible laser diode also emits 2mW but at
670nm. What is the luminous flux from each laser?
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Solution #2
 Use the expression: u
v
= u
e
·V(ì)· 683
 2mW @ 650nm = 2x10
-3
x 0.107 x 683 = 0.146lm
 2mW @ 670nm = 2x10
-3
x 0.032 x 683 = 0.044lm
 A 650nm laser is 300% “brighter” than a 670nm laser of
the same power
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Problem #3
 An LED emits a luminous intensity of 3,000mcd (3cd).
What is the illuminance at 2m?
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Solution #3
 ASSUMPTION #1: at 2m, we are in the far field
 ASSUMPTION #2: we are illuminating the surface at
normal incidence
 CAUTION: the intensity quoted is a true (far field)
intensity and not the average intensity per CIE 127:2007
 Use the expression: E
v
= I
v
/ x
2
 E
v
= 3 / 2
2
= 0.75lx
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Problem #4
 An LED emits a luminous intensity of 3,000mcd (3cd).
What is the illuminance at on a surface 2m away that is
tilted at 60° to the direction of illumination?
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Solution #4
 ASSUMPTION #1: at 2m, we are in the far field
 CAUTION: the intensity quoted is a true (far field)
intensity and not the average intensity per CIE 127:2007
 First, calculate illuminance at normal incidence:
E
v
= I
v
/ x
2
 E
v
= 3 / 2
2
= 0.75lx
 Next, calculate illuminance at an angle:
E
vu
= E
v0
· cosu (lx)
 E
vu
= 0.75 x cos(60) = 0.75 x 0.5 = 0.375lx
 This is an illustration of Lambert‟s cosine law
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Problem #5
 An car headlight produces an illuminance of 200 lux at a
distance of 25m. What is the illuminance at 10m?
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Solution #5
 ASSUMPTION #1: at 10m, we are still in the far field
 First, calculate the beam intensity: I
v
= E
v
· x
2
 I
v
= 200· 25
2
= 200 x 625 = 125,000cd
 Next, calculate the illuminance at 10m: E
v
= I
v
/ x
2
 E
v
= 125,000 / 10
2
= 1,250lx
 This is an illustration of the inverse squared rule
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Problem #6
 A projector emits a beam of 3000cd luminous intensity.
It illuminates a screen placed at 2m at normal incidence.
The screen has a reflectance of 80%. What is the
luminance (brightness) of the screen?
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Solution #6
 ASSUMPTION #1: the screen is a perfect Lambertian
(diffuse) reflecting surface
 ASSUMPTION #2: at 2m, we are in the far field
 First, calculate the screen illuminance: E
v
= I
v
/ x
2
 E
v
= 3000 / 2
2
= 750lx
 Next, calculate the screen luminance: L
v
= µE
v
/ t
 L
v
= (0.8 x 750) / t = 600 / t = 191cd/m
2
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Problem #7
 The projector in the previous example (3000cd luminous
intensity) employs a tungsten halogen lamp with
dichroic reflector. The reflector limits the angular
subtense from the bulb to 45°. What is the luminous flux
of the bulb?
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Solution #6
 ASSUMPTION: that the output of the bulb is isotropic
 CAUTION: this is one example where the assumption is
very unlikely to be valid. However, this calculation will at
least yield an order-of-magnitude value for the output of
the bulb if you have no other means of directly
measuring the flux
 First, calculate the beam solid angle:
O = 2t [1-cos(o /2)]
 O = 2 x t [1 – cos(45/2)] = 0.48sr
-1
 Next, calculate the flux: u
v
= I
v
· O
 u
v
= 3,000 x 0.48 = 1,440lm
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Photometric Units
Photometric Field
Converting Units
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Part 3: Colorimetry
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Tristimulus theory & how the eye perceives colour
 Chromaticity & colour spaces
 Simplified colour metrics
 Colour difference
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
How Do We Perceive Colour?
 Separate RGB sensitive cone receivers in the retina
discern the relative amounts of red, green & blue light
 The tristimulus theory states that any colour can be
uniquely defined by a combination of three numbers
 This gives us the basis of a numeric system of colour
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Tristimulus Theory
_
_ _
 The CIE tristimulus colour matching functions are to
colour perception what the CIE photopic response is to
the perception of the brightness of light
 The three response functions are tristimulus x(ì),
tristimulus y(ì) and tristimulus z(ì) – these correspond
to the red, green and blue response of the eye
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Tristimulus Values
 These are the formulae for calculating the CIE 1931 2°
observer tristimulus values XYZ
 u
e
(ì) is the spectral power of the light source
 x-bar (ì), y-bar (ì) & z-bar (ì) are the tristimulus
colour matching functions
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
CIE Chromaticity Coordinates
 The 3 CIE tristimulus can be reduced to 2 chromaticity
coordinates, x and y (because x + y + z = 1)
 The CIE colour space diagram allows the chromaticity
coordinates to be plotted graphically
 Easier to communicate colour this way than as 3
numbers!
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram
All colours lie within the shaded area of the CIE chromaticity diagram
The boundary is called the Spectrum Locus
and plots the colour of monochromatic light
White light is plotted in the centre
of the chromaticity diagram
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Not the Full Story ...
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 The CIE XYZ colour space system employs 3 numbers
to uniquely specify the colour of a light source. We now
know the colour of the lamp.
 What is doesn‟t address is how different the colour of
two lamps is. This is important in terms of visual colour
matching of sources.
 The problems with the 1931 colour space is that points
of equal colour difference do not plot with equal
separation in the colour space diagram.
 The eye is much less sensitive to colour difference in
the green and much more sensitive to colour difference
in the red and blue
 The CIE 1960 and subsequent 1976 colour spaces
were developed to address this drawback and provide
perceptual uniformity
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
CIE u’v’ Chromaticity Coordinates
 To allow for the eye‟s increased sensitivity to colour
difference in the red and blue, the CIE 1960 Uniform
Colour Space (UCS) was developed
 Two points of equal colour difference are plotted the
same distance apart in the CIE UCS
 CIE 1960 chromaticity coordinates given u‟ v‟ notation
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
CIE 1976 UCS Diagram
This is the CIE Uniform Colour Space chromaticity diagram
Points of equal colour difference are
plotted with equal distance within the UCS
Red and blue areas enlarged compared
with the CIE1931 colour space
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Simplified Colour Metrics
 The colour of “white light” can be expressed as a colour
temperature (Kelvin), the colour of light emitted by a
perfect black body radiator of that temperature
 LHS: incandescent lamp, colour temperature ~ 2,800K
 RHS: xenon gas discharge lamp, ~ 6,500K
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Colour Temperature
CIE standard illuminants A & D65
shown on the Plankian locus
The Plankian locus plots the colour of a perfect
black body emitter between 2,000 & 20,000 Kelvin
The Plankian locus plots the colour of a perfect
black body emitter between 2,000 & 20,000 Kelvin
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Correlated Colour Temperature
CCT is the colour temperature of a non-Planckian
emitter which the source most closely resembles
In 1960 CIE UCS, lines of iso-CCT
fall within ± 0.02 duv
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Examples of CCT
 Note that light of high colour temperatures is described
as being “cool” whereas light of low colour temperature
is described as being “warm”!
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Spectral Power Distributions
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Dominant Wavelength (ì
D
)
Dominant wavelength is the simplified colour metric
for coloured light sources, in this case a green LED
CIE Illuminant E
(Normalising Reference)
Cx = 0.3333
Cy = 0.3333
LED Chromaticity
Cx = 0.3700
Cy = 0.5600
LED Dominant Wavelength
ì
D
= 560nm
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Purity
A
B
(Spectral) purity is calculated as the
ratio of distance A to A+B (%)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Complimentary Dom. Wavelength
Complimentary dominant wavelength is a necessary
descriptor for certain reddish, non-primaries
Illuminant E
Cx = 0.3333
Cy = 0.3333
DUT
ì
CD
= 495nm
Purity = -50%
DUT
Cx = 0.5000
Cy = 0.2800
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
CIE Standard Illuminants
 CIE standard illuminants serve as normalisation
references for comparing the colour of different light
sources
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Colour Difference
 In the 1931 CIEXYZ colour space, regions of “constant
colour” occupy roughly elliptical areas. In the 1976
CIELUV space, the areas are roughly circular
 A single-step MacAdam ellipse represents a region in
the 1931 colour space within which a person could
expect to perceive all colours to be the same
 ANSI C78.377:2008 Specification for the Chromaticity of
Solid State Lighting recommends a series of LED “bins”
based upon seven-step MacAdam ellipses
 A numerical colour difference specification is given by
the expression: AE = [(u
1
’-u
2
’)
2
+ (v
1
’-v
2
’)
2
]
-1/2
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
MacAdam Ellipses
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Nominal CCT
 ANSI C78.377:2008 defines 8 “nominal colour
temperature” binning regions for LEDs. Based upon 7-
step MacAdam ellipses with boundary quadrangles
 To put it in perspective, the extent of colour difference
within the bin is some seven times greater that our
ability to detect these differences
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Tristimulus Theory
Chromaticity
Simplified Metrics
Standard Illuminants
Colour Difference
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Part 4: Spectroradiometry
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Why photometers and colorimeters can give erroneous
readings
 How spectroradiometers solve this problem
 Measuring colour rendering
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Spectroradiometers
 A spectroradiometer measures the spectral power
distribution of the light source at each wavelength in the
and applies the CIE V(ì) photopic and tristimulus
observer functions in software to provide photometric,
colorimetric and colour rendering information
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Part 4: Spectroradiometry
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Spectral parameters of interest are:
 Spectral power distribution (the shape)
 Peak wavelength (ì
p
) & linewidth (FWHM, Aì
0.5
)
 Centre wavelength (ì
c
)
 Centroid wavelength (weighted mean of SPD)
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Typical SPDs
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Photometers & Colorimeters
 A photometer employs a photodetector which is optically
filtered to impart a spectral response that matches the
CIE V(ì) photopic observer
 A colorimeter employs 3 or 4 photodetectors which are
optically filtered to impart a spectral response that
matches the CIE tristimulus observer functions
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Commercial Photometers
 This chart compares the spectral sensitivity of a range
of commercially available photometers with the standard
CIE photopic observer
 Type A is a cheap selenium photocell based meter but
Types B & C seem to match the eye‟s response ....
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Commercial Photometer Error
 Inherent filter mismatch of photometers and
colorimeters can lead to very large errors with LEDs
 The simple lux meter is a standard tool in the lighting
industry – beware inexpensive meters that give very
inaccurate readings. The more expensive the
photometer, the better the accuracy
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
-23%
-1%
-35/+100%
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The V(ì) Error
 Even the best “filter” photometers and colorimeters have
a spectral mismatch to the V(ì) observer response
 The magnitude of this error is given by the f
1
‟ factor. The
chart shows the spectral mismatch to the V(ì) curve for
a detector with an f
1
‟ of 1.88% per CIE 69
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Inadequate Standards
 The meters described in the previous slide conform to
BS667:1998 Specification for Portable Photoelectric
Photometers
 They are “calibrated traceable to national standards”
 The accuracy of any filter-based photometer depends
upon:
 The type of light source used to calibrate it
 The spectral power and bandwidth of the LED
under test
 The precision with which the meter matches the
CIE photopic observer
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
CIE 127:2007 & Spectroradiometers
 Inherent filter mismatch of photometers and
colorimeters can lead to very large errors with LEDs
 The error is moderate with phosphor-white LEDs but
can be very large with RGB-white and coloured LEDs
 Because of this, standards such as CIE 127:2007 and
IESNA LM79:2009 recommend the use of
spectroradiometers for photometric and colorimetric
measurements
 Monochromator band-pass affects spectral calculations
(effect is line-broadening):
 20nm LED measured with a 10nm band-pass gives
an error of 0.005 Cx, 0.007 Cy & 2nm in ì
D
 5nm band-pass: 0.002 (Cx & Cy), 0.2nm ì
D
 2nm or less gives no appreciable error
 Stray light: < 0.1% recommended
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Understanding White Light
We all accept that white light
must contain light of all colours ….
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Colour Rendering
 The colour of objects is rendered correctly when
illuminated by “natural” light (sunlight or an
incandescent lamp)
 Other lamps may render colours less well
 At low light levels, colour vision is inactive
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Colour Appearance of Objects
 The colour of a (non-emissive) object depends upon the
spectral power distribution of the illumination as well as
the spectral reflectance of the object
 The object appears blue when it preferentially reflects,
transmits or scatters light with blue wavelengths
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Colour Rendering Index
 The colour rendering index (CRI) is the metric which
defines the colour appearance of standardised test
object colours when illuminated by a test source
compared with their appearance when illuminated by a
standard illuminant - defined by CIE 13.3 (1995)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Colour Rendering Index
 In the existing CIE colour rendering system, the colour
of objects is rendered “correctly” when they are
illuminated by a blackbody source (e.g. an incandescent
lamp) for CCT up to 5000K, or by standard daylight for
CCT > 5000K
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Colour Rendering Index
 Light with poor colour rendering should not be used for
general illumination
 The colour rendering index ranks different types of lamp
– if CRI < 80 the rendering is “poor”, if CRI > 80
rendering is “good”. Use CRI > 95% for visual matching
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Colour Rendering Index
 The Special Colour Rendering Indicies (R
1-14
)
compares the reflected colour of 14 standard coloured
“tiles” when illuminated by a reference illuminant
compared with the test source
 The mean CRI of the 8 non-saturated colours is the
General Colour Rendering Index, R
a
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The Problem with CRI
 The CRI penalises LEDs and SSL as their peaked
spectra are vulnerable to poor rendering in certain parts
of the colour space
 NIST have developed a new Colour Quality Scale
(CQS) which attempts to address the well known
problems of CRI
 The CQS has been designed to correlate with the CRI
system for a consistent frame of reference
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Spectral Power
Characteristics
Colour Rendering
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Part 5: Goniophotometry
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Far-Field
Near-Field
Standard Data
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Measuring angular light distributions
 Coordinate systems & types of goniophotometer
 Near-field versus far-field measurements
 Standard photometric data
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Goniophotometry
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Far-Field
Near-Field
Standard Data
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 A goniophotometer measures the distribution of
luminous intensity or luminance from a light source:
 Luminance measured in near-field
 Luminous intensity measured in the far-field
 Same considerations as regular photometers when
measuring illuminance & luminous intensity – make sure
you are in the far-field
 Coordinate systems of common goniophotometers:
 Type B “East-Polar” (xy)
 Type C “Spherical” (u|)
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Far-Field Goniophotometers
 Traditional, far-field goniophotometers measure the
directional illuminance & luminous intensity of a light
source over 2t or 4t steradians
 To satisfy the far-field criteria, the measurement
distance can be very long, up to 25m
Credit: Lighting Sciences
Credit: LMT
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Far-Field
Near-Field
Standard Data
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Near-Field Goniophotometers
 A near-field goniophotometer records 2D luminance
images of the light source using an imaging photometer
 Software performs a ray-tracing algorithm to compute
the far-field angular intensity distribution
 Reduced measurement distance (typically 1-2m) so no
need for a large dark room
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Far-Field
Near-Field
Standard Data
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Standard “Photometric” Data
 To sell a luminaire, you must provide customers with
standard “photometric data” that can be used with
lighting design software
 This requires a goniophotometric measurement of the
luminous intensity versus angle and computation of
standard IES (.ies) & EULUMDAT (.ldt) lighting files
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Far-Field
Near-Field
Standard Data
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Part 6: Equipment
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 A review of the equipment available for each type of
photometric, colorimetric, spectroradiometric and
goniophotometric measurement
 Practical advice and tips on specifying and using the
equipment
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Photometers
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
s
LEDs – the Challenge
 Photometers & colorimeters are configured with
appropriate collection or viewing optics to record the
following parameters:
 Illuminance (lux) & luminous intensity (candelas) –
often called “lux meters”
 Luminance (candelas per sq. meter) – often called
“spot photometers”
 Luminous flux (lumens) – based upon integrating
spheres
 Spectroradiometers are essential the same except the
simple filtered detector is replaced by a spectrometer or
monochromator – these measure the spectral power
and compute the photometric & colorimetric parameters
with reference to the CIE observer functions
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Illuminance Photometers
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 Based upon photodetectors filtered to the CIE photopic
or XYZ tristimulus observers
 Cosine diffuser to correctly scale off-axis rays
 Record illuminance, luminous intensity, tristimulus
values, chromaticity, colour temperature & dominant
wavelength
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Hints & Tips
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 To calculate luminous intensity from
illuminance, use the inverse squared
rule
 Illuminance should be measured in
the far-field in most cases – check
that your readings follow the inverse
squared relationship
 Take care of stray light – a dark room
may be required with carefully
designed and positioned baffles
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Luminance Photometers
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 Based upon photodetectors filtered to the CIE photopic
or XYZ tristimulus observers
 Lens system to define measurement spot
 Record luminance, tristimulus values, chromaticity,
colour temperature & dominant wavelength
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Hints & Tips
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 Luminance is a near-field
measurement – ensure that the
measurement spot falls within the
target area on the object
 Luminance doesn‟t vary with distance
provided you comply with the target
spot requirement
 If the measurement spot size
overlaps the target area, you‟ll
measure an average of the target
and the surroundings
 Take care of stray light – a dark room
may be required with carefully
designed and positioned baffles
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Imaging Photometers
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 Based upon CCD array detectors (cameras) filtered to
the CIE photopic or XYZ tristimulus observers
 Lens system to define measurement spot
 Record spatial luminance, tristimulus values,
chromaticity, colour temperature & dominant wavelength
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Hints & Tips
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 An imaging photometer/colorimeter is
a special category of luminance
meter
 Records spatially-resolved images of
light sources – saves time compared
with repetitive spot meter tests
 Can be used to measure spatial
illuminance – fast way of measuring
headlamp beam patterns
 Can be combined with a near-field
goniophotometer or Imaging Sphere
for goniophotometric measurements
 Take care of stray light – a dark room
may be required with carefully
designed and positioned baffles
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Headlamp Testing
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Integrating Sphere Photometers
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 Measure total or partial flux:
 Lamp placed internally for 4t total flux
 Lamp placed at external port for 2t partial flux
 Combined with a photometer or spectroradiometer
 Sphere size depends on size of sample
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Hints & Tips
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 All sphere measurements suffer from
sample absorption errors – the light
source placed in or at the sphere wall
will both emit light but also absorb
light
 This leads to flux readings that are
either too low or too high
 Easily solved by performing auxiliary
correction
 No need to take care of stray light – a
dark room is not required
 CIE 127:2007 recommends defined
sphere geometries for 2 or 4t
measurements and the use of a
spectroradiometer detector
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Auxiliary Correction
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 Auxiliary correction completely eliminates sample
absorption or reflection errors. A four stage calibration /
measurement process:
s
A
A
D
D
t
s
s
t
t
u - - = u
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Sphere Calibration
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Spectroradiometers
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 Photometers & colorimeters are configured with
appropriate collection or viewing optics to record the
following parameters:
 Illuminance (lux) & luminous intensity (candelas) –
often called “lux meters”
 Luminance (candelas per sq. meter) – often called
“spot photometers”
 Luminous flux (lumens) – based upon integrating
spheres
 Spectroradiometers are essential the same except the
simple filtered detector is replaced by a spectrometer or
monochromator – these measure the spectral power
and compute the photometric & colorimetric parameters
with reference to the CIE observer functions
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Measuring Spectral Flux
 4t measurement of spectral radiant flux using an
integrating sphere spectroradiometer
 Spectroradiometer is the preferred detector – filter
matching errors of photometers are significant
 Calibrated using a spectral flux standard lamp
Credit: Labsphere
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Measuring Forward Flux
 2t measurement of spectral radiant flux using an
Integrating sphere spectroradiometer
 Calibrated using a standard of spectral forward flux –
matching spatial characteristics of reference to that of
the sample provides for improved accuracy
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Spectroradiometer Capabilities
 Measures spectral radiant flux
 Computed data: luminous flux, chromaticity, CCT & CRI
 Can apply daylight photopic V(ì) as well as scotopic
V‟(ì) observers.
 CIE developing a standard mesopic observer
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
TOCS Integrating Sphere
Credit: Labsphere
 Adds capability for electrical and thermal control and
analysis to integrating sphere spectroradiometer
systems
 Report flux and colour versus current and temperature
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
“Half Moon” Integrating Hemisphere
 The “Half Moon” is an integrating hemisphere
 Like a full sphere but smaller and reduced absorption
error (sample hardware mounted outside the “sphere”)
 Better thermal management of samples
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Hints & Tips
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 Perform auxiliary correction to
account for sample
absorption/reflection errors
 Samples mounted at external port for
2t flux measurements can be
mounted on a chiller plate to study
effects of temperature on flux and
colour
 CIE 127:2007 & LM 79:2009
recommend the use of a partial flux
calibration standard lamp when using
spheres for 2t flux measurements
 Sphere sizes up to 3m diameter
commercially available
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Calibrating a Sphere
Credit: Labsphere
Credit: Labsphere
 For 4t measurements, use a standard of spectral
radiant flux; for 2t measurements, use a standard of
forward spectral radiant flux
 Match geometry of reference to test source to minimise
effect of spatial non-uniformities in the sphere response
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Near-Field Intensity
 CIE 127 defines a specific type of near-field geometry
for measuring the average intensity from individual LED
emitters
 Condition B: 100mm and 0.1sr
 Condition A: 316mm and 0.01sr
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Goniophotometers
 Goniophotometers recommended for measuring the flux
of large luminaires. Much slower that a sphere-based
measurement but provide directional intensity data at
the same time
 Near-field & far-field options
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Near-Field Goniophotometer
 Radiant Imaging PM-NFMS combines motorised
goniometer stage with ProMetric CCD imaging
photometer for near-field measurements of luminance
versus angle
 Outputs standard photometric data in IES (.ies) and
EULUMDAT (.ldt) formats
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Imaging Sphere
 High speed 2 angular intensity & luminance with no
moving parts – upgrade option for ProMetric camera
 Suitable for LEDs and displays
 Also functions as a BRDF scatterometer with export to
SPEOS
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Hints & Tips
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
 Goniophotometers need to be used
in a dark room
 Far-field machines place illuminance
photometer at working distance ~
10x source size
 Near-field machines record spatial
luminance as a function of angle
 LED luminaires require absolute
photometry
 Source Imaging Goniophotometers
(SIGs) provide near-field luminance
models of LEDs in industry-standard
Radiant Source Model format for ray
tracing with optical design software
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Absolute vs. Relative Photometry
 Luminaires based upon incandescent, fluorescent or
HID lamps measured using “relative photometry”
 Rated luminous flux of lamp known, relative intensity of
luminaire expressed in candelas per 1,000 lumens
 LED output cannot be measured in isolation, hence
must measure absolute intensity of luminaire
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
Photometers
Spectroradiometers
Goniophotometers
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Part 7: LEDs – the Challenge
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 What makes LEDs “challenging”?
 Product variability, even with binning
 Spectral distribution
 Spatial distribution
 Sensitivity to temperature
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
LED Specifications
 The performance of LEDs ≠ the performance of SSL
 LEDs are measured and binned in production when
driven in short pulses at T
j
25ºC
 LEDs are used in luminaires in DC mode and at
temperatures between T
j
60 - 100ºC
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Effect of Temperature on LEDs
 The junction temperature that an LED is operated at will
greatly affect the luminous flux and colour that it
produces
 As temperature increases, the flux drops and the colour
temperature increases (trend towards blue)
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Lumen Maintenance
 Lifetime of LEDs strongly dependent upon junction temp
 L70: hours to 70% lumen maintenance
 L50: hours to 50% lumen maintenance
 Accelerated aging performed at case temperatures at
55ºC, 85ºC and a user-chosen temp, 0-6,000 hours
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Spectral Considerations
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Non-white LEDs are near-monochromatic
 Spectral mismatch of filter-based photometers and
colorimeters to CIE photopic response largest in blue
and red
 If wavelength of LED coincides with a region of
mismatch, scope for huge errors in determination of
photometric or colorimetric property, as much as 200%
 White LEDs also susceptible
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Electrical Considerations
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
 Test LEDs using electrical drive settings that correspond
to those that will be used in the intended application
 Most stable operation when operated from a constant
current source
 Determine correlation relationship between pulsed and
steady-state levels if applicable
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Why SSL is Different
 You can‟t separate the measurement of an LED from
the luminaire in which it is used
 The environment in which the LED is used greatly
affects its performance
 Heat load is the primary consideration
Credit: Ayrton
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Disclaimer
 Everything I have said is the truth, the whole truth and
nothing but the truth ....
 .... but Pro-Lite does supply equipment of the type I
have described!
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
Further Information
 Robert Yeo, Pro-Lite Technology, Cranfield, UK
 Tel: 01234 436110
 robert.yeo@pro-lite.co.uk
 www.pro-lite.co.uk
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge
Light Measurement – Vision Alert
© Pro-Lite Technology 2010
The Last Slide
 Thank you for your attention
Basic Concepts
Photometry
Colorimetry
Spectroradiometry
Goniophotometry
Choosing Equipment
LEDs – the Challenge

What Will You Learn?
Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

 

Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

There‟s a multitude of confusing metrics, jargon and units used to express the performance of light sources Our mission is to understand how to define and measure the “brightness” and colour of light sources, what units to use, the relationship between them and how to measure LED sources correctly

Photometry SOS
Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge


Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

We will learn how to avoid the common misunderstandings when specifying product performance This will prevent confusion in the supply chain, save time & money and ultimately yield improved products

The Problem with LEDs Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 LEDs cannot be manufactured with consistent optical properties LEDs are physically different to conventional sources The photometry of LEDs is different to that performed on traditional light sources .

About Pro-Lite Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  Goniophotometers Integrating Spheres Measurement Services Photometers & Colorimeters Spectroradiometers .

Part 1: Basic Concepts Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Understanding the human visual system and how we perceive light The optical properties of materials – how light interacts with materials and how this affects “appearance” Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Electromagnetic Radiation Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  Visible light is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can see Wavelengths of visible light: 380-780nm (1nm = 10-9m) Infrared radiation: 0.78-1000m (1m = 10-6m) Ultraviolet radiation: 100-400nm .

The Human Eye Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Primary focussing performed by the cornea. fine focussing by the lens Iris provides variable aperture to control amount of light Retina is the photo-sensitive element. comprises rods & cones with highest concentration at fovea .

What Can the Eye “See”? Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  UVC & UVB (  315nm) absorbed in the cornea UVA (315    380nm) absorbed in the lens Visible rays (380    780nm) absorbed in the retina Near IR (780    1400nm) absorbed in the retina Mid & Far IR (  1400nm) absorbed in the cornea .

How Do We Perceive Light? Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Visible light is absorbed in the retina of the human eye and creates a visual stimulus in the brain The magnitude of the visual stimulus is higher for green light than for red or blue light . green light looks brighter Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .for the same absolute (radiometric) power.

Lv > 3cd/m2 Peak sensitivity at 555nm (green/yellow) . V() [the so-called “V-Lambda” response or observer] Applies to the daylight adapted eye.The Photopic Response. V() Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  The relationship between wavelength and the strength of the visual stimulus is given by the CIE spectral luminous efficiency function for photopic vision.

01cd/m2. V‟() [“V-Prime-Lambda”] The scotopic response applies for Lv < 0. V’() Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  The dark-adapted relative spectral response of the human eye is called the CIE spectral luminous efficiency function for scotopic vision. not cones) .The Scotopic Response. peaks at 507nm (blue/green) No colour perception in the dark (rods.

01cd/m2) is referred to as the mesopic region Draft CIE publication 191:2010 Recommended System for Mesopic Photometry Based on Visual Performance Mesopic photometry is an important science for night time driving .Into The Twilight Zone Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The transition from photopic (Lv > 3cd/m2) to scotopic (Lv < 0.

scatter. be absorbed. diffract & suffer from interference Consider also the level. transmit. the spatial and the spectral distribution of the reflected or transmitted light .Optical Properties of Materials Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The interaction between light and materials determines how objects appear Light can reflect. cause fluorescence. refract.

Specular Reflectance Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 If the angle between the incident ray and normal is the same as the reflected ray. the surface is a specular reflector Most shiny surfaces have a dominant specular reflection (even glass) although some scatter can be expected .

Diffuse Reflectance Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 A perfect diffuse reflector reflects light in accordance with Lambert‟s law .it looks equally bright in all directions Even nominally diffuse reflectors generally exhibit a high degree of specularity at high angles of incidence .

Diffusion & Lambert’s Law Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  A perfect diffuser obeys Lambert‟s cosine law The reflected intensity from a Lambertian (diffuse) material varies with the cosine of the angle to the surface normal The reflected radiance (or luminance) from a Lambertian material is constant in all directions .

“Real-Life” Reflectance Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Real materials exhibit varying amounts of specular.e. near-specular (i. haze) and diffuse components of reflectance The relationship between incident irradiance and the reflected radiance for a given angle of illumination & reflection is called the BRDF .

Scatter & BRDF Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  BRDF (bidirectional reflective distribution function) is the ratio of incident irradiance to reflected radiance for a specified angle of illumination & reflection Units are inverse steradians (sr-1). the BRDF of a perfect Lambertian diffuser is 1/ sr-1 in all directions BTDF refers to a transmitted scatter distribution .

Spectral Reflectance Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Spectral reflectance of a material determines its colour For example. red objects appear red because they preferentially reflect red wavelengths The spectrum of the illumination will also influence colour appearance – this is called colour rendering .

Spectral Transmittance Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Spectral transmittance determines colour For example. a filter looks green because it preferentially transmits green wavelengths Coloured filters are used to modify the spectral power of light sources .

3 Beer's Law describes how the absorption of light through a material varies linearly with the path length .Absorbance & Beer’s Law Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Absorbance is the logarithm(10) of the reciprocal of the transmittance. a transmittance of 0.5 (50%) = absorbance of 0.1 (10%) = absorbance of 1. For example: a transmittance of 0.0.

Fluorescence Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Fluorescence is the emission of light at a longer wavelength as a result of absorption of light at a shorter wavelength in a fluorescent material Applies for that case whereby the emission occurs at the same time as the absorption (not to be confused with luminescence & phosphorescence) .

5.Refraction & Snell’s Law Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  When light passes between dissimilar materials. 1 = 30° then 2 = 10. the speed changes and the rays bend – this is refraction Refraction depends upon the angle of incidence and the refractive index of the two media and is given by Snell‟s law: n sin() = n’ sin(’) If n(air) = 1.5° . n(glass) = 1.

Interference Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Constructive or destructive interference occurs from light reflected from the upper and lower surfaces of a thin film Film or layer thickness needs to of the order of the wavelength of the light for interference to occur .

light rays of different wavelengths are diffracted (bent) at different angles – this allows the separation of component wavelengths . In a diffraction grating. Light rays bend as they pass around an object or through a narrow slit or aperture.Diffraction Basic Concepts Light & Vision Optical Properties Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Diffraction is another wave effect.

Part 2: Photometry Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The measurement of light scaled to the human observer Four geometric parameters The importance of understanding photometric field When & how to convert between units .

What Can You Measure? Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Total light output of the light source – this is called the flux There are also three other “geometric” measurements:  Flux received at a surface per unit area  Flux emitted per unit solid angle  Flux emitted per unit solid angle per unit area  Also: flux per unit solid angle or per unit solid angle per unit area as a function of angle (this is goniophotometry which we deal with later) The flux can be measured absolutely (radiometry) or scaled to the standard photopic observer (photometry) The flux can also be measured spectroradiometrically and photometric and colorimetric parameters derived Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Luminous Flux (v)
Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge


Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

Luminous flux is the total light emitted by a lamp, a measurement that is scaled to the standard photopic observer for daylight vision Measured in units of lumens (lm), the photometric analogue of the Watt. 1Watt at 555nm = 683 lumens

Luminous Intensity (Iv)
Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

  
Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

Luminous intensity is the luminous flux emitted per unit solid angle in a specified direction Intensity is directional unless the lamp is isotropic Intensity is measured in units of lumens per steradian (lm/sr) or candelas (cd)

Isotropic
Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

  
Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

An isotropic light source emits with equal intensity in all directions An example would be a frosted light bulb Not to be confused with a Lambertian or diffused source which emits with an intensity that follows a cosine relationship

the steradian is defined as the ratio of the projected spherical surface area (A) to the square of the radius of the sphere (r2) There are 4 steradians in a complete sphere .Solid Angle () Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  The unit of solid angle is the steradian For a planar angle ().

meter (lm/m2) or lux (lx) .Illuminance (Ev) Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Illuminance is the luminous flux received at a surface per unit area Illuminance varies with distance (inverse squared rule) and angle of illumination (Lambert‟s cosine rule) Illuminance is measured in units of lumens per sq.

Illuminance versus Distance Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  The illuminance from a point source of light decreases with the square of the distance travelled This is the inverse squared rule: E1x12 = E2x22  Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Illuminance versus Angle Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  The illuminance from a point source of light decreases with increasing angle between the light source and the receiver Defined by Lambert‟s cosine rule: E = E0 • cos()  Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

m2). meter (cd/m2) Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Luminance (Lv) Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Luminance is the luminous flux emitted per unit solid angle per unit area – often referred to as “brightness” Luminance is measured in units of lumens per steradian per sq. or candelas per sq. meter (lm/sr.

Units Summary Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   This is the light measurement matrix For every photometric property. there is an equivalent radiometric one Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

76 lux Not forgetting the nit.“English” Units Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 One foot-Lambert (fL) equals 1/π candelas per square foot.426 candelas per sq. where 1cd/m2 = 1nit . which equals 3. meter One foot-candle (fc) equals one lumen per square foot. which equals 10.

The SI System Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Length Mass Time Electric Current Temperature Amount of Substance meter (m) kilogram (kg) second (s) Ampere (A) Kelvin (K) mole (mol) candela (cd) Luminous Intensity   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Le System International d'Unites (1961) defines seven principal units of measure The candela is the only optical base unit. adopted internationally . The “new candle” was defined in 1948 in terms of the brightness of a blackbody radiator at the freezing temperature of platinum (2045 K). First realised in 1860 using candles made of sperm whale fat. Subsequent realisations based on lamps.

The Definition of the Candela Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    The candela has been defined since 1976 as the luminous intensity. Instead. the candela is no longer strictly a base unit (it derives from other base units) but is still considered to be a base unit primarily for historical reasons There isn‟t a radiometric base unit. of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 Hertz (555nm) and has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 Watts per steradian By this definition. in a given direction. the Watt is derived from the SI base units for mass. length & time:  Energy (Joules) equals force x distance (Newton meters)  Power (Watts) equals the rate of flow of energy. that is energy / time (Joules per second) Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

“for all people.defined as one tenmillionth of the length of the meridian through Paris from the pole to the equator Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .The Metric System Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   The metric system was created in France in June 1799.thank you Napoleon The unit of length was the meter . for all time” .

what is the most appropriate type of measurement? What you can measure is not the same as what you should measure .What Should You Measure? Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Deciding what to measure is the critical first step Specifically.

Quiz Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Headlamps – Dipped & Main Beam Turn Indicators Side Lights Daylight Running Lights Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Quiz Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Multi-Media Display Switch Legend Warning Light Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Luminance or Intensity? Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 If you are close to the source – measure luminance (cd/m2) If you are far way from the source – measure luminous intensity (cd) But what do we mean by “close” and “far”? .

at a distance of approximately 5-10x (?) source size away . in the photometric farfield. measure luminous intensity (cd) of a point source Far-field is where inverse squared rule applies. Far-Field Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 In the photometric near-field.Near-Field vs. measure luminance (cd/m2) of an extended source.

the illuminance varies according to the inverse squared rule and the luminous intensity is constant. the 1/x2 rule is not valid – the size of the detector will affect the illuminance & intensity readings .Photometric Distance Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 For x >> 5d the illumination pattern is merged into a continuum. For x < 5d.

in other words.Measuring LED Intensity Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Intensity measurements apply only to point sources measured in the far-field . you can get an instrument-specific reading .LEDs are NOT normally true point sources due to focal smear caused by a combination of reflection and refraction Intensity can vary with distance and detector area .

001sr-1)  Condition B: 100mm (0. CIE developed the concept of average (or near-field) intensity in publication CIE 127:1997 Average intensity no longer agrees with true intensity CIE 127 defines two standard conditions for measuring LED near-field „intensity‟:  Condition A: 316mm (0.01sr-1) Use condition A for narrow view angle LEDs CIE 127 also stipulates that the intensity be measured along the mechanical axis of the LED (as opposed to the optical axis or direction of peak intensity) Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Near-Field Luminous Intensity Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge      To provide a common frame of reference for LED intensity measurements.

CIE 127 Average Intensity Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   CIE 127 applies to individual LEDs and not LED modules. arrays or light engines Latest revision to CIE 127:2007 recommends that the average intensity be measured using a spectroradiometer rather than photometer or colorimeter Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

where:  d is the photometric distance  f is the focal length of the optical system  R is the radius of the optical aperture  r is the radius of the light source The photometric distance can be determined empirically by measuring illuminance as a function of distance and establishing that point beyond which the illuminance obeys the inverse squared rule (or intensity becomes a constant) Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Determining Photometric Distance Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   A formula presented in IALA E-122 provides an approximation for calculating the photometric distance of an optical system (e. lensed LED): d = 2(fR/r).g.

although it assumes that the lamp is a point source and you are in the far-field Luminance (candela per sq. the illuminance varies with the distance according to the inverse squared law (assumes far-field) Luminous intensity (candela) – this is a constant. the luminance will be an average of the brightness of the object and the surrounding area Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 . If the measurement spot overlaps the object. meter) – this is also a constant provided that the object overfills the field of view of the collection optics. “Power” does not vary with distance Illuminance (lux) – for a point source.What Varies with Distance? Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Luminous flux (lumen) – this is a constant.

Converting Between Units Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Can you convert between units? It depends:  Spectral – possible if source is monochromatic or you know the spectral power distribution  Geometric – possible provided certain assumptions apply .

Radiometric to Photometric
Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

It is possible to convert between radiometric & photometric parameters provided that the source is monochromatic or you know the spectral power distribution It is NOT possible to convert from photometric to radiometric for a broadband source unless you know the spectral power distribution. Any number of spectral power distributions can yield the same photometric value

Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

Converting Between Geometries
Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

It is sometimes possible to convert between different types of photometric parameters provided certain assumptions hold true These assumptions may not always be valid, in which case you have no choice but to measure the parameter directly Examples to follow ....

Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

Useful Photometric Formulae
Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge To calculate the luminous flux (v) from the radiant flux (e) for a monochromatic source of wavelength () To calculate the illuminance (Ev) from a point source with an intensity (Iv) at distance (x) To calculate the illuminance (Ev) on a surface tilted at angle () to the direction of illumination To calculate the luminance (Lv) from a surface of reflectance () that is illuminated with an illuminance (Ev) To calculate the luminous intensity (Iv) from a beam of (v) luminous flux having a full beam angle of () steradians To calculate a solid angle () from a planar angle ()
Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

v = e  () 683

Ev = Iv / x2 (lx)

Ev = Ev0  cos (lx)

Lv = Ev /  (cd/m2)

Iv = v /  (cd)

 = 2 [1-cos( /2)] (sr-1)

What is the luminous intensity? Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Problem #1 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  An LED emits 240mW/sr radiant intensity at 365nm.

What is the luminous flux from each laser? Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 . A second visible laser diode also emits 2mW but at 670nm.Problem #2 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  A visible laser diode emits 2mW radiant flux at 650nm.

107 x 683 = 0.Solution #2 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Use the expression: v = e V() 683 2mW @ 650nm = 2x10-3 x 0.032 x 683 = 0.044lm A 650nm laser is 300% “brighter” than a 670nm laser of the same power .146lm 2mW @ 670nm = 2x10-3 x 0.

What is the illuminance at 2m? Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .000mcd (3cd).Problem #3 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  An LED emits a luminous intensity of 3.

75lx Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 . we are in the far field ASSUMPTION #2: we are illuminating the surface at normal incidence CAUTION: the intensity quoted is a true (far field) intensity and not the average intensity per CIE 127:2007 Use the expression: Ev = Iv / x2 Ev = 3 / 22 = 0.Solution #3 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge      ASSUMPTION #1: at 2m.

000mcd (3cd).Problem #4 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  An LED emits a luminous intensity of 3. What is the illuminance at on a surface 2m away that is tilted at 60° to the direction of illumination? Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

75 x cos(60) = 0. calculate illuminance at an angle: Ev = Ev0  cos (lx) Ev = 0. we are in the far field CAUTION: the intensity quoted is a true (far field) intensity and not the average intensity per CIE 127:2007 First.75lx Next.375lx This is an illustration of Lambert‟s cosine law Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 . calculate illuminance at normal incidence: Ev = Iv / x2 Ev = 3 / 22 = 0.5 = 0.75 x 0.Solution #4 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge        ASSUMPTION #1: at 2m.

Problem #5 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  An car headlight produces an illuminance of 200 lux at a distance of 25m. What is the illuminance at 10m? Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

250lx This is an illustration of the inverse squared rule Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 . we are still in the far field First.Solution #5 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge       ASSUMPTION #1: at 10m.000cd Next. calculate the beam intensity: Iv = Ev  x2 Iv = 200 252 = 200 x 625 = 125.000 / 102 = 1. calculate the illuminance at 10m: Ev = Iv / x2 Ev = 125.

The screen has a reflectance of 80%. It illuminates a screen placed at 2m at normal incidence. What is the luminance (brightness) of the screen? Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Problem #6 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  A projector emits a beam of 3000cd luminous intensity.

8 x 750) /  = 600 /  = 191cd/m2 Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 . we are in the far field First. calculate the screen illuminance: Ev = Iv / x2 Ev = 3000 / 22 = 750lx Next.Solution #6 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge       ASSUMPTION #1: the screen is a perfect Lambertian (diffuse) reflecting surface ASSUMPTION #2: at 2m. calculate the screen luminance: Lv = Ev /  Lv = (0.

What is the luminous flux of the bulb? Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 . The reflector limits the angular subtense from the bulb to 45°.Problem #7 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  The projector in the previous example (3000cd luminous intensity) employs a tungsten halogen lamp with dichroic reflector.

calculate the beam solid angle:  = 2 [1-cos( /2)]  = 2 x  [1 – cos(45/2)] = 0. this calculation will at least yield an order-of-magnitude value for the output of the bulb if you have no other means of directly measuring the flux First. However. calculate the flux: v = Iv   v = 3.48 = 1.48sr-1 Next.Solution #6 Basic Concepts Photometry Photometric Units Photometric Field Converting Units Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge       ASSUMPTION: that the output of the bulb is isotropic CAUTION: this is one example where the assumption is very unlikely to be valid.000 x 0.440lm Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Part 3: Colorimetry Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Tristimulus theory & how the eye perceives colour Chromaticity & colour spaces Simplified colour metrics Colour difference Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

How Do We Perceive Colour? Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Separate RGB sensitive cone receivers in the retina discern the relative amounts of red. green & blue light The tristimulus theory states that any colour can be uniquely defined by a combination of three numbers This gives us the basis of a numeric system of colour .

Tristimulus Theory Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The CIE tristimulus colour matching functions are to colour perception what the CIE photopic response is to the perception of the brightness of light _ The three response functions are tristimulus x(). green and blue response of the eye . _ _ tristimulus y() and tristimulus z() – these correspond to the red.

Tristimulus Values Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 These are the formulae for calculating the CIE 1931 2° observer tristimulus values XYZ  e() is the spectral power of the light source  x-bar (). y-bar () & z-bar () are the tristimulus colour matching functions .

CIE Chromaticity Coordinates Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The 3 CIE tristimulus can be reduced to 2 chromaticity coordinates. x and y (because x + y + z = 1) The CIE colour space diagram allows the chromaticity coordinates to be plotted graphically Easier to communicate colour this way than as 3 numbers! .

CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry All colours lie within the shaded area of the CIE chromaticity diagram The boundary is called the Spectrum Locus and plots the colour of monochromatic light White light is plotted in the centre of the chromaticity diagram Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

We now know the colour of the lamp. Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry    Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   The CIE XYZ colour space system employs 3 numbers to uniquely specify the colour of a light source. What is doesn‟t address is how different the colour of two lamps is.Not the Full Story . This is important in terms of visual colour matching of sources... The eye is much less sensitive to colour difference in the green and much more sensitive to colour difference in the red and blue The CIE 1960 and subsequent 1976 colour spaces were developed to address this drawback and provide perceptual uniformity Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 . The problems with the 1931 colour space is that points of equal colour difference do not plot with equal separation in the colour space diagram.

CIE u’v’ Chromaticity Coordinates Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  To allow for the eye‟s increased sensitivity to colour difference in the red and blue. the CIE 1960 Uniform Colour Space (UCS) was developed Two points of equal colour difference are plotted the same distance apart in the CIE UCS CIE 1960 chromaticity coordinates given u‟ v‟ notation .

CIE 1976 UCS Diagram Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry This is the CIE Uniform Colour Space chromaticity diagram Points of equal colour difference are plotted with equal distance within the UCS Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Red and blue areas enlarged compared with the CIE1931 colour space Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

colour temperature ~ 2. the colour of light emitted by a perfect black body radiator of that temperature LHS: incandescent lamp.500K .Simplified Colour Metrics Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  The colour of “white light” can be expressed as a colour temperature (Kelvin).800K RHS: xenon gas discharge lamp. ~ 6.

000 Kelvin Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Colour Temperature Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry CIE standard illuminants A & D65 shown on the Plankian locus The Plankian locus plots the colour of a perfect black body emitter between 2.000 & 20.

lines of iso-CCT fall within ± 0.02 duv Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Correlated Colour Temperature Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry CCT is the colour temperature of a non-Planckian emitter which the source most closely resembles Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge In 1960 CIE UCS.

Examples of CCT Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  Note that light of high colour temperatures is described as being “cool” whereas light of low colour temperature is described as being “warm”! Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Spectral Power Distributions Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Dominant Wavelength (D) Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry LED Chromaticity Cx = 0. in this case a green LED Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge CIE Illuminant E (Normalising Reference) Cx = 0.5600 LED Dominant Wavelength D = 560nm Dominant wavelength is the simplified colour metric for coloured light sources.3700 Cy = 0.3333 Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .3333 Cy = 0.

Purity Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry A (Spectral) purity is calculated as the ratio of distance A to A+B (%) B Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

non-primaries Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Illuminant E Cx = 0. Wavelength Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry DUT CD = 495nm Purity = -50% Complimentary dominant wavelength is a necessary descriptor for certain reddish.5000 Cy = 0.Complimentary Dom.3333 Cy = 0.3333 DUT Cx = 0.2800 Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

CIE Standard Illuminants Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  CIE standard illuminants serve as normalisation references for comparing the colour of different light sources Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

In the 1976 CIELUV space. the areas are roughly circular A single-step MacAdam ellipse represents a region in the 1931 colour space within which a person could expect to perceive all colours to be the same ANSI C78.377:2008 Specification for the Chromaticity of Solid State Lighting recommends a series of LED “bins” based upon seven-step MacAdam ellipses A numerical colour difference specification is given by the expression: E = [(u1’-u2’)2 + (v1’-v2’)2]-1/2 Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Colour Difference Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry    Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  In the 1931 CIEXYZ colour space. regions of “constant colour” occupy roughly elliptical areas.

MacAdam Ellipses Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Nominal CCT Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Tristimulus Theory Chromaticity Simplified Metrics Standard Illuminants Colour Difference Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 ANSI C78.377:2008 defines 8 “nominal colour temperature” binning regions for LEDs. Based upon 7step MacAdam ellipses with boundary quadrangles To put it in perspective. the extent of colour difference within the bin is some seven times greater that our ability to detect these differences .

Part 4: Spectroradiometry Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Why photometers and colorimeters can give erroneous readings How spectroradiometers solve this problem Measuring colour rendering .

colorimetric and colour rendering information Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Spectroradiometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  A spectroradiometer measures the spectral power distribution of the light source at each wavelength in the and applies the CIE V() photopic and tristimulus observer functions in software to provide photometric.

Part 4: Spectroradiometry Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Spectral parameters of interest are:  Spectral power distribution (the shape)  Peak wavelength (p) & linewidth (FWHM. 0.5)  Centre wavelength (c)  Centroid wavelength (weighted mean of SPD) .

Typical SPDs Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Photometers & Colorimeters Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 A photometer employs a photodetector which is optically filtered to impart a spectral response that matches the CIE V() photopic observer A colorimeter employs 3 or 4 photodetectors which are optically filtered to impart a spectral response that matches the CIE tristimulus observer functions .

.Commercial Photometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 This chart compares the spectral sensitivity of a range of commercially available photometers with the standard CIE photopic observer Type A is a cheap selenium photocell based meter but Types B & C seem to match the eye‟s response ....

the better the accuracy . The more expensive the photometer.Commercial Photometer Error Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge -23% -1% -35/+100%   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Inherent filter mismatch of photometers and colorimeters can lead to very large errors with LEDs The simple lux meter is a standard tool in the lighting industry – beware inexpensive meters that give very inaccurate readings.

The V() Error Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Even the best “filter” photometers and colorimeters have a spectral mismatch to the V() observer response The magnitude of this error is given by the f1‟ factor.88% per CIE 69 . The chart shows the spectral mismatch to the V() curve for a detector with an f1‟ of 1.

Inadequate Standards Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    The meters described in the previous slide conform to BS667:1998 Specification for Portable Photoelectric Photometers They are “calibrated traceable to national standards” The accuracy of any filter-based photometer depends upon:  The type of light source used to calibrate it  The spectral power and bandwidth of the LED under test  The precision with which the meter matches the CIE photopic observer Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

007 Cy & 2nm in D  5nm band-pass: 0.CIE 127:2007 & Spectroradiometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Inherent filter mismatch of photometers and colorimeters can lead to very large errors with LEDs The error is moderate with phosphor-white LEDs but can be very large with RGB-white and coloured LEDs Because of this.2nm D  2nm or less gives no appreciable error  Stray light: < 0.002 (Cx & Cy).005 Cx. standards such as CIE 127:2007 and IESNA LM79:2009 recommend the use of spectroradiometers for photometric and colorimetric measurements Monochromator band-pass affects spectral calculations (effect is line-broadening):  20nm LED measured with a 10nm band-pass gives an error of 0. 0.1% recommended . 0.

Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Understanding White Light Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge We all accept that white light must contain light of all colours ….

Colour Rendering Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  The colour of objects is rendered correctly when illuminated by “natural” light (sunlight or an incandescent lamp) Other lamps may render colours less well At low light levels. colour vision is inactive .

transmits or scatters light with blue wavelengths .Colour Appearance of Objects Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The colour of a (non-emissive) object depends upon the spectral power distribution of the illumination as well as the spectral reflectance of the object The object appears blue when it preferentially reflects.

Colour Rendering Index
Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

The colour rendering index (CRI) is the metric which defines the colour appearance of standardised test object colours when illuminated by a test source compared with their appearance when illuminated by a standard illuminant - defined by CIE 13.3 (1995)

Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

Colour Rendering Index
Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

In the existing CIE colour rendering system, the colour of objects is rendered “correctly” when they are illuminated by a blackbody source (e.g. an incandescent lamp) for CCT up to 5000K, or by standard daylight for CCT > 5000K

Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

Colour Rendering Index
Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

 

Light with poor colour rendering should not be used for general illumination The colour rendering index ranks different types of lamp – if CRI < 80 the rendering is “poor”, if CRI > 80 rendering is “good”. Use CRI > 95% for visual matching

Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

Ra .Colour Rendering Index Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The Special Colour Rendering Indicies (R1-14) compares the reflected colour of 14 standard coloured “tiles” when illuminated by a reference illuminant compared with the test source The mean CRI of the 8 non-saturated colours is the General Colour Rendering Index.

The Problem with CRI Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Spectral Power Characteristics Colour Rendering Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The CRI penalises LEDs and SSL as their peaked spectra are vulnerable to poor rendering in certain parts of the colour space NIST have developed a new Colour Quality Scale (CQS) which attempts to address the well known problems of CRI The CQS has been designed to correlate with the CRI system for a consistent frame of reference .

Part 5: Goniophotometry Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Far-Field Near-Field Standard Data Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Measuring angular light distributions Coordinate systems & types of goniophotometer Near-field versus far-field measurements Standard photometric data .

Goniophotometry Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Far-Field Near-Field Standard Data Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    A goniophotometer measures the distribution of luminous intensity or luminance from a light source:  Luminance measured in near-field  Luminous intensity measured in the far-field Same considerations as regular photometers when measuring illuminance & luminous intensity – make sure you are in the far-field Coordinate systems of common goniophotometers:  Type B “East-Polar” (xy)  Type C “Spherical” () Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

up to 25m . the measurement distance can be very long.Far-Field Goniophotometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Far-Field Near-Field Standard Data Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge Credit: LMT Credit: Lighting Sciences   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Traditional. far-field goniophotometers measure the directional illuminance & luminous intensity of a light source over 2 or 4 steradians To satisfy the far-field criteria.

Near-Field Goniophotometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Far-Field Near-Field Standard Data Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 A near-field goniophotometer records 2D luminance images of the light source using an imaging photometer Software performs a ray-tracing algorithm to compute the far-field angular intensity distribution Reduced measurement distance (typically 1-2m) so no need for a large dark room .

ies) & EULUMDAT (.ldt) lighting files .Standard “Photometric” Data Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Far-Field Near-Field Standard Data Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 To sell a luminaire. you must provide customers with standard “photometric data” that can be used with lighting design software This requires a goniophotometric measurement of the luminous intensity versus angle and computation of standard IES (.

Part 6: Equipment Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 A review of the equipment available for each type of photometric. spectroradiometric and goniophotometric measurement Practical advice and tips on specifying and using the equipment . colorimetric.

meter) – often called “spot photometers”  Luminous flux (lumens) – based upon integrating spheres Spectroradiometers are essential the same except the simple filtered detector is replaced by a spectrometer or monochromator – these measure the spectral power and compute the photometric & colorimetric parameters with reference to the CIE observer functions Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Photometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers s  LEDs – the Challenge  Photometers & colorimeters are configured with appropriate collection or viewing optics to record the following parameters:  Illuminance (lux) & luminous intensity (candelas) – often called “lux meters”  Luminance (candelas per sq.

colour temperature & dominant wavelength . tristimulus values. luminous intensity.Illuminance Photometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Based upon photodetectors filtered to the CIE photopic or XYZ tristimulus observers Cosine diffuser to correctly scale off-axis rays Record illuminance. chromaticity.

use the inverse squared rule Illuminance should be measured in the far-field in most cases – check that your readings follow the inverse squared relationship Take care of stray light – a dark room may be required with carefully designed and positioned baffles Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .Hints & Tips Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge    To calculate luminous intensity from illuminance.

tristimulus values. chromaticity.Luminance Photometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Based upon photodetectors filtered to the CIE photopic or XYZ tristimulus observers Lens system to define measurement spot Record luminance. colour temperature & dominant wavelength .

Hints & Tips Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge     Luminance is a near-field measurement – ensure that the measurement spot falls within the target area on the object Luminance doesn‟t vary with distance provided you comply with the target spot requirement If the measurement spot size overlaps the target area. you‟ll measure an average of the target and the surroundings Take care of stray light – a dark room may be required with carefully designed and positioned baffles Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

tristimulus values. chromaticity.Imaging Photometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Based upon CCD array detectors (cameras) filtered to the CIE photopic or XYZ tristimulus observers Lens system to define measurement spot Record spatial luminance. colour temperature & dominant wavelength .

Hints & Tips Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge      An imaging photometer/colorimeter is a special category of luminance meter Records spatially-resolved images of light sources – saves time compared with repetitive spot meter tests Can be used to measure spatial illuminance – fast way of measuring headlamp beam patterns Can be combined with a near-field goniophotometer or Imaging Sphere for goniophotometric measurements Take care of stray light – a dark room may be required with carefully designed and positioned baffles Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Headlamp Testing Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Integrating Sphere Photometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  Measure total or partial flux:  Lamp placed internally for 4 total flux  Lamp placed at external port for 2 partial flux Combined with a photometer or spectroradiometer Sphere size depends on size of sample .

Hints & Tips Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge      All sphere measurements suffer from sample absorption errors – the light source placed in or at the sphere wall will both emit light but also absorb light This leads to flux readings that are either too low or too high Easily solved by performing auxiliary correction No need to take care of stray light – a dark room is not required CIE 127:2007 recommends defined sphere geometries for 2 or 4 measurements and the use of a spectroradiometer detector Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Auxiliary Correction Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge  Auxiliary correction completely eliminates sample absorption or reflection errors. A four stage calibration / measurement process: t  Dt A  s  s Ds At Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Sphere Calibration Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Spectroradiometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge   Photometers & colorimeters are configured with appropriate collection or viewing optics to record the following parameters:  Illuminance (lux) & luminous intensity (candelas) – often called “lux meters”  Luminance (candelas per sq. meter) – often called “spot photometers”  Luminous flux (lumens) – based upon integrating spheres Spectroradiometers are essential the same except the simple filtered detector is replaced by a spectrometer or monochromator – these measure the spectral power and compute the photometric & colorimetric parameters with reference to the CIE observer functions Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Measuring Spectral Flux Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge Credit: Labsphere    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 4 measurement of spectral radiant flux using an integrating sphere spectroradiometer Spectroradiometer is the preferred detector – filter matching errors of photometers are significant Calibrated using a spectral flux standard lamp .

Measuring Forward Flux Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge   2 measurement of spectral radiant flux using an Integrating sphere spectroradiometer Calibrated using a standard of spectral forward flux – matching spatial characteristics of reference to that of the sample provides for improved accuracy Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

CCT & CRI Can apply daylight photopic V() as well as scotopic V‟() observers. chromaticity. CIE developing a standard mesopic observer .Spectroradiometer Capabilities Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge     Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Measures spectral radiant flux Computed data: luminous flux.

TOCS Integrating Sphere Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge Credit: Labsphere   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Adds capability for electrical and thermal control and analysis to integrating sphere spectroradiometer systems Report flux and colour versus current and temperature .

“Half Moon” Integrating Hemisphere Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The “Half Moon” is an integrating hemisphere Like a full sphere but smaller and reduced absorption error (sample hardware mounted outside the “sphere”) Better thermal management of samples .

Hints & Tips Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge     Perform auxiliary correction to account for sample absorption/reflection errors Samples mounted at external port for 2 flux measurements can be mounted on a chiller plate to study effects of temperature on flux and colour CIE 127:2007 & LM 79:2009 recommend the use of a partial flux calibration standard lamp when using spheres for 2 flux measurements Sphere sizes up to 3m diameter commercially available Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

use a standard of forward spectral radiant flux Match geometry of reference to test source to minimise effect of spatial non-uniformities in the sphere response .Calibrating a Sphere Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge Credit: Labsphere Credit: Labsphere   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 For 4 measurements. use a standard of spectral radiant flux. for 2 measurements.

Near-Field Intensity Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010  CIE 127 defines a specific type of near-field geometry for measuring the average intensity from individual LED emitters Condition B: 100mm and 0.1sr Condition A: 316mm and 0.01sr .

Goniophotometers Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Goniophotometers recommended for measuring the flux of large luminaires. Much slower that a sphere-based measurement but provide directional intensity data at the same time Near-field & far-field options .

Near-Field Goniophotometer Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Radiant Imaging PM-NFMS combines motorised goniometer stage with ProMetric CCD imaging photometer for near-field measurements of luminance versus angle Outputs standard photometric data in IES (.ies) and EULUMDAT (.ldt) formats .

Imaging Sphere Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 High speed 2 angular intensity & luminance with no moving parts – upgrade option for ProMetric camera Suitable for LEDs and displays Also functions as a BRDF scatterometer with export to SPEOS .

Hints & Tips Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge      Goniophotometers need to be used in a dark room Far-field machines place illuminance photometer at working distance ~ 10x source size Near-field machines record spatial luminance as a function of angle LED luminaires require absolute photometry Source Imaging Goniophotometers (SIGs) provide near-field luminance models of LEDs in industry-standard Radiant Source Model format for ray tracing with optical design software Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

hence must measure absolute intensity of luminaire .000 lumens LED output cannot be measured in isolation. fluorescent or HID lamps measured using “relative photometry” Rated luminous flux of lamp known.Absolute vs. Relative Photometry Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment Photometers Spectroradiometers Goniophotometers LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Luminaires based upon incandescent. relative intensity of luminaire expressed in candelas per 1.

even with binning  Spectral distribution  Spatial distribution  Sensitivity to temperature .Part 7: LEDs – the Challenge Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 What makes LEDs “challenging”?  Product variability.

100ºC .LED Specifications Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge    Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The performance of LEDs ≠ the performance of SSL LEDs are measured and binned in production when driven in short pulses at Tj 25ºC LEDs are used in luminaires in DC mode and at temperatures between Tj 60 .

Effect of Temperature on LEDs Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge   Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 The junction temperature that an LED is operated at will greatly affect the luminous flux and colour that it produces As temperature increases. the flux drops and the colour temperature increases (trend towards blue) .

85ºC and a user-chosen temp.000 hours .Lumen Maintenance Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Lifetime of LEDs strongly dependent upon junction temp L70: hours to 70% lumen maintenance L50: hours to 50% lumen maintenance Accelerated aging performed at case temperatures at 55ºC. 0-6.

Spectral Considerations Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Non-white LEDs are near-monochromatic Spectral mismatch of filter-based photometers and colorimeters to CIE photopic response largest in blue and red If wavelength of LED coincides with a region of mismatch. scope for huge errors in determination of photometric or colorimetric property. as much as 200% White LEDs also susceptible Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .

Electrical Considerations
Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

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Test LEDs using electrical drive settings that correspond to those that will be used in the intended application Most stable operation when operated from a constant current source Determine correlation relationship between pulsed and steady-state levels if applicable

Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

Why SSL is Different
Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

Credit: Ayrton

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Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

You can‟t separate the measurement of an LED from the luminaire in which it is used The environment in which the LED is used greatly affects its performance Heat load is the primary consideration

Disclaimer
Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge

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Everything I have said is the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth .... .... but Pro-Lite does supply equipment of the type I have described!

Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010

pro-lite.co.Further Information Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge     Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 Robert Yeo.co. UK Tel: 01234 436110 robert. Pro-Lite Technology.uk .uk www.yeo@pro-lite. Cranfield.

The Last Slide Basic Concepts Photometry Colorimetry Spectroradiometry Goniophotometry Choosing Equipment LEDs – the Challenge  Thank you for your attention Light Measurement – Vision Alert © Pro-Lite Technology 2010 .