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Module 1

Energy Methods in Structural Analysis
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Lesson 1
General Introduction
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Instructional Objectives
After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Differentiate between various structural forms such as beams, plane truss, space truss, plane frame, space frame, arches, cables, plates and shells. 2. State and use conditions of static equilibrium. 3. Calculate the degree of static and kinematic indeterminacy of a given structure such as beams, truss and frames. 4. Differentiate between stable and unstable structure. 5. Define flexibility and stiffness coefficients. 6. Write force-displacement relations for simple structure.

1.1 Introduction
Structural analysis and design is a very old art and is known to human beings since early civilizations. The Pyramids constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C. stands today as the testimony to the skills of master builders of that civilization. Many early civilizations produced great builders, skilled craftsmen who constructed magnificent buildings such as the Parthenon at Athens (2500 years old), the great Stupa at Sanchi (2000 years old), Taj Mahal (350 years old), Eiffel Tower (120 years old) and many more buildings around the world. These monuments tell us about the great feats accomplished by these craftsmen in analysis, design and construction of large structures. Today we see around us countless houses, bridges, fly-overs, high-rise buildings and spacious shopping malls. Planning, analysis and construction of these buildings is a science by itself. The main purpose of any structure is to support the loads coming on it by properly transferring them to the foundation. Even animals and trees could be treated as structures. Indeed biomechanics is a branch of mechanics, which concerns with the working of skeleton and muscular structures. In the early periods houses were constructed along the riverbanks using the locally available material. They were designed to withstand rain and moderate wind. Today structures are designed to withstand earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones and blast loadings. Aircraft structures are designed for more complex aerodynamic loadings. These have been made possible with the advances in structural engineering and a revolution in electronic computation in the past 50 years. The construction material industry has also undergone a revolution in the last four decades resulting in new materials having more strength and stiffness than the traditional construction material. In this book we are mainly concerned with the analysis of framed structures (beam, plane truss, space truss, plane frame, space frame and grid), arches, cables and suspension bridges subjected to static loads only. The methods that we would be presenting in this course for analysis of structure were developed based on certain energy principles, which would be discussed in the first module. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

1.2 Classification of Structures
All structural forms used for load transfer from one point to another are 3dimensional in nature. In principle one could model them as 3-dimensional elastic structure and obtain solutions (response of structures to loads) by solving the associated partial differential equations. In due course of time, you will appreciate the difficulty associated with the 3-dimensional analysis. Also, in many of the structures, one or two dimensions are smaller than other dimensions. This geometrical feature can be exploited from the analysis point of view. The dimensional reduction will greatly reduce the complexity of associated governing equations from 3 to 2 or even to one dimension. This is indeed at a cost. This reduction is achieved by making certain assumptions (like Bernoulli-Euler’ kinematic assumption in the case of beam theory) based on its observed behaviour under loads. Structures may be classified as 3-, 2- and 1-dimensional (see Fig. 1.1(a) and (b)). This simplification will yield results of reasonable and acceptable accuracy. Most commonly used structural forms for load transfer are: beams, plane truss, space truss, plane frame, space frame, arches, cables, plates and shells. Each one of these structural arrangement supports load in a specific way.

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Beams are the simplest structural elements that are used extensively to support loads. They may be straight or curved ones. For example, the one shown in Fig. 1.2 (a) is hinged at the left support and is supported on roller at the right end. Usually, the loads are assumed to act on the beam in a plane containing the axis of symmetry of the cross section and the beam axis. The beams may be supported on two or more supports as shown in Fig. 1.2(b). The beams may be curved in plan as shown in Fig. 1.2(c). Beams carry loads by deflecting in the Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

same plane and it does not twist. It is possible for the beam to have no axis of symmetry. In such cases, one needs to consider unsymmetrical bending of beams. In general, the internal stresses at any cross section of the beam are: bending moment, shear force and axial force.

In India, one could see plane trusses (vide Fig. 1.3 (a),(b),(c)) commonly in Railway bridges, at railway stations, and factories. Plane trusses are made of short thin members interconnected at hinges into triangulated patterns. For the purpose of analysis statically equivalent loads are applied at joints. From the above definition of truss, it is clear that the members are subjected to only axial forces and they are constant along their length. Also, the truss can have only hinged and roller supports. In field, usually joints are constructed as rigid by Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

welding. However, analyses were carried out as though they were pinned. This is justified as the bending moments introduced due to joint rigidity in trusses are negligible. Truss joint could move either horizontally or vertically or combination of them. In space truss (Fig. 1.3 (d)), members may be oriented in any direction. However, members are subjected to only tensile or compressive stresses. Crane is an example of space truss.

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Plane frames are also made up of beams and columns, the only difference being they are rigidly connected at the joints as shown in the Fig. 1.4 (a). Major portion of this course is devoted to evaluation of forces in frames for variety of loading conditions. Internal forces at any cross section of the plane frame member are: bending moment, shear force and axial force. As against plane frame, space frames (vide Fig. 1.4 (b)) members may be oriented in any direction. In this case, there is no restriction of how loads are applied on the space frame.

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1.3 Equations of Static Equilibrium
Consider a case where a book is lying on a frictionless table surface. Now, if we apply a force F1 horizontally as shown in the Fig.1.5 (a), then it starts moving in the direction of the force. However, if we apply the force perpendicular to the book as in Fig. 1.5 (b), then book stays in the same position, as in this case the vector sum of all the forces acting on the book is zero. When does an object Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

move and when does it not? This question was answered by Newton when he formulated his famous second law of motion. In a simple vector equation it may be stated as follows:

∑F
i =1

n

i

= ma

(1.1)

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where

∑F
i =1

n

i

is the vector sum of all the external forces acting on the body,

m is

the total mass of the body and a is the acceleration vector. However, if the body is in the state of static equilibrium then the right hand of equation (1.1) must be zero. Also for a body to be in equilibrium, the vector sum of all external moments ( ∑ M = 0 ) about an axis through any point within the body must also vanish. Hence, the book lying on the table subjected to external force as shown in Fig. 1.5 (b) is in static equilibrium. The equations of equilibrium are the direct consequences of Newton’s second law of motion. A vector in 3-dimensions can be resolved into three orthogonal directions viz., x, y and z (Cartesian) coordinate axes. Also, if the resultant force vector is zero then its components in three mutually perpendicular directions also vanish. Hence, the above two equations may also be written in three co-ordinate axes directions as follows:

∑F

x

= 0;

∑F

y

= 0;

∑F

z

=0

(1.2a) (1.2b)

∑M

x

= 0 ;∑M y = 0;∑M z = 0

Now, consider planar structures lying in xy − plane. For such structures we could have forces acting only in x and y directions. Also the only external moment that could act on the structure would be the one about the z -axis. For planar structures, the resultant of all forces may be a force, a couple or both. The static equilibrium condition along x -direction requires that there is no net unbalanced force acting along that direction. For such structures we could express equilibrium equations as follows:

∑F

x

= 0 ; ∑ Fy = 0 ; ∑ M z = 0

(1.3)

Using the above three equations we could find out the reactions at the supports in the beam shown in Fig. 1.6. After evaluating reactions, one could evaluate internal stress resultants in the beam. Admissible or correct solution for reaction and internal stresses must satisfy the equations of static equilibrium for the entire structure. They must also satisfy equilibrium equations for any part of the structure taken as a free body. If the number of unknown reactions is more than the number of equilibrium equations (as in the case of the beam shown in Fig. 1.7), then we can not evaluate reactions with only equilibrium equations. Such structures are known as the statically indeterminate structures. In such cases we need to obtain extra equations (compatibility equations) in addition to equilibrium equations.

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1.4 Static Indeterminacy
The aim of structural analysis is to evaluate the external reactions, the deformed shape and internal stresses in the structure. If this can be accomplished by equations of equilibrium, then such structures are known as determinate structures. However, in many structures it is not possible to determine either reactions or internal stresses or both using equilibrium equations alone. Such structures are known as the statically indeterminate structures. The indeterminacy in a structure may be external, internal or both. A structure is said to be externally indeterminate if the number of reactions exceeds the number of equilibrium equations. Beams shown in Fig.1.8(a) and (b) have four reaction components, whereas we have only 3 equations of equilibrium. Hence the beams in Figs. 1.8(a) and (b) are externally indeterminate to the first degree. Similarly, the beam and frame shown in Figs. 1.8(c) and (d) are externally indeterminate to the 3rd degree.

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Now, consider trusses shown in Figs. 1.9(a) and (b). In these structures, reactions could be evaluated based on the equations of equilibrium. However, member forces can not be determined based on statics alone. In Fig. 1.9(a), if one of the diagonal members is removed (cut) from the structure then the forces in the members can be calculated based on equations of equilibrium. Thus, Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

1.The truss and frame shown in Fig. 1. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .10(a) and (b) are both externally and internally indeterminate.9(a) and (b) are internally indeterminate to first degree.structures shown in Figs.

Now. Such an approach runs into difficulty when the number of members in a structure increases. Hence.4) Version 2 CE IIT. The degree of indeterminacy may be calculated as i = (m + r ) − 2 j (1. ∑ Fx = 0 and ∑ Fy = 0 . At each joint we could write two equilibrium equations for planar truss structure. Let the number of unknown reaction components in the structure be r . Kharagpur .. viz.So far. Consider a planar stable truss structure having m members and j joints. we have determined the degree of indeterminacy by inspection. let us derive an algebraic expression for calculating degree of static indeterminacy. Hence total number of equations that could be written is 2 j . If 2 j = m + r then the structure is statically determinate as the number of unknowns are equal to the number of equations available to calculate them. the total number of unknowns in the structure is m + r .

11 (c) has 15 members.1. the plane frame shown in Fig.We could write similar expressions for space truss. Kharagpur . plane frame. 12 joints and 9 reaction components. the degree of indeterminacy of the structure is i = (15 × 3 + 9) − 12 × 3 = 18 Please note that here. at each joint we could write 3 equations of equilibrium for plane frame. Hence. space frame and grillage. Version 2 CE IIT. For example.

Consider a propped cantilever beam shown in Fig. for a propped cantilever beam we have to evaluate only rotation at B and this is known as the kinematic indeterminacy of the structure.12 (a). A simply supported beam and a cantilever beam are kinematically indeterminate to 2nd degree. A fixed fixed beam is kinematically determinate but statically indeterminate to 3rd degree. In the displacement based analysis. The displacements at a fixed support are zero.1. 1. Kharagpur . the axial rigidity of the beam is so high that the change in its length along axial direction may be neglected.5 Kinematic Indeterminacy When the structure is loaded. Hence. these joint displacements are treated as unknown quantities. Version 2 CE IIT. Usually. the joints undergo displacements in the form of translations and rotations.

13. However if axial deformations of the members are neglected then u1 = u 4 and u 2 and u 4 can be neglected. 1.e. we have 3 independent joint displacement as shown in Fig. In the plane frame shown in Fig. rotations at B and C and one translation. the joints B and C have 3 degrees of freedom as shown in the figure. Kharagpur . Hence. The number of independent joint displacement in a structure is known as the degree of kinematic indeterminacy or the number of degrees of freedom.The joint displacements in a structure is treated as independent if each displacement (translation and rotation) can be varied arbitrarily and independently of all other displacements. Version 2 CE IIT.13 i. 1.

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One should avoid such support conditions. Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. Although this beam is stable under special loading conditions. Kharagpur . the structure moves as a rigid body. Such structures are known as kinematically unstable structure.1. is unstable under a general type of loading conditions. When a system of forces whose resultant has a component in the horizontal direction is applied on this beam.6 Kinematically Unstable Structure A beam which is supported on roller on both ends (vide. 1.14) on a horizontal surface can be in the state of static equilibrium only if the resultant of the system of applied loads is a vertical force or a couple.

at a fixed support this requires that displacement and slope should be zero. These conditions require that the displacements and rotations be continuous throughout the structure and compatible with the nature supports conditions.7 Compatibility Equations A structure apart from satisfying equilibrium conditions should also satisfy all the compatibility conditions. Kharagpur .1.8 Force-Displacement Relationship Version 2 CE IIT. 1. For example.

1.6) may be written as P = ku ⇒ u= 1 P = aP k (1. Apply a force P1 at the end of spring and measure the deformation u1 . Now the deflection at the centre is given by u= PL3 ⎛ 48 EI ⎞ or P = ⎜ 3 ⎟ u 48 EI ⎝ L ⎠ (1. Result may be represented in the form of a graph as shown in the above figure where load is shown on y -axis and deformation on abscissa.6) P = ku The spring stiffness may be defined as the force required for the unit deformation of the spring. The slope of this graph is known as the stiffness of the spring and is represented by k and is given by k= P2 − P1 P = u 2 − u1 u (1.9) The stiffness of a structure is defined as the force required for the unit deformation of the structure.. The inverse of the stiffness is known as flexibility. P2 . Pn . the value of stiffness for the beam is equal to k= 48 EI L3 Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Let us do a simple experiment.Consider linear elastic spring as shown in Fig. The stiffness has a unit of force per unit elongation..8) The above relations discussed for linearly elastic spring will hold good for linearly elastic structures.5) (1. a= 1 k (1. Now increase the load to P2 and measure the deformation u 2 . It is usually denoted by a and it has a unit of displacement per unit force. As an example consider a simply supported beam subjected to a unit concentrated load at the centre. Hence..15. Likewise repeat the experiment for different values of load P1 ..7) the equation (1..

The way in which the load is supported by each of these structural systems are discussed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Hence.10) For a given beam of constant cross section. C. plates and shell depending on how they support external load. Usually it is denoted by a ij 3EI zz the flexibility coefficient at i due to unit force applied at j . space frame.12) Summary In this lesson the structures are classified as: beams.As a second example. Structural Analysis.10) may be written as u =a P (1. and moment of inertia I ZZ the deflection is directly proportional to the applied load. The equation (1. The kinematically unstable structures are discussed in section 1. NY. Equations of static equilibrium have been stated with respect to planar and space and structures. ISBN 81-7808-750-2 Version 2 CE IIT. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • Armenakas. Compatibility equations and force-displacement relationships are discussed. The term stiffness and flexibility coefficients are defined. plane truss.11) Where a is the flexibility coefficient and is a = L3 . (1988).. arches. plane frame. the stiffness of the beam is k11 = 1 3EI = 3 a11 L (1. length L . (2002). Young’s modulus E . In section 1. Delhi. consider a cantilever beam subjected to a concentrated load ( P ) at its tip.6. ISBN 0-07-100120-4 • Hibbeler.8. A. the beam deflects and from first principles the deflection below the load ( u ) may be calculated as. Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach. Under the action of load. A brief description of static indeterminacy and kinematic indeterminacy is explained with the help simple structural forms. Kharagpur . Ltd. Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. E. PL3 u= 3EI zz (1. the procedure to calculate stiffness of simple structure is discussed. cables. space truss. R.

ISBN 0-07-058208-4 • Negi.• Junarkar. ISBN 0-07058116-9 • MATRIX ANALYSIS of FRAMED STRUCTURES. New Delhi. • Leet. New Delhi. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. S. 3-rd Edition. Structural Analysis. C. Wilbur. C-M. New York. L. (1999). Chapman & Hall. and Jangid. S. Kharagpur . ISBN 0-07-462304-4 • Norris. and Uang. Anand. New York. and Utku. (2003). S. 1990 Version 2 CE IIT. by Weaver and Gere Publishe. J. Charotar Publishing House. H.S. and Shah. J. B. (1991). M. (2003). Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. II. Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited. B.. K. New Delhi. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Elementary Structural Analysis. Mechanics of Structures – Vol. H. R.

Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 2 Principle of Superposition. Strain Energy Version 2 CE IIT.

The principle of superposition may be stated as the deflection at a given point in a structure produced by several loads acting simultaneously on the structure can be found by superposing deflections at the same point produced by loads acting individually. principle of superposition and strain energy method will be introduced. 2. However. Derive an expression for elastic strain energy stored in a beam in shear. Explain strain energy concept. In this lesson two of the very important concepts i. EI and GJ are required. Knowledge of displacements is also required in the design of members. 2. If displacements are required to solve statically indeterminate structures.1 Introduction In the analysis of statically indeterminate structures. 5. the student will be able to 1.e. Kharagpur . 2. 4. then only the relative values of EA. Differentiate between elastic and inelastic strain energy and state units of strain energy.2 Principle of Superposition The principle of superposition is a central concept in the analysis of structures. displacements are small. This is Version 2 CE IIT.. 3. When non-linear behaviour of the structure is considered then such an assumption is not valid as the structure is appreciably distorted. In general deflections are small compared with the dimensions of structure but for clarity the displacements are drawn to a much larger scale than the structure itself. then it is necessary to know actual values of E and G . 6.Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. Several methods are available for the calculation of displacements of structures. Since. Derive an expression for elastic strain energy stored in a beam in bending. the knowledge of the displacements of a structure is necessary. State and use principle of superposition. it is assumed not to cause gross displacements of the geometry of the structure so that equilibrium equation can be based on the original configuration of the structure. If actual value of displacement is required as in the case of settlement of supports and temperature stress calculations. Derive an expression for elastic strain energy stored in a circular shaft under torsion. if displacements at only a few locations in structures are required then energy based methods are most suitable. 7. Derive an expression for strain energy stored in one-dimensional structure under axial load. This is applicable when there exists a linear relationship between external forces and corresponding structural displacements.

which states that the tangential deviation of point c from the tangent at point A is equal to the first moment of the M area of the diagram between A and C about C . u = A1 x1 + A2 x 2 + A3 x3 (2. the deflection u below EI C due to loads P1 and P2 acting simultaneously is (by moment-area theorem). Since. Hence. Now consider a cantilever beam of length L and having constant flexural rigidity EI subjected to two externally applied forces P1 and P2 as shown in Fig. 2.illustrated with the help of a simple beam problem. Kharagpur . in this case the tangent at A is horizontal. the tangential deviation of point Version 2 CE IIT.1. From moment-area theorem we can evaluate deflection below C .1) where u is the tangential deviation of point C with respect to a tangent at A .

x1 . P2 L2 A2 = 4 EI A3 = ( P1 L + P2 L) L 8EI u= P2 L2 2 L P2 L2 ⎡ L L ⎤ (P1 L + P2 L) L ⎡ 2 L L ⎤ + + + ⎢3 2 + 2 ⎥ 8EI 3 2 4 EI ⎢ 2 4 ⎥ 8 EI ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (2.2) After simplification one can write. Version 2 CE IIT. x2 and x3 are the distances from point C to the centroids of respective areas respectively.3) Now consider the forces being applied separately and evaluate deflection at C in each of the case. Kharagpur .C is nothing but the vertical deflection at C . u= P2 L3 5 P1 L3 + 3EI 48EI (2. ⎛ L L⎞ x2 = ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x1 = 2L 32 x3 = 2L L + 32 2 P2 L2 A1 = 8 EI Hence.

u 22 = P2 L3 3EI (2. And. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .4) where u 22 is deflection at C (2) when load P1 is applied at C (2) itself.

Also. Because of lateral deflection caused by Q ..1 P1 L L ⎡ L 2 L ⎤ 5P1 L3 + = u 21 = 2 2 EI 2 ⎢ 2 3 2 ⎥ 48EI ⎣ ⎦ (2.. there will be 3 additional bending moment due to P at C . P2 . u = u 22 + u 21 = P2 L3 5 P1 L3 + 3EI 48 EI (2.6) that when the structure behaves linearly. Now consider the case when the same beam-column is subjected to both axial load P and lateral load Q . This is known as the Principle of Superposition.. Let the deflection of the beam-column at C be u c2 . 2.. 2. the net deflection u c will be 1 more than the sum of deflections u c and u c2 ..3(b). Pn acting independently on the structure at the same point... Now the total deflection at C when both the loads are applied simultaneously is obtained by adding u 22 and u 21 .Hence. P2 ..3(a). it is not valid in cases where the geometry of structure changes on application of load.3) and (2. the deflection at the centre u c must be the sum of deflections caused by P and Q when applied individually. For example. As 3 per the principle of superposition. Next. the total deflection caused by forces P1 .6) Hence it is seen from equations (2. Kharagpur . Pn at any point in the structure is the sum of deflection caused by forces P1 . consider a hinged-hinged beam-column subjected to only compressive force as shown in Fig. However this is not so in the present case. the same beamcolumn be subjected to lateral load Q with no axial load as shown in Fig.. Version 2 CE IIT. The method of superposition is not valid when the material stress-strain relationship is non-linear. Let the compressive force P be less than the Euler’s buckling load of the structure..5) where u 21 is the deflection at C (2) when load is applied at B (1) . 1 Then deflection at an arbitrary point C (say) u c is zero.

Let the load-displacement relationship be as shown in Fig. Such a load is called static loading.3 Strain Energy Consider an elastic spring as shown in the Fig. It is assumed here that the force is applied gradually so that it slowly increases from zero to a maximum value P . Kharagpur .7) Version 2 CE IIT.2. Wext = 1 1 P1u1 = ( force × displacement ) 2 2 (2. 2.5. It may be noted that. When the load is removed from the spring.2. it does some work and this can be calculated once the load-displacement relationship is known. it goes back to the original position. as there are no inertial effects due to motion. it deflects by a small amount u1 . When the spring is pulled by a force. work done by the external force may be calculated as. the spring is a mathematical idealization of the rod being pulled by a force P axially.4. When the spring is slowly pulled. Now.

Here it is assumed that the energy is conserved i.e. Now strain energy stored in a spring is 1 (2. the work done by gradually applied loads is equal to energy stored in the structure. This internal energy is known as strain energy.The area enclosed by force-displacement curve gives the total work done by the externally applied load. Kharagpur .8) U = P u1 1 2 Version 2 CE IIT.

ε z . σ y . the state of stress acting on such an element may be as shown in Fig. σ y and σ z ) and shear stresses (τ xy .6. In SI system.τ yz and τ zx ) acting on the element. Kharagpur .10) Version 2 CE IIT. 2.m).e. U= 1 T σ ε dv 2∫ v (2. which is equal to one Newton metre (N. ε y .Work and energy are expressed in the same units.τ yz .τ zx ) and {ε } = ( ε x .. ε xy .τ xy . ε zx ) T (2. Consider an infinitesimal element within a three dimensional homogeneous and isotropic material. σ z . There are normal stresses (σ x . ε yz . {σ } T = (σ x . Corresponding to normal and shear stresses we have normal and shear strains. the unit of work and energy is the joule (J). The strain energy may also be defined as the internal work done by the stress resultants in moving through the corresponding deformations.9) in which σ T is the transpose of the stress column vector i. Now strain energy may be written as. In the most general case.

7. The area OABCDO corresponds to strain energy stored in the structure.7. The complementary energy has no physical meaning. then on removal of load. If the elastic limit of the material is exceeded. the spring gradually shortens. the load is removed. the spring regains its original shape. Now if at B. In the present case. The shaded area BCD is known as the elastic strain energy. The area OABEO is defined as the complementary strain energy. If the force P is removed then the spring shortens. Then we obtain the load-displacement curve OABCDO as shown in Fig. The area OABDO represents the inelastic portion of strain energy. Kharagpur .The strain energy may be further classified as elastic strain energy and inelastic strain energy as shown in Fig. 2. The definition is being used for its convenience in structural analysis as will be clear from the subsequent chapters. a permanent set of OD is till retained. When the elastic limit of the spring is not exceeded. However. For the linearly elastic structure it may be seen that Area OBC = Area OBE i.e. Version 2 CE IIT. This can be recovered upon removing the load. load the spring beyond its elastic limit.7. 2. 2. Strain energy = Complementary strain energy This is not the case always as observed from Fig. a permanent set will remain on removal of load.

Usually structural member is subjected to any one or the combination of bending moment. Knowing internal stresses due to individual forces. After knowing internal stresses and deformations.1 Strain energy under axial load Consider a member of constant cross sectional area A . shear force. 2. one could easily evaluate strain energy stored in a simple beam due to axial. This may be calculated as follows. Now.8). Under the action of axial load P applied at one end gradually. the applied force P is resisted by P uniformly distributed internal stresses given by average stress σ = as shown A by the free body diagram (vide Fig. shear and torsional deformations. The incremental elongation du of small element of length dx of beam is given by. Let E be the Young’s modulus of the material. 2. 2.12) Version 2 CE IIT. which is applied through the centroid of the cross section. In this section.8. Let the member be under equilibrium under the action of this force. Kharagpur . axial force and twisting moment. The member resists these external actions by internal stresses. bending.11) Now the total elongation of the member of length L may be obtained by integration u=∫ 0 L P dx AE (2. the beam gets elongated by (say) u . one could calculate the resulting stress distribution due to combination of external forces by the method of superposition. du = ε dx = σ E dx = P dx AE (2.3. subjected to axial force P as shown in Fig. the internal stresses induced in the structure due to external forces and the associated displacements are calculated for different actions.

U= 1 Pu 2 (2.13) Pu 2 In a conservative system. Hence.12) in (2. the external work is stored as the internal strain energy. Version 2 CE IIT. the strain energy stored in the bar in axial deformation is.14) we get.14) Substituting equation (2.Now the work done by external loads W = 1 (2. Kharagpur .

It is assumed that the transverse cross sections (such as AB and CD). The loads are assumed to act on the beam in a plane containing the axis of symmetry of the cross section and the beam axis. 2.9). Kharagpur .2 Strain energy due to bending Consider a prismatic beam subjected to loads as shown in the Fig. remain plane and perpendicular to the centroidal axis of beam (as shown in Fig 2.15) 2. Version 2 CE IIT.3.9.U =∫ L P2 dx 2 AE 0 (2. which are perpendicular to centroidal axis.

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17).Consider a small segment of beam of length ds subjected to bending moment as shown in the Fig. Now the work done by the moment M while rotating through angle dθ will be stored in the segment of beam as strain energy dU . U =∫ L M2 ds 2 EI 0 (2. From the figure. 2.17) dU = M dθ 2 Substituting for dθ in equation (2.18).18) Now. 1 (2. Kharagpur . Thus. Now one cross section rotates about another cross section by a small amount dθ . we get.9. dθ = 1 M ds ds = R EI (2. Hence.19) Version 2 CE IIT.16) where R is the radius of curvature of the bent beam and EI is the flexural rigidity of the beam. 1 M2 dU = ds 2 EI (2. the energy stored in the complete beam of span L may be obtained by integrating equation (2.

3 Strain energy due to transverse shear Version 2 CE IIT.3. Kharagpur .2.

Due to shear stress. the shear stress distribution is different for different shape of the cross section. Kharagpur . However. the total deformation of the beam due to the action of shear force is u=∫ k 0 L V ds AG (2.22) Hence. Also. One could write. to simplify the computation shear stress is assumed to be uniform (which is strictly not correct) across the cross section. the angle between the lines which are originally at right angle will change. the deformation du as du = Δγ ds (2. Consider a segment of length ds subjected to shear stress τ . V is the transverse shear force. 2 L kV 1 U = Vu = ∫ ds 0 2 AG 2 (2.21) where Δγ is the shear strain and is given by Δγ = τ G =k V AG (2.The shearing stress on a cross section of beam of rectangular cross section may be found out by the relation τ= VQ bI ZZ (2. The shear stress across the cross section may be taken as τ =k V A in which A is area of the cross-section and k is the form factor which is dependent on the shape of the cross section.24) Version 2 CE IIT.20) where Q is the first moment of the portion of the cross-sectional area above the point where shear stress is required about neutral axis.23) Now the strain energy stored in the beam due to the action of transverse shear force is given by. b is the width of the rectangular cross-section and I zz is the moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area about the neutral axis. The shear stress varies across the height in a parabolic manner in the case of a rectangular cross-section.

25) U = Tφ 2 Version 2 CE IIT. Thus the error induced in assuming a uniform shear stress across the cross section is very small. Hence the strain energy stored in the shaft is.The strain energy due to transverse shear stress is very low compared to strain energy due to bending and hence is usually neglected.11). 1 (2. subjected to a torque T at one end (see Fig. 2. Kharagpur . 2.4 Strain energy due to torsion Consider a circular shaft of length L radius R . Under the action of torque one end of the shaft rotates with respect to the fixed end by an angle dφ .3.

1 (2.27) where. bending moment.26). Kharagpur . Due to torsion U4 = ∫ Version 2 CE IIT.Consider an elemental length ds of the shaft. Substituting for dφ from (2.26) dU = Tdφ 2 We know that dφ = Tds GJ (2. we obtain T2 dU = ds 2GJ (2.29) 0 2GJ Hence the elastic strain energy stored in a member of length s (it may be curved or straight) due to axial force. Due to shear U3 = ∫ 4. 2 L T U =∫ ds (2. Now the strain energy stored in the elemental length is.28) Now. shear force and torsion is summarized below. 1. Due to axial force P2 U1 = ∫ ds 2 AE 0 U2 = ∫ s s 2. Due to bending M2 ds 2 EI 0 V2 ds 2 AG 0 T2 ds 2GJ 0 s s 3. Let the one end rotates by a small amount dφ with respect to another end. the total strain energy stored in the beam may be obtained by integrating the above equation.27) in equation (2. G is the shear modulus of the shaft material and J is the polar moment of area.

expressions are derived for calculating strain stored in a simple beam due to axial load. the difference between elastic and inelastic strain energy is explained.3. transverse shear force and torsion. In the end. it has been shown that the elastic strain energy stored in a structure is equal to the work done by applied loads in deforming the structure. Also. In this lesson. bending moment. Version 2 CE IIT. its limitations have been discussed.Summary In this lesson. Complementary strain energy is discussed. The strain energy expression is also expressed for a 3dimensional homogeneous and isotropic material in terms of internal stresses and strains in a body. In section 2. Kharagpur . the principle of superposition has been stated and proved.

Kharagpur .Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 3 Castigliano’s Theorems Version 2 CE IIT.

1. 4. the Castigliano’s first theorem may be stated as the first partial derivative of the strain energy of the structure with respect to any particular force gives the displacement of the point of application of that force in the direction of its line of action. 3. Castigliano’s first theorem is being used in structural analysis for finding deflection of an elastic structure based on strain energy of the structure. For such structures. The Castigliano’s theorem can be applied when the supports of the structure are unyielding and the temperature of the structure is constant. where external forces only cause deformations. State and prove Castigliano’s second theorem.Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. 3.2 Castigliano’s First Theorem For linearly elastic structure. Version 2 CE IIT. the reader will be able to. Calculate deflections along the direction of applied load of a statically determinate structure at the point of application of load.1 Introduction In the previous chapter concepts of strain energy and complementary strain energy were discussed. Calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure in any direction at a point where the load is not acting by fictious (imaginary) load method. Kharagpur . 3. State and prove first theorem of Castigliano. 2. the complementary energy is equal to the strain energy.

Pn respectively as shown in Fig. Let u1 .... Pn be the forces acting at x1 .Let P1 . the work done by the external forces is given by (vide eqn. 3.. x 2 .. Kharagpur .... P2 ..... 1. x n from the left end on a simply supported beam of span L .. Now... u 2 ....8 of lesson 1) W = 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + ... + Pn u n 2 2 2 (3. u n be the displacements at the loading points P1 . assume that the material obeys Hooke’s law and invoking the principle of superposition...1......1) Version 2 CE IIT.. P2 ...

. In general.] + P2 [ a 21 P1 + a 22 P2 + ......... u1 = a11 P1 + a12 P2 + ...2) from equation (3..... x 2 .... 1 1 1 1 ⎦ 2⎣ (3.. we get. for determinate structure within linear elastic range the partial derivative of the total strain energy with respect to any external load is equal to the Version 2 CE IIT......2) Displacement u1 below point P1 is due to the action of P1 ... Pn acting at distances x1 .7) is nothing but displacement u1 at the loading point..... u 2 .. + ain Pn i = 1. Substituting the values of u1 . + a1n Pn In general..6) Now. u i = ai1 P1 + ai 2 P2 + . the strain energy of the structure is. ∂U = a11 P1 + a12 P2 + .. + a1n P Pn ] + .. Kharagpur ..8) = un ∂Pn Hence....2. + ann Pn2 ⎤ + [ a12 P P2 + a13 P P3 + .....] (3.. P2 .] + . Hence.. + a1n Pn ∂P1 (3..4) (3..5) 2 2 2 We know from Maxwell-Betti’s reciprocal theorem a ij = a ji ..n (3... U= 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + .Work done by the external forces is stored in the structure as strain energy in a conservative system....5) may be simplified as. differentiating the strain energy with any force P1 gives.... U= 1 ⎡ a11 P 2 + a22 P22 + .... U= 1 1 1 P1 [ a11 P1 + a12 P2 + .... + Pn [ a n1 P1 + a n 2 P2 + ... x n respectively from left support. u n in equation (3.3) where a ij is the flexibility coefficient at i due to unit force applied at j ... ∂U (3... Hence.. Hence.4).. + Pn u n 2 2 2 (3...7) It may be observed that equation (3..... equation (3. u1 may be expressed as.

( Px) 2 P 2 L3 U =∫ dx = 2 EI 6 EI 0 L (3) Version 2 CE IIT. Assume the flexural rigidity of the beam EI to be constant for the beam. Moment at any section at a distance x away from the free end is given by M = − Px Strain energy stored in the beam due to bending is U = ∫ L (1) M2 dx 2 EI 0 (2) Substituting the expression for bending moment M in equation (3.1 Find the displacement and slope at the tip of a cantilever beam loaded as in Fig.displacement of the point of application of load in the direction of the applied load. provided the supports are unyielding and temperature is maintained constant. The procedure for calculating the deflection is illustrated with few examples. Kharagpur . Example 3. 3.10).2. we get. This theorem is advantageously used for calculating deflections in elastic structure.

3. Thus. As there is no moment at A .Now. ∂U PL3 = uA = ∂P 3EI (4) To find the slope at the free end.14) we get the slope at A. Kharagpur . Young’s modulus of the material is E and second moment of the area is I about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the paper through the centroid of the cross section. Hence substitute M 0 = 0 in equation (3. ( Px + M 0 ) 2 P 2 L3 M 0 PL2 M 0 L U =∫ dx = + + 2 EI 6 EI 2 EI 2 EI 0 L 2 (5) Taking partial derivative of strain energy with respect to M 0 . The radius of curvature of curved beam is R . Version 2 CE IIT. we get slope at A . strain energy stored in the beam may be calculated as. we need to differentiate strain energy with respect to externally applied moment M at A .2 A cantilever beam which is curved in the shape of a quadrant of a circle is loaded as shown in Fig. according to Castigliano’s theorem. Now moment at any section at a distance x away from the free end is given by M = − Px − M 0 Now. Find the vertical displacement of point A on the curved beam.3. apply a fictitious moment M 0 at A . the first partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force P gives the deflection u A at A in the direction of applied force. θA = PL2 2 EI (7) Example 3. ∂U PL2 M 0 L = θA = + ∂M 0 2 EI EI (6) But actually there is no moment applied at A .

P we get uA = Example 3.4. ∂U b π PR 3 = 4 EI ∂P (3) Version 2 CE IIT. Assume the flexural rigidity of the beam EI to be constant through out the member.3) is given by M = PR sinθ Strain energy U stored in the curved beam due to bending is.The bending moment at any section θ of the curved beam (see Fig.3 Find horizontal displacement at D of the frame shown in Fig. 3. Neglect strain energy due to axial deformations. Kharagpur . M2 U =∫ ds = 2 EI 0 s (1) π /2 ∫ 0 P 2 R 2 (sin 2 θ ) Rdθ P 2 R 3 π π P 2 R 3 = = 8 EI 2 EI 2 EI 4 (2) Differentiating strain energy with respect to externally applied load. 3.

U= L ( Px) 2 ( PL) 2 dx + ∫ dx 2 EI 2 EI 0 0 L (1) P 2 L3 P 2 L3 5P 2 L3 + = 3EI 2 EI 6 EI (2) Differentiating strain energy with respect to P we get. Castigliano’s theorem. Total strain energy stored in the frame due to bending U = 2∫ After simplifications. ∂U 5 P L3 5 P L3 = uD = 2 = ∂P 6 EI 3EI Version 2 CE IIT.The deflection D may be obtained via. The beam segments BA and DC are subjected to bending moment Px ( 0 < x < L ) and the beam element BC is subjected to a constant bending moment of magnitude PL . Kharagpur .

Kharagpur . U =∫ After simplifications. x is measured from C )and the beam element AB is subjected to torsional moment of magnitude Pa and a bending moment of Px ( 0 ≤ x ≤ b . Assume the flexural rigidity EI and torsional rigidity GJ to be constant for the structure. The beam segment BC is subjected to bending moment Px ( 0 < x < a . The strain energy stored in the beam ABC is. x is measured from B) . P 2 a 3 P 2 a 2b P 2b3 + + 6 EI 2GJ 6 EI (2) ∂U Pa 3 Pa 2 b Pb 3 + = uA = + ∂P 3EI GJ 3EI (3) Version 2 CE IIT. 3.4 Find the vertical deflection at A of the structure shown Fig.Example 3.5. 2 b ( Px) M2 ( Pa) 2 dx + ∫ dx + ∫ dx 0 2 EI 2 EI 2GJ 0 0 a b (1) U= Vertical deflection u A at A is.

U =∫ a ( Px) 2 ( Pa + Qy) 2 dx + ∫ dy 2 EI 2 EI 0 0 b (1) Differentiating strain energy with respect to Q . the strain energy stored in the structure is. introduce a imaginary vertical force Q at C . ∂U 2( Pa + Qy ) y = uC = ∫ dy ∂Q 2 EI 0 b (2) 1 uC = Pay + Qy 2 dy EI ∫ 0 b (3) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .Example 3. vertical deflection at C is obtained. 3. To find the vertical deflection at C . Now. Assume the flexural rigidity EI to be constant for the structure.6.5 Find vertical deflection at C of the beam shown in Fig. The beam segment CB is subjected to bending moment Px ( 0 < x < a ) and beam element AB is subjected to moment of magnitude Pa .

. + Pn u n 2 2 2 (3... n (3..10) We know from Lesson 1 (equation 1. if strain energy is expressed in terms of displacements then n equilibrium equations may be written as follows. i = 1. equation (3. 2.. Hence... + un [k n1u1 + kn 2u2 + .] 2 2 2 (3..12) We know from reciprocal theorem kij = k ji .. vertical deflection is..13) Version 2 CE IIT....3 Castigliano’s Second Theorem In any elastic structure having n independent displacements u1 ..... strain energy may be written as.. + kinun ...... + k1n u1un ] + ...12) may be simplified as. Pn along their lines of action.. 2. P2 .... n (3. U= 1 1 1 u1[k11u1 + k12u2 + ..... ∂U = Pj ..] + u2 [ k21u1 + k22u2 + .. u 2 .5) that Pi = ki1u1 + ki 2u2 + .. Kharagpur ..... U= 1 2 2 ⎡ k11u12 + k22u2 + . ⎣ ⎦ 2 (3.] + .uC = 1 ⎡ Pab 2 Qb 3 ⎤ + ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎦ EI ⎣ 2 (4) But the force Q is fictitious force and hence equal to zero. ∂u j j = 1........ + knn un ⎤ + [ k12u1u2 + k13u1u3 + .. Hence. Pab 2 uC = 2 EI (5) 3. Hence. The strain energy of an elastic body may be written as U= 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + ..9) This may be proved as follows. u n corresponding to external forces P1 .11) where kij is the stiffness coefficient and is defined as the force at i due to unit displacement applied at j .

n (3.... 2..4. Also. ∂u j j = 1.... 1 ∂U = k11u1 + k12 u2 + . Hence. ∂U = Pj . Kharagpur . differentiating the strain energy with respect to any displacement u1 gives the applied force P at that point. the procedure to calculate deflections in a statically determinate structure at a point where load is applied is illustrated with examples.. The procedure to calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure at the point of application of load is illustrated with examples.. + k1n un ∂u1 (3..14) Or.Now. Castigliano’s first theorem has been stated and proved for linearly elastic structure with unyielding supports. The Castigliano’s second theorem is stated for elastic structure and proved in section 3.. Version 2 CE IIT.15) Summary In this lesson.

Kharagpur .Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 4 Theorem of Least Work Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson.1a..1 Introduction In the last chapter the Castigliano’s theorems were discussed. u n be the displacements at the loading points P1 . 4.. this may be treated as the superposition of two cases. a cantilever beam with loads P1 ... Let P1 . This can be proved as follows.. State and prove theorem of Least Work. In this chapter theorem of least work and reciprocal theorems are presented along with few selected problems. u 2 .2a and Fig.. 2.. x 2 ... the partial derivative of strain energy of a statically indeterminate structure with respect to statically indeterminate action should vanish as it is the function of such redundant forces to prevent any displacement at its point of application.. Invoking the principle of superposition.. Pn respectively as shown in Fig. Let u1 ....2 Theorem of Least Work According to this theorem.2b) Version 2 CE IIT. viz. the reader will be able to: 1.... State and prove Maxwell-Betti’s Reciprocal theorem. Kharagpur .1b.. P2 . Pn and a cantilever beam with redundant force Ra (see Fig. We know that for the statically determinate structure. 4.. The forces developed in a redundant framework are such that the total internal strain energy is a minimum. This theorem when applied to the statically indeterminate structure results in the theorem of least work.. 3. x n from the left end of the beam of span L . the partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force is equal to the displacement in the direction of that load at the point of application of load.. 4.. 4. 4.. Pn be the forces acting at distances x1 . This is a statically indeterminate structure and choosing Ra as the redundant reaction. 4. Analyse statically indeterminate structure.. we obtain a simple cantilever beam as shown in Fig. 4.1a.. Consider a beam that is fixed at left end and roller supported at right end as shown in Fig. P2 . P2 ..

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

2. P2 ... obtain deflection below A due to applied loads P1 . + Pn u n + Qu a 2 2 2 2 (4.. Let u a be the deflection below A . u1 may be expressed as. Now the strain energy U s stored in the determinate structure (i...1) It is known that the displacement u1 below point P1 is due to action of P .. Kharagpur . This can be easily accomplished through Castigliano’s first theorem as discussed in Lesson 3..2a).. Since there is no load applied at A .In the first case (4... Version 2 CE IIT..e.. x n respectively and due to Q at A . US = 1 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + ... Pn 1 acting at x1 .... x 2 . Pn ... 4. P2 ... apply a fictitious load Q at A as in Fig.... the support A removed) is given by... Hence.

.2) where.7) one could write. u3 ....... ∂U s = aa1 P + aa 2 P2 + .. ∂U ∂Us = ua = − r ∂Q ∂Ra (4....2). + a1n Pn + a1a Q ] + P2 [a21 P + a22 P2 + ...8) Since Q is fictitious..a2 n Pn + a2 a Q ] + ...3) 1 1 + Pn [an1 P + an 2 P2 + . ∂U s = ua = aa1 P + aa 2 P2 + ...ann Pn + ana Q] + Q[aa1 P + aa 2 P2 + . + a1n Pn + a1a Q 1 (4. P2 .. aij is the flexibility coefficient at i due to unit force applied at j ... US = 1 1 P [a11 P + a12 P2 + . so that the net deflection at A is zero..1) from equation (4.... 1 1 1 2 2 (4...... we get deflection at A ..5) and (4... Substituting for u2 ... Kharagpur .6) The deflection due to Ra should be in the opposite direction to one caused by superposed loads P .. Similar equations may be written for u2 . one could as well replace it by Ra ... u3 . + aan Pn + aaa Q 1 ∂Q Substitute Q = 0 as it is fictitious in the above equation..5) (4. From 1 equation (4.....4) (4.u1 = a11 P + a12 P2 + ... + aan Pn 1 ∂Q Now the strain energy stored in the beam due to redundant reaction RA is.. un and ua .... Version 2 CE IIT.7) 2 Ra L3 6 EI (4. un and ua in equation (4.. we get. Pn .. + aan Pn + aaa Q] 1 1 2 2 Taking partial derivative of strain energy U s with respect to Q . Ur = Now deflection at A due to Ra is R L3 ∂U r = −ua = a ∂Ra 3EI (4. Hence...

4.∂ (U s + U r ) = 0 ∂Ra (4.9) or.1 Find the reactions of a propped cantilever beam uniformly loaded as shown in Fig. ∂U =0 ∂Ra (4. Pn and redundant reaction Ra .. Version 2 CE IIT.. 1 Example 4... Assume the flexural rigidity of the beam EI to be constant throughout its length..3a. Kharagpur . Where U is the total strain energy of the beam due to superimposed loads P . P2 .10) This is the statement of theorem of least work.

Now. Kharagpur . U =∫ 0 L M2 dx 2 EI (1) According to theorem of least work we have. ∑F y = 0 and ∑ M = 0 . considering only bending deformations is. we obtain a simple cantilever beam as shown in Fig. Rb and M b as shown in the figure. the internal strain energy of the beam due to applied loads and redundant reaction.3b.There three reactions Ra . This is a statically indeterminate structure and choosing Rb as the redundant reaction. Version 2 CE IIT. We have only two equation of equilibrium viz.. 4.

Determine increase in the diameter AB of the ring. Young’s modulus of the material is E and second moment of the area is I about an axis perpendicular to the page through the centroid of the cross section. 3 RB = wL 8 Ra = wL − Rb = (6) wL2 5 wL and M a = − 8 8 (7) Example 4. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. ( R x − wx 2 / 2) x ∂U =∫ b dx ∂Rb 0 EI L (5) ∂U ⎡ RB L3 wL4 ⎤ 1 =⎢ − =0 ⎥ ∂Rb ⎣ 3 8 ⎦ EI Solving for Rb .2 A ring of radius R is loaded as shown in figure. M = Rb x − ∂M =x ∂Rb (4) Hence.∂U M ∂M =0=∫ ∂Rb EI ∂Rb 0 L (2) wx 2 2 (3) Bending moment at a distance x from B . we get.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

The free body diagram of the ring is as shown in Fig. The value of redundant moment M 0 is such as to make slopes at C and D zero. the slopes at C and D is zero. 2π M ∂M ∂U =0=∫ Rdθ 0 EI ∂M ∂M 0 0 (3) ∂M =1 ∂M 0 ∂U = ∂M 0 π 2π ∫ EI Rdθ 0 M (4) 0= 4R 2 PR ∫ [M 0 − 2 (1 − cosθ )] dθ EI 0 (5) Integrating and solving for M 0 . increase in diameter Δ . According to theorem of least work. Thus.4. Δ= ∂U ∂P Version 2 CE IIT. 4.182 PR Now. may be obtained by taking the first partial derivative of strain energy with respect to P . one could consider one quarter of the ring. M = M0 − PR (1 − cos θ ) 2 (1) Now strain energy stored in the ring due to bending deformations is. Kharagpur . The bending moment at any section θ of the beam is. ⎛1 1⎞ M 0 = PR ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 π ⎠ (6) M 0 = 0. Due to symmetry. 2π U = M 2R ∫ 2 EI dθ 0 (2) Due to symmetry.

149 EI 4 π EI (9) 4. we get. Substituting the value of M 0 and equation (1) in (2). Kharagpur . Δ= PR 3 π 2 PR 3 { − ) = 0. Similarly let u12 be the deflection below load P1 .Now strain energy stored in the ring is given by equation (2). ∂U 2 R = ∂P EI π /2 ∫ 2{ 2 0 PR 2 PR R 2 R ( − 1) − (1 − cosθ )}{ ( − 1) − (1 − cosθ )}dθ π 2 2 π 2 (8) After integrating. U= 2R EI π /2 ∫{ 2 0 PR 2 PR ( − 1) − (1 − cosθ )}2 dθ π 2 (7) Now the increase in length of the diameter is. Version 2 CE IIT.3 Maxwell–Betti Reciprocal theorem Consider a simply supported beam of span L as shown in Fig. 4. Let u 21 be the deflection below the load point P2 when only load P1 is acting. when only load P2 is acting on the beam. Let this beam be loaded by two systems of forces P1 and P2 separately as shown in the figure.5.

.. P2 ... Version 2 CE IIT... Q2 ..... P2 ..11) Now.. Pn only and δ 1 . P1 × u12 = P2 × u 21 (4... Pn and the second system of forces is given by Q1 . P1 × 5 P2 L3 5 P L3 = P2 × 1 48 EI 48 EI (4.. Qn . Hence... Q2 .. 4.12) Hence it is proved. u12 and u 21 can be calculated using Castiglinao’s first theorem.The reciprocal theorem states that the work done by forces acting through displacement of the second system is the same as the work done by the second system of forces acting through the displacements of the first system... Substituting the values of u12 and u 21 in equation (4.. according to reciprocal theorem. u n be the displacements caused by the forces P1 ... δ 2 . Let u1 .. δ n be the displacements due to system of forces Q1 ...6..27) we get... Kharagpur . u 2 . Qn only acting on the beam as shown in Fig. This is also valid even when the first system of forces is P1 ..

Kharagpur .Now the reciprocal theorem may be stated as. In this chapter the theorem of Least Work has been stated and proved.. the partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force is equal to the displacement in the direction of that load at the point of application of the load. Couple of problems is solved to illustrate the procedure of analysing statically indeterminate structures.. This theorem when applied to the statically indeterminate structure results in the theorem of Least work.. In the Version 2 CE IIT. For statically determinate structure.2. Pi δ i = Qi u i i = 1... n (4. the Castigliano’s first theorem has been stated and proved.13) Summary In lesson 3.

Kharagpur . the celebrated theorem of Maxwell-Betti’s reciprocal theorem has been sated and proved. Version 2 CE IIT.end.

Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 5 Virtual Work Version 2 CE IIT.

... This principle can be applied to both linear and nonlinear structures. the student will be able to: 1.. This produces a displacement Version 2 CE IIT.. it produces real internal stresses σ ij and real internal strains ε ij inside the beam.. Let u1 .. 7..Instructional Objectives After studying this lesson. As compared to other methods. δFn in equilibrium as shown in Fig. the partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force is equal to the displacement in the direction of that load. 2.. The principle of virtual work as applied to deformable structure is an extension of the virtual work for rigid bodies. Calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure using unit load method.. virtual work methods are the most direct methods for calculating deflections in statically determinate and indeterminate structures...... u 2 ... Define Virtual Work.1a..2 Principle of Virtual Work Many problems in structural analysis can be solved by the principle of virtual work. Calculate stiffness coefficients using unit-displacement method... F2 .. This may be stated as: if a rigid body is in equilibrium under the action of a F − system of forces and if it continues to remain in equilibrium if the body is given a small (virtual) displacement. let the beam be subjected to second system of forces (which are virtual not real) δF1 . u n be the corresponding displacements due to the action of forces F1 .. 5.2. Differentiate between external and internal virtual work. 3..... Sate principle of virtual displacement and principle of virtual forces... Kharagpur .5. then the virtual work done by the F − system of forces as ‘it rides’ along these virtual displacements is zero. From Castigliano’s theorem it follows that for the statically determinate structure.. Fn . Fn at co-ordinates 1. Now.1 Introduction In the previous chapters the concept of strain energy and Castigliano’s theorems were discussed.. State unit displacement method.5.. n respectively. Also... which is in equilibrium under the action of real forces F1 . the principle of virtual work is discussed. Drive an expression of calculating deflections of structure using unit load method. In this lesson. 6. F2 .1b. The second system of forces is called virtual as they are imaginary and they are not part of the real loading. 5. 4. δF2 . Consider a simply supported beam as shown in Fig. 5....

3 Principle of Virtual Displacement A deformable body is in equilibrium if the total external virtual work done by the system of true forces moving through the corresponding virtual displacements of the system i.. Now.. the external virtual work must be equal to the internal virtual work. Since. Kharagpur .e.. In the case of deformable body... The virtual loading system produces virtual internal stresses δσ ij and virtual internal strains δε ij inside the beam. δu 2 . both external and internal forces do work... It may be noted that the above product does not represent the conventional work since each component is caused due to different source i. the beam is in equilibrium.e. one needs to consider both internal and external virtual work to establish equations of equilibrium. ∑ Fi δu i is equal to the total internal virtual work for every kinematically admissible (consistent with the constraints) virtual displacements. Hence. δu n . the external loads Fi and internal stresses σ ij do virtual work by moving along δ ui and δε ij . Version 2 CE IIT. 5. Then. apply the second system of forces on the beam which has been deformed by first system of forces. The product ∑ F δu i i is known as the external virtual work.configuration δu1 .. δu i is not due to Fi . Similarly the product ∑σ δε ij ij is the internal virtual work...

. the total external complementary work is equal to the total internal complementary work for every system of virtual forces and stresses that satisfy the equations of equilibrium. we consider two systems of loads. As stated earlier. The first system of forces refers to the actual forces acting on the structure. ∑ F δu = ∫ σ i i ij δε ij dv (5. ∑ δF u = ∫ δσ i i ij ε ij dv (5. un as shown in Fig. For a conservative system the external work done by the applied forces is equal to the internal strain energy stored. 5. In this section..That is virtual displacements should be continuous within the structure and also it must satisfy boundary conditions.5 Unit Load Method The principle of virtual force leads to unit load method. Also the corresponding incremental deformations are axial deformation ( dΔ ). which is in equilibrium under the action of a first system of forces F1 . the principle of virtual work may be advantageously used to calculate displacements of structures. the truss deflections are calculated by the method of virtual work. For the derivation of unit load method. Kharagpur . bending moment ( M ) and shearing force ( V ). In the next lesson. Let the stress resultants at any section of the beam due to first system of forces be axial force ( P ). F2 . 5... 5. Fn causing displacements u1 ..4 Principle of Virtual Forces For a deformable body.. Version 2 CE IIT. Consider a cantilever beam.1) where σ ij are the true stresses due to true forces Fi and δε ij are the virtual strains due to virtual displacements δu i . the principle of virtual forces and unit load method are discussed in the context of framed structures. In the next section let us see how this can be used to calculate displacements in a beams and frames.. u2 ....2) where δσ ij are the virtual stresses due to virtual forces δFi and ε ij are the true strains due to the true displacements u i .. flexural deformation ( dθ ) and shearing deformation ( dλ ) respectively. Hence. It is assumed throughout our discussion that the method of superposition holds good..2a.

.... (u2 + δu2 )... δM v and δVv are the virtual axial force....4) where δPv . δF2 .. apply the first system of forces on the beam. Let the virtual stress resultants caused by virtual forces be δPv ... consider a second system of forces δF1 . From the principle of superposition..2c.. δu2 .. δF2 . 5.2b). which has been deformed.3) Now.... δM v and δVv at any cross section of the beam. In the third case. by second system of forces δF1 .. (un + δun ) respectively Version 2 CE IIT... Kharagpur . δFn . we could write 1 n δP ds δM v ds δVv ds ∑ δFiδui = ∫ 2vEA + ∫ 2 EI + ∫ 2 AG 2 i =1 0 0 0 L 2 L 2 L 2 (5. which are virtual and causing virtual displacements δu1 .. now the deflections will be (u1 + δu1 )...1 2 ∑ Fu i =1 i n i = 1 2 ∫P L dΔ + 1 2 ∫M L dθ + 1 V dλ 2∫ =∫ 0 L P 2 ds M 2 ds V 2 ds +∫ +∫ 2 EA 0 2 EI 2 AG 0 (5. δun respectively (see Fig. For this system of forces. bending moment and shear force respectively.. δFn as shown in Fig 5.

Since the energy is conserved we could write. represents the work j j done by virtual forces moving through real displacements. n δ Pv 2 ds δ M v 2 ds δ Vv 2 ds P 2 ds 1 n 1 n ∑ Fj u j + 2 ∑ δ Fjδ u j + ∑ δ Fj u j = ∫ 2 EA + ∫ 2 EI + ∫ 2 AG + ∫ 2 EA + 2 j =1 j =1 j =1 0 0 0 0 L L L L M 2 ds V 2 ds +∫ ∫ 2 EI 0 2 AG + ∫ δ Pv d Δ + ∫ δ M v dθ + ∫ δ Vv d λ 0 0 0 0 L L L L L (5. Since virtual forces act Version 2 CE IIT. the term on the left hand side (∑ δF u ).5) In equation (5.5). Kharagpur .

10) The equation (5..6) From Module 1. (5. The above equation may be stated as. ∑ δFju j = ∫ δPvdΔ + ∫ δM vdθ + ∫ δVvdλ j =1 0 0 0 n L L L (5. n ) .. Theoretically this method can be used to calculate deflections in Version 2 CE IIT.. Hence.. dθ = .7) as ∑ δFju j = ∫ j =1 0 n L δM v Mds EI (5.3) ⎝2⎠ and (5.8) If the value of a particular displacement is required. we know that dΔ = Pds Mds Vds and dλ = . δFi = 1 . ⎜ ⎟ does not appear in the equation. (1)ui = ∫ 0 L δM v Mds EI (5. then choose the corresponding force δFi = 1 and all other forces δF j = 0 ( j = 1..9) where δM v are the internal virtual moment resultants corresponding to virtual force at i-th co-ordinate.. i − 1. Then the above expression may be written as.. In the present case δPv = 0 and if we neglect shear forces then we could write equation (5.2.7) as the virtual system ⎝2⎠ resultants act at constant values during the real displacements.4) from equation (5. Here the unit virtual load is applied at a point where the displacement is required to be evaluated. Kharagpur .... (unit virtual load ) unknown true displacement = ∫ ( virtual stress resultants )( real deformations ) ds. lesson 3.⎛1⎞ at its full value.7) ⎛1⎞ Note that ⎜ ⎟ does not appear on right side of equation (5.5) we get. frames and trusses. i + 1.9) is known as the unit load method. Subtracting equation (5. The unit load method is extensively used in the calculation of deflection of beams. EA EI AG ∑ δF u = ∫ j =1 j j 0 n L δPv Pds EA +∫ 0 L δM v Mds EI +∫ 0 L δVvVds AG (5.

However it is extensively used in evaluation of deflections of statically determinate structures only as the method requires a priori knowledge of internal stress resultants. ⎛ 3L ⎞ Evaluate slope and deflection at a point ⎜ ⎟ from left support. a virtual unit moment is applied at C as shown in Fig 5. the rotation at C . Slope at C To evaluate slope at C . According to unit load method. The bending moment diagrams are drawn for tip moment M 0 and unit moment applied at C and is shown in fig 5. Let θc be the rotation at C due to moment M 0 applied at tip.3b and 5. Version 2 CE IIT.1 A cantilever beam of span L is subjected to a tip moment M 0 as shown in Fig 5. θc is calculated as.3a. Assume EI of the ⎝ 4 ⎠ given beam to be constant. Kharagpur . Example 5.3c.3c respectively.statically determinate and indeterminate structures.

(1)u A = ∫ 0 L δM v ( x )M ( x )dx EI (3) In the present case. Assume EI to be constant for all members. a unit virtual vertical force is applied ac C as shown in Fig 5. Kharagpur .3d and the bending moment is also shown in the diagram.2 Find the horizontal displacement at joint B of the frame ABCD as shown in Fig.4a by unit load method. we get where δM v (x ) and M (x ) are the virtual moment resultant and real moment (1)θ c = 3L / 4 ∫ 0 (1)Mdx + EI 3ML 4 EI 3L / 4 ∫ L (0)Mdx EI (2) θc = Vertical deflection at C To evaluate vertical deflection at C . Version 2 CE IIT. 5. According to unit load method. and 3L 4 δM v (x ) = −⎜ ⎞ ⎛ 3L − x⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ M (x ) = + M 0 ⎛ 3L ⎞ −⎜ − x ⎟M 4 ⎠ dx uA = ∫ ⎝ EI 0 M =− EI ∫ 3L 4 0 ⎛ 3L ⎞ − x ⎟dx ⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3L M ⎡ 3L x2 ⎤ 4 =− ⎢ x− ⎥ 2 ⎦0 EI ⎣ 4 9 ML2 =− (↑ ) 32 EI (4) Example 5. Substituting the value of δM v (x ) and M (x ) in the above expression.(1)θ c = ∫ 0 L δM v (x )M ( x )dx EI (1) resultant at any section x .

4d. apply a unit virtual load at B as shown in Fig.4c respectively. The resulting reactions and bending moment diagrams of the frame are shown in Fig 5. it is required to calculate horizontal deflection at B.4b and Fig 5. 5. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. Since.4d.The reactions and bending moment diagram of the frame due to applied external loading are shown in Fig 5.

5 + = 3EI 3EI 3EI uA = 937.5 − x )dx + 0 EI ∫ 0 EI =∫ 0 5 (5x )dx + 2 2.5 EI 20(2. u B may be calculated as (1) × u = ∫ B H D δM v (x )M (x )dx EI (1) A =∫ B δM v (x )M (x )dx EI A 5 +∫ B C δM v (x )M (x )dx EI +∫ C D δM v ( x )M ( x )dx EI =∫ 0 (x )(5 x )dx + 2. 5.5 − x ) dx ∫ EI 0 2 = 625 312.5 ( →) 3EI Hence. Version 2 CE IIT.3 Find the rotations of joint B and C of the frame shown in Fig.5 − x )10(2.Now horizontal deflection at B.4a. Kharagpur .5 2(2.5 937. (2) Example 5. Assume EI to be constant for all members.

The resulting bending moment diagram is also shown in the same diagram.Rotation at B Apply unit virtual moment at B as shown in Fig 5. Kharagpur . θ B is the actual rotation at B.5a. For the unit load method. the relevant equation is. δ M v ( x) is the virtual stress resultant in the D M ( x) frame due to the virtual load and ∫ dx is the actual deformation of the frame A EI due to real forces. Version 2 CE IIT. (1) × θ B = ∫ D δM v ( x )M ( x )dx EI (1) A wherein.

δun . δFn .6 Unit Displacement Method Consider a cantilever beam. Let δPv ... (1) × θC = ∫ 2.... Kharagpur = ∫ σ T δε δv .... which has been previously bent by virtual forces δF1 .. bending moment and shear force respectively at any section of the beam. δu2 ..5 − x ) dx 2 0 4 ⎡ 5 x 2 x3 ⎤ 62. 4 θB = EI 2.. u2 .. Consider a second δF1 .. apply unit virtual moment at C as shown in Fig 5..... M (x ) = 10(2. un be the corresponding displacements and P.5 D δM v ( x )M (x )dx EI (3) A θC = ∫ 10(2. F2 .5 = + ⎥ = ⎢6.. Fn . M and V be the stress resultants at section of the beam... From the principle of virtual displacements we have..5 (2) For evaluating rotation at C by unit load method.4 x ) dx EI 0 2.5 − x ) Substituting the values of M ( x) and δ M v ( x) in the equation (1).5 − x ) and δM v ( x ) = 0.5b.5 − x )(0.25 = − ⎥ = ⎢ EI ⎣ 2 3 ⎦0 3EI (4) 5..Now. Apply the first system of forces F1 ....4(2.5 4 ⎡ 2. δM v and δVv be the virtual axial force. F2 . which is in equilibrium under the action of a system of forces F1 .. ∑ F δu = ∫ j =1 j j V n M ( x )δM v ( x )ds EI (5.11) Version 2 CE IIT.. δF2 ... Hence... Fn on the beam....5 x 2 x3 ⎤ 31.. δFn causing virtual system of forces (virtual) displacements δu1 .25 x − EI ⎣ 2 3 ⎦0 3EI Rotation at C 2. Let u1 ..5 ∫ (2. δF2 .

..8) refers to internal virtual work done. Few problems have been solved to show the application of unit load method for calculating deflections in a structure.. n . (1) k12 = ∫ (δM v )1 M 2ds EI (5.. In that set u2 = 1 and the other all displacements ui = 0 (i = 1. Kharagpur .. It has been shown how the principle of virtual load leads to unit load method...11) becomes kij i.11). An expression for calculating deflections at any point of a structure (both statically determinate and indeterminate structure) is derived. un in the structure.e.. From equation (5...3. (δM v )1 is the internal virtual stress resultant for δu1 = 1 . The right hand side of equation (5. then choose δu1 = 1 and δui = 0 i = 2.13) The above equation is the statement of unit displacement method. For such a case the quantity F j in equation (5. Version 2 CE IIT.. The principle of virtual displacement states that the external virtual work of the real forces multiplied by virtual displacement is equal to the real stresses multiplied by virtual strains integrated over volume. Apply virtual displacement δu1 = 1 ...11) refers to the external virtual work done by the system of true/real forces moving through the corresponding virtual displacements of the system.. Let us say. Apply real displacements u1 . The above equation is more commonly used in the evaluation of stiffness co-efficient kij . n) .12) where. we get F1 = ∫ (δM v )1 Mds EI (5.The left hand side of equation (5. Transposing the above equation. it is required to evaluate F1 .. The terms internal virtual work and external virtual work has been explained and relevant expressions are also derived. Now according to unit displacement method. If the value of a particular force element is required then choose corresponding virtual displacement as unity.. (1) F1 = ∫ M (δM v )1 ds EI (5. one could write.14) Summary In this chapter the concept of virtual work is introduced and the principle of virtual work is discussed..3.. force at 1 due to displacement at 2.. Principle of virtual forces has been stated.

Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 6 Engesser’s Theorem and Truss Deflections by Virtual Work Principles Version 2 CE IIT.

Also. n ∂U * = ∑ a jk Fk = u j ∂Fj k =1 (6. State and prove Crotti-Engesser theorem.1) For the case of indeterminate structures this may be stated as.1) is nothing but the statement of Castigliano’s first theorem in terms of complementary strain energy.e. in case of linear structures) the equation (6. Kharagpur . 4. In the end. the reader will be able to: 1. we discussed the principle of virtual work and principle of virtual displacement. 2. which is more general than the Castigliano’s theorem.1 Introduction In the previous lesson.Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. 6. ∂U * =0 ∂F j (6. we derived unit – load method from the principle of virtual work and unit displacement method from the principle of virtual displacement. Version 2 CE IIT. few examples are solved to demonstrate the power of virtual work.2 Crotti-Engesser Theorem The Crotti-Engesser theorem states that the first partial derivative of the complementary strain energy U * expressed in terms of applied forces F j is ( ) equal to the corresponding displacement. 6. the unit load method is employed to calculate displacements of trusses due to external loading. In this lesson. 3. Compute deflections in trusses using unit-load method due to fabrication errors. is discussed. Initially the Engesser’s theorem.2) Note that Engesser’s theorem is valid for both linear and non-linear structures. When the complementary strain energy is equal to the strain energy (i. Derive equations for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to temperature loads. Derive simple expressions for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to mechanical loading using unit-load method.

3) Differentiating strain energy with respect to displacement.4) This is the statement of Castigliano’s second theorem.6) Version 2 CE IIT. dU * =u dF (6. Now the complementary energy is equal to the area enclosed by OABO.In the above figure the strain energy (area OACO) is not equal to complementary strain energy (area OABO) Area OACO = U = ∫ F du 0 u (6. Kharagpur . U * = ∫ u dF 0 F (6. dU =F du (6.5) Differentiating complementary strain energy with respect to force F .

u j are the actual deflections of the truss. the above equation coincides with the Castigliano’s first theorem given in equation (3. j + 1.This gives deflection in the direction of load. equation (5.. uj = ∑ i =1 m (δPv ) ij Pi Li Ei Ai (6.2. E . Kharagpur .7) may be written as.. (δPv ) ij is the internal virtual axial force in Pi ) Li is the total deformation of Ei Ai member i due to real loads....1 External Loading In case of a plane or a space truss. ∑ δF j u j = ∫ j =1 0 n L δPv Pds EA (6. and all other components of virtual forces δF j = 1 δ Pv is the virtual stress resultant in the frame due to the virtual load and ∫ L δFi (i = 1. If we represent total deformation by Δ i . A respectively represent length of the member. Hence.3 Unit Load Method as applied to Trusses 6. 6. the only internal forces present are axial as the external loads are applied at joints. j − 1. then member i due to unit virtual load at j and ( u j = ∑ (δPv ) ij Δ i i =1 m (6. In the above equation L. Also.. if the cross sectional area A of truss remains constant throughout.. 6.3. This in turn produces joint deflections in the truss. P ds 0 EA is the actual internal deformation of the frame due to real forces. the truss members either expand or shrink. then integration may be replaced by summation and hence equation (6.3. cross-sectional area of a member and modulus of elasticity of a member. Δ i is the true change in length of member i due to real loads. n) are zero.8) where m is the number of members.7) wherein.9) where.7) may be written as.2 Temperature Loading Due to change in the environmental temperature.8).. This may be Version 2 CE IIT. δ F j is the external virtual load. In the unit load method. When the load displacement relationship is linear.

Kharagpur . consider the virtual load system such that only a unit load is considered at the joint either in the horizontal or in the vertical direction. First. 2. using equation (6. the truss joint deflection is calculated by equation (6. In this case.9). Now. Δi = ei (6.8) is shown with the help of few problems.3. In such instances. Now. Δ i = αTLi (6. ei is the fabrication error in the length of the member. 3. evaluate the j-th joint deflection u j . the truss members are fabricated slightly longer or shorter in order to provide camber to the truss. also. 4. Here.9). then determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation Δ i = αTLi .9). ei is taken as positive when the member lengths are fabricated slightly more than the actual length otherwise it is taken as negative. Ei Ai Assume tensile forces as positive and compressive forces as negative. 6.4 Procedure for calculating truss deflection 1. the change in length of member Δ i is calculated from the relation. Li is the length of member and T is the temperature change.calculated by equation (6.3 Fabrication Errors and Camber Sometimes. Usually camber is provided in bridge truss so that its bottom chord is curved upward by an equal to its downward deflection of the chord when subjected to dead. Version 2 CE IIT. 6. calculate the real forces in the member of the truss either by method of joints or by method of sections due to the externally applied forces. The application of equation (6. If deflection of a joint needs to be calculated due to temperature change. there will be errors in fabricating truss members.10) where α is the co-efficient of thermal expansion member.11) where. In some cases. where the deflection is sought. From this PL determine the actual deformation ( Δ i ) in each member from the equation i i . Calculate virtual forces (δPv )ij in each member due to the applied unit load at the j-th joint.

To evaluate horizontal deflection at ‘C’. apply a unit load as shown in Fig 6. The given truss is statically determinate one.1 Find horizontal and vertical deflection of joint C of truss ABCD loaded as shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.2c and evaluate the virtual forces δPv in each member. Assume that. 6. arrows have been drawn indicating the direction in which the force in the member acts on the joint. At each end of the bar. The reactions are as shown in Fig 6.2b along with member forces which are determined by equations of static equilibrium. The magnitudes of internal forces are also shown in the respective figures. The tensile forces are shown as +ve and compressive forces are shown as –ve.2a. all members have the same axial rigidity.Example 6. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur . uc .Horizontal deflection at joint C is calculated with the help of unit load method. apply a unit load at the joint C as shown in Fig. The calculations are self explanatory. The whole calculations are shown in table 6.1. Version 2 CE IIT.6. 1 × u cH = ∑ (δPv ) ic Pi Li Ei Ai (1) For calculating horizontal deflection at C.2c. This may be stated as.

Table 6. a unit vertical load is applied at joint C of the truss as shown in Fig. Table 6. Kharagpur .m 0 0 60/AE 0 4 2 4 2 /AE 5 2 ∑ 2 40 2 /AE 60 + 40 2 AE (2) H (1)(u C ) →= 60 + 40 2 116.569 = AE AE (Towards right) Vertical deflection at joint C (δPvv ) ic Pi Li (3) E i Ai In this case. v 1× uc = ∑ 6.1 Computational details for horizontal deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 (δPv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN.2d.m 0 0 60/AE 0 0 60 AE (4) v (1)(u C ) ↓= 60 60 = AE AE Version 2 CE IIT.2 Computational details for vertical deflection at C Member units AB BC CD DA AC Length m 4 4 4 4 4 2 Li / Ai Ei m/kN 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4/AE 4 2 /AE Pi kN 0 0 -15 0 5 2 (δPvv ) i kN 0 0 -1 0 0 ∑ (Downwards) (δPv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai kN.

3a due to a) Applied loading as shown in figure. Kharagpur . Assume 1 α= per °C .Example 6. 6.00 × 10 5 N / mm 2 .2 Compute the vertical deflection of joint b and horizontal displacement of joint D of the truss shown in Fig. b) Increase in temperature of 250 C in the top chord BD. The cross sectional areas of the 75000 members in square centimeters are shown in parentheses. Version 2 CE IIT. E = 2.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .250 +0.76 0.12 0.416 +0.0 1.416 +0.05 0.562 +0.0 2.312 +0.0 2.187 -0.35 1.5 -67.5 +67.68 (10-3) kN.750 +0.38 -0.m 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ∑ Version 2 CE IIT.0 kN -112.0 1.5 +67.562 -0.937 +0.16 0.002 0 0 0 0 0 0 (δPvH )i Pi Li Ei Ai (δPvv ) i Δ ti (δPvH ) i Δ ti units aB ab bc Bc BD cD cd de De Bb Dd m (10-5) m/kN 5 3 3 5 6 5 3 3 5 4 4 1.0 1.The complete calculations are shown in the following table.5 +67.0 1.0 2.38 (10-3) kN.m 1.13 0.416 +0.2 Mem Li Li / Ai Ei Pi (δPvv ) i (δPvH ) i Δ ti = αtLi (δPvv ) i Pi Li Ei Ai m 0 0 0 0 0.68 0.312 -0.47 0 0 0.m 0 0 0 0 -1.750 -0.13 0.0 1.5 +37.416 0 0 (10-3) kN.250 -0.m -0.16 -0.12 0.5 -112.312 1 0 kN +0.5 +60.0 1. Table 6.5 +37.17 0.187 +0.51 0.13 (10-3) kN.47 0.13 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1.38 0.0 +60.562 +0.3 Computational details for example 6.500 +0.0 1.2 0 4.17 0.51 -0.5 +67.0 kN -0.

a) Vertical deflection of joint b Applying principle of virtual work as applied to an ideal pin jointed truss. ∑ δ Fj u j = ∑ j =1 i =1 1 m (δ Pv )ij PLi i Ei Ai (1) For calculating vertical deflection at b . v 1× ub = ∑ (δPvv ) i Pi Li E i Ai (2) 1) Due to external loads + 0.00438 m 1 KN = 4.00113m 1 KN t u b = 1.00068 m 1 KN = 0.68 mm → Version 2 CE IIT.13 mm ↑ b) Horizontal displacement of joint ‘D’ 1) Due to externally applied loads (δPvH ) i Pi Li =∑ E i Ai 1× u H u D →= H b + 0. Kharagpur . apply a unit virtual load δ Fb = 1 . Then the above equation may be written as.00438 KNm = 0.00068 KNm = 0.001125 KN .m = −0.38 mm ↓ 2) Due to change in temperature t (1)(u b ↓) = ∑ (δPvv ) i Δ ti u b ↓= t u b ↓= − 0.

The unit load method is applied statically determinate structure for calculating deflections when the truss is subjected to various types of loadings such as: mechanical loading.001m 1 KN Ht u D = 1. Kharagpur . temperature loading and fabrication errors.00 mm → Summary In this chapter the Crotti-Engessor’s theorem which is more general than the Castigliano’s theorem has been introduced.m = 0.001 KN . Version 2 CE IIT.2) Due to change in temperature Ht (1)(u D →) = ∑ (δPvH ) i Δ ti Ht u D →= 0.

Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 7 The Force Method of Analysis: An Introduction Version 2 CE IIT.

indeterminate structures are being widely used for its obvious merits. Version 2 CE IIT. In the analysis of indeterminate structure it is necessary to satisfy the equilibrium equations (implying that the structure is in equilibrium) compatibility equations (requirement if for assuring the continuity of the structure without any breaks) and force displacement equations (the way in which displacement are related to forces). In such structures. We have two distinct method of analysis for statically indeterminate structure depending upon how the above equations are satisfied: 1. the number of reactions or the number of internal forces exceeds the number of static equilibrium equations. the primary unknowns are the displacements. After determining the unknown displacements. In this method. in the case of indeterminate structures either the reactions or the internal forces cannot be determined from equations of statics alone. In the force method of analysis. Once the redundant forces are calculated. Kharagpur . In addition to equilibrium equations.Since twentieth century. In the displacement method of analysis. For example. the other forces are calculated satisfying the compatibility conditions and force displacement relations. primary unknown are forces. 7. the remaining reactions are evaluated by equations of equilibrium. compatibility equations are used to evaluate the unknown reactions and internal forces in statically indeterminate structure. The displacement-based method is amenable to computer programming and hence the method is being widely used in the modern day structural analysis.1a and Fig. flexibility matrix method) 2. In general. Solving these equations. consider two beams of identical cross section and span carrying uniformly distributed load as shown in Fig. Force method of analysis (also known as flexibility method of analysis. It may be recalled that. Displacement method of analysis (also known as stiffness matrix method).1b. In this method compatibility equations are written for displacement and rotations (which are calculated by force displacement equations). first force -displacement relations are computed and subsequently equations are written satisfying the equilibrium conditions of the structure. method of consistent deformation. redundant forces are calculated. the maximum deflection and the maximum stresses are small as compared to statically determinate structure. 7.

the ⎛ wL4 ⎞ deflection in the case of fixed. Version 2 CE IIT. 7. The simply supported beam in Fig. Kharagpur . the beam is fixed at both ends and thus is statically indeterminate.fixed beam is 12 8 (at the centre) in case of simply supported beam. In the first case. Due to support settlement. structure does not collapse suddenly. The maximum bending moment in case wL2 wL2 (which occurs at the supports) as compared to of fixed. Also in the present case.1b is a statically determinate structure. However.fixed beam ⎜ ⎜ 384 EI ⎟ is five times smaller than that ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 5wL4 ⎞ of simply supported beam ⎜ ⎜ 384 EI ⎟ . there is redistribution of stresses in the ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ case of redundant structure. The remaining members carry the load.The loads are also the same in both cases. there are disadvantages in using indeterminate structures. Also. Hence if one member fails. The determinate structural system collapses if one member fails.

Able to solve the problem by either treating reaction or moment as redundant. which is carrying uniformly distributed load of w kN/m. In this lesson. 2. To solve the above problem by force method proceeds as follows.there will be additional stresses in the case of redundant structures where as determinate structures are not affected by support settlement. C. Able to draw shear force and bending moment diagram for statically indeterminate beams. apart from sectional properties (area of cross section and moment of inertia). The flexibility method of analysis or force method of analysis (or method of consistent deformation) was originally developed by J. Version 2 CE IIT.2a. The analysis of indeterminate structure differs mainly in two aspects as compared to determinate structure. elastic properties are also required. 7. temperature change and fabrication errors etc. a) To evaluate stresses in indeterminate structures.e.2 Simple Example Consider a propped cantilever beam (of constant flexural rigidity EI . a table of formulas for deflections for various load cases and boundary conditions is also given in this lesson for ready use. and span L ). a general introduction is given to the force method of analysis of indeterminate structure is given. Able to analyse statically indeterminate structure of degree one. 7. Mohr in 1874. 3. this method would be applied to statically indeterminate beams. Able to state advantages and limitations of force method of analysis. Further. 7.. The force method of analysis is not convenient for computer programming as the choice of redundant is not unique. Since flexibility method requires deflection of statically determinate structure. The beam is statically indeterminate i. as shown in Fig. In the next lesson. 4. Kharagpur . Initially the method is introduced with the help of a simple problem and subsequently it is discussed in detail. the bandwidth of the flexibility matrix in the force method is much larger than the stiffness method. its reaction cannot be evaluated from equations of statics alone. b) Stresses are developed in indeterminate structure due to support settlements. Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be 1. However it is very useful for hand computation. Maxwell in 1864 and O.1 Introduction.

Subsequently. Selecting RB as the redundant. Identify the reaction.1) Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy. it will be shown how to attack the problem by treating M A as redundant. which can be treated as redundant in the analysis. In the present case RB or M A can be treated as redundant. Version 2 CE IIT. the procedure is illustrated. Kharagpur . In the present case it is one.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .1a) (7. 7. calculate the deflection at B due to unit load at B acting in the direction of RB and is denoted by (Δ B )2 as shown in In the present case the positive direction of redundant and deflections are assumed to act upwards. the deflection at B . express all other reactions in terms of the redundant RB . 4) The deflection at B of the released structure (cantilever beam. Hence. apply uniformly distributed load w and the redundant reaction RB as shown in Fig. in the present case) due to uniformly distributed load and due to redundant reaction RB could be easily computed from any one of the known methods (moment area method or unit load method).2b) From the principle of superposition. is the sum of deflection due to uniformly distributed load (Δ B )1 and deflection R B (Δ B )2 due to redundant RB . For the present case.2c. consider only uniformly distributed load and evaluate deflection at B .2a) (Δ B )2 = − (7. Releasing restraint in the present case amounts to removing the support at B . Since RB is redundant. Now on the resulting cantilever beam (please note that the released structure is statically determinate structure).2b. 7. Version 2 CE IIT. R A = wL − RB and MA = wL2 − RB L 2 (7. The released structure with the external loads is also sometimes referred as the primary structure. which is denoted by (Δ B )1 as shown in Fig. Thus. (Δ B )1 and (Δ B )2 are given by. This can be accomplished with the help of equilibrium equations. (Δ B ) . (Δ B )1 = − wL and 4 8 EI L3 3EI (7. However it is easier to compute deflection at B due to uniformly distributed load and RB in two steps.Solution with RB as the redundant 2) After selecting RB as redundant. First.1b) 3) Now release the restraint corresponding to redundant reaction RB .

in the original structure.2c) 5) It is observed that.4b) 7) Once the reaction components are determined. the bending moment and shear force at any cross section of the beam can be easily evaluated from equations of static equilibrium. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. RB = 3wL 8 (7.4a) R A = wL − (7. the value of RB is obtained as.3d) The displacement at B due to unit load acting at B in the direction of RB is known as the flexibility coefficient and is denoted in this course by a BB . in the above problem instead of RB one could choose M A as the redundant reaction. 7. Hence. in the force method the choice of redundant is arbitrary. MA = wL2 8 3wL 5wL = 8 8 (7. 6) Once RB is evaluated.3a) Solving the above equation.3b) Substituting values of (Δ B )1 and (Δ B )2 . Solution with M A as redundant 1) As stated earlier. Thus.Δ B = (Δ B )1 + RB (Δ B )2 (7.2e. In this section the above problem is solved by taking M A as redundant reaction. RB = − (Δ B )1 (Δ B )2 (7. Δ B = (Δ B )1 + R B (Δ B )2 = 0 (7. For the present case. the deflection at B is zero. other reaction components can be easily determined from equations of statics. Hence the compatibility equation can be written as. the bending moment and shear force diagram are shown in Fig. the redundant RB can be evaluated as.

Kharagpur .e.2) Now release (remove) the restraint corresponding to redundant reaction M A . calculate the slope at A due to unit moment acting at A in the direction of M A which is denoted by (θ A )2 as in Fig.3c. Version 2 CE IIT.3b and Fig. due to two different cases may be written as. Since M A is redundant.3c. 3) Calculate the slope at A due to external loading and redundant moment M A . i. Taking anticlockwise moment and anticlockwise rotations as positive. care must be taken to see that the released structure is stable and statically determinate.7. 7. First consider only uniformly distributed load (see Fig. While releasing the structure. 7. (θ A )1 from force displacement relations. 7. This is done in two steps as shown in Fig. the slope at A . This can be done by replacing the fixed support at A by a pin.3b) and compute slope at A .

6a) (7. Hence the required compatibility equation or geometric condition may be written as.5f) MA = 5) Now other reaction components can be evaluated using equilibrium equations. the value of M A is calculated as MA = − − wL3 L 24 EI 3EI wL2 8 (7. the slope at A .(θ A )1 = − (θ A )2 = wL3 24 EI (7. (θ A ) = (θ A )1 + M A (θ A )2 = 0 Solving for M A .5e) Substituting the values of (θ A )1 . it is seen that the slope at A is zero.5d) MA = − (θ A )1 (θ A )2 (7. RA = RB = 5wL 8 3wL 8 (7. and (θ A )2 in equation (7. Thus. Kharagpur . (7. θ A is the sum of slopes (θ A )1 due to external load and M A (θ A )2 due to redundant moment M A .5c) 4) From the geometry of the original structure.6b) Version 2 CE IIT.5e). Hence M A = (θ A )1 + M A (θ A )2 (7.5a) L 3EI (7.5b) From the principle of superposition.

In the last step.e. Step 2. beams. Version 2 CE IIT.3 Summary The force method of analysis may be summarized as follows. Step 3. apply a unit load in the direction of redundant force and determine the corresponding deflection. The compatibility conditions for the redundant internal forces are the continuity conditions. Identify the redundants that would be treated as unknowns in the analysis. It is applicable for all general type of loadings.7. Since the method of superposition is valid. This computed total deflection along the redundant action must be compatible with the actual boundary conditions of the original structure. if in the original structure. Step 4. In this step. Releasing the redundant reactions means removing constraint corresponding to that redundant reaction. the propped cantilever beam can be converted into a cantilever beam (statically determinate) by releasing the roller support. By choosing RB as the redundant. a simply supported beam) by turning the fixed support into a hinged one. the deflections due to redundant force can be obtained by simply multiplying the unknown redundant with the deflection obtained from applying unit value of force. The method of superposition or the force method as discussed above is applied to any type of structures. release the redundants one by one so that a statically determinate structure is obtained. That would be discussed further in subsequent lessons. If the redundant force is an internal one. then releasing the structure amounts to introducing discontinuity in the corresponding member. If there is more than one redundant force then one could construct a set of equations with redundant forces as unknowns and flexibility coefficients as coefficients of the equations. the indeterminate structure can be released into a determinate structure (i. Hence. Kharagpur . i. separately due to applied loading and redundant forces from force displacement relations. Now. calculate the total deflection due to applied loading and the redundant force by applying the principle of superposition. Determine the degree of statical indeterminacy of the structure. truss and frames or combination of these structures. evaluate all other reactions and internal forces from the equilibrium equations. The total number of equations equals the number of unknown redundants. calculate deflection corresponding to redundant action. Similarly by choosing moment as the redundant reaction. For example. either reactions RB or M A can be treated as unknown redundant.e. As in the above propped cantilever beam. the deflection corresponding to the redundant reaction is zero then the total deflection must be equal to zero. Step 1. Now. Deflection due to redundant force cannot be evaluated without knowing the magnitude of the redundant force.

However the students are strongly advised to practice deriving them instead of simply memorizing them.4. Version 2 CE IIT.The deflection of statically determinate structure can be obtained by unit-load method or by moment-area theorem or by any method known to the reader. 7. These values will be of help in solving the problems of the present and subsequent lessons. the deflections of few prismatic beams with different boundary conditions and subjected to simple loadings are given in Fig. Kharagpur . However.

7. Kharagpur . Assume EI to be constant for all members.5a.1 A continuous beam ABC is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 1 kN/m in addition to a concentrated load of 10 kN as shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.Example 7. Draw bending moment and shear force diagram.

Thus. 7.5b. ΔL = ΔL = −2083.It is observed that the continuous beam is statically indeterminate to first degree.17 EI (1) In the next step. This is accomplished by unit load method. apply a unit load at B in the direction of RBy (upwards) and calculate the deflection at B of the following structure.5c).67 a11 = = 48 EI EI Now. The primary structure is a simply supported beam as shown in Fig. L3 166. in the released structure due to uniformly distributed load and concentrated load. deflection at B in the primary structure due to redundant RB is. the compatibility equation may be written as Version 2 CE IIT.33 1145. Thus (see Fig.84 − EI EI −3229. Now. RBy as the redundant.7. compute the deflection at B. (2) ΔB = 166.67 × RB EI (3) In the actual structure. Hence. Kharagpur . the deflection at B is zero. Choose the reaction at B.

6a. (5) RB = 19.5e and Fig.17 166. Draw the bending moment and shear force diagrams by the force method.ΔL + ΔB = 0 Substituting for Δ L and Δ B in equation (4).375 kN The other two reactions are calculated by static equilibrium equations (vide Fig. (4) −3229. 7. Assume that the flexural rigidity of the beam. Version 2 CE IIT.8125 kN RB = 2.2 A propped cantilever beam AB is subjected to a concentrated load of 60 kN at 3m from end A as shown in Fig. 7. Kharagpur . Example 7.67 + RB = 0 EI EI Thus.5f respectively. 7. EI to be constant throughout.5d) RA = 7.8125 kN The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. 7.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .6b. After releasing the redundant. The cantilever beam with the applied loading is chosen in Fig 7. the determinate structure. R1 as the redundant. Choose the reaction at B .The given problem is statically indeterminate to first degree.6c) Version 2 CE IIT. The deflection of the released structure is. ( Δ L )1 = − 60 × 33 60 × 32 × 6 − 3EI 2 EI −2160 EI ( Δ L )1 = (1) The deflection at point B due to unit load applied in the direction of redundant R1 is (vide Fig 7. a cantilever beam in this case is obtained.

Hence. Version 2 CE IIT.6e respectively. Summary In this lesson flexibility matrix method or the method of consistent deformation or the force method of analysing statically indeterminate structures has been introduced with the help of simple problems.6d and Fig. Only simple indeterminate beam problem has been solved to illustrate the procedure. R1 = 2160 243 = 8.m (6) Shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. The principle of superposition has been used to solve statically indeterminate problems. the redundant R1 is obtained. the compatibility condition for the problem may be written as. − 2160 243R1 + =0 EI EI (4) Solving equation (4). Kharagpur . R2 = 51.11 kN R3 = 99.a11 = 93 243 = 3EI EI (2) Now the deflection at B due to redundant R1 is (Δ )1 = 243R1 EI (3) From the original structure it is seen that the deflection at B is zero.89 kN (5) The vertical reaction and fixed end moment at A can be determined from equations of statics. 7.99 kN. The advantages and limitations of flexibility matrix method have been discussed. 7. Thus.

Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 8 The Force Method of Analysis: Beams Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

2 Formalization of Procedure Towards this end. a general introduction to the force method of analysis is given. a general procedure for analyzing statically indeterminate beams is discussed.1a. Version 2 CE IIT. then the approach presented in the previous example needs to be organized properly. 2. consider a two-span continuous beam as shown in Fig. the beam is statically indeterminate to second degree. To compute internal resisting bending moment at any section of the continuous beam. To compute reactions at all the supports. which are statically indeterminate to first degree. which need be released to make the beam statically determinate.1 Introduction In the last lesson. In the present lesson. 8. 8. The flexural rigidity of this continuous beam is assumed to be constant and is taken as EI . it is required to identify two redundant reaction components. Since. 3. 4. Kharagpur . Only. 8. beams.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. If the structure is statically indeterminate to a degree more than one. To solve the problem in matrix notation. were considered. Solve statically indeterminate beams of degree more than one.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

The deflection of primary structure at B and C due to applied loading is denoted by (Δ L )1 and (Δ L )2 respectively. 8. a 22 as shown in Fig 8.1d.8. However. the subscript 1 and 2 represent. it is required to know deflection of the released structure at B and C due to external loading and due to redundants. (Δ R )11 = a11 (Δ R )21 = a 21 R1 R1 (8. it should be kept in mind that the positive sense of the redundant can be chosen arbitrarily. In the present and subsequent lessons of this module. a12 and deflection at C . For writing compatibility equations at B and C .1b) In fact.1b. The released structure (statically determinate structure) with applied loading is shown in Fig. The deflection at B and C due to external loading can be computed easily.3b) Version 2 CE IIT.2b) In the second step. apply unit load in the direction of redundant R2 and compute deflection at B (point 1).1a) (Δ L )2 = − 7 wL 24 EI (8. Since redundants R1 and R2 are not known. as shown in Fig. Now deflections at B and C of the given released structure due to redundant R1 are. The deflection of the point of application of the redundant should likewise be considered positive when acting in the same sense.1c. locations of redundant reactions released. the deflections and the reactions are taken to be positive in the upward direction. Kharagpur . Throughout this module (Δ L )i notation is used to denote deflection at i th redundant due to applied loads on the determinate structure. In the present case R A (= R1 ) and RB (= R2 ) respectively. and deflection.2a) (8.The redundant reactions at A and B are denoted by R1 and R2 respectively. It may be recalled that the flexibility coefficient a ij is the deflection at i due to unit value of force applied at j .3a) (8. a 21 at C . (Δ L )1 = − wL 4 8 EI − 4 7 PL3 12 EI − 27 PL3 16 EI (8. in the first step apply a unit load in the direction of R1 and compute deflection. a11 at B . Now deflections of the primary structure (released structure) at B and C due to redundant R2 is (Δ R )12 = a12 (Δ R )22 = a 22 R2 R2 (8.

[ A] = ⎢a ⎨ ⎬ L 1 L 1 (8.5a) (8. Δ 1 = (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 Δ 2 = (Δ L )2 + a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 (8.4a) represents the total displacement at B and is obtained by superposition of three terms: 1) Deflection at B due to actual load acting on the statically determinate structure. one could obtain the values of redundants. the compatibility condition can be written as. From the physics of the problem.5b) The equation (8. Kharagpur . The second equation (8. 2) Displacement at B due to the redundant reaction R1 acting in the positive direction at B (point 1) and 3) Displacement at B due to the redundant reaction R2 acting in the positive direction at C .5b) may be written in matrix notation as follows. ⎧( Δ ) ⎫ ⎡a {( Δ ) } = ⎪( Δ ) ⎪ . Δ 1 = (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 Δ 2 = (Δ L )2 + a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 = 0 (8.4a) (8.7) Version 2 CE IIT. in the actual structure. Now the total deflections at B and C of the primary structure due to applied external loading and redundants R1 and R2 is.4b) similarly represents the total deflection at C . the deflections at joints B and C is zero.It is observed that. {R} = −[A]−1 {Δ L } (8.5a) and (8.6a) {(Δ L )1 } + [A]{R} = {0} In which.4b) The equation (8.6b) 11 21 ⎪ ⎩ L 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ a12 ⎤ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎥ and {R} = ⎨ R ⎬ a22 ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ Solving the above set of algebraic equations. ⎧ (Δ L )1 ⎫ ⎡ a11 + ⎨ (Δ L )2 ⎬ ⎢a 21 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ a12 ⎤ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ a 22 ⎥ ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎩0⎭ ⎦ (8. R1 and R2 .

the structure is indeterminate to second degree and the size of flexibility matrix is 2 × 2 .8d) The flexibility matrix is determined from referring to figures 8. In equation (8. (Δ L )1 = − wL (Δ L )2 4 8 EI − 7 wL4 17 wL4 =− 12 EI 24 EI (8.8b) 7 wL4 27 wL4 95wL4 =− − =− 24 EI 16 EI 48EI (8.8c) The negative sign indicates that both deflections are downwards.8f) The flexibility matrix can be written as. then the flexibility matrix is of the order n × n . In the above example. Kharagpur .8g) Version 2 CE IIT. the deflections are.In the above equation the vectors {Δ L } contains the displacement values of the primary structure at point 1 and 2. Then.1d.1a.1a) and (8. if the structure is redundant to a degree n . [A] is the flexibility matrix and {R} is column vector of redundants required to be evaluated. [A] = L3 6 EI ⎡2 5 ⎤ ⎢5 16⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (8. 8.7) the inverse of the −1 flexibility matrix is denoted by [A] .1c and 8. Thus. In general.1b) respectively.8a) Now. with loading as given below w=w. when the unit load corresponding to R1 is acting at B . Hence the vector {Δ L } is given by wL4 {Δ L } = − 48 EI ⎧34⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ⎩95⎭ (8. a12 = 5L3 . consider the problem given in Fig. 6 EI a 22 = 8L3 3EI (8.8e) Similarly when the unit load is acting at C . To demonstrate the procedure to evaluate deflection. P = wL (8. a11 = L3 . 3EI a 21 = 5 L3 6 EI (8. the deflection (Δ L )1 and (Δ L )2 of the released structure can be evaluated from the equations (8.

Assume EI to be constant throughout. Thus. [A]−1 = 6 EI ⎡ 3 ⎢ 16 − 5⎤ ⎥ 7 L ⎣− 5 2 ⎦ (8. ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6 EI wL4 ⎨ ⎬= 3 × ⎩ R2 ⎭ 7 L 48 EI Hence.8h) Now using equation (8. Thus. the other reaction components can be evaluated by static equations of equilibrium. R1 = ⎡ 16 − 5⎤ ⎧34⎫ ⎢− 5 2 ⎥ ⎨95⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8.8i) 69 20 wL and R2 = wL 56 56 Once the redundants are evaluated. 8. Example 8.2a. Version 2 CE IIT.7) the redundants are evaluated. Kharagpur .1 Calculate the support reactions in the continuous beam ABC due to loading as shown in Fig.The inverse of the flexibility matrix can be evaluated by any of the standard method.

16 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ⎩2311. 8. In this case the primary structure is a cantilever beam AC . R1 = 10.875⎭ (5) Substituting the value of E and I in the above equation.75 ⎣− 312. since the given beam is statically indeterminate to second degree. the deflections (Δ L )1 . (Δ L )1 = − 819.771 kN and R4 = −0. and (Δ L )2 of the released structure at B and C can be readily calculated by moment-area method.2b. a11 = a12 = 125 3EI 625 6 EI a 21 = 625 6 EI 1000 3EI a 22 = (2) In the actual problem the displacements at B and C are zero.609kN Using equations of static equilibrium. Thus the compatibility conditions for the problem may be written as. In the present case.16 and (Δ L )2 EI 2311.620 kN R3 = 0. The primary structure with a given loading is shown in Fig.m Version 2 CE IIT. and R2 = 3. Thus.5 ⎧ 819. at B(R1 ) and C (R2 ) as redundants. a11 R1 + a12 R2 + (Δ L )1 = 0 a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 + (Δ L )2 = 0 (3) ⎧ R1 ⎫ 3EI ⎡ 1000 − 312.755 kN.5⎤ 1 × ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ 125 ⎥ EI ⎦ ⎩ R2 ⎭ 27343.875 =− EI (1) For the present problem the flexibility matrix is.Select two reactions viz. Kharagpur .

calculate deflection at B due to only applied loading. The positive directions of the selected redundants are shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.3b.m . Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams by force method. 8. Kharagpur . Select vertical reaction (R1 ) and the support moment (R2 ) at B as the redundants. The beam is subjected to a uniform distributed load of w kN/m and a central concentrated moment M = wL2 kN.2 A clamped beam AB of constant flexural rigidity is shown in Fig. Let (Δ L )1 be the transverse deflection at B and (Δ L )2 be the slope at B due to external loading. 8.3a. Now. The primary structure in this case is a cantilever beam which could be obtained by releasing the redundants R1 and R2 . The R1 is assumed to be positive in the upward direction and R2 is assumed to be positive in the counterclockwise direction.Example 8.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

8. 8. one could evaluate flexibility coefficients a12 and a 22 as shown in Fig. Thus. L3 a11 = 3EI L2 and a 21 = 2 EI (4) Similarly.The deflection (Δ L )1 and (Δ L )2 of the released structure can be evaluated from unit load method.3c. Version 2 CE IIT. (Δ L )1 = − wL 4 8EI − 3wL4 wL4 =− 8EI 2 EI (1) and (Δ L )2 = − wL 3 6 EI − wL3 2 wL3 =− 2 EI 3EI (2) The negative sign indicates that clockwise. Kharagpur . [A] = L ⎡2 L2 ⎢ 6 EI ⎣ 3L 3L ⎤ ⎥ 6⎦ (6) The inverse of flexibility matrix is formulated as. Thus. Hence the vector {Δ L } is given by (Δ L )1 is downwards and rotation (Δ L )2 is wL3 {Δ L } = − 6 EI ⎧3L ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ⎩4⎭ (3) The flexibility matrix is evaluated by first applying unit load along redundant R1 and determining the deflections a11 and a 21 corresponding to redundants R1 and R2 respectively (see Fig. a12 = L2 2 EI and a 22 = L EI (5) Now the flexibility matrix is formulated as.3d). applying unit load in the direction of redundant R2 .

7). Kharagpur . − 3L ⎤ ⎛ wL3 ⎞⎧3L ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6 EI ⎡ 6 ⎟⎨ ⎬ =− 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ×⎜− 3L ⎣− 3L 2 L2 ⎦ ⎜ 6 EI ⎟⎩ 4 ⎭ ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎠ ⎝ = w ⎧ 6L ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎩− L2 ⎭ R1 = 2wL and R2 = − wL2 3 (7) The other two reactions ( R3 and R4 ) can be evaluated by equations of statics. Few illustrative examples are solved to illustrate the procedure. statically indeterminate beams of degree more than one is solved systematically using flexibility matrix method.3g and Fig.8. 8. Towards this end matrix notation is adopted. Summary In this lesson. After analyzing the continuous beam.3h respectively. Version 2 CE IIT. Hence. Thus.[A]−1 = 6 EI ⎡ 3 ⎢ − 3L ⎤ 6 ⎥ 3L ⎣− 3L 2 L2 ⎦ The redundants are evaluated from equation (8. wL2 R4 = M A = − and R1 = R A = − wL (8) 6 The bending moment and shear force diagrams are shown in Fig. reactions are calculated and bending moment diagrams are drawn.

Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 9 The Force Method of Analysis: Beams (Continued) Version 2 CE IIT.

Analyse continuous beams which are supported on yielding supports. assumed in the analysis that the supports are unyielding and the temperature remains constant. the force method of analysis of statically indeterminate beams subjected to external loads was discussed. Kharagpur . The whole structure displaces as a rigid body (see Fig. 4. 9. 9. It may be observed here that.1 Introduction In the last lesson. Sketch the deflected shape of the member.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. It is however. Hence. Calculate additional stresses developed in statically indeterminate structures due to support settlements. in case of determinate structures no stresses are developed due to settlement of supports. it is required to make necessary provision for future unequal vertical settlement of supports or probable rotation of supports. In the design of indeterminate structure. Draw banding moment and shear force diagrams for indeterminate beams undergoing support settlements.1). 2. 3. construction of determinate structures is easier than indeterminate structures. Version 2 CE IIT.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

In this lesson few problems. and (Δ L )1 . It is assumed that deflections and reactions are positive in the upward direction. choosing reaction at B and C as the redundant. Version 2 CE IIT. 9.2b) Δ2 = 0 It must be noted that. as shown in Fig. when there was no support settlement (vide section 8.1a) (9. From the physics of the problem the total deflection at the support may be equal to the given amount of support movement. which is statically indeterminate to second degree. R1 and R2 are the redundants at B and C respectively. Since. support settlement can also be easily included in the force method of analysis. concerning the effect of support settlement are solved to illustrate the procedure. the compatibility condition may be written as. Δ1 = (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 Δ 2 = (Δ L )2 + a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 (9. 9. Hence.2.2.2). the support B is assumed to have settled by an amount Δ b as shown in the figure. these forces form a balanced force system by themselves and the structure would be in equilibrium.The statically determinate structure changes their shape due to support settlement and this would in turn induce reactions and stresses in the system. In the present case. the support B settles by an amount Δ b in the direction of the redundant R1 .1b) wherein. and (Δ L )2 are the deflections of the primary structure at B and C due to applied loading.2a) (9. Δ1 = −Δ b (9. Kharagpur . the support settlement Δ b must be negative as it is displaces downwards. In this example. Assume the flexural rigidity of this beam to be constant throughout. This problem was solved in the last lesson. the total deflection of the primary structure due to applied external loading and redundant R1 and R2 is written as.1a) and (9. The equation (9. The effect of temperature changes. In section 8.2 Support Displacements Consider a two span continuous beam. there is no external force system acting on the structures. This support movement can be readily incorporated in the force method of analysis.1b) may be written in compact form as.

Δ T is the change in the length of the member due to temperature change.3.3a) [A]{R} = {Δ}− {(Δ L )} (9. then the length of the member is increased by an amount ΔT = α L T (9.3 Temperature Stresses Internal stresses are also developed in the statically indeterminate structure if the free movement of the joint is prevented.⎡ a11 ⎢a ⎣ 21 a12 ⎤ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ Δ1 ⎫ ⎧ (Δ L )1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬−⎨ ⎬ a 22 ⎥ ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎩Δ 2 ⎭ ⎩(Δ L )2 ⎭ ⎦ (9. α is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material and T is the change in temperature. 9.3b) Solving the above algebraic equations.5(a) and (b). The deformation of this small element is shown in Fig. 9. the bottom fibers elongate by Δ T2 = α T2 dx (9. subjected to a different temperature. For example. This would develop an internal axial force and reactions in the indeterminate structure. Consider a small element dx at a distance x from A .5a) Similarly due to rise in temperature T2 . Kharagpur .4. one could evaluate redundants R1 and R2 due to external loading and support settlement. Next consider a cantilever beam AB . 9. Due to rise in temperature T1 °C on the top surface. 9. the top surface elongates by Δ T1 = α T1 dx (9. then the beam will deform as shown by dotted lines. However if the end B is restrained to move as shown in Fig 9. if the temperature of the member is increased uniformly throughout its length. T1 at the top and T2 at the bottom as shown in Fig.5b) Version 2 CE IIT. Now. then the beam deformation is prevented.5c. consider a cantilever beam AB as shown in Fig. If the top temperature T1 is higher than the bottom beam surface temperature T2 .4) In which. The elongation (the change in the length of the member) and increase in temperature are taken as positive.

Now the compatibility equation for statically indeterminate structure of order two can be written as ⎡ a11 ⎢a ⎣ 21 a12 ⎤ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ Δ1 ⎫ ⎧ (Δ L )1 ⎫ ⎧ (Δ T )1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬−⎨ ⎬−⎨ ⎬ a22 ⎥ ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎩Δ 2 ⎭ ⎩(Δ L )2 ⎭ ⎩(Δ T )2 ⎭ ⎦ [A]{R} = {Δ}− {(Δ L )}− {(ΔT )} wherein. due to vertical settlement of the support B by 5 mm as shown in the figure.1 Calculate the support reactions in the continuous beam ABC (see Fig. {Δ L } is the vector of displacements in the primary corresponding to redundant reactions due to external loads. Kharagpur . (9. Equation (9. 9.6a) having constant flexural rigidity EI throughout. d is the depth of beam. Version 2 CE IIT. then the differential change in temperature would develop support bending moment and reactions. Calculate the deflection corresponding to redundant actions separately due to applied loading. This is done as follows. E = 200 GPa and I = 4 × 10−4 m 4 . the relative angle of rotation dθ between two cross sections at a distance dx is given by dθ = α (T1 − T2 )dx d (9. Example 9.7) structure is the {ΔT } displacements in the primary structure corresponding to redundant reactions and due to temperature changes and {Δ} is the matrix of support displacements corresponding to redundant actions. The effect of temperature can also be included in the force method of analysis quite easily. 9. The deflection in the primary structure due to temperature changes is denoted by (Δ T )i which denotes the deflection corresponding to i th redundant due to temperature change in the determinate structure.7) can be solved to obtain the unknown redundants. If the end B is fixed as in Fig.4.6) where. due to rise in temperature (either uniform or differential change in temperature) and redundant forces.As the cross section of the member remains plane.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

e. upwards. a11 = a 21 = 53 125 = 3EI 3EI 125 25 625 + ×5 = 3EI 2 EI 6 EI (1) Simply by applying the unit load in the direction of redundant R2 . 9.6b.6c). The first column of flexibility matrix is evaluated by first applying unit load along the redundant R1 and determining deflections a11 and a 21 respectively as shown in Fig. 9. choose reaction at B ( R1 ) and C ( R2 ) as the redundants.5 ⎭ (5) Substituting the values of E and I in the above equation.71 kN R1 acts downwards and R2 acts in the positive direction of the reaction i. The remaining two reactions R3 and R4 are evaluated by the equations of equilibrium. one could evaluate flexibility coefficients a12 and a 22 (see Fig. On the determinate beam only redundant reactions are acting. Kharagpur . R1 = −43. −3 ⎧ R1 ⎫ −1 ⎧− 5 × 10 ⎫ = [A] ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 0 ⎩ R2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (4) ⎧ R1 ⎫ 3EI ⎡ 1000 − 312. Version 2 CE IIT. a11 R1 + a12 R2 = −5 × 10 −3 (3) a21 R1 + a22 R2 = 0 The redundant reactions are. the redundant reactions are evaluated.As the given beam is statically indeterminate to second degree. In this case the cantilever beam AC is the basic determinate beam (primary structure). a12 = 625 6 EI and a 22 = 1000 3EI (2) The compatibility condition for the problem may be written as.5⎤ ⎧− 5 × 10 −3 ⎫ = ×⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 125 ⎥ ⎩ 0 ⎦ ⎩ R2 ⎭ 27343.885 kN and R2 = 13.75 ⎣− 312.

325 kN.005 m vertically downwards. Assume. Version 2 CE IIT. E = 200GPa .175 kN y = 0 ⇒ R1 + R2 + R3 = 0 ∑M Solving for R4 .2 Compute reactions and draw bending moment diagram for the continuous beam ABCD loaded as shown in Fig. due to following support movements. 9.6d and 9.∑F Hence R3 = 30. A = 0 ⇒ R4 + 5 × R1 + 10 × R2 = 0 R4 = 82. Kharagpur .6e respectively.m (counter clockwise) The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Figs. Support C . 9.35 × 10 −3 m 4 . I = 1.7a. 0. Support B .01 m vertically downwards. Example 9. 0.

Select vertical reactions at B(R1 ) and C (R2 ) as redundants.7b. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .The given beam is statically indeterminate to second degree. The primary structure in this case is a simply supported beam AD as shown in Fig. Thus. The deflection (Δ L )1 and (Δ L )2 of the released structure are evaluated from unit load method. 9.

⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎡ 444.33 × 10 EI = −0.159⎭ (4) Substituting the value of E and I in the above equation.44 EI 388. Thus.44 ⎦ ⎩0.89 444.169 m 200 × 10 9 × 1. i.(Δ L )1 = − 45833.164⎫ EI ⎨ ⎬= ⎬ ⎢ ⎥×⎨ ⎩ R2 ⎭ 46291.44 − 388.33 × 10 EI 3 = − 45833.005 (3) − 0. by first applying unit load corresponding to the redundant R1 and determining deflections a11 and a 21 respectively as shown in Fig.174 kN Version 2 CE IIT.48 ⎣− 388. − 0.169 m (1) The flexibility matrix is evaluated as explained in the previous example.89⎤ ⎧0. R1 = 64.44 EI a 21 = 388.169 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = −0.e. a11 = 444. 9.33 × 10 3 = −0.01 Solving for redundant reactions.7c.89 EI In this case the compatibility equations may be written as.48kN and R2 = 40. Kharagpur .89 EI (2) a 22 = a12 = 444.35 × 10 −3 3 (Δ L )2 = − 45833.169 + a21 R1 + a22 R2 = −0.

Version 2 CE IIT.724 kN ∑F Hence y =0 R3 + R1 + R2 + R4 − 5 × 30 = 0 (5) R3 = 18. ∑M Hence A =0 10 × R1 + 20 × R2 + 30 × R4 − 5 × 30 ×15 = 0 R4 = 26.622 kN The shear force and bending moment diagrams are now constructed and are shown in Figs. Kharagpur . 9.7e and 9.7f respectively. The remaining two reactions R3 and R4 are evaluated by the equations of static equilibrium.Both R1 and R2 acts in the upward direction.

A formula is derived for calculating stresses due to temperature changes in the case of statically indeterminate beams. the effect of support settlements on the reactions and stresses in the case of indeterminate structures is discussed. Kharagpur . The procedure to calculate additional stresses caused due to yielding of supports is explained with the help of an example. Version 2 CE IIT.Summary In this lesson.

Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 10 The Force Method of Analysis: Trusses Version 2 CE IIT.

j and r are number of members. Whenever. All the members have same axial rigidity. Version 2 CE IIT. The indeterminacy in the truss may be external.1a by force method. Example 10. A planar truss is said to be externally indeterminate if the number of reactions exceeds the number of static equilibrium equations available (three in the present case) and has exactly (2 j − 3) members.1) where m. However. the resulting truss is statically determinate and stable. the degree of indeterminacy can be determined from inspection. Analyse the planar truss for camber and lack of fit of a member. Analyse the planar truss for temperature loads 4.3). 10.10. internal or both. In the simple planar truss structures. Following examples illustrate the analysis procedure.1 Determine the forces in the truss shown in Fig. joints and unknown reaction components respectively. Calculate degree of statical indeterminacy of a planar truss 2. Select redundant as the reaction component in excess of three and the rest from the member forces. one could use the following formula to evaluate the static indeterminacy of static planar truss (see also section 1. Identify the number of redundant reactions equal to the degree of indeterminacy. Analyse the indeterminate planar truss for external loads 3.1 Introduction The truss is said to be statically indeterminate when the total number of reactions and member axial forces exceed the total number of static equilibrium equations. The basic method for the analysis of indeterminate truss by force method is similar to the indeterminate beam analysis discussed in the previous lessons. i = (m + r ) − 2 j (10. one could choose redundant actions completely from member forces.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Finally a truss is both internally and externally indeterminate if it has more than three reaction components and also has more than (2 j − 3) members. A truss is said to be internally indeterminate if it has exactly three reaction components and more than (2 j − 3) members. Kharagpur . Determine the degree of static indeterminacy of the structure. this becomes tedious. The redundants must be so selected that when the restraint corresponding to the redundants are removed.

The cut redundant member AD remains in the truss as its deformations need to be included in the calculation of displacements in the released structure. Select the bar force FAD in member AD as the redundant. Kharagpur .1a is statically indeterminate to first degree. 10.The plane truss shown in Fig. The redundant (FAD ) consists of the pair of forces acting on the released structure.10.1b. The truss is externally determinate i. Version 2 CE IIT. Now cut the member AD to obtain the released structure as shown in Fig.e. the reactions can be evaluated from the equations of statics alone.

Version 2 CE IIT. RCy = −5 kN (downwards) RCx = −5 kN (downwards) RDy = 15 kN(upwards) (1) Please note that the member tensile axial force is taken as positive and horizontal reaction is taken as positive to the right and vertical reaction is taken as positive when acting upwards. This can be readily done by unit-load method. The first step in the force method is to calculate displacement (Δ L ) corresponding to redundant bar force FAD in the released structure due to applied external loading.Evaluate reactions of the truss by static equations of equilibrium. Kharagpur . When the member cut ends are displaced towards one another then it is taken as positive.

03 = AE Li AE (2) In the next step. Δ L = ∑ Pi (Pv )i 103. Thus. Version 2 CE IIT. 10. apply external load and calculate member forces (Pi ) as shown in Fig.1b and apply unit virtual load along FAD and calculate member forces (Pv )i (see Fig. a11 = ∑ (Pv )i 2 Li Ai Ei (3) 24. 10. Thus.142 = AE The compatibility condition of the problem is that the relative displacement Δ L of the cut member AD due to external loading plus the relative displacement of the member AD caused by the redundant axial forces must be equal to zero i.e. apply a real unit load along the redundant FAD and calculate displacement a11 by unit load method.1c).To calculate displacement (Δ L ) . Kharagpur .

2 Calculate reactions and member forces of the truss shown in Fig. 10.142 = −4. Assume E = 2.0 × 10 5 N/mm 2 .268 5 2 5 2 5 2 0 − 1/ 2 − 1/ 2 1 1 Total 5 / 2 AE 5 / 2 AE 5 2 / AE 5 2 / AE 24.803 -4. Table 10.017 3.983 3.03 24. Thus.1 Computation for example 10.1 Member Length Forces in Forces in the the Li released released truss due truss due to applied to unit loading load (Pv )i Pi m kN kN AB 5 0 − 1/ 2 BD 5 -15 − 1/ 2 DC CA CB AD 5 5 0 0 Pi (Pv )i Li AE (Pv )i2 Li Ai Ei Pi + FAD (Pv )i Fi = m 0 75 / 2 AE 0 0 50 / AE 0 103. Kharagpur .017 -11.Δ L + a11 FAD = 0 FAD = −103.2a by force method.03 AE m/kN 5 / 2 AE 5 / 2 AE kN 3. Fi = Pi + FAD (Pv )i (5) The complete calculations can be done conveniently in a tabular form as shown in the following table.268 kN(compressive) (4) Now the member forces in the members can be calculated by method of superposition. Version 2 CE IIT.142 AE Example 10. The cross sectional areas of the members in square centimeters are shown in parenthesis.017 2.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

10.2c and the table). The member axial forces and reactions of the released truss are shown in Fig. Δ L = ∑ Pi ( Pv )i = 15 ×10 −4 Li Ai Ei m (1) Version 2 CE IIT. Now calculate the displacement Δ L corresponding to redundant reaction REx in the released structure. Releasing the redundant (replacing the hinge at E by a roller support) a stable determinate truss is obtained as shown in Fig.10.2a is externally indeterminate to degree one. This can be conveniently done in a table (see Figs. Select the horizontal reaction at E .2b. 10.2b. 10. Kharagpur .2b.The plane truss shown in Fg. 10. Truss is internally determinate. Hence from the table. REx as the redundant.

25 -68.75 41.00 -6.75 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 5 5 5 5 3. along the redundant reaction REx and calculate the displacement a11 using unit load method. Kharagpur .375 3.50 0.375 4. Hence the total displacement at E must vanish.75 3.25 41.In the next step apply a unit load.2d.25 -7.25 -6.2 Member Li Ai Ei m AB BC CD DE FG FB GD AF FC CG GE 3 3 3 3 6 4 4 5 5 5 5 (10 ) kN 5 Forces in the released truss due to applied loading Pi kN 33. Δ L + a11 FAD = 0 (3) 15 × 10 −4 + 4 × 10 −5 REx = 0 15 × 10−4 REx = − 4 ×10−5 = −37.25 6.25 6.75 -7.75 3. a11 = ∑ ( Pv )i 2 Li Ai Ei (2) = 4 × 10−5 m The support at E is hinged. 10.125 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Version 2 CE IIT.5 kN(towards left) The actual member forces and reactions are shown in Fig.5 0 0 -6. Table 10.125 4.75 33.00 0. Thus.25 -6.2 Numerical computation for example 10.75 Forces in the released truss due to unit load (Pv )i kN +1 +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Pi (Pv )i Li AE (Pv )i2 Li Ai Ei Pi + FAD (Pv )i Fi = (10 )m −4 (10 ) m/Kn −5 kN -3.25 -68.75 -3.

Choose horizontal reaction at D (R1 ) and the axial force in member EC (R2 ) as redundant actions.Example 10. The cross sectional areas of the members in square centimeters are shown in parenthesis.3 Determine the reactions and the member axial forces of the truss shown in Fig.3a by force method due to external load and rise in temperature of member FB by 40°C .0 × 105 N/mm 2 per °C . 10. a stable determinate truss is obtained as shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.10. Releasing the restraint against redundant actions. Kharagpur . Assume E = 2. The truss has both internal and external indeterminacy. and α = 1 75000 The given truss is indeterminate to second degree.3b.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Table 10. Fig.000 0. Kharagpur .000 8.8 0 -0.000 0.33 ×10−4 ( Δ L )2 = −8.8 -0.000 0.6 0 +1 0 +1 Pi (Pv )i Li AE Pi (Qv )i Li AE (10 )m −4 (10 )m −4 3 3 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 5.000 0.000 0.000 -3.125 0.000 0.000 0. 10.000 21.333 0.000 0.3d and the accompanying table) Version 2 CE IIT.333 8.000 2.3c and Fig.000 -6.742 ×10−4 m (towards right) m (shortening) (1) In the next step.6 -0.000 0.000 -8.742 Deflection of the released structure along redundant R1 and R2 respectively are.3a Deflection due to external loading Member Li Ai Ei m AB BC CD EF EB FC AE BF FD EC 4 4 4 4 3 3 5 5 5 5 (10 ) kN 5 Forces in the released truss due to applied loading Pi kN 40 60 60 -20 15 0 -25 -25 -75 0 Forces in the released truss due to unit load (Pv )i kN +1 +1 +1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total Forces in the released truss due to unit load (Qv )i kN 0 -0.133 -1. 10. ( Δ L )1 = 21. compute the flexibility coefficients (ref.400 0.350 0.

286 0.333 0.000 -0.000 0.000 1.136 kN (tensile) (3) The actual member forces and reactions in the truss are shown in Fig 10. Version 2 CE IIT.853 0.250 0.000 0.000 1.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total (Pv )i2 −5 Li Ai Ei (Qv )i kN 0. (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 (Δ L )2 + a21 R1 + a22 R2 = 0 Solving R1 = −51. compute deflections corresponding to redundants due to rise in temperature in the member FB .540 0.600 -0.800 0. the change in length of member FB is.067 0.3c.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.540 0. Now.00 +1.000 0.Table 10.000 0.333 1.73 kN (towards left) and R2 = 6.000 (10 ) m/kN (10 ) m/kN 0. Kharagpur .000 0.000 0.000 -1.600 0.000 0.064 × 10 −5 a 22 = 5.000 -0.000 0.333 1.286 × 10 −5 (2) Analysis of truss when only external loads are acting The compatibility conditions of the problem may be written as. Due to rise in temperature.000 0.853 0.000 0.000 4.800 -0.000 0.000 0. a11 = 4 × 10 −5 a12 = a 21 = −1.000 0.000 1.3b Computation of flexibility coefficients Member Li Ai Ei (Pv )i kN +1.000 (Qv )i2 −5 Li Ai Ei (Pv )i (Qv )i −5 Li AE m AB BC CD EF EB FC AE BF FD EC 4 4 4 4 3 3 5 5 5 5 (10 ) kN 5 (10 ) m/kN 1.00 +1.250 5.064 3 3 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 Thus.000 -1.

26 kN (compressive) (6) The actual member forces and reactions are shown in Fig. the compatibility equations can be written as.3f Version 2 CE IIT. 10.ΔT = α T L (4) = 1 × 40 × 5 = 2. (Δ L )1 + (Δ T )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 (Δ L )2 + (Δ T )2 + a21 R1 + a22 R2 = 0 Solving R1 = −65. the deflections corresponding to redundants R1 and R2 are (Δ T )1 = ∑ (Pv )i (Δ T )i = 0 (5) (Δ T )2 = ∑ (Qv )i (Δ T )i = 2.67 × 10 −3 m 75000 Due to change in temperature.67 ×10 −3 m When both external loading and temperature loading are acting When both temperature loading and the external loading are considered. Kharagpur .92 kN(towards left) and R2 = −47.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Summary In this lesson. the flexibility matrix method is used to analyse statically indeterminate planar trusses. The equation to calculate the degree of statical indeterminacy of a planar truss is derived. Kharagpur . Few examples are solved to illustrate the force method of analysis as applied to statically indeterminate planar trusses. Version 2 CE IIT. The forces induced in the members due to temperature loading and member lack of fit is also discussed in this lesson.

Kharagpur .Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 11 The Force Method of Analysis: Frames Version 2 CE IIT.

Under the action of external loads. Calculate the static deflections of a primary structure (released frame) under external loads. Analyse the statically indeterminate plane frame by force method. the frames undergo axial and bending deformations. Version 2 CE IIT. 6.1 Introduction The force method of analysis can readily be employed to analyze the indeterminate frames. Analyse the statically indeterminate plane frames undergoing support settlements. 5.1a and draw the bending moment diagram. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the frame. Compute reaction components of the indeterminate frame.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. the axial deformations are much smaller than the bending deformations and are normally not considered in the analysis. 2. Young’s modulus E and moment of inertia I are constant for the plane frame.1 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig. The compatibility equations for the frame are written with respect to bending deformations only. The basic steps in the analysis of indeterminate frame by force method are the same as that discussed in the analysis of indeterminate beams in the previous lessons. 3. Kharagpur . 11. Since the axial rigidity of the members is much higher than the bending rigidity. Write compatibility equations of displacements for the plane deformations. 4. 7. The following examples illustrate the force method of analysis as applied to indeterminate frames. Neglect axial deformations. Example 11. Draw qualitative elastic curve of the frame.11.

the primary structure is one that is hinged at A and roller supported at D .The given one.1. Treat horizontal reaction at D . In the present case.1.b.11. due to redundant Version 2 CE IIT. The primary structure (which is stable and determinate) is shown in Fig.The compatibility condition of the problem is that the horizontal deformation of the primary structure (Fig. Kharagpur .b) due to external loads plus the horizontal deformation of the support D .11. R Dx as the redundant.storey frame is statically indeterminate to degree one.

1. Δ = a11 RDx (1) Now compute the horizontal deflection Δ L at D due to externally applied load.11. This can be readily determined by unit load method.1d.10. Apply a unit load along R Dx as shown in Fig. The horizontal deflection Δ L at D in the primary structure due to external loading is given by ΔL = ∫ D δM v M EI dx (2) A Version 2 CE IIT.b) must vanish. Multiplying this deformation a11 with R Dx . Calculate deformation a11 due to unit load at D in the direction of R Dx . the deformation due to redundant reaction can be obtained.RDx (vide Fig. Kharagpur .

origin at A) (span BC.40 kN (6) (5) The minus sign indicates that the redundant reaction R Dx acts towards left. 11.Thus. origin at D ) (3) In the next step.60 kN (towards left) ∑M D = 0 ⇒ RAy = −9 kN (dowwards) RDy = +9 kN (upwards) Version 2 CE IIT. ∑F x = 0 ⇒RAx = −12 + 2. Thus. the compatibility condition of the problem may be written as Δ L + a11 R Dx = 0 Solving.1d is used to represent unit virtual load applied at D and real unit load applied at D . Kharagpur . a11 = ∫ 6 D δm v m EI 6 dx 6 A x 2 dx 36dx x2 =∫ + + ∫ dx EI ∫ EI EI 0 0 0 = 360 EI (4) Now.Lesson 5).1 d). Remaining reactions are calculated from equations of static equilibrium. RDx = −2.where δM v is the internal virtual moment resultant in the frame due to virtual load applied at D along the resultant R Dx and M is the internal bending moment of the frame due to external loading (for details refer to Module 1. Please note that the same Fig.40 = −9. calculate the displacement a 1 1 at D when a real unit load is applied at D in the direction of RDx (refer to Fig. ΔL = ∫ 0 6 (12 x − x )x dx 2 EI (36 − 9 x)6 dx + +∫ EI 0 6 ∫ 0( x ) dx EI 0 6 (span AB.11. origin at B) ΔL = 864 EI (span DC.

Kharagpur .1e Version 2 CE IIT.The bending moment diagram for the frame is shown in Fig. 11.

The flexural rigidity for all members is the same. Version 2 CE IIT.2 Analyze the rigid frame shown in Fig. Hence. Five reactions components need to be evaluated in this rigid frame. equations for moments in various spans of the frame are also given in the figure. Kharagpur . the primary structure is one in which support A is fixed and the support C is free as shown in Fig.11. Neglect axial deformations.2a and draw the bending moment and shear force diagram. Also.2b. hence it is indeterminate to second degree. Select Rcx (= R1 ) and Rcy ( = R2 ) as the redundant reactions.11.Example 11.

Calculate horizontal (Δ L )1 and vertical (Δ L ) 2 deflections at C in the primary structure due to external loading. Kharagpur . This can be done by unit load method. Thus. Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

origin at B) (span BC. origin at B) (Span BE. origin at D) (Span EC. Origin B) ( Δ L )1 = ∫ 3 3 = 3 2268 EI (1) (96 + 24 x)(−4)dx EI 0 (Span DA.(96 + 24 x)(3 + x) 96 x dx +∫ dx +0 EI EI 0 0 (Span DA. origin at E) +∫ 3 2 ( Δ L )2 = − 3056 EI (2) Version 2 CE IIT. origin at D) (Span BD. Origin C) (Δ L ) 2 = ∫ 96(−4)dx 48 x(−2 − x)dx +∫ +0 EI EI 0 0 (Span BD. Kharagpur .

11. Version 2 CE IIT.2 c). (Δ L )1 = a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 (Δ L ) 2 = a12 R1 + a22 R2 = 0 (6) Substituting the values of (Δ L )1 . evaluate flexibility coefficients.2f.33 EI 4 = (5) In the actual structure at C. a11 = ∫ 0 6 x2 72 dx = EI EI 6 (3) a12 = a 21 = ∫ 0 x(−4) dx + 0 EI (4) = 72 EI and a 22 = ∫ 6 16 ( x) 2 dx + ∫ dx EI EI 0 0 117.Hence.44 kN (upwards) The remaining reactions are calculated from equations of statics and they are shown in Fig 11. the horizontal and vertical displacements are zero .11. Again apply unit load along R2 and evaluate deflections a 22 and a12 corresponding to R2 and R1 and respectively (ref. The bending moment and shear force diagrams are shown in Fig.2d).In the next step. a11 . ( Δ l ) 2 . . the compatibility condition may be written as. R1 and determining deflections a11 and a21 corresponding to R1 and R2 respectively (vide. Fig . this is done by applying a unit load along. a12 and a 22 in the above equations and solving for and R1 . Kharagpur .056 kN (towards left) R2 = 27.2e. R2 we get R1 = −1. Fig. 11.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Assume EI to be constant for all members.2 Support settlements As discussed in the case of statically indeterminate beams. If the support is unyielding then it must be equal to zero.3 A rigid frame ABC is loaded as shown in the Fig 11.11. vertically downwards. Kharagpur .3a.The compatibility condition is that the total displacement of the determinate frame (primary structure) due to external loading and that due to redundant reaction at a given support must be equal to the predicted amount of yielding at that support. the reactions are induced in the case of indeterminate frame due to yielding of supports even when there are no external loads acting on it. Example 11. Compute the reactions if the support D settles by 10 mm. The yielding of supports may be either linear displacements or rotations of supports (only in the case of fixed supports) . Version 2 CE IIT. Assume E = 200 GPa and I = 10−4 m 2 .

( Δ L )1 = 2052 EI (1) Version 2 CE IIT. Hence. Kharagpur .The deflections (Δ L )1 and (Δ L ) 2 at C in the primary structure due to external loading has already been computed in the previous example.Hence only change will be in the compatibility equations.11. The released structure is as shown in Fig.This problem is similar to the previous example except for the support settlement .3b .

3c. (Δ L )1 + a11 R1 + a12 R2 = 0 (Δ L ) 2 + a 21 R1 + a 22 R2 = −10 × 10 −3 Solving which. a11 = 72 EI − 72 EI (3) a12 = a 21 = a 22 = (4) 117. Kharagpur .072 kN (towards left) R2 = +26.(Δ L ) 2 = − 3296 EI (2) Therefore.4 kN (upwards) The reactions are shown in Fig.11.1026 m (Δ L ) 2 = −0.1635 m The flexibility coefficients are. (Δ L )1 = 0. the compatibility equations may be written as. (7) Version 2 CE IIT. (6) R1 = −2.33 EI (5) Now.

4 Compute the reactions of the rigid frame shown in Fig.Releasing constraint against redundant.11. Select vertical reaction at C. Version 2 CE IIT. It is shown in Fig.4a and draw bending moment diagram . Assume EI to be constant for all members. R1 as the redundant .Example 11.Also sketch the deformed shape of the frame. Kharagpur .4b.11. the primary structure is obtained.

origin at D) 3 = − 216 (Downwards) EI (1) Now.4d along with the bending moment diagram. compute the flexibility coefficient. − 216 117. R1 = 1. Kharagpur . ( Δ L )1 = ∫ (12 x)(−4)dx EI 0 (span DA.11.33 = EI 4 6 (2) The compatibility condition at support C is that the displacement at C in the primary structure due to external loading plus the displacement at C due to redundant must vanish. Thus.84 kN (4) The remaining reactions are calculated from static equilibrium equations. Version 2 CE IIT.The deflection (Δ L )1 in the primary structure due to external loading can be calculated from unit load method. 16 x2 a11 = ∫ dx + ∫ dx EI EI 0 0 117.33 + R1 = 0 EI EI (3) Solving. They are shown in Fig.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Towards this end first calculate joint rotations at B (θ BL ) and C (θ CL ) and horizontal displacement at C in the released structure (refer to Fig.11. Kharagpur . θ BL = ∫ 0 3 12( x)(−1) − 54 dx = EI EI (5) θ CL = ∫ (12 x)(−1) − 54 dx = EI EI 0 3 3 (6) Δ CL = ∫ 0 12 x(3 + x) 270 dx = EI EI (7) Next.84 = + EI EI EI (12) (Counterclockwise rotation) Δ C = Δ CL + Δ CR R1 (13) Version 2 CE IIT. calculate the joint rotations and displacements when unit value of redundant is applied (Fig.84 EI (Clockwise rotation) θ C = θ CL + θ CR × R1 = 4.84 + EI EI = − 9. These joint rotations and displacements can also be calculated from the principle of superposition .θ CR and Δ CR . θ BR = ∫ θ CR = ∫ 0 4 6 4dx 24 = EI EI 0 (8) (− x)(−1) dx + EI ∫ 0 6 (−4)(−1) 32 dx = EI EI (9) Δ CR = ∫ 0 6 (−4) x dx EI = − 72 EI (10) Now using the principle of superposition. Let the joint rotations and displacements be θ BR .88 − 54 32 × 1.The joint rotations are taken to be positive when clockwise.This can be evaluated by unit load method.11. the actual rotations and displacements at the joints may be obtained.To sketch the deformed shape/elastic curve of the frame.4b). θ B = θ BL + θ BR R1 (11) = −54 24 × 1. it is required to compute rotations of joints B and C and horizontal displacement of C .4c).

11.84 137.4h.52 = − EI EI EI (towards right) The qualitative elastic curve is shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.= 270 72 × 1.

Summary In this lesson. the statically indeterminate plane frames are analysed by force method. The problem of yielding of supports in the case of plane frames is also discussed. For the purpose of illustrations only bending deformations of the frame are considered as the axial deformations are very small. The bending moment and shear force diagrams are also drawn for the case of plane frame. The procedure to draw qualitative elastic curve of the frame is illustrated with the help of typical example. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 12 The Three-Moment Equations-I Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

12. In this lesson. Clapeyron first proposed this method in 1857. One compatibility equation is written at each intermediate support of a continuous beam in terms of the loads on the adjacent span and bending moment at left. we get as many equations as there are unknowns. Since the compatibility equation is written in terms of three moments. Continuous beams are very common in bridge and building structures. three moment equations are derived for unyielding supports and in the next lesson the three moment equations are modified to consider support moments.2 Three-moment equation A continuous beam is shown in Fig. Two consecutive spans of the continuous beam are considered at one time. Derive three-moment equations for a continuous beam with unyielding supports. Each equation will have only three unknowns.1 Introduction Beams that have more than one span are defined as continuous beams. 12. three moment equation relates moments at three successive supports to applied loading on adjacent spans. 3.12. When beam is continuous over many supports and moment of inertia of different spans is different. Compute reactions in statically indeterminate beams using three-moment equations. the force method of analysis becomes quite cumbersome if vertical components of reactions are taken as redundant reactions. it is known as the equation of three moments. Write compatibility equations of a continuous beam in terms of three moments. 2. one needs to analyze continuous beams subjected to transverse loads and support settlements quite often in design. The moments are taken to be positive when they cause tension at Version 2 CE IIT. Since. one compatibility equation is written in terms of three moments.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. M C and M R respectively denote support moments at left. However. 12.1a. Analyse continuous beams having different moments of inertia in different spans using three-moment equations. For each intermediate support. each span is treated individually as a simply supported beam with external loads and two end support moments. Thus. It may be noted that. center and right supports.1b. Kharagpur . In this manner. center (the support where the compatibility equation is written) and rigid supports. M L . Hence. consider two adjacent spans of a continuous beam as shown in Fig. 4. the force method of analysis could be further simplified for this particular case (continuous beam) by choosing the unknown bending moments at the supports as unknowns.

(2) due to support moments. It is assumed that supports are unyielding. the compatibility equation is written as. In the above equation AL and AR denote respectively area of the bending moment diagrams due to applied loads on left and right supports. Now it is required to derive a relation between M L . In the present case I L and I R denote respectively moment of inertia of. M C and M R . Deflection of L from tangent drawn at C(LL' ) θ CL = lL Moment of M diagram between C and L about L EI = lL = 1 lL ⎧⎛ AL x L ⎨⎜ ⎜ ⎩⎝ EI L ⎞ 1⎛ ML ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ EI ⎝ L ⎠ ⎞ 1 1⎛M ⎞ 2 ⎫ ⎟l L l L + ⎜ C ⎟l L l L ⎬ ⎟ 3 2 ⎜ EI L ⎟ 3 ⎭ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ θ CL = AL x L M L l L M C l L + + EI L l L 6 EI L 3EI L (12. Kharagpur . The yielding of supports could be easily incorporated in three-moment equation.2) Note that the actual moment diagram on span LC is broken into two parts (1) due to loads applied on span LC when it is considered as a simply supported beam and. θ CR may be calculated from moment area method.(center of gravity) distances from the left and right support respectively. Similarly.bottom fibers. left and right support and l L and l R are the left and right span respectively. θ CL and rotation right of the support C . x L and x R denote their respective C. Thus. The moment of inertia is taken to be different for different spans.G. θ CL + θ CR = 0 (12. which will be discussed in the next lesson. In other words the joint C may be considered rigid. Now.1) The rotation left of the support C . This relationship is derived from the fact that the tangent to the elastic curve at C is horizontal. θCR = deflection of R from tangent drawn at C (RR') lR Moment of M diagram between C and R about R EI = lR Version 2 CE IIT.

1).3) Substituting the values of θ CL and θ CR in the compatibility equation (12. If in a span there are more than one type of loading (for example.5) is known as the three-moment equation. Kharagpur . AL x L M L l L M C l L AR x R M R l R M C l R + + + + + =0 EI L l L 6 EI L 3EI L EI R l R 6 EI R 3EI R which could be simplified to.4) ⎛l ML⎜ L ⎜I ⎝ L ⎞ ⎧l ⎛l l ⎫ ⎟ + 2M C ⎨ L + R ⎬ + M R ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜I ⎠ ⎩IL IR ⎭ ⎝ R ⎞ 6A x 6A x ⎟=− R R − L L ⎟ I RlR I LlL ⎠ (12. (12. Version 2 CE IIT. uniformly distributed load and a concentrated load) then it is simpler to calculate moment diagram separately for each of loading and then to obtain moment diagram.θ CR = AR x R M R l R M C l R + + EI R l R 6 EI R 3EI R (12. It relates three support moments M L .5) The above equation (12. M C and M R with the applied loading on two adjacent spans.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

flexibility coefficients).12.2) Let displacement (in the primary case rotations) corresponding to rotation M C be Δ L . centre and right supports respectively as the redundant moments.This can be easily evaluated by moment area method as shown previously.3 Alternate derivation The above three moment equations may also be derived by direct application of force method as follows. Now choose M L . C and R .e. ΔL = AL x L A x + R R EI L l L EI R l R (12.7) In the next step.8) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Δ L = θ CL + θ CR (12. lL 6 EI L l l a 22 = L + R 3EI L 3EI R l a 23 = R 6 EI R a 21 = (12. 12.12. inserting hinges at L . apply unit value of redundant moments at L .2. The primary determinate structure is obtained by releasing the constraint corresponding to redundant moments. the three support moments at left. In this particular case. Thus.6) It is observed that the rotations θ CL and θ CR are caused due to only applied loading as shown in Fig. M C and the M R . the primary structure is obtained as below (see Fig. C and R and calculate rotation at C (i. which is the sum of rotations θ CL and θ CR .

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Δ L + a 21 M L + a 22 M C + a 23 M R = 0 (12.4a.the above equation simplifies to. ⎛ l AR x R A x + L L + ML⎜ L ⎜ 6 EI EI R l R EI L l L L ⎝ Or. Assume EI to be constant for all members. Also.9) Substituting the values of flexibility coefficients and ΔL in the above equation.10) when moment of inertia remains constant i. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. draw bending moment and shear force diagram. Calculate support reactions. ⎞ ⎧ l ⎛ l l ⎫ ⎟ + MC ⎨ L + R ⎬ + MR⎜ R ⎟ ⎜ 6 EI R ⎠ ⎩ 3EI L 3EI R ⎭ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟=0 ⎟ ⎠ ⎛l ML⎜ L ⎜I ⎝ L ⎞ ⎧l ⎛l l ⎫ ⎟ + 2M C ⎨ L + R ⎬ + M R ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜I ⎠ ⎩IL IR ⎭ ⎝ R ⎞ 6A x 6A x ⎟=− R R − L L ⎟ I RlR I LlL ⎠ (12.In the actual structure the relative rotation of both sides is zero. IR = IL = I .e. In other words the compatibility equation is written as. M L (l L ) + 2M C {l L + l R } + M R (l R ) = − Example 12.11) A continuous beam ABCD is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 1 kN/m over span ABC in addition to concentrated loads as shown in Fig.12.1 6 AR x R 6 AL x L − lR lL (12.

m (negative because it causes compression at bottom at C ) Hence. it is assumed that the support moments at A is zero and support moment at C .From inspection.12. M C = 15 kN. only one redundant moment M B needs to be evaluated. Applying threemoment equation to span ABC .4b. 2M C { + 10} + M C (10) = − 10 6 AR x R 6 AL x L − lR lL (1) The bending moment diagrams for each span due to applied uniformly distributed and concentrated load are shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Version 2 CE IIT. 40 M B − 150 = − 6 × 83.m After determining the redundant moment.12.33 × 5 − − 10 10 10 Thus. The reactions are shown in Fig.125 kN.4c along with the external load and support bending moment. the reactions are evaluated by equations of static equilibrium. Kharagpur .Equation (1) may be written as. M B = −18.33 × 5 6 × 125 × 5 6 × 83.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Thus.In span AB . Kharagpur .5a. RC = 4. Example 12. Evaluate reactions and draw bending moment and shear force diagrams.4d.12.8125 kN (↑ ) (↑) (↑) Similarly from span BC .The moment of inertia of span AB is twice that of span BC .12. Version 2 CE IIT.125 = 0 RA = 8.7125 kN RBR = 5. R A × 10 − 10 × 5 − 10 × 5 + 18.2 A continuous beam ABC is carrying uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m as shown in Fig.1875 kN RBL = 11.3125 kN (↑) The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. R A can be calculated by the condition that ∑M B = 0 .

By inspection it is seen that the moment at support C is zero.For moment at B . the compatibility Version 2 CE IIT. The support moment at A and B needs to be evaluated . Kharagpur .

This can also be achieved as follows. The simply supported bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.67) × 5 10 Version 2 CE IIT. θ A may be calculated from moment-area method. θA = 0 (2) It is observed that the tangent to elastic curve at A remains horizontal. θA = M B l L M A l L A( x L ) R + + 6 EI L 3EI L EIl L (1) Now. Kharagpur . compatibility equation is. Assume an imaginary span AA′ of length L′ left of support A having a very high moment of inertia (see Fig.5c).equation is written by noting that the tangent to the elastic curve at B is horizontal . Now. 6A x ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎧ L' 10 ⎫ 2M A ⎨ + ⎬ + M B ⎜ ⎟ = − R R 2 I (10) ⎝ 2I ⎠ ⎩ ∞ 2I ⎭ (3) The above equation is the same as the equation (2). equation (3) may be written as.5b. it does not yield any imaginary span has very high moment of inertia it does not yield any M diagram and EI hence no elastic curve. The slope at A . Thus. Hence. applying three-moment equation to support A .5d. consider the span A′AB . As the imaginary span has very high moment of inertia.12. 12. Consider span AB as shown in Fig. 20 M A + M B (10) = − 6 × (166. the tangent at A to elastic curve remains horizontal.The compatibility condition corresponding to redundant moment at A is written as follows.12. Thus.

(5) M B = −6. Kharagpur . writing three moment equation for support B .5e) Version 2 CE IIT.67 × 5 6 × 20.5 = −312.m M A = −37.837 × 2. consider span ABC .12.5 kN.20M A + 10M B = −500 (4) Now. 6 × 166.5 Solving equation (4) and (5).5 ⎧ 10 5 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ − M A ⎨ ⎬ + 2M B ⎨ + ⎬ = − 2 I × (10) I × (5) ⎩ 2I I ⎭ ⎩ 2I ⎭ 5M A + 20M B = −250 − 62.m The remaining reactions are calculated by equilibrium equations (see Fig.25 kN.

∑M B =0 R A × 10 − 37.25 = 0 Version 2 CE IIT.In span AB . Kharagpur .5 − 2 × 10 × 5 + 6.

Summary In this lesson the continuous beam with unyielding supports is analysed by threemoment equations. Few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure. RC = 3. 12. Kharagpur .125 kN RBL = 6. Version 2 CE IIT. redundants are always taken as support moments.5f.875 kN (↑ ) (↑ ) (↑ ) (↑ ) Similarly from span BC . The three-moment equations are derived for the case of a continuous beam having different moment of inertia in different spans.25 kN The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. Hence.RA = 13.75 kN RBR = 6. The threemoment equations also belong to force method of analysis and in this case. compatibility equations are derived in terms of three support moments.

Module 2
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 13
The Three-Moment Equations-Ii
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Instructional Objectives
After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Derive three-moment equations for a continuous beam with yielding supports. 2. Write compatibility equations of a continuous beam in terms of three moments. 3. Compute reactions in statically indeterminate beams using three-moment equations. 4. Analyse continuous beams having different moments of inertia in different spans and undergoing support settlements using three-moment equations.

13.1 Introduction
In the last lesson, three-moment equations were developed for continuous beams with unyielding supports. As discussed earlier, the support may settle by unequal amount during the lifetime of the structure. Such future unequal settlement induces extra stresses in statically indeterminate beams. Hence, one needs to consider these settlements in the analysis. The three-moment equations developed in the pervious lesson could be easily extended to account for the support yielding. In the next section three-moment equations are derived considering the support settlements. In the end, few problems are solved to illustrate the method.

13.2 Derivation of Three-Moment Equation
Consider a two span of a continuous beam loaded as shown in Fig.13.1. Let M L , M C and M R be the support moments at left, center and right supports respectively. As stated in the previous lesson, the moments are taken to be positive when they cause tension at the bottom fibers. I L and I R denote moment of inertia of left and right span respectively and l L and l R denote left and right spans respectively. Let δ L , δ C and δ R be the support settlements of left, centre and right supports respectively. δ L , δ C and δ R are taken as negative if the settlement is downwards. The tangent to the elastic curve at support C makes an angle θ CL at left support and θ CR at the right support as shown in Fig. 13.1. From the figure it is observed that,

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θ CL = θ CR

(13.1)

The rotations β CL and β CR due to external loads and support moments are calculated from the M diagram .They are (see lesson 12) EI

β CL = β CR =

AL x L M L l L M C l L + + EI L l L 6 EI L 3EI L AR x R M R l R M C l R + + EI R l R 6 EI R 3EI R

(13.2a)

(13.2b)

The rotations of the chord L'C ' and C ' R' from the original position is given by

α CL = α CR
From Fig. 13.1, one could write,

δ L − δC

lL δ − δC = R lR

(13.3a) (13.3b)

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θ CL = α CL − β CL θ CR = β CR − α CR
Thus, from equations (13.1) and (13.4), one could write,

(13.4a) (13.4b)

α CL − β CL = β CR − α CR

(13.5)

Substituting the values of α CL , α CR , β CL and β CR in the above equation,

⎛l ML⎜ L ⎜I ⎝ L

⎞ ⎧l ⎛l l ⎫ ⎟ + 2M C ⎨ L + R ⎬ + M R ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜I ⎠ ⎩IL IR ⎭ ⎝ R

⎞ ⎛ δ − δC 6A x 6A x ⎟ = − R R − L L + 6E⎜ L ⎟ ⎜ l I RlR I LlL L ⎠ ⎝

⎞ ⎛ δ − δC ⎟ + 6E⎜ R ⎟ ⎜ l R ⎠ ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

This may be written as
⎛l ML⎜ L ⎜I ⎝ L (13.6) ⎧l ⎞ ⎛l l ⎫ ⎟ + 2M C ⎨ L + R ⎬ + M R ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜I ⎠ ⎩IL IR ⎭ ⎝ R ⎡⎛ δ − δ L ⎞ 6A x 6A x ⎟ = − R R − L L − 6 E ⎢⎜ C ⎜ ⎟ I RlR I LlL ⎠ ⎣⎝ l L ⎞ ⎛ δC − δ R ⎟+⎜ ⎟ ⎜ l R ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎠⎦

The above equation relates the redundant support moments at three successive spans with the applied loading on the adjacent spans and the support settlements. Example 13.1 Draw the bending moment diagram of a continuous beam BC shown in Fig.13.2a by three moment equations. The support B settles by 5mm below A and C . Also evaluate reactions at A , B and C .Assume EI to be constant for all members and E = 200 GPa , I = 8 ×106 mm 4

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Assume an imaginary span having infinitely large moment of inertia and arbitrary span L ′ left of A as shown in Fig.13.2b .Also it is observed that moment at C is zero. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

The given problem is statically indeterminate to the second degree. The moments M A and M B ,the redundants need to be evaluated. Applying three moment equation to the span A’AB,

δ L = δ C = 0 and δ R = −5 × 10 −3 m
⎛ 6×8× 2 0 − (−5 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎛ L' ⎞ ⎧ L' 4 ⎫ ⎛4⎞ ⎟ M ' A ⎜ ⎟ + 2M A ⎨ + ⎬ + M B ⎜ ⎟ = − − 6E⎜ 0 + ⎜ ⎟ I (4) 4 ⎝∞⎠ ⎩∞ I ⎭ ⎝I⎠ ⎝ ⎠
5 × 10 −3 8M A + 4 M B = −24 − 6 EI × 4 Note that, EI = 200 × 10 9 × Thus, 8M A + 4 M B = −24 − 6 × 1.6 × 10 3 × 5 × 10 −3 4 (2) 8 × 10 6 × 10 −12 = 1.6 × 10 3 kNm 2 3 10 (1)

8M A + 4M B = −36

Again applying three moment equation to span ABC the other equations is obtained. For this case, δ L = 0 , δ C = −5 × 10 −3 m (negative as the settlement is downwards) and δ R = 0 .

⎛ − 5 × 10 −3 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ 24 6 × 10.667 × 2 ⎧4⎫ ⎧4 4⎫ ⎟ M A ⎨ ⎬ + 2M B ⎨ + ⎬ = − − − 6E⎜ − ⎜ I I ×4 4 4 ⎟ ⎩I ⎭ ⎩I I ⎭ ⎝ ⎠
10 × 10 3 4 M A + 16 M B = −24 − 32 + 6 × 1.6 × 10 × 4
3

4M A + 16M B = −32
Solving equations (2) and (3), M B = −1.0 kN.m M A = −4.0 kN.m

(3)

(4)

Now, reactions are calculated from equations of static equilibrium (see Fig.13.2c).

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Thus,

R A = 2.75 kN (↑ )

R BL = 1.25 kN (↑ ) RC = 3.75 kN (↑ ) The reactions at B,

R BR = 4.25 kN (↑ )

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RB = RBR + RBL = 5.5 kN

(5)

The area of each segment of the shear force diagram for the given continuous beam is also indicated in the above diagram. This could be used to verify the previously computed moments. For example, the area of the shear force diagram between A and B is 5.5 kN.m .This must be equal to the change in the bending moment between A and D, which is indeed the case ( −4 − 1.5 = 5.5 kN.m ). Thus, moments previously calculated are correct. Example 13.2 A continuous beam ABCD is supported on springs at supports B and C as shown in Fig.13.3a. The loading is also shown in the figure. The stiffness of EI EI springs is k B = and k C = .Evaluate support reactions and draw bending 20 30 moment diagram. Assume EI to be constant.

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In the given problem it is required to evaluate bending moments at supports B and C . By inspection it is observed that the support moments at A and D are zero. Since the continuous beam is supported on springs at B and C , the support settles. Let RB and RC be the reactions at B and C respectively. Then R R the support settlement at B and C are B and C respectively. Both the kB kC settlements are negative and in other words they move downwards. Thus,

δ A = 0 ,δ B =

− 30 RC − 20 RB ,δC = and δ D = 0 EI EI

(1)

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Now applying three moment equations to span ABC (see Fig.13.2b)
− 20 R B 30 RC ⎡ + ⎢ − 20 R B 4⎫ 4⎫ 6 × 21.33 × 2 6 × 20 × 2 ⎧ EI + MC ⎨ ⎬ = − − − 6E ⎢ + EI ⎬ 4 I⎭ I ×4 I ×4 ⎩I ⎭ ⎢ 4 EI ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

⎧4⎫ ⎧4 M A ⎨ ⎬ + 2M B ⎨ + ⎩I ⎭ ⎩I

Simplifying, 16M B + 4 M C = −124 + 60 RB − 45 RC Again applying three moment equation to adjacent spans BC and CD , (2)

60 ⎧4 4⎫ ⎧4⎫ − M B ⎨ ⎬ + 2M C ⎨ + ⎬ = − I ⎩I I ⎭ ⎩I ⎭

(6 × 9 × 2 + 6 × 3 × I ×4

2 ⎡ 30 RC 20 R B ⎤ × 1) ⎢ − EI + EI − 30 RC ⎥ 3 − 6E ⎢ + ⎥ 4 4 EI ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(3)

4M B + 16M C = −90 + 90 RC − 30 RB

In equation (2) and (3) express RB and RC in terms of M B and M C (see Fig.13.2c)
R A = 8 + 0.25M B (↑ ) RBL = 8 − 0.25M B (↑ ) RBR = 5 + 0.25M C − 0.25M B RCL = 5 + 0.25M B − 0.25M C RCR = 2 − 0.25M C RD = 6 + 0.25M C

(↑) (↑)

(↑) (↑)

(4)

Note that initially all reactions are assumed to act in the positive direction (i.e. upwards) .Now, RB = RBL + RBR = 13 − 0.5M B + 0.25M C RC = RCL + RCR = 7 + 0.25M B − 0.5M C Now substituting the values of RB and RC in equations (2) and (3), 16 M B + 4 M C = −124 + 60(13 − 0.5M B + 0.25M C ) − 45(7 + 0.25M B − 0.5M C ) Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur (5)

Or, 57.25M B − 33.5M C = 341 And from equation 3, 4 M B + 16 M C = −90 + 90(7 + 0.25M B − 0.5M C ) − 30(13 − 0.5M B + 0.25M C ) Simplifying, − 33.5M B + 68.5M C = 150 Solving equations (6) and (7) M C = 7.147 kN.m M B = 10.138 kN.m Substituting the values of M B and M C in (4),reactions are obtained. (8) (7) (6)

RA = 10.535 kN RBR = 4.252 kN RCR = 0.213 kN RB = 9.717 kN

(↑) (↑) (↑) (↑)

RBL = 5.465 kN RCL = 5.748 kN RD = 7.787 kN and RC = 5.961 kN

(↑) (↑) (↑) (↑)

The shear force and bending moment diagram are shown in Fig. 13.2d.

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Example 13.3 Sketch the deflected shape of the continuous beam ABC of example 13.1. The redundant moments M A and M B for this problem have already been computed in problem 13.1.They are,

M B = −1.0 kN.m M A = −4.0 kN.m
The computed reactions are also shown in Fig.13.2c.Now to sketch the deformed shape of the beam it is required to compute rotations at B and C. These joints rotations are computed from equations (13.2) and (13.3). For calculating θ A , consider span A’AB

θ A = β AR − α AR
= AR x R M B l R M A l R ⎛ δ B − δ A ⎞ + + −⎜ ⎟ EI R l R 6 EI R 3EI R ⎝ 4 ⎠ MB ×4 MA ×4 6×8× 2 ⎛δ −δA ⎞ + + −⎜ B ⎟ 3 3 3 1.6 × 10 × 4 1.6 × 10 × 6 1.6 × 10 × 3 ⎝ 4 ⎠

=

=

(− 1) × 4 + (− 4) × 4 + ⎛ 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ 6×8× 2 ⎜ ⎟ + 1.6 × 10 3 × 4 1.6 × 10 3 × 6 1.6 × 10 3 × 3 ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
(1)

=0
For calculating θ BL , consider span ABC

θ BL = α BL − β BL
⎛A x M l M l = −⎜ L L + A L + B L ⎜ EI l ⎝ L L 6 EI L 3EI L ⎞ ⎛δA −δB ⎟+⎜ ⎟ ⎜ l L ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

(− 4) × 4 + (− 1) × 4 ⎞ + ⎛ 5 × 10 3 ⎞ 8× 2 ⎛ ⎟ = −⎜ + ⎟ ⎜ 3 3 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.6 × 10 × 4 1.6 × 10 × 6 1.6 × 10 × 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠
= 1.25 × 10 −3 radians

(2)

For θ BR consider span ABC

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

13.67 × 2 + ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 3 3 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .6 × 10 × 3 ⎠ ⎝ (4) = −3.67 × 2 ⎟ + ⎟ ⎜ 3 3 ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ 1.75 × 10 −3 radians.θ BR = ⎜ (− 1) × 4 ⎞ − ⎛ 0 + 5 × 10 3 ⎞ ⎛ 10. The deflected shape of the beam is shown in Fig.6 × 10 × 4 1.6 × 10 × 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (3) = −1.25 × 10 −3 radians θ C = −⎜ (− 1) × 4 ⎞ − ⎛ δ B − δ C ⎞ ⎛ 10.4.6 × 10 × 4 1.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur . Few examples are derived to illustrate the procedure of analysing continuous beams undergoing support settlements using three-moment equations. the three-moment-equations developed in the previous lesson are extended to account for the support settlements.Summary The continuous beams with unyielding supports are analysed using threemoment equations in the last lesson. In this lesson. The three-moment equations are derived for the case of a continuous beam having different moment of inertia in different spans. Version 2 CE IIT.

Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 14 The Slope-Deflection Method: An Introduction Version 2 CE IIT.

force method of analysis was discussed. the primary unknowns are displacements. After the revolution occurred in the field of computing only direct stiffness method is preferred. the unknowns are automatically chosen unlike the force method. Kharagpur . a propped cantilever beam (see Fig. In displacement method. Version 2 CE IIT. Degrees of freedom In the displacement method of analysis. It is necessary to consider all the independent degrees of freedom while writing the equilibrium equations. primary unknowns are joint displacements which are commonly referred to as the degrees of freedom of the structure. In the force method of analysis.01a) under the action of load P will undergo only rotation at B if axial deformation is neglected.These degrees of freedom are specified at supports. For example. In the displacement method of analysis. Solving these equations. In the next step.14. In the last module. the displacement method of analysis will be discussed. All displacement methods follow the above general procedure. Hence this method is more suitable for computer implementation. In this case kinematic degree of freedom of the beam is only one i. Once the structural model is defined for the problem. 1) Slope-Deflection Method 2) Moment Distribution Method 3) Direct Stiffness Method In this module first two methods are discussed and direct stiffness method is treated in the next module. three methods which are closely related to each other will be discussed. in the displacement method of analysis. the unknown reactions are computed from compatibility equations using force displacement relations. These equilibrium equations are solved for unknown joint displacements.e. The Slope-deflection and moment distribution methods were extensively used for many years before the compute era. the unknown redundant reactions are evaluated. joints and at the free ends. first equilibrium equations are satisfied.Introduction As pointed out earlier. As the name itself suggests. load displacement and compatibility conditions are satisfied: 1) force method of analysis and (2) displacement method of analysis. there are two distinct methods of analysis for statically indeterminate structures depending on how equations of equilibrium. The remaining reactions are obtained from equations of equilibrium. primary unknowns are forces and compatibility of displacements is written in terms of pre-selected redundant reactions and flexibility coefficients using force displacement relations. In this module. θ B as shown in the figure. The equilibrium of forces is written by expressing the unknown joint displacements in terms of load by using load displacement relations.

For this beam we have five degrees of freedom θ A . Version 2 CE IIT. θ B .02a. a symmetrical plane frame is loaded symmetrically.B. In Fig. θ C . P2 1 deformations are neglected. In this module first slope-deflection equations as applied to beams and rigid frames will be discussed.14. θ C and Δ D as shown. this continuous beam deform as shown in the figure. It is observed that nodes at B and C undergo rotation and also get displaced horizontally by an equal amount. we have nodes at A.01b.02b. each node can have at the most one linear displacement and one rotation.14. In this case we have only two degrees of freedom θ B andθ C . Under the action of lateral loads and P3 . It has three degrees of freedom viz.In Fig. θ D and Δ D as indicated in the figure.14. Hence in plane structures. Now consider a frame as shown in Fig. θ B . Under the action of horizontal and vertical load. Here axial P . the frame will be displaced as shown in the figure. Kharagpur .C and D.

The slope-deflection method was originally developed by Heinrich Manderla and Otto Mohr for computing secondary stresses in trusses. State advantages of displacement method of analysis as compared to force method of analysis. 5. 14.2 Slope-Deflection Equations Consider a typical span of a continuous beam AB as shown in Fig. In other words deformations due to axial forces are neglected. the slope-deflection equations are derived for the simplest case i. In this lesson.In this method. Kharagpur . the unknown slopes and deflections at nodes are related to the applied loading on the structure.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1.A. 4.The beam has constant flexural rigidity EI and is subjected to uniformly distributed loading and concentrated loads as shown in the figure. It must be noted that all the unknown reactions appear in each of the compatibility equations making it difficult to solve resulting equations. As introduced earlier. In this method it is assumed that all deformations are due to bending only. the support settlements are included in the slope-deflection equations.1. Version 2 CE IIT. In the next lesson. for the case of continuous beams with unyielding supports. 14. Derive slope-deflection equations for the case beam with unyielding supports. As discussed earlier in the force method of analysis compatibility equations are written in terms of unknown reactions.14. 3. The slope-deflection equations are not that lengthy in comparison.1 Introduction In this lesson the slope-deflection equations are derived for the case of a beam with unyielding supports . The method as used today was presented by G.Maney in 1915 for analyzing rigid jointed structures. 2. the slope-deflection method can be used to analyze statically determinate and indeterminate beams and frames.e. Analyse continuous beam using slope-deflection method. The beam is kinematically indeterminate to second degree. Differentiate between force method and displacement method of analyses. Calculate kinematic degrees of freedom of continuous beam.

The structure shown in Fig. it is required to derive relation between the joint end moments M AB and M BA in terms of joint rotations θ A and θ B and loads acting on the beam . The slope-deflection equations are derived by superimposing the end moments developed due to (1) applied loads (2) rotation θ A (3) rotation θ B . In Fig. Thus. (2) The rotation of the tangent to the elastic curve is taken to be positive when the tangent to the elastic curve has rotated in the counterclockwise direction from its original direction.14. This condition is obtained by modifying the support conditions to fixed so that the unknown joint rotations become zero. Version 2 CE IIT. The fixed end moments are evaluated by force–method of analysis as discussed in the previous module.fixed beam subjected to uniformly distributed load. the end moments are denoted by M AB and M BA .14.For this problem. Rotations of the tangent to the elastic curve are denoted by one subscript. The following sign conventions are used in the slope-deflection equations (1) Moments acting at the ends of the member in counterclockwise direction are taken to be positive. For example for fixed.Two subscripts are used to denote end moments.14. This is shown in Fig. Kharagpur .2 (b) is known as kinematically determinate structure or F F restrained structure.3. θ A denotes the rotation of the tangent to the elastic curve at A.2 (a)-(c).2(b) a kinematically determinate structure is obtained. For this case. For example. the fixed-end moments are shown in Fig. end moments MAB denote moment acting at joint A of the member AB. 14.

fixed end forces for various load cases are given at the end of this lesson. 14.3a) Version 2 CE IIT.1b) ′ Now a similar relation may be derived if only M BA is acting at end B (see Fig. The end moment M AB deflects the beam as ′ ′ shown in the figure.2b) θ A = − BA 6 EI Now combining these two relations. M′ L ′′ (14. ′ M AB L 3EI M′ L ′ θ B = − AB 6 EI ′ θA = (14.The fixed end moments are required for various load cases.4. now consider a simply supported beam acted by moment ′ ′ M AB at A as shown in Fig. Towards this end. Kharagpur . In the actual structure end A rotates by θ A and end B rotates by θB . Now it is required to derive a relation relating θ A and θB with the end moments M ′AB and M ′ BA . 14. 14.4). we could relate end moments acting at A and B to rotations produced at A and B as (see Fig. The rotations θ A and θ B are calculated from moment-area theorem. For ease of calculations.2c) ' ' M AB L M BA L θA = − 3EI 6 EI (14.2a) θ B = BA and 3EI M′ L ′′ (14.1a) (14.

4) in equation (14.2). In that case.3b) ′ Solving for M ′ and M BA in terms of θ A and θB .6a) Similarly writing equilibrium equation for joint B F ′ M BA = M BA + M BA (14. F M BA = M BA + 2 EI (2θ B + θ A ) L (14.θB = ′ ′ M BA L M BA L − 3EI 6 EI (14.7b) Sometimes one end is referred to as near end and the other end as the far end.6a) one obtains. Version 2 CE IIT.7a) ′ Similarly substituting M BA from equation (14.7b) simply referred to as slope–deflection equations.4) (14. The above two equations (14.6b) in equation (14. Kharagpur .6b) one obtains. F M AB = M AB + 2 EI (2θ A + θ B ) L (14.7a) and (14.5) Now writing the equilibrium equation for joint moment at A (see Fig. 14. the above equation may be stated as the internal moment at the near end of the span is equal to the fixed end moment at the near end due to 2 EI times the sum of twice the slope at the near end and the external loads plus L slope at the far end.6b) ′ Substituting the value of M AB from equation (14. F M AB = M AB + M ′ AB (14. The slope-deflection equation is nothing but a load displacement relationship. AB M′ = AB 2 EI (2θ A + θ B ) L 2 EI ′ M BA = (2θ B + θ A ) L (14.

Express all internal end moments in terms of fixed end moments and near end. Kharagpur . This can be done by drawing the deflection shape of the structure. Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams. Example 14. Degrees of freedom It is observed that the continuous beam is kinematically indeterminate to first degree as only one joint rotation θ B is unknown.1 A continuous beam ABC is carrying uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m in addition to a concentrated load of 20 kN as shown in Fig. (a). The deflected shape /elastic Version 2 CE IIT.14. 4. 3. at a support in a continuous beam. and far end joint rotations by slope-deflection equations. Write down one equilibrium equation for each unknown joint rotation. It may be summarized as follows: 1. Determine the fixed end moments at each end of the span to applied load. Now substituting these joint rotations in the slope-deflection equations evaluate the end moments. 6. 7.14. Solve the above set of equilibrium equations for joint rotations. Assume EI to be constant. Determine all rotations. The procedure is the same whether it is applied to beams or frames.3 Application of Slope-Deflection Equations to Statically Indeterminate Beams. 5. Identify all kinematic degrees of freedom for the given problem.5a. Write down as many equilibrium equations as there are unknown joint rotations. For example. the sum of all moments corresponding to an unknown joint rotation at that support must be zero. All degrees of freedom are treated as unknowns in slope-deflection method. The table given at the end of this lesson may be used for this purpose. 2.

14. write slope-deflection equations for span AB and BC. the fixed-fixed beams area obtained as shown in Fig.33 kN. Only one non-zero rotation is to be evaluated for this problem.m 12 = −5. F F F F (b). the rotation at the fixed supports is zero. M BC and M CB are calculated referring to the Fig.m 12 62 F M BA = −21 kN. Fixed end moments M AB .14.5c.5b in order to identify degrees of freedom. 2 × 62 20 × 3 × 32 F M AB = + = 21 kN. and following the sign conventions that counterclockwise moments are positive.m (1) (c) Slope-deflection equations Since ends A and C are fixed. M BA .curve of the beam is drawn in Fig. Kharagpur .14. Now.m F M BC = F M CB 4 × 42 = 5. 2 EI F M AB = M AB + (2θ A + θ B ) l Version 2 CE IIT. By fixing the support or restraining the support B against rotation. θ A = θ C = 0 .33 kN.

M AB = 21 + 2 EI θB 6 2 EI (2θ B + θ A ) l 4 EI θB 6 (2) M BA = −21 + M BA = −21 + (3) (4) (5) M BC = 5.33 + EIθ B M CB = −5. ∑M B =0 M BA + M BC = 0 (6) Substituting the values of M BA and M BC in the above equilibrium equation. Kharagpur . 14.33 + EIθ B = 0 6 ⇒ 1.33 + 0. Version 2 CE IIT. Thus. moment equilibrium at support B . The free body diagram of support B along with the support moments acting on it is shown in Fig.5d.40 ≅ EI EI (7) (e) End moments After evaluating θ B . one must have.398 9.667θ B EI = 15. substitute it in equations (2-5) to evaluate beam end moments.5 EIθ B (d) Equilibrium equations In the above four equations (2-5). For. 4 EI − 21 + θ B + 5.667 θB = 9. the member end moments are expressed in terms of unknown rotation θ B . the required equation to solve for the rotation θ B is the moment equilibrium equation at support B . Now.

63 kN.733kN.63 RBR = 8 + = 11.733 − 20 × 3 − 2 × 6 × 3 − 24. 14.4 EI × = −0.333 + M CB = −5.m EI 9.133 = 0 R A = 17. reactions at supports are evaluated using equilibrium equations (vide Fig.5f.526 kN(↑) 4 RC = 8 + 3.567 = 14.47 kN(↑) (9) The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. 14.5e) RA × 6 + 14.4 × = −14.M AB = 21 + M AB = 21 + EI θB 3 EI 9.398 × = 24.526 = 4.133kN. Kharagpur .m 3 EI 9 .567 kN(↑ ) RBL = 16 − 1.333 + (8) (f) Reactions Now.m EI 2 M BA = −21 + M BA = −21 + M BC = 5.m 3 EI EI (2θ B ) 3 EI 2 × 9.733kN.433 kN(↑ ) 14. Version 2 CE IIT.733 − 0.4 EI = 14.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

5 kN.2 Draw shear force and bending moment diagram for the continuous beam ABCD loaded as shown in Fig.m F M BC = 10 × 3 × 32 = 7. For the cantilever beam portion CD.m 12 F M BA = −16 kN. no slope-deflection equation need to be written as there is no internal moment at end D.6a. Kharagpur .Example 14. calculate the fixed end moments for span AB and BC.m In the next step write slope-deflection equation.m 62 (1) F M CB = −7. F M AB = 3 × 82 = 16 kN. fixing the supports at B and C.5 kN. There are two equations for each span of the continuous beam.The relative stiffness of each span of the beam is also shown in the figure. Version 2 CE IIT.14. Thus. First.

M BA .5 + 1. M BC and M CB we get.5θ B EI 2 × 2 EI = 7. ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 M BA + M BC = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 (3) (4) (5) (6) C We know that M CD = 15 kN.164 3. Kharagpur .5 + 1.334EIθ C + 0. we get (7) Version 2 CE IIT.6b.001 θ C = 9.One could write one equilibrium equation for each joint B and C. θ C in the slope-deflection equations.m ⇒ M CB = −15 kN.5 + (2θ B + θ C ) = 7.5 = 8.m Substituting the values of M CB for M AB .334 EIθ B + 0.25θ B EI 8 = −16 + 0.667 EIθ C 6 = −7.M AB = 16 + M BA M BC M CB 2 EI (θ B ) = 16 + 0.667EIθ B (2) Equilibrium equations The free body diagram of members AB . BC and joints B and C are shown in Fig.704 Substituting θ B .14. and MCD in the above equations θB = 24. Support B.

Version 2 CE IIT.5EIθ B = −16 + 0.5 + 1.667 EI × EI EI M AB = 16 + 0.164 9.164 = 18.514 kN The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig.704 ) = 11.5EI × = −11.6d.8.04 kN. 14.m + 1.25EIθ B = 16 + 0.164 M BA = −16 + 0.765 kN RBR = 5 − 0.704 ) = −15 kN. 14.667 EI ( M BC = 7. Fig.m EI 8.5 + 0.486 kN RBL = 11.m + 0.m EI 8.514kN = 4.6c) RA × 8 − 18.918 kN.164 9. Kharagpur .334 EI ( − M CB = −7.041 − 3 × 8 × 4 + 11.25 EI × (8) Reactions are obtained from equilibrium equations (ref.235 kN RC = 5 + 0.918 kN.334 EI × EI EI 8.918 = 0 RA = 12.514kN = 5.

7. 14.For ease of calculations. Version 2 CE IIT. fixed end forces for various load cases are given in Fig. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . The kinematically indeterminate beams are analysed by slope-deflection equations. The advantages of displacement method of analysis over force method of analysis are clearly brought out here. A couple of examples are solved to illustrate the slope-deflection equations.Summary In this lesson the slope-deflection equations are derived for beams with unyielding supports.

Kharagpur .Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 15 The Slope-Deflection Method: Beams (Continued) Version 2 CE IIT.

In this lesson.2.1. θ B and Δ (settlement) Version 2 CE IIT. Let L be the span of the beam and flexural rigidity of the beam EI . Derive slope-deflection equations for the case beam with yielding supports. After deriving the slope-deflection equation in section 15. applied loads and beam axes rotation. 3. Hence. (2) Displacements θ A . In statically indeterminate structures. Write joint equilibrium equations in terms of moments.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Relate moments to joint rotations and support settlements. 4. is assumed to be constant for the beam.1 Introduction In the last lesson. Analyse the beam undergoing support settlements and subjected to external loads. the beam axis rotates due to support yielding and this would in turn induce reactions and stresses in the structure.15. 2. the slopes and rotations are derived by superposing the end moments developed due to (1) Externally applied moments on beams. 15. The chord has rotated in the counterclockwise direction with respect to its original direction.The support B is at a higher elevation compared to A by an amount Δ . Estimate the reactions induced in the beam due to support settlements. Kharagpur . As stated earlier. slope-deflection equations are derived considering the rotation of beam axis. Consider a beam AB as shown in Fig. few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure. 5. slope-deflection equations were derived without considering the rotation of the beam axis. Hence. The counterclockwise moment and rotations are assumed to be positive. in this case the beam end moments are related to rotations. the member axis has rotated by an amount ψ from the original direction as shown in the figure.

For this case. Assuming that rotations and displacements shown in Fig. using the moment area theorem.1 (b) and in Fig. the fixed end moments are calculated by force method.1b.1(c).15. 15. Kharagpur .15. In Fig.15. φ A and φ B are written as φ A = θ A −ψ = M AB ' L M AB ' L − 3EI 6 EI (15. Let φ A and φ B be the end rotations of the elastic curve with respect to rotated beam axis AB’ ' ' (see Fig.The given beam with initial support settlement may be thought of as superposition of two simple cases as shown in Fig.2a) Version 2 CE IIT.1) Also.1c are so small that tan ψ = ψ = Δ l (15.15. the kinematically determinate beam is shown with the applied load.1c) that are caused by end moments M AB and M BA .

the slopedeflection equations for the general case are obtained.due to vertical settlement of the support B by 5mm.3a) (15.2b) ' ' Now solving for M A and M B in terms of θ A . In the above derivation Δ is taken to be negative for downward displacements.4a) (15.2a) having constant flexural rigidity EI throughout . M AB ' = M BA ' = 2 EI (2θ A + θ B − 3ψ ) L 2 EI (2θ B + θ A − 3ψ ) L (15.4b) M BA = M BA + M BA ' F ' ' Substituting for M AB and M BA in equation (15.4b). it is important to adopt consistent sign convention. Example 15.1) M AB = M AB + M AB ' F (15.15.5a) (15.1 Calculate the support moments in the continuous beam ABC (see Fig.Thus (see Fig. Assume E =200 GPa and I = 4 × 10 −4 m 4 .φ B= θ B −ψ = M BA ' L M AB ' L − 3EI 6 EI (15. the end moments in the actual structure is obtained .Also plot quantitative elastic curve.3b) Now superposing the fixed end moments due to external load and end moments due to displacements.5b) In the above equations. M AB = M AB + F M BA = M BA F 2 EI (2θ A + θ B − 3ψ ) L 2 EI + (2θ B + θ A − 3ψ ) L (15. Thus. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. θ B andψ .4a) and (15.15.

For each span. two slope-deflection equations need to be written. Thus.In the continuous beam ABC .ψ AB is taken as negative. beam is kinematically indeterminate to second degree. B is below A . the fixed end moments in the restrained beam are zero (see Fig. Hence. Version 2 CE IIT. As there is no external load on the beam.2b). the chord AB rotates in clockwise direction. two rotations θ B and θ C need to be evaluated.15. Hence. Kharagpur . In span AB .

0012EI ( ) (3) In span BC .8EIθ B + 0. for beam-end moment at end B . M AB = 2 EI θ B + 3 × 10 −3 5 ( ) (2) M AB = O. MAB = 2 EI (2θ A + θ B − 3ψ AB ) L For span AB .ψ AB − 5 × 10 −3 = = −1× 10 − 3 5 (1) Writing slope-deflection equation for span AB .4 EIθ B + .8 EIθ B + 0.8 EIθ C + 0. in span AB M BA = 0. M BC = 0.4 EIθ C − 1.15.4 EI 2θ B + 3 × 10 −3 M BA = 0.2c) Version 2 CE IIT.4 EIθ B − 1.0012EI Similarly. θ A = 0. Hence the chord joining B ′C rotates in anticlockwise direction. Hence. the support C is above support B . consider the joint equilibrium of support B (see Fig.2 × 10 −3 EI (4) (5) Now. ψ BC = ψ CB = 1 × 10 −3 Writing slope-deflection equations for span BC .2 × 10 −3 EI M CB = 0. Kharagpur .

M AB = 82. Kharagpur .570 kN.285 kN.2 × 10 −3 EI = 0 Simplifying.2 × 10 −3 EI 0. 0. M CB = 0 M CB = 0 = 0.8 EIθ B + 1. θ C and EI in slope-deflection equations.4θ B − 1.4 EIθ C − 1.8 EIθ B + 0.2 × 10 −3 (6) (7) Also.m M BC = −68.2 × 10 −3 EI + 0.573 kN.M BA + M BC = 0 Substituting the values of M BA and M BC in equation (6).15.6θ B + 0.8θ C + 0.7143 × 10 −3 radians (9) Substituting the values of θ B .2d) Version 2 CE IIT.4θ C = 1.4θ B = 1.8θ C + 0. the support C is simply supported and hence.m (10) Reactions are obtained from equations of static equilibrium (vide Fig.2 × 10 −3 (8) We have two unknowns θ B and θ C and there are two equations in θ B and θ C .m M CB = 0 kN. 1.m M BA = 68. Solving equations (7) and (8) θ B = −0.4286 × 10 −3 radians θ C = 1.

171 kN(↓) RBR = −13.15.714 kN (↑) The shear force and bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.714 kN (↓) RC = 13.171 kN (↑) RBL = −30. R A = 30. Version 2 CE IIT.2f. ∑M B = 0 .2e and elastic curve is shown in Fig.In beam AB . Kharagpur .15.

15.3a.2 A continuous beam ABCD is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 5 kN/m as shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.Example 15. Compute reactions and draw shear force and bending moment diagram due to following support settlements.

m (counterclockwise) F M CB = −41.Otherwise one could obtain fixed end moments from force method of analysis. I = 1. the rotations are evaluated and hence the moments from slope-deflection equations. solving the four equilibrium equations.667 kN.667 kN.15. Now consider the kinematically restrained beam as shown in Fig. Referring to standard tables the fixed end moments may be evaluated .15.005m vertically downwards Support C 0.667 kN. θ B .667 kN. One equilibrium equation can be written at each support.m (clockwise) Version 2 CE IIT.m F M BA = −41. four rotations θ A .Hence.01 m vertically downwards Assume E =200 GPa.Support B 0. θ C and θ D are to be evaluated.3b) F M AB = 41.m (clockwise) F M BC = 41.35 × 10 −3 m 4 In the above continuous beam. Kharagpur . The fixed end moments in the present case are (vide fig.3b.

B is below A and hence the chord joining AB ′ rotates in the clockwise direction (see Fig.667 + 0.2 EI (2θ C + θ B + 0.m (counterclockwise) F M DC = −41.3c) 0 − 0.0005 radians (negative as the chord AB ′ rotates in the 10 clockwise direction from the original direction) ψ AB = ψ BC = −0.F M CD = 41. M AB = 41.0005) M CB = −41. write slope-deflection equations for each span.667 + 0.667 kN.667 + 0.0005) M BC = 41.0005 radians (negative as the chord B ′C ′ rotates in the clockwise direction) 0. Kharagpur . for each of the spans.15.m (clockwise) (1) In the next step.2 EI (2θ A + θ B + 0. In the span AB . writing the expressions for the span end moments.2 EI (2θ B + θ A + 0.01 = 0.667 + 0.001 radians (positive as the chord C ′D rotates in the counter 10 clockwise direction from the original direction) (2) ψ CD = Now.0005) Version 2 CE IIT.0005) M BA = −41.2 EI (2θ B + θ C + 0.005 = −0.667 kN.

000 kN.7653 × 10 −5 radians θ D = 9.667 + 0. They are ∑M ∑M ∑M ∑M A = 0 ⇒ M AB = 0 = 0 ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 = 0 ⇒ M CB + M CD = 0 = 0 ⇒ M DC= 0 (4) B C D Substituting the values of beam end moments from equations (3) in equation (4).They are.2 EI (2θ D + θ C − 0.667 + 0. θ B .m 2 ) 2θ A + θ B = −1.2716 × 10 −3 θ A + 4θ B + θ C = −0. ( EI = 200 × 10 3 × 1.9013 × 10 −5 radians θ C = −8. one each for each of the supports. θ B .2 EI (2θ C + θ D − 0.9629 × 10 −4 radians θ B = −7.35 × 10 −6 = 270.0005 θ C + 2θ D = 1. four equations are obtained in four unknown rotations θ A . θ C and θ D are evaluated.M CD = 41.001) (3) For the present problem.001 θ B + 4θ C + θ D = 0. values of θ A . four joint equilibrium equations can be written.2963 × 10 −4 radians (6) Version 2 CE IIT. θ A = −5.7716 × 10 −3 (5) Solving the above sets of simultaneous equations.001) M DC = −41. θ C and θ D . Kharagpur .

R A = 19.000{2 × ( −8.m M BC = 41.667 + 0.000{2(−5.0005)} = 0 M BA = −41.001} = 0 kN. Kharagpur .2 × 270.2 × 270.9013 × 10 −5 ) + 0.2 × 270.667 + 0.0005} = −55.9629 × 10 −4 ) + (−7.40 kN.46 kN (↑) Version 2 CE IIT.000{2(−7.15.2 × 270.2 × 270.7653 × 10 −5 − 0. M AB = 41.667 + 0.2963 × 10 −4 − 8.9629 × 10 −4 + 0.667 + 0.000{2( −7.m M CD = 41.000{2 × 9.Substituting the values in slope-deflection equations the beam end moments are evaluated.40 kN.m M CB = −41.667 + 0.0005} = −28.2963 × 10 −4 − 0.2 × 270.m M DC = −41.3d.9013 × 10 −5 ) − 5.m (7) Reactions are obtained from equilibrium equations.000{2( −8.7653 × 10 −5 ) + 0.765 × 10 −5 ) − 7.765 × 10 −5 ) + 9.40 kN.0005} = 55.667 + 0.40 kN.9013 × 10 −5 ) + ( −8. Now consider the free body diagram of the beam with end moments and external loads as shown in Fig.9013 × 10 −5 + 0.001} = 28.

The continuous beam is solved using slope-deflection equations.5e.15. Kharagpur . Moments developed at the ends are related to rotations and support settlements.54 kN(↑) RBR = 27.16 kN(↑) The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig. The equilibrium equations are written at each support. The deflected shape of the beam is sketched. Version 2 CE IIT. The bending moment and shear force diagrams are drawn for the examples solved in this lesson.RBL = 30.84 kN (↑) R D = 22.7 kN (↑) RCL = 22. Summary In this lesson.3 kN (↑) RCR = 27. slope-deflection equations are derived for the case of beam with yielding supports.

Kharagpur .Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 16 The Slope-Deflection Method: Frames Without Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

However the frames are symmetrical in geometry and in loading and hence these will not sidesway. 2) The frame geometry and loading is symmetrical Version 2 CE IIT. Able to analyse plane frames restrained against sidesway by slope-deflection equations.This is true also for joint D . 16.1 (c) and (d) are not restrained against sidesway. Frames shown in Fig 16. 2. 3.e. The frames shown in Fig 16. With this assumption the frames shown in Fig 16. i. Kharagpur .Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1.1 will not sidesway.1 Introduction In this lesson. State whether plane frames are restrained against sidesway or not.1(a) and Fig 16.1(a) the joint can’t move to the right or left without support A also moving . 4. In general. For example in Fig 16. frames do not sidesway if 1) They are restrained against sidesway. the frames will not be displaced to the right or left. Sketch the deflected shape of the plane frame. slope deflection equations are applied to solve the statically indeterminate frames without sidesway.1(b) are properly restrained against sidesway. In frames axial deformations are much smaller than the bending deformations and are neglected in the analysis. Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams for the plane frame.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Hence the analysis of such rigid frames by slope deflection equation essentially follows the same steps as that of continuous beams without support settlements. Kharagpur .2 . Now consider the free body diagram of joint C as shown in fig 16.For the frames shown in Fig 16. there is a small difference. the angle ψ in slope-deflection equation is zero. In the case of continuous beam.1(d) three members meet. Whereas in the case of rigid frames two or more than two members meet at a joint. At joint C in the frame shown in Fig 16.1. However. at a joint only two members meet.The equilibrium equation at joint C is ∑M C =0⇒ M CB + M CE + M CD = 0 Version 2 CE IIT.

At each joint there is only one unknown as all the ends of members meeting at a joint rotate by the same amount. Thus Version 2 CE IIT. e. Now. Example 16. and solving these equations joint rotations are evaluated.1 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig 16. Substituting joint rotations in the slope–deflection equations member end moments are calculated. Kharagpur . The whole procedure is illustrated by few examples. Frames undergoing sidesway will be considered in next lesson. Assume EI to be constant for all the members. The moment in the cantilever portion is known. Draw bending moment diagram and also sketch the elastic curve.3 c). θ B . Hence this moment is applied on frame as shown in Fig 16.3 (a). Thus the required equations to evaluate θ B is obtained by considering the equilibrium of joint B .3 (b). calculate the fixed-end moments by fixing the support B (vide Fig 16. One would write as many equilibrium equations as the no of unknowns. Solution In this problem only one rotation needs to be determined i.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

5EIθ B 4 = EIθ B M BC M CB = 0. M BD = 5 + M DB 2 EI [2θ B ] = 5 + EIθ B 4 2 EI = 5+ [θ B ] = −5 + 0. Since supports C and D are fixed θ C = θ D = 0 .F M BD = +5 kNm F M DB = −5 kNm F M BC = 0 kNm F M BC = 0 kNm For writing slope–deflection equations two spans must be considered.3 d) Version 2 CE IIT. Also the frame is restrained against sidesway. Kharagpur . (see Fig 16. BC and BD .5EIθ B (2) Now consider the joint equilibrium of support B .

5 kN ⋅ m M DB = −3.5 kN ⋅ m M CB = +1.3 (e) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .75 kN ⋅ m M BC = +2. 5 EI (4) Substituting the values of θ B in equation (2).25 kN ⋅ m (5) The reactions are evaluated from static equations of equilibrium.∑M B =0 ⇒ M BD + M BC − 10 = 0 (3) Substituting the value of M BD and M BC and from equation (2) in the above equation 5 + EIθ B + EIθ B − 10 = 0 θB = 2. the beam end moments are calculated M BD = +7. The free body diagram of each member of the frame with external load and end moments are shown in Fig 16.

9375 kN(→) (6) Bending moment diagram is shown in Fig 16.3(f) Version 2 CE IIT.9375 kN(←) RDy = 4.9375 kN(↑) RCx = −0. Kharagpur .RCy = 10.0625 kN(↑) RDx = 0.

Version 2 CE IIT.The vertical hatching is use to represent the bending moment diagram for the horizontal member (beams) and horizontal hatching is used for bending moment diagram for the vertical members.3 (g). Kharagpur . The qualitative elastic curve is shown in Fig 16.

Kharagpur . Evaluate fixed end moments.4 (a).2 Compute reactions and beam end moments for the rigid frame shown in Fig 16. The given frame is kinematically indeterminate to second degree.4 b) Version 2 CE IIT. (Fig 16. Solution In this frame rotations θ A and θ B are evaluated by considering the equilibrium of joint A and B . This is done by considering the kinematically determinate structure. Draw bending moment and shear force diagram for the frame and also sketch qualitative elastic curve.Example 16.

The spans must be considered for writing slope-deflection equations viz.m 42 (1) F M CD = Note that the frame is restrained against sidesway.5 kN. The beam end moments are related to unknown rotations θ A and θ B by following slopedeflection equations.5 kN.F M DB = 5 × 62 = 15 kN. (Force deflection equations).m 42 − 5 × 2 × 22 = −2. A . F M AB = M ABL + 2 E (2 I ) (2θ A + θ B ) LAB Version 2 CE IIT. Support C is fixed and hence θ C = 0.m 12 F M BA = M F BC 5 × 2 × 22 = = 2.m 12 − 5 × 62 = −15 kN. B and AC . Kharagpur .

667 EIθ B = −15 Or.5 + 0.333EIθ A + 0.333EIθ A + +0.489 EI Version 2 CE IIT.5 + EIθ B + 0.5 EIθ C M CB = −2. 2θ A + θ B = Equilibrium of joint B (Fig 16.333EIθ B M BC = 2.667 EIθ A + 1.M AB = 15 − +1. Kharagpur .4 (c)) ∑M A =0 (3) M AB = 0 = 15 + 1.333EIθ A + 0.667 EIθ B M BA = −15 + 0.667 EIθ B 1.4(d)) − 22.5EIθ B (2) Consider the joint equilibrium of support A (See Fig 16.

245 θB = (clockwise) EI θB = (6) Substituting the value of θ A and θ B evaluated.498θ B + θ A = 18.667 EI ⎜ ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎛ 10.245 ⎞ M AB = 15 + 1. 3. in equation (2) beam end moments are ⎛ 10.002 (counterclockwise) EI − 16.m ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎛ 10.5 kN.5 + 0.5 kN.245 ⎞ M BA = −15 + 0.1.002 ⎞ M BC = 2.5 + EI ⎜ ⎟ = 12. Kharagpur .667 EI ⎜ ⎟ = −1 ⎟ + .33EI ⎜ ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎝ EI ⎠ ⎛ 10.667 EIθ A = 12.m ⎝ EI ⎠ (7) Version 2 CE IIT.5 EI ⎜ ⎟ = 2.333EI ⎜ ⎟=0 ⎟ + 0.002 ⎞ ⎛ − 16.002 ⎞ M CB = −2. 2.∑M B =0 ⇒ M BC + M BA = 0 (4) Substituting the value of M BC and M BA in the above equation.5 Or.741 EI (5) Solving equation (3) and (4) 10.002 ⎞ ⎛ − 16.333EIθ B + 0.

Version 2 CE IIT.4(g) and 16. reactions are evaluated from equilibrium equations as shown in Fig 16.4 h respectively.4 (e) The shear force and bending moment diagrams are shown in Fig 16.4 (h). Kharagpur .Using these results. The qualitative elastic curve is shown in Fig 16.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

5(a).3 Compute reactions and beam end moments for the rigid frame shown in Fig 16. Solution Version 2 CE IIT. Draw bending moment diagram and sketch the elastic curve for the frame.Example 16. Kharagpur .

m 62 (1) F M BC = F M CB = F F F F M BD = M DB = M CE = M EC = 0 The frame is restrained against sidesway. First calculate the fixed end moments (see Fig 16. θ C and θ D .The given frame is kinematically indeterminate to third degree so three rotations are to be calculated.m 30 10 × 3 × 32 = 7. Four spans must be considered for rotating slope – deflection equation: AB.5 kN. BC and CE. BD.m 20 M F BA −5 × 42 = = −2.667 kN. Kharagpur . The beam end Version 2 CE IIT. θ B . F M AB = 5 × 42 = 4 kN.5 b).m 62 −10 × 3 × 32 = −7.5 kN.

θ A = θ E = 0 .667 + EIθ B M BD = EIθ B + 0.667 EIθ A + EIθ B = −2.5 EIθ E = 0.5EIθC + 0.5 EIθ B M BA = −2.5 EIθ C Consider the equilibrium of joints B. M AB = 4 + 2 EI [ 2θ A + θ B ] 4 M AB = 4 + EIθ A + 0. D.333EIθ C M CE = EIθC + 0.moments are related to unknown rotation at B.5 EIθ B + EIθ D M BC = 7.5 + 1.5(c)) (2) Version 2 CE IIT.5 + 2E ( 2I ) [ 2θ B + θC ] = 7. Kharagpur .5 EIθ D M DB = 0.667 EIθC 6 M CB = −7. C (vide Fig. C.5EIθ E = EIθC M EC = 0.5EIθ B = 4 + 0.667 EIθ B + 1. 16.5 + . and D. Since the supports A and E are fixed.333EIθ B + 0.

Kharagpur . and (5) 3.5 EIθ D = −4. M BC .333EIθC + 0.667 EIθ C + 0. EIθ B = −2.667 EIθ B = 7.5 (6) Solving the above set of simultaneous equations. M DB . θ B . θ C and θ D are evaluated. M BD . (4). M CB and M CE in the equations (3).4125 Version 2 CE IIT.5 EIθ B + EIθ D = 0 2.333EIθ B + 0.833 0.∑M ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 =0 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ M BA + M BC + M BD = 0 (3) (4) (5) D M DB = 0 M CB + M CE = 0 C Substituting the values of M BA .

m M EC = 1.953 kN.m M CE = 3. Version 2 CE IIT.m M BD = −1.m M CB = −3.794 kN. θ C and θ D in (2).m (8) The reactions are computed in Fig 16. M AB = 2.9057 EIθ D = 1.EIθC = 3.859 kN.9028 kN.2063 (7) Substituting the values of θ B . Kharagpur .080 kN.9057 kN.m M BA = −5.m M DB = 0 M BC = 6.5(d). using equilibrium equations known beam-end moments and given loading.8094 kN. beam end moments are computed.

465 kN ( ← ) (9) The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig 16.502 kN ( ↑ ) RAx = 1.403 kN ( ↑ ) REy = 4.5(f).013 kN ( → ) RDx = 0. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .(e) and the elastic curve is shown in Fig 16.095 kN ( ↑ ) RDy = 9.5.542 kN ( → ) REx = −1.RAy = 6.

The shear force and bending moment diagrams are drawn for the plane frames.Summary In this lesson plane frames restrained against sidesway are analysed using slope-deflection equations. Kharagpur . Few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure. Equilibrium equations are written at each rigid joint of the frame and also at the support. Version 2 CE IIT.

Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 17 The Slope-Deflection Method: Frames with Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT.

it was observed that sidesway in a frame will not occur if 1. the axial deformation of beams and columns are small and are neglected in the analysis. consider the frame of Fig. In Version 2 CE IIT. In the previous lesson. 17. If b is greater than a . In general loading will never be symmetrical. 2.1 Introduction In this lesson. Due to unsymmetrical loading the beam end moments M BC and M CB are not equal. 3. If the frame geometry and the loading are symmetrical. In this case the frame is symmetrical but not the loading. Analyse plane frames undergoing sidesway. slope-deflection equations are applied to analyse statically indeterminate frames undergoing sidesway. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams. then M BC > M CB . They are restrained against sidesway. 4. For example. 17. As stated earlier. Sketch deflected shape of the plane frame not restrained against sidesway. Kharagpur . Hence one could not avoid sidesway in frames.1. 2.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Derive slope-deflection equations for the frames undergoing sidesway.

Two equations are obtained by considering the moment equilibrium of joint B and C respectively. ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 ⇒ ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 (17. three equations are required to evaluate them.2b) C Now consider free body diagram of the frame as shown in Fig. one must consider the column rotation ψ ⎜ = ⎟ as ⎝ h⎠ unknowns. It is observed that in the column AB . Hence we have three unknown displacements in this frame: rotations θ B . the end B undergoes a linear displacement Δ with respect to end A . The horizontal shear force acting at A and B of the column AB is given by Version 2 CE IIT. 17. Hence the slope-deflection equation for column AB is similar to the one for beam undergoing support settlement.2.2a) (17. Δ h F M AB = M AB + 2 EI [2θ A + θ B − 3ψ AB ] h where ψ AB = − ψ AB is assumed to be negative as the chord to the elastic curve rotates in the clockwise directions. However. Kharagpur .such a case joint B and C are displaced toward right as shown in the figure by an unknown amount Δ . Similarly. F M BA = M BA + M BC M CB M CD M DC 2 EI [2θ B + θ A − 3ψ AB ] h 2 EI F = M BC + [2θ B + θ C ] h 2 EI F [2θ C + θ B ] = M CB + h 2 EI F = M CD + [2θ C + θ D − 3ψ CD ] h 2 EI F [2θ D + θ C − 3ψ CD ] = M DC + h ψ CD = − Δ h (17. in this case Δ is unknown. The unknown joint rotations θ B and θ C are related to joint moments by the moment equilibrium equations.1) As there are three unknowns ( θ B . when unknown linear displacement occurs. θ C and Δ ). While applying slope-deflection equation to columns ⎛ Δ⎞ in the above frame. For each of the members we can write the following slope-deflection equations. one needs to consider force-equilibrium equations. θ C and the linear displacement Δ .

4) M BA + M AB M CD + M DC + =0 h h Substituting the values of beam end moments from equation (17. the shear force H 3 is given by H3 = M CD + M DC h (17.2a).1) in equations (17. the required third equation is obtained by considering the equilibrium of member BC . we get three simultaneous equations in three unknowns θ B . ∑F X =0 ⇒ H1 + H 3 = 0 (17.H1 = M BA + M AB h (17. solving which joint rotations and translations are evaluated. (17.3a) Similarly for member CD . Kharagpur .4).2b) and (17.3b) Now.θ C and Δ . Version 2 CE IIT.

M BA = 0 . F F F F F F M AB = 0 . M CB = −10 kN . Considering the kinematically determinate structure. (1) The ends A and D are fixed. fixed end moments are evaluated. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .m . Joints B and C translate by the same amount Δ .1 Analyse the rigid frame as shown in Fig. henceψ AB and ψ CD are taken as negative. Assume EI to be constant for all members.3a. Draw bending moment diagram and sketch qualitative elastic curve.3b) ψ AB = ψ CD = − Δ 3 (2) Chords of the elastic curve AB ' and DC ' rotate in the clockwise direction. Thus. Hence. Solution In the given problem. Hence. M DC = 0. M BC = +10 kN . θ A = θ D = 0. The complete procedure is explained with a few numerical examples.Knowing joint rotations and translations. Hence. M CD = 0 . beam end moments are calculated from slope-deflection equations. joints B and C rotate and also translate by an amount Δ . 17. Example 17. in this problem we have three unknown displacements (two rotations and one translation) to be evaluated. chord to the elastic curve AB ' and DC ' rotates by an amount (see Fig.m . 17.

ψ AB = − M AB = M BA = 2 2 EIθ B + EIΔ 3 3 4 2 EIθ B + EIΔ 3 3 1 EIθ C 2 M BC = 10 + EIθ B + M CB = −10 + M CD = 1 EIθ B + EIθ C 2 4 2 EIθ C + EIΔ 3 3 Version 2 CE IIT.θ A = 0 . F M AB = M AB + 2 EI [2θ A + θ B − 3ψ AB ] 3 Δ . Kharagpur . 3 F M AB = 0 .Now. writing the slope-deflection equations for the six beam end moments.

∑ FX = 0 (vide Fig. 17. 17. consider the joint equilibrium of B and C (vide Fig.e. (6) Version 2 CE IIT.M DC = 2 2 EIθ C + EIΔ 3 3 (3) Now. − H 1 + 10 − H 2 = 0 ⇒ H 1 + H 2 = 10 . Kharagpur . ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 ⇒ ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 (4) (5) C The required third equation is written considering the horizontal equilibrium of the entire frame i.3d).3c).

5 EIθ B + 0.667 EIΔ = 10 (9) (10) Version 2 CE IIT. (5) and (6) 2.333EIθ C + 0.Considering the equilibrium of the column AB and CD .333EIθ B + 0. M BA + M AB + M CD + M DC = 30 (8) Substituting the beam end moments from equation (3) in equations (4).667 EIΔ = −10 2.5EIθ C + 0. yields H1 = and M BA + M AB 3 H2 = M CD + M DC 3 (7) The equation (6) may be written as. Kharagpur .

(10) and (11). EIθ C = 1.3 e.m . Version 2 CE IIT.130 kN.572 . And the elastic curve is shown in Fig 17. 17.m M CB = −13. (10) and (11) indicate symmetry and this fact may be noted. This may be used as the check in deriving these equations.355 and EIΔ = 17.406 kN. EIθ B = −9.m M CD = 13. Substituting the values of EIθ B .m M DC = 12.417 . EIθ C and EIΔ in the slope-deflection equation (3). M AB = 5.m(clockwise) M BC = 1. Solving equations (9).8 2 EIθ B + 2 EIθ C + EIΔ = 30 3 (11) Equations (9).14 kN.m (counterclockwise) M BA = −1. Kharagpur . the bending moment diagram is drawn on the compression side.23 kN. Also note that the vertical hatching is used to represent bending moment diagram for the horizontal members (beams). The bending moment diagram for the frame is shown in Fig.500 kN. Thus.3 f. one could calculate beam end moments.415 kN.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Version 2 CE IIT.2 Analyse the rigid frame as shown in Fig. Neglect axial deformations. Kharagpur . The moment of inertia for all the members is shown in the figure. 17.4a and draw the bending moment diagram.Example 17.

m .333EIΔ Version 2 CE IIT.333EIΔ M BA = −9 + 1. Hence.333EIθ B + 0.3b. Kharagpur . Hence. M AB = 9 + 2(2 EI ) ⎡ Δ⎤ ⎢θ B + 2 ⎥ 6 ⎣ ⎦ M AB = 9 + 0. M DC = 0.Solution: In this problem rotations and translations at joints B and C need to be evaluated. (1) The joints B and C translate by the same amount Δ . M CB = 0 . in this problem we have three unknown displacements: two rotations and one translation. Fixed end moments are F M AB = M F BC 12 × 3 × 9 F = 9 kN .m . writing the slope-deflection equations for six beam end moments. M BA = −9 kN . ψ AB = − and ψ CD Δ 6 Δ =− 3 (2) Now. the chord to the elastic curve rotates in the clockwise direction as shown in Fig.667 EIθ B + 0. M CD = 0 . 36 F F F = 0 . 17.

667 EIΔ M DC = 0.333EIθ C + 0.4c).5 EIθ C M CB = 0. (6) Version 2 CE IIT.667 EIθ C + 0.667 EIΔ Now. 17. consider the joint equilibrium of B and C . (3) ∑M ∑M B =0 =0 ⇒ ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 (4) (5) C The required third equation is written considering the horizontal equilibrium of the entire frame. H1 + H 2 = 0 . Kharagpur .5EIθ B + EIθ C M CD = 1.M BC = EIθ B + 0. Considering the free body diagram of the member BC (vide Fig.

76 .333EIθ C + 0. (5) and (8).4 d.32 kN.5 EIθ C + 0. one could calculate beam end moments. yields 2. Version 2 CE IIT. H 1 = −6 + and M BA + M AB 6 H2 = M CD + M DC 3 (7) Substituting the values of H 1 and H 2 into equation (6) yields.333EIθ B + 0.m M CB = −3. Kharagpur .75 kN.The forces H 1 and H 2 are calculated from the free body diagram of column AB and CD .5 EIθ B + 0.m M CD = 3. EIθ B = 2. Thus.m (counterclockwise) M BA = −0.00 .667 EIΔ = 0 2 EIθ B + 4 EIθ C + 3. (10) and (11). EIθ C and EIΔ in the slope-deflection equation (3).835 kN.m .333EIΔ = 9 2.50 kN. Thus.325 kN. M BA + M AB + 2M CD + 2 M DC = 36 (8) Substituting the beam end moments from equation (3) in equations (4).333EIΔ = 36 Solving equations (9). The bending moment diagram for the frame is shown in Fig.50 kN. Substituting the values of EIθ B .m M DC = 6. EIθ C = −4. M AB = 15.88 and (9) EIΔ = 15.m(clockwise) M BC = 0. 17.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

In this figure. Draw bending moment diagram. 17. chord to the elastic curve are shown by dotted line. The chords to the elastic Version 2 CE IIT. Moment of inertia of all the members are shown in the figure. the frame gets deformed as shown in Fig.Example 17.3 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig. BB ' is perpendicular to AB and CC" is perpendicular to DC .5b. Kharagpur . 17.5 a. Under the action of external forces.

θ C and Δ . M CD = 0 .curve AB" rotates by an angle ψ AB .50 kN . considering the joint equilibrium of B and C .568EIθ B + 0.5 + 2 EIθ B + EIθ C − 0. Now. ψ AB = − ψ CD = − ψ BC = Δ 2 2Δ tan α Δ = = Δ tan α = 2 2 5 (1) We have three independent unknowns for this problem θ B .1 M AB = 0.50 kN .568EIθ C + 0.471EIΔ M BC = 2. M BA = 0 . M BC = +2. Hence.471EIΔ M DC = 0.471EIΔ M BA = 1. writing the slope-deflection equations for the six beam end moments.784EIθ B + 0. B"C" rotates by ψ BC and DC rotates by ψ CD as shown in figure. M CB = −2. ψ AB = But Δ1 = Δ BB" =− 1 L AB L AB Δ cos α Δ Δ =− L AB cos α 5 Δ 5 Thus.784 EIθ C + 0.m . ψ CD = ψ AB . Kharagpur . M DC = 0. Due to symmetry.471EIΔ Now. The ends A and D are fixed. θ A = θ D = 0. From the geometry of the figure.5 + EIθ B + 2 EIθ C − 0. M AB = 2 E (2 I ) [θ A − 3ψ AB ] 5.6 EIΔ M BC = −2.6 EIΔ M CD = 1. Fixed end moments are.m . yields (2) Version 2 CE IIT. F F F F F F M AB = 0 .

Kharagpur .568 EIθ C + EIθ B − 0.5 Shear equation for Column AB 5H 1 − M AB − M BA + (1)V1 = 0 Column CD 5 H 2 − M CD − M DC + (1)V2 = 0 Beam BC ∑MC = 0 2V1 − M BC − M CB − 10 = 0 (5) (6) (7) Version 2 CE IIT.568 EIθ B + EIθ C − 0.129 EIΔ = −2.5 C =0 ⇒ M CB + M CD = 0 (4) 3.129 EIΔ = 2.∑M ∑M B =0 ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 (3) 3.

Thus.471EIΔ -( 2. EIθ C = 1.648 EIθ B + 3.471EIΔ + 1.471EIΔ + 1. Kharagpur . V1 = From equation (8).m Version 2 CE IIT.6 EIΔ )( − 2. M AB = 3.084 EIΔ = 25 Solving simultaneously equations (3) (4) and (13). EIθ C and EIΔ in the slope-deflection equation (3).568EIθ C + 0. Substituting the values of EIθ B . M BA . H 1 and V2 in equations (5) and (6). yields EIθ B = −0.648 EIθ C − 0.741 .∑F X =0 H1 + H 2 = 5 (8) (9) ∑ FY = 0 M BC + M CB + 10 2 V1 − V2 − 10 = 0 From equation (7). H1 = 5 − H 2 From equation (9).6 EIΔ ) = 25 Simplifying.5 + 2 EIθ B + EIθ C − 0.5 + EIθ B + 2 EIθ C − 0. 0. one could calculate beam end moments. M AB + M BA + M CD + M DC − M BC − M CB = 25 (12) (10) (11) Substituting the values of M AB . Thus. M CD . − 0.784 EIθ C + 0.784EIθ B + 0.205 and (13) EIΔ = 8. M DC in (12) we get the required third equation.568EIθ B + 0.204 .471EIΔ + 0. 60 − 10 H 2 − 2 M AB − 2M BA + M BC + M CB = 0 − 10 + 10 H 2 − 2 M CD − 2 M DC + M BC + M CB = 0 Eliminating H 2 in equation (10) and (11).28 kN. V2 = V1 − 10 = M BC + M CB + 10 − 10 2 Substituting the values of V1 .

A couple of problems are solved to make things clear.81 kN.m M BC = −2.m M CB = −5. 17. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. (14) Summary In this lesson. the bending moment diagram is drawn and deflected shape is sketched for the plane frame.M BA = 2.75 kN. Using these equations.5 d.70 kN. The reactions are calculated from static equilibrium equations.70 kN.m M DC = 4. The bending moment diagram for the frame is shown in Fig. slope-deflection equations are derived for the plane frame undergoing sidesway. In each numerical example.m .m M CD = 5.75 kN. plane frames with sidesway are analysed.

Kharagpur .Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 18 The MomentDistribution Method: Introduction Version 2 CE IIT.

Calculate stiffness factors and distribution factors for various members in a continuous beam. the unknown displacements (rotations and translations) are related to the applied loading on the structure.1 Introduction In the previous lesson we discussed the slope-deflection method. 4. It is very simple and is being used even today for preliminary analysis of small structures. the moment-distribution method was very popular among engineers. In this lesson.Thus. Define unbalanced moment at a rigid joint.1a. The counterclockwise beam end moments produce clockwise moments on the joint Consider a continuous beam ABCD as shown in Fig. The required equation to evaluate θ B and θ C is obtained by considering equilibrium of joints B and C. first moment-distribution method is developed for continuous beams with unyielding supports. ends A and D are fixed and hence.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. the moment-distribution method could have turned out to be a very popular method. 18. this really posed a problem as the number of equations in the case of multistory building is quite large. carry-over moments. Hence. Had the computers not emerged on the scene. simultaneous equations could be solved very easily using a computer. It is still being taught in the classroom for the simplicity and physical insight it gives to the analyst even though stiffness method is being used more and more. Until recently. Analyse continuous beam by the moment-distribution method. the results may be obtained to any desired degree of accuracy. The moment-distribution method proposed by Hardy Cross in 1932. 2. the deformation of this beam is completely defined by rotations θ B and θ C at joints B and C respectively.18.2 Basic Concepts In moment-distribution method. 18. 5. Derive expressions for distribution moment. Today. Before the advent of electronic computing. 3. The number of simultaneous equations will be equal to the number of unknowns to be evaluated. Compute distribution moment and carry-over moment. Kharagpur . counterclockwise beam end moments are taken as positive. In this method. In this beam. θ A = θ D = 0 . In slopedeflection analysis. The slope-deflection method results in a set of simultaneous equations of unknown displacements. Thus one needs to solve these simultaneous equations to obtain displacements and beam end moments. Version 2 CE IIT. actually solves these equations by the method of successive approximations.

1a) (18.1b) ⇒ M CB + M CD = 0 According to slope-deflection equation.e.∑M ∑M B C =0 =0 ⇒ M BA + M BC = 0 (18. and hence F M BA = M BA F M BC = M BC F M CB = M CB F M CD = M CD (18. This moment is denoted by M B and is known as the unbalanced moment.1b.18. joints are prevented from rotating.3) Since joints B and C are artificially held locked.2) In Fig. the counterclockwise beam-end moments M BA and M BC produce a clockwise moment M B on the joint as shown in Fig. F M BA = M BA + K ABθ B θ ⎞ ⎛ F M BC = M BC + K BC ⎜θ B + C ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ θ ⎛ F M CB = M CB + K CB ⎜θ C + B ⎜ 2 ⎝ F M CD = M CD + K CDθ C ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (18. Version 2 CE IIT. the resultant moment at joints B and C will not be equal to zero. Kharagpur .1b. the beam end moments are written as F M BA = M BA + 2 EI AB ( 2θ B ) L AB 4 EI AB L AB is known as stiffness factor for the beam AB and it is denoted F by k AB . In such a case (vide Fig.18. M BA is the fixed end moment at joint B of beam AB when joint B is fixed. To start with. Thus. in moment-distribution method.18. θ B = θ C = 0 . it is assumed that joints are locked i.1b).

Thus. ∑M B = 0. Version 2 CE IIT. When the joint B is unlocked. The unbalanced moment restores the equilibrium of the joint B. The unbalanced moment is the algebraic sum of the fixed end moments and act on the joint in the clockwise direction. Kharagpur .18.Thus.4) θ B1 by the slope-deflection The distributed moments are related to the rotation equation. Joints B and C do rotate under external loads. F F M B = M BA + M BC In reality joints are not locked. The unknown distributed moments are assumed to be positive and hence act in counterclockwise direction. M BC in the span BA and BC respectively as shown in the figure. under the action of M B .1d and introduces distributed d d moment M BA. This will deform the structure as shown in Fig. it will rotate under the action of unbalanced moment M B . Let the joint B rotate by an angle θ B1 . d d M BA + M BC + M B = 0 (18.

yields θ B1 (K BA + K BC ) = − M B θ B1 = − In general. Substituting the value of θ B1 in equation (18. They are known as carry over moments.4).5) Substituting equation (18. it bends the beam and beam end moments at the far ends (i.e. beam end moments are developed at ends of members meeting at that joint and are known as distributed moments.7) The ratio Thus. As the joint B rotates. when the joint B is unlocked and allowed to rotate under the action of unbalanced moment M B is equal to a distribution factor times the unbalanced moment with its sign reversed. at A and C) are developed. Now consider the beam BC of continuous beam ABCD. M B d M BC = − DFBC.8) The distribution moments developed in a member meeting at B. M B (18. θ B1 = − MB K BA + K BC ∑K MB (18. Kharagpur . As the joint B rotates under the action of the unbalanced moment. d M BA = − DFBA. d M BA = − ∑K ∑ K BC K K BA MB d M BC = − MB (18. distributed moments are calculated. ∑K K BA is known as the distribution factor and is represented by DFBA .5) in (18. Version 2 CE IIT.6) where summation is taken over all the members meeting at that particular joint.d M BA = K BAθ B1 d M BC = K BCθ B1 (18. Thus.5).

18. Few problems are solved here to illustrate the procedure. Now from slopedeflection equations d M BC = K BC θ B M BC = 1 K BC θ B 2 M CB = 1 d M BC 2 (18. 18.When the joint B is unlocked. With the above discussion. Assume that supports are unyielding. Carefully go through the first problem. we are in a position to apply momentdistribution method to statically indeterminate beam. Draw bending moment diagram.1 A continuous prismatic beam ABC (see Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.The joint B rotates by θ B1 under the action of unbalanced moment M B (vide Fig.2a) of constant moment of inertia is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m in addition to a concentrated load of 10 kN. wherein the moment-distribution method is explained in detail. Kharagpur .9) The carry over moment is one half of the distributed moment and has the same sign. joint C is locked . Example 18.1e).

Note that counterclockwise moments are taken as positive.429 2.333 EI = 0.m LBC 16 Before we start analyzing the beam by moment-distribution method.m 12 12 wL2 2×9 = − AB = − = −1. it is required to calculate stiffness and distribution factors.333 EI EI = 0.333EI 1. calculate fixed end moments developed in the beam due to externally applied load.333 EI DF BA = DFBC = Version 2 CE IIT.m L2 16 BC (1) M F CB Pa 2b 10 × 2 × 4 =− 2 =− = −5 kN. M F AB wL2 2×9 AB = = = 1. Kharagpur .571 2.Solution Assuming that supports B and C are locked.5 kN.5 kN. K BA = 4EI 3 K BC = 4EI 4 At B: ∑ K = 2.m 12 12 M F BA F M BC = Pab 2 10 × 2 × 4 = = 5 kN.

The unbalanced moment is 6 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.m (M CB ) . In this diagram B and C are assumed to be locked.At C: ∑ K = EI DFCB = 1. Now joint C is relocked and a line is drawn below +5 kN.0 Note that distribution factor is dimensionless. Now the distributed moments M BC and M BA are obtained by multiplying the unbalanced moment with the corresponding distribution factors and reversing the sign.5 kN.18. In the case of fixed joint. This in turn develops a beam end moment of +5 kN.m (counterclockwise) till a moment of -5 kN. Now unlock the joint C. it does not rotate and hence no distribution moments are developed and consequently distribution factor is equal to zero. Kharagpur .m is developed (clockwise) at the joint.m to indicate equilibrium.18. The sum of distribution factor at a joint.5 kN.m till distributed moments are developed to restore equilibrium.2c. This is the distributed moment and thus restores equilibrium. When joint B is unlocked. Thus. Note that joint C starts rotating under the unbalanced moment of 5 kN.These are shown in Fig.m) and a carry over moment of +2. In Fig. When joint C rotates.m is developed at the B end of member BC.m.5 kN. a carry over moment of +2. except when it is fixed is always equal to one.0 and -1.2b the fixed end moments and distribution factors are shown on a working diagram. The distribution moments are developed only when the joints rotate under the action of unbalanced moment. it will rotate under an unbalanced moment equal to algebraic sum of the fixed end moments(+5.

574 kN.m that is developed when the joint B is allowed to rotate.18. The above calculations can also be done conveniently in a tabular form as shown in Table 18. Kharagpur . The iteration procedure is terminated when the change in beam end moments is less than say 1%. However the above working method is preferred in this course. Version 2 CE IIT. it is seen that joint B is balanced.1. The complete procedure is shown in Fig.426 kN. In such a case the stiffness of beam BC gets modified.m and M BA = −3. These distributed moments restore the equilibrium of joint B.2d along with the carry over moments. This will be discussed in the next section. This is shown in Fig.M BC = −2. Now.2e.287 kN. The whole procedure of locking and unlocking the joints C and B successively has to be continued till both joints B and C are balanced simultaneously. Lock the joint B. However joint C is not balanced due to the carry over moment -1.18. In the above problem the convergence may be improved if we leave the hinged end C unlocked after the first cycle.m.

1 Moment-distribution for continuous beam ABC Joint Member Stiffness Distribution factor FEM in kN.The support C will also rotate by θ C1 as it is free to rotate.138 0.333 Modified stiffness factor when the far end is hinged As mentioned in the previous example.O.429 +5.184 C. Now consider beam ABC as shown in Fig. alternate unlocking and locking at the hinged joint slows down the convergence of moment-distribution method. Balance B -0.138 0 -0.579 +4.O. However.426 -4.015 0 BC EI 0. Balance C -0.18.333 +5.333EI 0.030 +1.5 -2.644 -0.571 -1. When joint B is unlocked.294 -0.0 +2. moment M CB = 0 .294 +0.5 C CB EI 1. At the hinged end the moment is zero and hence we could allow the hinged joint C in the previous example to rotate freely after unlocking it first time.069 -0. A AB 1.276 +5. M CB = 0 θB ⇒ θC = − 2 (18. Thus M CB = K BC θ C + K BC θB 2 (18. Balance C Balanced -0.B and C.287 -0.0 0 -1.039 -5. Kharagpur . This necessitates certain changes in the stiffness parameters.0 +5.5 -1.9) Version 2 CE IIT.O. it will rotate by θ B1 under the action of unbalanced moment M B .926 +0.2a.m Balance joints C .287 1.368 -5.O.02 and C.O.m -0.713 -3. Now if joint C is left unlocked then the stiffness of member BC changes.926 Balance C and C.Table 18. Balance B and C. M BC = K BC θ B + (18.0 -5.015 +0.333EI B BA 1.7) But.417 moments in kN.8) K BC θC 2 Now.

Hence we could stop moment-distribution iteration.36 ∑ K = 2. Fixed end moments are the same.2 Solve the previous example by making the necessary modification for hinged end C.9).Accordingly distribution factors also get modified. as there is no unbalanced moment anywhere.333 EI .0 F D BC All the calculations are shown in Fig.18. F DCB = 1. Example 18.083. All joints are in equilibrium when they are unlocked. Joint B: F D BA = 0.3a Please note that the same results as obtained in the previous example are obtained here in only one cycle.Substituting the value of θ C in eqn. Now calculate stiffness and distribution factors. Kharagpur . M BC = K BC θ B − R M BC = K BCθ B K BC 3 θ B = K BC θ B 4 4 (18.75EI . K BC = 3 EI = 0.11) 3 K BC 4 R The K BC is known as the reduced stiffness factor and is equal to . (18. K BA = 1.10) (18.75 EI 4 = 0. Joint C: ∑ K = 0. Version 2 CE IIT. It must be noted that there is no carry over to joint C as it was left unlocked.64 .

5 kN.m F M BA = −16 kN. Solution Note that joint C is hinged and hence stiffness factor BC gets modified. Kharagpur .m . Assuming that the supports are locked. They are F M AB = 16 kN.Example 18. calculate fixed end moments.18. and F M CD = 15 kN.m In the next step calculate stiffness and distribution factors K BA = K BC 4EI 8 3 8 EI = 4 6 Version 2 CE IIT.4a.3 Draw the bending moment diagram for the continuous beam ABCD loaded as shown in Fig.The relative moment of inertia of each span of the beam is also shown in the figure.m F M CB = −7.m F M BC = 7.5 kN.

0 EI = 0.18.667 1. Kharagpur .4b This problem has also been solved by slope-deflection method (see example 14.5 EI F CB F DBC = At C: ∑ K = EI .5EI + 1.5EI = 0.333 1.5EI 1.K CB = At joint B: 8EI 6 ∑ K = 0.The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.2).18.4c.0 Now all the calculations are shown in Fig. D = 1. Version 2 CE IIT.5EI F DBA = 0.0EI = 1.

Few problems are solved to illustrate the moment-distribution method as applied to continuous beams with unyielding supports. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. The momentdistribution method actually solves these equations by the method of successive approximations. Various terms such as stiffness factor. unbalanced moment. distributing moment and carry-over-moment are defined in this lesson. distribution factor.Summary An introduction to the moment-distribution method is given here.

Kharagpur .MODULE 3 ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES BY THE DISPLACEMENT METHOD Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .LESSON 19 THE MOMENTDISTRIBUTION METHOD: STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS WITH SUPPORT SETTLEMENTS Version 2 CE IIT.

Such support settlements induce fixed end moments in the beams so as to hold the end slopes of the members as zero (see Fig. Draw the deflected shape of the continuous beam. 19. 2. 19.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1.5) for beam end moments were derived by superposing the end moments developed due to 1.θ B and Δ (settlements). Externally applied loads on beams Due to displacements θ A . moment-distribution method was discussed in the context of statically indeterminate beams with unyielding supports.1). In lesson 15. F M AB = M AB + 2 EI AB ⎡ 3Δ ⎤ ⎢2θ A + θ B − ⎥ L AB ⎣ L AB ⎦ (19.1 Introduction In the previous lesson. The required equations are. Kharagpur . Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams. 2. an expression (equation 15.1a) Version 2 CE IIT. Solve continuous beam with support settlements by the moment- distribution method. It is very well known that support may settle by unequal amount during the lifetime of the structure. 4. 3. Compute reactions at the supports.

S S Note that M AB = M BA = − 6 EI AB Δ L2 AB (19. F S M AB = M AB + 2 K AB [2θ A + θ B ] + M AB (19. The coefficient 4 has been dropped since only relative values are required in calculating distribution factors.2a) (19.3) S M AB is the beam end moments due to support settlement and is negative (clockwise) for positive support settlements (upwards).1b) This may be written as. In the moment-distribution S S method. The moment-distribution method as applied to statically indeterminate beams undergoing uneven support settlements is illustrated with a few examples. Version 2 CE IIT. which were described in details in lesson 18.2b) F S M BA = M BA + 2 K AB [ 2θ B + θ A ] + M BA where K AB = EI AB L AB is the stiffness factor for the beam AB. It is important to follow consistent sign convention. the support moments M AB and M BA due to uneven support settlements are distributed in a similar manner as the fixed end moments. Kharagpur . Here counterclockwise beam ⎛Δ⎞ end moments are taken as positive and counterclockwise chord rotation ⎜ ⎟ is ⎝L⎠ taken as positive.F M BA = M BA + 2 EI AB L AB ⎡ 3Δ ⎤ ⎢2θ B + θ A − ⎥ L AB ⎦ ⎣ (19.

In the span AB . 19. fixed end moments are developed due to support settlement of B by 5mm. Kharagpur . ψ AB = − M S AB 5 × 10 −3 5 S BA =M 6 EI AB 6 × 200 × 10 9 × 4 × 10 −4 ψ AB = − =− L AB 5 = 96000 Nm = 96 kNm. ⎛ 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (1) In the span BC .1 Calculate the support moments of the continuous beam ABC (Fig. However. the chord rotates by ψ BC in the counterclockwise direction and hence taken as positive. the chord rotates by ψ AB in clockwise direction.Example 19. due to vertical settlement of support B by 5mm. Thus. Assume E = 200 GPa . ψ BC 5 × 10 −3 = 5 Version 2 CE IIT. and I = 4 × 10−4 m 4 . Solution There is no load on the beam and hence fixed end moments are zero.2a) having constant flexural rigidity EI throughout.

35EI DFBA = DFBC = 0.1. 19. For span BC .571 0.15EI . while calculating stiffness factor.2 EI = 0. reduced stiffness factor has been taken as support C is hinged.0 .35 EI 0.S S M BC = M CB = − 6 EI BC 6 × 200 × 10 9 × 4 × 10 −4 ψ BC = − LBC 5 ⎛ 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = −96000 Nm = −96 kNm. At B : ∑ K = 0. Now joint moments are balanced as discussed previously by unlocking and locking each joint in succession and distributing the unbalanced moments till the joints have rotated to their final positions. (2) Now calculate stiffness and distribution factors. K BA = EI AB = 0. DFCB = 1. Kharagpur .429 0. The complete procedure is shown in Fig.15EI 4 LBC (3) Note that.15 EI = 0. the coefficient 4 has been dropped since only relative values are required in calculating the distribution factors. Version 2 CE IIT.2 EI L AB and K BC = 3 EI BC = 0.35 EI (4) At support C : ∑ K = 0.2b and also in Table 19.

408 -20.15EI 0.00 -27.296 68. Version 2 CE IIT.m) Moments 82.O.m) 96.000 C CB 0. 0.592 Note that there is no carry over to joint C as it was left unlocked.2EI 0. Support B .000 -96. to A -13.592 0.3a.000 96.005m vertically downwards.O. 19. Kharagpur . Example 19.000 BC 0. to B Balance joint B and C.429 -96.704 Final (kN.592 -68. Compute reactions and draw shear force and bending moment diagram due to following support settlements.000 48.000 Balance joint C and C.15EI 1.571 96.Table 19.1 Moment-distribution for continuous beam ABC Joint A Member Stiffness factor Distribution Factor Fixd End Moments (kN.2 A continuous beam ABCD is carrying uniformly distributed load 5 kN / m as shown in Fig.000 B BA 0.

F M AB = F M BC 5 × 100 F = 41. the chord joining joints A and B rotates in the clockwise direction as B moves vertical downwards with respect to A (see Fig.35 × 10 −3 m 4 .67 kN. Assume E = 200GPa .67 kN.3b).67 kN.Support C .67 kN. . Kharagpur .m. B. (1) In the span AB . M BC = −41. 19.m.m.m 12 F = +41.0100m vertically downwards. Version 2 CE IIT.67 kN. I = 1. C and D are locked and calculate fixed end moments due to externally applied load and support settlements.67 kN.m F M DC = −41. The fixed end beam moments due to externally applied loads are. M BA = −41. Solution: Assume that supports A.m F M CD = +41.

35 × 10−3 ψ AB = − (−0.00 kN.0005) LAB 10 = 81000 N.m (3) In the next step. calculate stiffness and distribution factors.ψ AB = −0.001 radians (positive as chord C' D rotates in the counterclockwise direction).m = 81. S M AB = − 6 EI AB 6 × 200 ×109 ×1.m S S M CD = M DC = −162. Kharagpur .00 kN.0005 radians ψ CD = 0.m M S BA = 81. Now the fixed end beam moments due to support settlements are.00 kN. Version 2 CE IIT. Stiffness factors are.0005 radians (negative as chord AB ' rotates in the clockwise direction from its original position) ψ BC = −0. For span AB and CD modified stiffness factors are used as supports A and D are hinged.m S S M BC = M CB = 81.00 kN.

The balancing moment on BC gives a carry over moment of −26.66 × 0.m.075EI . Then fixed end moments due to applied loads and support settlements are entered. Hence balancing moments at A and D are -122. The unbalanced moment at joint B is 100. In the first step. It must be noted that there is no carryover to joints A and D as they were left unlocked.429) and for BC is −57.66 x 0.m respectively.67 kN. In the next cycle.19 ( −100. DFCB = 0. Kharagpur .075 EI . Version 2 CE IIT.175EI . 4 10 EI = 0.84 kN.429 .3c and in Table 19. the distribution factors are entered.2.10 EI 10 (4) K CB = K CD = 3 EI = 0. (Note that we are dealing with beam end moments and not joint moments).0 DFBC = 0.m .67 kN.m and 101.075EI . Hence balancing moment for beam BA is −43.m (-100.67 kN. balancing them and locking them is shown in a working diagram in Fig.m. 203. Now carry over moments -61.66 kN.571) .10 EI . Further leave A and D unlocked as they are hinged joints.m to joint C . 19. release joints A and D .0 DFBA = 0.429 At joint B : ∑ K = 0.175EI .m respectively. The joint moments are negative of the beam end moments. DFDC = 1. At joint C : ∑ K = 0.74 kN.K BA = 3 EI = 0.34 kN. 10 K BC = EI = 0. balance joints B and C .571 DFCD = 0. -203. DFAB = 1.m to joint B and C respectively.3c. The whole procedure is shown in Fig.19.075 EI 4 10 At joint A : ∑ K = 0.67 kN. The complete procedure of successively unlocking the joints. In the first row. At joint D : ∑ K = 0. The unbalanced moments at A and D are 122.571 .48 kN.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

69 -0.95 3.670 203.1 EI 0.97 -2.670 to 81.73 0.67 -0.000 122.670 -41.28 0.835 -8.670 Carry over Balance B and C Carry over Balance B and C Carry over to B and C Balance B and C C.670 Balance A and D released 122.06 -14.429 1.075 EI 0.000 162.29 -66.33 1.67 -0.185 -57.34 0.670 39.1 EI 1.70 101.000 0.410 1. Kharagpur .O.670 41.000 AB BA BC 0.000 Version 2 CE IIT.075 EI 0.670 41.330 120.14 -0.33 -3.Table 19.571 to 41.670 39.21 1.670 -41.330 203.429 0. to B and C Balance B and C Carry over Balance B and C Final Moments 0.552 12.88 0.38 66.670 -41.740 16.000 162.000 81.335 -43.897 -26.21 -11.49 0.000 81.08 14.330 122.67 -0.40 8.480 -5.075 EI 0.88 -0.000 81.571 D CD DC 0.01 -0.52 -4.2 Moment-distribution for continuous beam ABCD Joint Members Stiffness factors Distribution Factors FEM due externally applied loads FEM due support settlements Total A B C CB 0.075 EI 0.94 2.000 -61.

67 kN . Kharagpur . and I = 8 × 10 6 mm 4 .m . The support B settles by 5mm below A and C .3 Analyse the continuous beam ABC shown in Fig.4a by moment-distribution method. 19.m (1) In the next step calculate fixed end moments due to support settlements. the chord B' C rotates in the counterclockwise direction (Fig. F M BC = +2. Assume EI to be constant for all members E = 200GPa . In the span AB .m .67 kN .Example 19. Version 2 CE IIT. F M AB = +2 kN . F M BA = −2 kN .4b). the chord AB ' rotates in the clockwise direction and in span BC . Solution: Calculate fixed end beam moments due to externally applied loads assuming that support B and C are locked. 19.m F M CB = −2.

0kN .4d.1875EI 4 (4) At joint B : ∑ K = 0. Kharagpur .25 × 10 −3 radians 4 (2) 5 × 10 −3 = 1.4375EI . At joint C : ∑ K = 0. DFCB = 1.4c and Table 19. Version 2 CE IIT. 19. In the next cycle .25EI K BC = 3 0.25 × 10 −3 radians 4 S S M AB = M BA = − 6 EI AB 6 × 200 × 10 9 × 8 × 10 −6 ψ AB = − L AB 4 ⎛ 5 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (3) = 3000 Nm = 3 kNm. In this particular case results are obtained in two cycles. 19. S S M BC = M CB = −3. The bending moment diagram is shown in fig.25EI = 0.m In the next step. The diagram is self explanatory.571 . calculate stiffness and distribution factors. The complete moment-distribution procedure is shown in Fig. K AB = K BA = 0.0 DFBC = 0. DFBA = 0. the joint does not rotate and hence no distribution moments are developed and consequently distribution factor is equal to zero.429 At fixed joint. In the first cycle joint C is balanced and carry over moment is taken to joint B . joint B is balanced and carry over moment is taken to joint A .1875EI .3.ψ AB = − ψ BC = 5 × 10 −3 = −1.

333 2.000 -3.m) Total 5.502 -1.000 Balance joint C and C.571 -2.000 -3.502 0.667 1.000 1.25 EI B BA 0.000 3. to A Final Moments (kN.O. Total 5.000 Version 2 CE IIT.000 Balance joint B and -1.000 due to support settlements (kN.O.000 -2.000 1.835 -5.Table 19.429 2.000 -2.667 Fixed End Moments 2.3 Moment-distribution for continuous beam ABC Joints Member Stiffness factor Distribution Factor A AB 0.667 5.000 due to applied loads (kN.000 -0.000 0.000 2.1875 EI 1.1875 EI 0.000 BC 0.25 EI 0. Kharagpur .00 C.m) 4.667 C CB 0.m) Fixed End Moments 3.000 -1.

The numerical examples are explained with the help of freebody diagrams. Also. The deflected shape of the continuous beam is sketched. Version 2 CE IIT. Each step in the numerical example is explained in detail.Summary The moment-distribution method is applied to analyse continuous beam having support settlements. wherever required. Kharagpur . the bending moment diagram is drawn. All calculations are shown at appropriate locations.

Kharagpur .Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 20 The MomentDistribution Method: Frames without Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT.

Few examples are solved to explain procedure. The moment-distribution method is carried out on a working diagram. As pointed out earlier. Compute reactions at the supports. Analysis of rigid frames by moment-distribution method is very similar to that of continuous beams described in lesson 18. the unbalanced moment at the beginning of each cycle is the algebraic sum of fixed end beam moments (in the first cycle) or the carry over moments (in the subsequent cycles) of the beam meeting at C . 2. 20. at a joint only two members meet.1) where more than two members meet. Solve plane frame restrained against sidesway by the moment-distribution method. where as in case of rigid frames two or more than two members meet at a joint. Version 2 CE IIT. 20. Kharagpur . Draw the deflected shape of the plane frame. The unbalanced moment is distributed to members CB. 3. At such joints (for example joint C in Fig.1 Introduction In this lesson. CD and CE according to their distribution factors.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. in the case of continuous beams. Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams. the statically indeterminate rigid frames properly restrained against sidesway are analysed using moment-distribution method. 4.

20. F M BD = 5.m Also. calculate fixed end moments.0 kN .0 kN .m F M DB = −5.0 kN .m Version 2 CE IIT.m (1) M F BC = 0. Kharagpur .Example 20. Assume EI to be constant for all the members.0 kN .1 Calculate reactions and beam end moments for the rigid frame shown in Fig. the fixed end moment acting at B on BA is clockwise. Solution In the first step.2a. Draw bending moment diagram for the frame.0 kN .m F M CB = 0. F M BA = −10.

5 .2b. 0. there is only one equation that needs to be solved for the unknown θ B in this problem.2c for easy reference. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. This problem has already been solved by slop. The free body diagram of each member of the frame with external load and beam end moments are again reproduced here in Fig.deflection method wherein reactions are computed from equations of statics.25 EI = 0 .5 EI DFBC = 0. Hence unbalanced moment is distributed between members BC and BD only.25 EI 4 At joint B : ∑ K = 0. as equilibrium of only one joint needs to be considered. K BD = EI = 0. In this problem the moment-distribution method is completed in only one cycle.50EI DFBD = 0. In addition its stiffness factor is zero. 20. 20. In other words. Please note that cantilever member does not have any restraining effect on the joint B from rotation.25 EI 4 and K BC = EI = 0.5 (2) All the calculations are shown in Fig. 20. The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.2d.In the next step calculate stiffness and distribution factors.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

K BA = 0.0 kN.667 kN. C . Moment of inertia of different members are shown in the diagram.m F M BC = 7.m F F F F M BD = M DB = M CE = M EC = 0 (1) The frame is restrained against sidesway. Solution: Calculate fixed end moments by locking the joints A.m F M CB = −7.5 kN. D and E F M AB = 5 × 42 = 4. Kharagpur . 20.333EI 6 Version 2 CE IIT.5 kN. In the next step calculate stiffness and distribution factors.3a by moment-distribution method. B.25EI and K BC = 2 EI = 0.m 20 F M BA = −2.2 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig.Example 20.

325 . Now joint C is balanced. This moment is distributed among three members meeting at B in proportion to their distribution factors. When joint C is unlocked. Kharagpur .1875 EI . 20.K BD = 3 EI = 0. Now unlock joint B .429 In Fig.7705EI DFBA = 0.141 kN.3 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig.m at BC and +1. DFCD = 0. Version 2 CE IIT.m .971 kN. To indicate that the joint C is balanced a horizontal line is drawn. DFBC = 0.25 EI (2) At joint B : ∑K = K BA + K BC + K BD = 0. For member BD .3b. The joint B is unbalanced and the unbalanced moment is −(7.m is distributed among members CB and CE according to their distribution factors. modified stiffness factor is used as the end D is hinged. the complete procedure is shown on a working diagram.m . The flexural rigidities of the members are shown in the figure.m at EC . Example 20.5 kN. 4 4 K CE = 0.67) = −6. The moment-distribution method is started from joint C .571 .5 + 2.432 (3) DFBD = 0. This balancing moment in turn developed moments +2. Draw bending moment diagram for the rigid frame.243 At joint C : ∑ K = 0.61 kN.141 − 2. Also there is no carry over to joint D from beam end moment BD as it was left unlocked.4a by moment-distribution method. it will rotate under the action of unbalanced moment of 7.583EI DFCB = 0.5 kN. Hence the 7. 20.

m . K BE = 0.m F F M CD = 6.0 kN.375 EI 4 4 K DC = 0.m F M FC = −5.5 EI .667 kN.333EI + 0.166EI Version 2 CE IIT. K CB = 0.0 kN. Joint B : K DG = 0. calculate fixed end moments.222 kN.5EI + 0.m.333EI .Solution: Assuming that the joints are locked. K CD = 0.m F M BE = 0.667 kN.333 kN.m . Calculate stiffness and distribution factors.m F M BC = 4. K BC = 0. K BA = 0. Kharagpur .m .m .0 kN. F F M AB = 1.5 EI (2) ∑ K = 0. F M EB = 0. M BA = −1.333EI . F M CB = −2.444 kN. F M CF = 5.0 kN.333EI = 1.333EI K CF = 3 2 EI = 0.333 kN.5 EI .5 EI . M DC = −6.m (1) The frame is restrained against sidesway.

DFBA = 0.31 DFCD = 0. DFDG = 0.414 Joint D : ∑ K = 1.50 (3) Version 2 CE IIT.428 .5EI + 0.208EI DFCB = 0. DFCF = 0.276 .333EI + 0.50 .286 Joint C : ∑ K = 0.0EI DFDC = 0.286 DFBE = 0. Kharagpur .375EI = 1. DFBC = 0.

This is repeated for joints C and B respectively in that order.4b. Version 2 CE IIT. it is left unlocked throughout as it is a hinged joint. A few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure. Free-body diagrams are drawn wherever required. Summary In this lesson plane frames which are restrained against sidesway are analysed by the moment-distribution method. As many equilibrium equations are written as there are unknown displacements. The moment-distribution is started by releasing and balancing joint D . Kharagpur . The bending moment diagram is drawn for the frame. After balancing joint F . 20. The momentdistribution is stopped after three cycles. After balancing each joint a horizontal line is drawn to indicate that joint has been balanced and locked.The complete moment-distribution method is shown in Fig. The reactions of the frames are computed from equations of static equilibrium. When moment-distribution method is finally stopped all joints except fixed joints will be left unlocked.

Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 21 The MomentDistribution Method: Frames with Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

rigid frames restrained against sidesway are analyzed using moment-distribution method. one also needs to evaluate joint translations (sidesway). Draw free-body diagrams of plane frame. For example in frame shown in Fig 21. It has been pointed in lesson 17. in such frames apart from evaluating joint rotations.1 Introduction In the previous lesson. Version 2 CE IIT.2 using an example. Analyse plane frames undergoing sidesway by the moment-distribution method. Extend moment-distribution method for frames undergoing sidesway. In other words. 3. The number of unknowns is this case are: joint rotations θ B and θ C and member rotationψ . 21. Sketch deflected shape of the plane frame not restrained against sidesway. the loading is symmetrical but the geometry of frame is unsymmetrical and hence sidesway needs to be considered in the analysis. Kharagpur . that frames which are unsymmetrical or frames which are loaded unsymmetrically usually get displaced either to the right or to the left.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. 2.1. 5. 4. The procedure to analyze rigid frames undergoing lateral displacement using moment-distribution method is explained in section 21. Joint B and C get translated by the same amount as axial deformations are not considered and hence only one independent member rotation need to be considered. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams.

sidesway is prevented by artificial support at C .2c are analyzed separately and superposed to obtain the final answer. Since for the frame. 21. Now.they are . Fig 21. Apply all the external loads on frame shown in Fig. M BA . The systems shown in figures 21.2a is expressed as the sum of two systems: Fig. 21.2b and 21. M CD and M DC be the balanced moments obtained by distributing fixed end moments due to applied loads while allowing only joint rotations ( θ B and θ C ) and preventing sidesway. the method of superposition is used. moment-distribution method as discussed in the previous lesson is applied and beam end moments are calculated.21. The procedure to calculate independent rotations is explained in lesson 22. For analyzing frames with sidesway. ' ' ' ' ' ' Let M AB .2 Procedure A special procedure is required to analyze frames with sidesway using momentdistribution method.2b. 21.3a). M CB . Version 2 CE IIT.2b.2c. identify the number of independent rotations (ψ ) in the structure. calculate reactions H A1 and H D1 (ref. The structure shown in Fig. 21. In system 21. M BC .2b and Fig. Kharagpur . In the first step. sidesway is prevented.

1) R = P − ( H A1 + H D1 ) (21. Kharagpur . ' ' M CD + M DC = h1 (21.H A1 = ' ' M AB + M BA Pa + h2 h2 H D1 again.2) Version 2 CE IIT.

from statics calculate horizontal force F due to arbitrary sidesway Δ' . Kharagpur . M BA .In Fig 21. However. M CD and M DC are the balanced moment obtained by distributing the fixed end moments due to assumed sidesway Δ' at joints B and C . apply arbitrary known displacement / sidesway Δ' as shown in the figure.2c apply a horizontal force F in the opposite direction of R . Now. Instead of applying F . M CB . Now k F = R . In this case. member rotations ψ are related to joint '' '' '' '' '' '' translation which is known. Calculate the fixed end beam moments in the column AB and CD for the imposed horizontal displacement. one could use moment-distribution method to analyse this frame. there is no way one could analyze the frame for horizontal force F . Version 2 CE IIT. M BC . by moment-distribution method as sway comes in to picture. Let M AB . then the superposition of beam end moments of system (b) and k times (c) gives the results for the original structure. Since joint displacement is known beforehand.

H A2 . by method of superposition kF = R or k = R / F Substituting the values of R and F from equations (21.3) (21. ⎛ M ' + M ' BA Pa ⎞ M ' CD + M ' DC ⎟+ P − ⎜ AB + ⎜ h2 h2 ⎟ h1 ⎝ ⎠ k= ⎛ M ' ' AB + M ' ' BA M ' 'CD + M ' ' DC ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ h2 h1 ⎝ ⎠ Hence. Version 2 CE IIT.4) F = ( H A2 + H D 2 ) In Fig 21.H A2 '' '' M AB + M BA = h2 '' '' M CD + M DC h1 H D2 = (21.5. k= P − ( H A1 + H D1 ) ( H A2 + H D 2 ) (21.4). beam end moment in the original structure is obtained as. M original = M system ( b ) + kM system ( c ) (21. then the above procedure needs to be modified and is discussed in the next lesson.6) If there is more than one independent member rotation. H D1 and H D 2 in 21.5) Now substituting the values of H A1 . Kharagpur .2.2) and (21.

4b). In the first step.571 .333EI Joint B : ∑ K = 0. By appropriately superposing the two results.1 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig 21.333EI . Assume EI to be constant for all members. In the second step calculate beam end moments by moment-distribution method for known translation (see Fig 21. K BC = 0. DFBC = 0. the beam end moment of the original structure is obtained.25 EI . K CD = 0.583EI Version 2 CE IIT. K CB = 0.583EI ∑ K = 0. joint C can also rotate and also translate by an unknown amount Δ . Also sketch elastic curve.Example 21. evaluate the beam-end moment by preventing the sidesway. Solution In the given problem.25 EI . This problem has to be solved in two steps. Kharagpur DFBA = 0.4a. a) Calculate stiffness and distribution factors K BA = 0.429 Joint C : .

636 − 17. (2) Now the frame is prevented from sidesway by providing a support at C as shown in Fig 21. F M BA = 0 kN.m . F M DC = 0 kN.m (1) F M BC = +1 0 kN. H A1 = M ' AB + M ' BA 3 = − 3.635 kN (←) . M ' BA . M ' CD and M ' DC be the balanced end moments.268 3 = −3. The moment-distribution for this frame is shown in Fig 21.m .4b (ii).571 . F M AB = 0 .m F M CB = −1 0 kN. 3 H D1 = Version 2 CE IIT.635 + 7.429 . DFCD = 0.DFCB = 0. F M CD = 0 kN.269 = 3.635 KN (→) . b) Calculate fixed end moment due to applied loading. 3. Let M ' AB . Now calculate horizontal reactions at A and D from equations of statics.4c.m . Kharagpur .

635 + 3.m F F M CD = M DC = + 100 kN. Kharagpur .m 3 3EI F M BA = 100 kN. Since Δ' is arbitrary.m (4) Version 2 CE IIT.R = 10 − ( −3. Let Δ' = fixed end beam moments for this arbitrary sidesway. F M AB = − 150 EI Now calculate 6 EI ψ L =− 6 EI 150 × (− ) = 100 kN. Choose any convenient value.635) = − 10 kN (→) (3) d) Moment-distribution for arbitrary known sidesway Δ ' .

15 kN (←) 3 52.The moment-distribution for this case is shown in Fig 24.30 kN (→) Version 2 CE IIT.15 kN (←) 3 H A2 = H D2 F = −86.97 + 76. 52.49 = = 43.4d.98 + 76.48 = 43. Kharagpur . Now calculate horizontal reactions H A 2 and H D 2 .

635 + 0. M AB = M ' AB + k M ' ' AB M AB = −3.269 + 0.m M DC = +3.48) = +5.418 kN. Thus.419 kN.13 (5) Now the actual end moments in the frame are.49) = +12.1161(−52.1161(+76. Kharagpur . Δ L F M AB = M AB + 2 EI [2θ A + θ B − 3ψ AB ] L 2 EI [2θ B + θ A − 3ψ AB ] L where ψ AB = − F M BA = M BA + Version 2 CE IIT.m M CB = −7.117 kN.m The actual sway is computed as. Now actual moments in the frame is obtained by superposing the solution ( ii ) on the solution obtained by multiplying case ( iii ) by k .636 + 0.m M BA = −7.m M CD = +7.98) = +1.117 kN.244 kN. k= − 10 = 0.m M BC = +7.1161 − 86.Let k be a factor by which the solution of case ( iii ) needs to be multiplied.1161 × 150 EI = 17.1161(+52.1161(+76.1161(−52.415 EI The joint rotations can be calculated using slope-deflection equations. Δ = kΔ ' = 0.268 + 0.98) = −1. k F = R .517 kN.1161(+52.268 + 0.268 + 0.97) = +13. Thus kF cancel out the holding force R such that final result is for the frame without holding force.97) = −13.

except θ A and θ B all other quantities are known.In the above equation.4e.55 . θA = 0 . 21. Solving for θ A and θ B . EI The elastic curve is shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . θB = − 9.

333EI .5a by moment-distribution method.583EI DFBA = 0. K BA = 0.333EI ∑ K = 0. a) Calculate stiffness and distribution factors.583EI Version 2 CE IIT. K CB = 0. The moment of inertia of all the members is shown in the figure.Example 21. 21. Neglect axial deformations.571 .429 ∑ K = 0. At joint C : DFBC = 0. Kharagpur .25 EI K CD = 0.2 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig.25 EI . At joint B : K BC = 0. Solution: In this frame joint rotations B and C and translation of joint B and C need to be evaluated.

Version 2 CE IIT.m . Case A in Fig. F M DC = 0 kN. DFCD = 0.5c. Kharagpur . 21.m c) Prevent sidesway by providing artificial support at C .m .571 b) Calculate fixed end moments due to applied loading. 21.DFCB = 0. Carry out momentdistribution ( i.0 kN. M BA = −9. F M AB = 12 × 3 × 32 F = 9.e.429 . The moment-distribution for this case is shown in Fig.5b).m . F M CD = 0 kN.m F M BC = 0 kN.0 kN.m 62 F M CB = 0 kN.

154 − 0. EI F M AB = − F M BA = +50 kN.577) = −5.578 H D1 = = −0. 11. Version 2 CE IIT.347 − 0.694 − 3. ψ= × (− 6 6 EI L 150 .m . 21.347 kN ( ← ) 6 −1.614 + 6 = 7.m .5c) Calculate fixed end moments for the arbitrary sidesway of Δ' = 6 E (2 I ) 12 EI 150 ) = +50 kN. Kharagpur .Now calculate horizontal reaction at A and D from equations of statics.577 kN ( → ) 3 R = 12 − (7. Fig.23 kN ( → ) H A1 = d) Moment-distribution for arbitrary sidesway Δ' (case B.

5b) Version 2 CE IIT.952) = −52.347 kN (→) e) Final results Now.457 = 12.5d. H A2 = H D2 32. The moment-distribution for this case is shown in Fig.285 = = 39. Using equations of static equilibrium.m . 21. the shear condition for the frame is (vide Fig.395 kN (←) 6 46. ψ =− × (− 3 3EI L F M DC = +100 kN.F M CD = − 6E(I ) 6 EI 150 ) = +100 kN.m .952 kN (←) 3 F = −(12. calculate reactions H A 2 and H D 2 . Kharagpur .57 + 73.395 + 39. 21.911 + 41.

457) = +17.039 kN.35 EI 150 EI = The joint rotations can be calculated using slope-deflection equations.129 Now the actual end moments in the frame are.285) = +8.m M BC = 3.344 − 0. Kharagpur .577) + k (12.129(−32.911) = −0.154 + 0.m M DC = −0.( H A1 + H D1 ) + k ( H A2 + H D 2 ) = 12 (7.457) = −4.m The actual sway Δ = k Δ ' = 0.129(+46.457) = +4.395 + 39.129(−46.853 kN.876 kN.m M BA = −3.m M CD = −1.952) = 12 k = 0.614 + 0.578 + 0.629 kN.039 kN.154 + 0.853 kN.614 + 0. F M AB − M AB = + 2 E (2 I ) 2θ A + θ B − 3ψ L [ ] ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ or [2θ A + θ B ] = [2θ B + θ A ] = L 4 EI L 4 EI 12 EIψ ⎤ L ⎡ ⎡ ⎛ F 12 EIψ F ⎢ M AB − M AB + L ⎥ = 4 EI ⎢ M AB − ⎜ M AB − L ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ ⎣ L ⎡ 12 EIψ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ F 12 EIψ F M BA − M BA + = ⎢ M BA − ⎜ M BA − L ⎢ L ⎥ 4 EI ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ M AB = +17.129(+41.629 kN.911) = 0.m M CB = −1.129(+73.694 + 0.m Version 2 CE IIT.129 × 19.129(+32. M AB = M ' AB + k M ' ' AB M AB = 11.

129(50) = 15.m ( M ) = −9 + 0.6a.M BA = 0.45) + ⎜ − ⎟ (0. Version 2 CE IIT.45 F AB F BA kN.629 + 2. The moment of inertia of all the members are shown in the figure.039 − 15.m kN.55 ⎛ 1⎞ change in near end + ⎜ .m ( M ) = 9 + 0.⎟ change in far end ⎝ 2⎠ θA = 3EI L ⎛ 1⎞ (17.129(50) = −2.0 3EI 6 4.55) ⎝ 2⎠ = = 0. 21.3 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig.629 kN.769 θB = EI Example 21. Kharagpur .

m (2) c) Prevent sidesway by providing artificial support at C .892EI DFCB = 0.Solution: a) Calculate stiffness and distribution factors K BA = 2 EI = 0.50 EI K CB = 0.392 EI At joint B : ∑ K = 0.392 EI .m F M BC = 2.50 EI .6b.561 .561 ∑ K = 0. DFCD = 0. 5 .892EI DFBA = 0. Kharagpur .50 kN. 21.439 (1) b) Calculate fixed end moments due to applied loading. Version 2 CE IIT.50 kN. At joint C : DFBC = 0.439 .1 K BC = 0.m F M CB = −2. F F F F M AB = M BA = M CD = M DC = 0 kN. Carry out momentdistribution for this case as shown in Fig. K CD = 0.

Now calculate reactions from free body diagram shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. 21. Kharagpur .5d.

526 − 10 ×1 = 0 V1 = 5.29 Column CD ∑M D = 0 ⇒ 5H D1 − 1.458 kN ( → ) from (4) H D1 = 1.284 Beam BC ∑M C = 0 ⇒ 2V1 + 1.522 − 1.002 kN ( ↑ ) V2 = 4. Kharagpur .998 kN ( ↑ ) (5) Thus from (3) H A1 = −1.762 − V2 = 0 (4) 5 H D1 − V2 = 2.526 + 0.456 kN ( ← ) (6) Version 2 CE IIT.764 + V1 = 0 (3) 5 H A1 + V1 = −2.522 − 0.Column AB ∑M A = 0 ⇒ 5H A1 + 1.

75 EI The member rotations for this arbitrary sidesway is shown in Fig.002 kN ( ← ) (7) d) Moment-distribution for arbitrary sidesway Δ ' . 21.∑F X =0 H A1 + H D1 + R − 5 = 0 R = +5. Calculate fixed end beam moments for arbitrary sidesway of Δ '= 12.6e. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.

0 kN. Now reactions can be calculated from statics.m The moment-distribution for the arbitrary sway is shown in Fig.m LAB 5.1 ⎝ 5EI ⎠ F M BA = +6. Kharagpur .1 ⎝ 5EI ⎠ F M DC = +6.75 ⎞ ψ AB = − ⎜− ⎟ = +6.m LCD 5. LAB LAB 2Δ ' Δ2 = = 0.4Δ ' 5 Δ1 = Δ' 5.0 kN.65 kN.1Δ ' = cos α 5 ψ AB = − ψ BC = Δ' Δ' (clockwise) .6f.75 ⎞ ψ CD = − ⎜− ⎟ = +6.m F M BC = − 6 EI BC 6 E ( I ) ⎛ 12. 21.ψ CD = − (clockwise) 5 5 Δ 2 2Δ ' tan α Δ ' = = (counterclockwise) 2 2 5 F M AB = − 6 EI AB 6 E (2 I ) ⎛ 12.ψ AB = BB " Δ =− 1 .0 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.0 kN.75 ⎞ ψ BC = − ⎜ ⎟ = −7.65 kN.m F M CD = − 6 EI CD 6 E (2 I ) ⎛ 12.m LBC 2 ⎝ 5 EI ⎠ F M CB = −7.

567 + 6.Column AB ∑M Column CD A = 0 ⇒ 5H A2 − 6.283 − V2 = 0 (4) 5 H D1 − V2 = 12.283 − 6.883 kN ( ← ) from 4 H D 2 = 3.567 kN ( ↓ ) .567 − 6.85 ∑M D = 0 ⇒ 5H D 2 − 6. Kharagpur .85 Beam BC ∑M C = 0 ⇒ 2V1 + 6.567 + V1 = 0 (3) 5 H A1 + V1 = 12.567 = 0 (5) V1 = −6.883 kN ( ← ) (6) Version 2 CE IIT. V2 = +6.567 kN ( ↑ ) Thus from 3 H A2 = +3.

644(−6.m M CD = 1.766 Now the actual end moments in the frame are.283) = 4. Version 2 CE IIT.002 = 0.75 EI Summary In this lesson. The deflected shape of the frame is sketched to understand its deformation under external loads. M AB = M ' AB + k M ' ' AB M AB = −0. the frame which is undergoing an arbitrary but known sidesway is analysed.808 kN.751 kN.703 kN.526 + 0.526 + 0.567) = −2.283) = +3. the frames which are not restrained against sidesway are identified and solved by the moment-distribution method.F = 7.567) = 2.644(6.567) = 5.m M DC = 0. Kharagpur .m The actual sway Δ = k Δ ' = 0.764 + 0.644 7. the frame prevented from sidesway but subjected to external loads is analysed and subsequently.212 EI 12. the moments in the frame is obtained.703 kN.766 kN ( ← ) (7) e) Final results kF =R k= 5.282 kN. The moment-distribution method is applied in two steps: in the first step.644 × = 8. The numerical examples are explained with the help of free-body diagrams.644(+6.644(−6.m M CB = −1.751 kN.m M BA = −1. Using shear equation for the frame.644(6.762 + 0.m M BC = 1.567) = − − 5.522 + 0.522 + 0.644(+6.

Kharagpur .Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 22 The Multistory Frames with Sidesway Version 2 CE IIT.

Such frames can also be analysed by slope-deflection and moment-distribution methods.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. 2.1b. rigid frames having single independent member rotational ⎛ Δ⎞ (ψ ⎜ = ⎟ ) degree of freedom (or joint translation Δ ) is solved using slope⎝ h⎠ deflection and moment-distribution method respectively. Analyse multistory frames with sidesway by the slope-deflection method. The number of such externally applied forces represents the number of independent member rotations in the structure. 22. Consider the structure shown in Fig. 22. Now introduce forces in appropriate directions to the structure so as to make it stable.1a. Analyse multistory frames with sidesway by the moment-distribution method.1 Introduction In lessons 17 and 21. Identify the number of independent rotational degrees of freedom of a rigid frame. Draw free-body diagram of multistory frames. Kharagpur . However multistory frames usually have more than one independent rotational degree of freedom. If one or more joints are free to translate without any resistance then the structure is geometrically unstable. Version 2 CE IIT. 5. Write appropriate number of equilibrium equations to solve rigid frame having more than one rotational degree of freedom. 4. However if the structure is complex the following method may be adopted. 3. Usually number of independent member rotations can be evaluated by inspection. Temporarily replace all rigid joints of the frame by pinned joint and fixed supports by hinged supports as shown in Fig. 22. Now inspect the stability of the modified structure.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

In the modified structure Fig.2b.1b. two forces are required to be applied at level CD and level BF for stability of the structure. The number of independent rotations to be considered for the frame shown in Fig. Hence there are two independent member rotations (ψ ) that need to be considered apart from joint rotations in the analysis. Kharagpur . 22.2a is three and is clear from the modified structure shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT. 22. 22. 22.3a has three independent member rotations and frame shown in Fig 22. From the above procedure it is clear that the frame shown in Fig.4a has two independent member rotations.

we are not considering Version 2 CE IIT.4a.For the gable frame shown in Fig. Recall that in the analysis. 22. the possible displacements at each joint are also shown. Horizontal displacement is denoted by u and vertical displacement is denoted by v . Kharagpur .

The displacements u B .the axial deformation. 22. D and E respectively.5.θ C .θ D and θ E ) and two independent joint translations (sidesway) Δ1 at the level of CD and Δ 2 at the level of BE . Four of the required six equations are obtained by considering the moment equilibrium of joint B. Version 2 CE IIT. u D and u D should be such that the lengths BC and CD must not change as the axial deformation is not considered. C .2 Slope-deflection method For the two story frame shown in Fig. there are four joint rotations (θ B . Six simultaneous equations are required to evaluate the six unknowns (four rotations and two translations). u C . Kharagpur . For each of the member one could write two slope-deflection equations relating beam end moments to (i ) externally applied loads and (ii ) displacements (rotations and translations). In the next section slope-deflection method as applied to multistoried frame is discussed. 22. Hence at B and D only horizontal deformation is possible and joint C can have both horizontal and vertical deformation. Hence we can have only two independent translations. For example.

Example 22.1. Thus ∑ FX = 0 at the base of top story gives (ref. The above procedure is explained in example 22.2) P1 + P2 − H A − H F = 0 (22. 22.1) The other two equations are obtained by considering the force equilibrium of the members.1 Analyse the two story rigid frame shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.∑MB = 0 ⇒ M BA + M BC + M BE = 0 (22. Fig.3) Thus we get six equations in six unknowns.6) P1 − H C − H D = 0 Similarly ∑ FX = 0 at the base of frame results in (22. Solving the above six equations all the unknowns are evaluated. Kharagpur . the shear at the base of all columns for any story must be equal to applied load. Thus. 22. Assume EI to be constant for all members.7a by the slope-deflection method.

The members AB and Δ EF undergo rotations ψ 2 = − 2 (negative as it is clockwise) and member BC and 5 Δ1 ED undergo rotationsψ 1 = − .4 EIθ B + 0. Kharagpur .4 EIθ B + 0.24EIΔ 2 M BA = 0.24 EIΔ1 M CB = 0.8 EIθ B + 0.24 EIΔ1 Version 2 CE IIT.4 EIθ C + 0. M AB = 0 + 2 EI [2θ A + θ B − 3ψ 2 ] 5 θ A = 0.24EIΔ 2 M BC = 0.8EIθ B + 0.In this case all the fixed end moments are zero.8 EIθ C + 0. Now writing slope-deflection equations for 12 5 beam end moments. ψ2 = − Δ2 5 M AB = 0.

4 EIθ C M DE = 0.4 EIθ D + 0.4 EIθ D M DC = 0.8EIθ E + 0.8EIθ E + 0.24EIΔ1 M EF = 0.8EIθ B + 0.4 EIθ E + 0.4 EIθ E M EB = 0.24EIΔ1 M ED = 0.8EIθ E + 0.8EIθ D + 0.4 EIθ B M CD = 0.8EIθ C + 0.M BE = 0.8EIθ D + 0.24EIΔ 2 M FE = 0. Kharagpur .24EIΔ 2 (1) Version 2 CE IIT.4 EIθ E + 0.

22. D and E requires that (vide Fig. Thus. we get (vide 22. Fig. EF . i. ∑ FX = 0 (vide.7d). 22..7c) Version 2 CE IIT. C . BC and ED .e. M BA + M BC + M BE = 0 M CB + M CD = 0 M DC + M DE = 0 M EB + M ED + M EF = 0 (2) The required two more equations are written considering the horizontal equilibrium at each story level.Moment equilibrium of joint B. Kharagpur . H C + H D = 20 H A + H F = 60 (3) Considering the equilibrium of column AB.7c).

4θ E + 0.909 .24Δ1 =0 =0 2.2θ D + 1. Kharagpur .HC = HD = HA = HF = M BC + M CB 5 M DE + M ED 5 M AB + M BA 5 M EF + M FE 5 (4) Using equation (4). M BC + M CB + M DE + M ED = 100 M AB + M BA + M EF + M FE = 300 (5) Substituting the beam end moments from equation (1) in (2) and (5) the required equations are obtained.909 .24Δ1 + 0.12 Δ1 = . EI 337.6θ D + 0.24Δ1 + 0. equation (3) may be written as. Thus.4θ C + 0.4θ B + 0. EI 477.2θ B + 1.24Δ1 1.273 .4θ B + 0.6θ C + 0. 2.2θ E + +0.273 .4θ D + 0. EI θC = − 27.27 Δ2 = EI θE = − 27.4θ C + 0.4θ E + 0. EI (7) Version 2 CE IIT.2θ B + 1. yields = 300 (6) θB = − 65.2θ E + 0.4θ D + 0.96Δ 2 Solving above equations. EI θD = − 65.2θ C + 1.24Δ 2 = 0 1.4θ B + 0.24Δ 2 = 0 1.96Δ1 = 100 1.4θ E + 0.

m .09 kN. 22.72 kN. Apply arbitrary sidesway Δ'1 and calculate fixed end moments in column BC and DE . M EB = −79.8a has two independent sidesways or member rotations.m .m M BC = 17.09 kN.8a is expressed as the sum of three systems. M AB = 88. 22.m M CD = −32.m .m . Invoking the method of superposition. one could use the moment-distribution method to analyse the frame. 1) The system shown in Fig. where in the sidesway is completely prevented by introducing two supports at E and D .8d. Version 2 CE IIT. M CB = 32. Since joint displacement as known beforehand. 22. kN.72. They are.m 22. M ED = 17.81 kN.72 kN. M FE = 88.m M DE = 32.27 kN.m M BE = −79. 22. the structure shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Calculate fixed end moments in column AB and EF for an arbitrary sidesway Δ' 2 as shown the in figure. the support D is locked against sidesway and joints B and E are allowed to displace horizontally by removing the support at E . All external loads are applied on this frame. calculate beam end moments.18 kN. Using moment-distribution method. 22. 3) Structure shown in Fig. M BA = 61.m .3 Moment-distribution method The two-story frame shown in Fig. wherein the support E is locked against sidesway and joint C and D are allowed to displace horizontally.27 kN.8c.81 kN.m .18 kN.m M EF = 61.8b. M DC = −32.Substituting the above values of rotations and translations in equation (1) beam end moments are evaluated. 2) System shown in Fig.72 kN.

All three systems are analysed separately and superposed to obtain the final answer. the end moments and the displacements of these two analyses are to be multiplied by constants k1 and k 2 before superposing with the results obtained in Fig.8b.8c and 22.8d are analysed for arbitrary sidesway Δ'1 and Δ' 2 respectively. The constants k1 and k 2 must be such that Version 2 CE IIT. Since structures 22. 22. Kharagpur .

Thus.10.4) The constants k1 and k 2 are evaluated by solving shear equations. 22.9c and 22. k1 and k 2 are calculated.9. From Fig. 22. Kharagpur .5) (23. k1 (H A 2 + H F 2 ) + k 2 (H A3 + H F 3 ) = P2 Solving the above two equations.k1 Δ'1 = Δ1 and k 2 Δ' 2 = Δ 2 . 22. one could write.9d must be equal and opposite to the restraining force applied at the restraining support at D in Fig.9b. it is clear that the horizontal forces developed at the beam level CD in Fig. (23. 22. (22. k1 (H C 2 + H D 2 ) + k 2 (H C 3 + H D 3 ) = P1 From similar reasoning. from Fig.6) Version 2 CE IIT.

20 EI .333 Version 2 CE IIT. DFBC = 0.20 EI . Kharagpur . K DC = 0.20 EI .20 EI . K ED = 0.20 EI . (1) ∑ K = 0.20 EI K BE = 0.333 .333 . K EB = 0. K CB = 0.2 Analyse the rigid frame of example 22.60 EI DFBA = 0.20 EI . K BA = 0.1 by the moment-distribution method. Joint B : K BC = 0.20 EI . Solution: First calculate stiffness and distribution factors for all the six members. K CD = 0.20 EI . K EF = 0. K DE = 0. DFBE = 0.Example 22.20 EI .

The given problem may be broken in to three systems as shown in Fig.333 (2) The frame has two independent sidesways: Δ1 to the right of CD and Δ 2 to the right of BE .Joint C : ∑ K = 0.11a.50 Joint D : ∑ K = 0. DFEF = 0.333. Kharagpur .50 . DFED = 0.22. DFDE = 0. DFCD = 0.50 Joint E : ∑ K = 0.333.40 EI DFCB = 0.60 EI DFEB = 0.50 .40 EI DFDC = 0. Version 2 CE IIT.

22. when the sidesway is prevented [Fig. Thus we need to analyse only (iii ) and (iv ) . the only internal forces induced in the structure being 20 kN and 40 kN axial forces in member CD and BE respectively. No bending moment is induced in the structure.In the first case.10a ( ii )]. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

The whole procedure is shown in Fig. 22.Case I : Moment-distribution for sidesway Δ'1 at beam CD [Fig.0 kN.m (3) Now moment-distribution is carried out to obtain the balanced end moments. Kharagpur . 22.0 kN.m 25 EI L2 F F M ED = M DE = +6. Version 2 CE IIT.11b. Thus the fixed end moment in column CB and EI DE due to this arbitrary sidesway is F F M BC = M CB = 6 EI Δ '1 6 EI 25 = × = +6. Let the 25 arbitrary sidesway be Δ '1 = . C . Successively joint D . B and E are released and balanced.1qa ( iii )].

From the free body diagram of the column shown in Fig.11c. the horizontal forces are calculated. 22. Kharagpur . Thus. Version 2 CE IIT.

11a ( iv )].0 kN.42 kN.0 kN.53 + 3. B and E are released and balanced. Successively joint D .11d. 5 −0. The whole procedure is shown in Fig. 22.10b.70 − 1. C . Let the 25 arbitrary sidesway be Δ' 2 = EI Thus the fixed end moment in column AB and EF due to this arbitrary sidesway is F F M AB = M BA = 6 EI Δ '2 6 EI 25 = × = +6. 22. Version 2 CE IIT.HC 2 = H A2 3.42 kN (4) Case II : Moment-distribution for sidesway Δ' 2 at beam BE [Fig.41 = = −0. 5 H D 2 = 1. 22.m 25 EI L2 F F M FE = M EF = +6.34 kN.34 kN H F 2 = −0.m (5) Moment-distribution is carried out to obtain the balanced end moments as shown in Fig.17 = 1. Kharagpur .

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

42 − 0. we could write.11 + 4.86 kN.42 − 0. 22.11a.42) = 20 k1 (− 0. 5 H D 3 = −0. 22. 5 5.53 = −0.11e.11d). HC3 = H A3 −1.34 + 1.59 − 0.86) = 60 Version 2 CE IIT.42 kN H F 3 = 1.86 + 1.34) + k 2 (− 0. the horizontal forces are calculated.42) + k 2 (1. Kharagpur .42 kN. (see Fig.86 kN (6) For evaluating constants k1 and k 2 . k1 (H C 2 + H D 2 ) + k 2 (H C 3 + H D 3 ) = 20 k1 (H A 2 + H F 2 ) + k 2 (H A3 + H F 3 ) = 60 k1 (1. 22.From the free body diagram of the column shown in Fig.11c and 22. Thus.23 = = 1.

m . kN. Version 2 CE IIT. M FE = 88. M AB = 88.17 (7) Summary A procedure to identify the number of independent rotational degrees of freedom of a rigid frame is given. The slope-deflection method and the momentdistribution method are extended in this lesson to solve rigid multistory frames having more than one independent rotational degrees of freedom.42) = 10 k1 (− 0.47 Thus the final moments are.m .m . Numerical examples are explained with the help of free-body diagrams. Appropriate number of equilibrium equations is written to evaluate all unknowns.54 kN.54 kN.m .54 kN.m . M CB = 32.k1 (1.42) + k 2 (1.06 kN.06 kN.m M CD = −32. M BA = 62.54. k1 = 13.09 kN.m (8) k 2 = 19. M DC = −32.09 kN. Kharagpur .m .54 kN.52 kN.86) = 30 Solving which.m M BC = 17.m M EF = 62.m M BE = −79.54 kN.52 kN.m M DE = 32.34) + k 2 (− 0. M EB = −79. A multistory frames having side sway is analysed by the slope-deflection method and the moment-distribution method. M ED = 17.

Kharagpur .Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 23 The Direct Stiffness Method: An Introduction Version 2 CE IIT.

Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. the force method of analysis or the method of consistent deformation is discussed. Define stiffness matrix. In displacement /stiffness method of analysis. where in slope-deflection method and moment. An introduction to the displacement method of analysis is given in module 3. 2. In this module the direct stiffness method is discussed. The general method of analyzing indeterminate structures by displacement method may be traced to Navier (1785-1836). The method follows a rather a set procedure.23.distribution method are discussed. 4. 5. (2). once the structural model is defined. Under the Version 2 CE IIT.1. In module 2. displacement method of analysis is preferred to computer implementation.The given truss is statically indeterminate to second degree as there are four bar forces but we have only two equations of equilibrium. Hence. for example (1). Formulate flexibility matrix of member. Construct stiffness matrix of a member.1 Introduction All known methods of structural analysis are classified into two distinct groups:(i) (ii) force method of analysis and displacement method of analysis. (3) and (4). only direct stiffness method is used. The unknown joint displacements (the degrees of freedom of the structure) are calculated by solving equilibrium equations. The slope-deflection and moment-distribution methods were extensively used before the high speed computing era. the i-th member makes with the horizontal. Kharagpur . 3. Differentiate between the direct stiffness method and the displacement method. In the displacement method of analysis the equilibrium equations are written by expressing the unknown joint displacements in terms of loads by using loaddisplacement relations. For example consider a four member truss as shown in Fig. After the revolution in computer industry. Analyse simple structures by the direct stiffness matrix. The direct stiffness method is closely related to slope-deflection equations. the unknowns (joint rotations and translations) are automatically chosen unlike the force method of analysis. The displacement method follows essentially the same steps for both statically determinate and indeterminate structures. Let α i be the angle. 23. Denote each member by a number.

In displacement method of analysis.action of external loads Px and Py . we have discussed force.2) Version 2 CE IIT. The above equation may also be written as u = aF (23. Let an elastic body is acted by a force F and the corresponding displacement be u in the direction of force. The force (F) is related to the displacement (u) for the linear elastic material by the relation F = ku (23.. two equilibrium equations can be written viz.1) where the constant of proportionality k is defined as the stiffness of the structure and it has units of force per unit elongation. Now at E. In the displacement method of analysis u and v are the only two unknowns for this structure. the joint E displaces to E’. The elongation of individual truss members can be expressed in terms of these two unknown joint displacements. Navier solved this problem as follows. ∑F x = 0 and ∑F y = 0 by summing all forces in x and y directions. In module 1. calculate bar forces in the members by using force–displacement relation. Let u and v be its vertical and horizontal displacements.displacement relationship. The unknown displacements may be calculated by solving the equilibrium equations. Next. there will be exactly as many equilibrium equations as there are unknowns. Kharagpur .

to relate displacement at i to load at j . Kharagpur . Thus the flexibility coefficient a ij is the deflection at i due to unit value of force applied at j . In such a case. In general the structures are subjected to n forces at n different locations on the structure.The constant a is known as flexibility of the structure and it has a unit of displacement per unit force. it is required to use flexibility coefficients with subscripts. Similarly the stiffness coefficient k ij is defined as the force generated at i Version 2 CE IIT.

2.23. the displacements u1 and u 2 are expressed as the sum of displacements due to loads P1 and P2 acting separately on the beam. Thus. ⎩u2 ⎭ {a} = ⎢ ⎡ a11 a12 ⎤ ⎧P ⎫ 1 ⎥ . Let them be denoted by u1 and u 2 (= θ 1 ). one could calculate flexibility coefficient a12 and a 22 . Similarly. u1 = a11 P1 + a12 P2 u 2 = a 21 P1 + a 22 P2 The above equation may be written in matrix notation as (23.due to unit displacement at j with all other displacements kept at zero. and { P} = ⎨ P ⎬ ⎣ a21 a22 ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ Version 2 CE IIT. To illustrate this definition. Kharagpur . consider a cantilever beam which is loaded as shown in Fig. {u} = ⎨ 1 ⎬ . Thus a12 is the deflection at 1 corresponding to P1 due to unit force applied at 2 in the direction of P2 . Now apply a unit vertical 1 force along P1 and calculate deflection u1 and u 2 . Denote the vertical force P by P and the tip moment M by P2 . The two degrees of freedom for this problem are vertical displacement at B and rotation at B.3a) {u} = [a]{P} ⎧u ⎫ where.The vertical deflection is denoted by flexibility coefficient a11 and rotation is denoted by flexibility coefficient a 21 . by applying a unit force along P1 . By using the principle of superposition.

Invoking the principle of superposition. Thus.The forces can also be related to displacements using stiffness coefficients. Apply a unit displacement along u1 (see Fig.2d) keeping displacement u 2 as zero.Here. k 21 represents force developed along P2 when a unit displacement along u1 is introduced keeping u 2 =0. the forces P1 and P2 are expressed as the sum of forces developed due to displacements u1 and u 2 acting separately on the beam.23. Calculate the required forces for this configuration k12 and k 22 .4) {P} = [k ]{u} Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Apply a unit rotation along u 2 (vide Fig. P1 = k11u1 + k12 u 2 P2 = k 21u1 + k 22 u 2 (23.keeping u1 = 0 . Calculate the required forces for this case as k11 and k 21 .2c) .23.

In this lesson.3b. It is observed that superposition of above two cases (Fig. 23. If the axial deformation is neglected. A more formal approach of the stiffness method will be presented in the next lesson.⎧P ⎫ ⎡k where.e.23. Hence apply an equal and opposite moment M B at B as shown in Fig. Such an altered structure is known as kinematically determinate structure as all joint displacements are known in this case. Recall that in the flexibility /force method the redundants are released (i. k22 ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ [k ] is defined as the stiffness matrix of the beam. { P} = ⎨ 1 ⎬ . upward forces and displacements are taken as positive.and {u} = ⎨u ⎬ . Under the action of (M B ) the joint rotates in the clockwise direction by an unknown amount. Thus. using stiffness method a few problems will be solved.23. {k} = ⎢ 11 ⎩ P2 ⎭ ⎣ k21 k12 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎥ . Apply all the external loads on the kinematically determinate structure.23. Counterclockwise moments and counterclockwise rotations are taken as positive. However this approach is very rudimentary and is suited for hand computation. The only unknown joint displacement is θ B .23.3b and Fig.Thus the degrees of freedom for this structure is one (for a brief discussion on degrees of freedom. A similar operation in the stiffness method is to make all the unknown displacements equal to zero by altering the boundary conditions.The analysis of above structure by stiffness method is accomplished in following steps: 1. MB = − wl 2 12 (-ve as M B is clockwise) (23. In actual structure there is no moment at B. Kharagpur . please see introduction to module 3). 2. Thus the rotation of joint Version 2 CE IIT. then this beam is kinematically indeterminate to first degree.5) The fixed end moment may be obtained from the table given at the end of lesson 14.23.3c) gives the forces in the actual structure.3c.3a. In the present case the restrained structure is obtained by preventing the rotation at B as shown in Fig. made zero) to obtain a statically determinate structure. Due to restraint at B. In the stiffness method we adopt the following sign convention. a moment M B is developed at B.2 A simple example with one degree of freedom Consider a fixed–simply supported beam of constant flexural rigidity EI and span L which is carrying a uniformly distributed load of w kN/m as shown in Fig.

Now.7) 3. Apply a unit rotation at B and calculate the moment. That is given by the relation k BB = 4 EI L (23.8) θB = − MB k BB θB = The relation M B = wl 3 48 EI (23. Please note that exactly the same steps are followed in slopedeflection method. but in the actual structure the moment at B is zero as support B is hinged.B must be θ B which is unknown . ( k BB ) caused by it.6) where k BB is the stiffness coefficient and is defined as the force at joint B due to unit displacement at joint B. moment caused by θ B rotation is M B = k BBθ B (23. Now. Version 2 CE IIT.9) 4 EI θ B has already been derived in slope –deflection method L in lesson 14. Hence. The total moment at B is M B + k BBθ B .The relation between − M B and θ B is established as follows. write the equilibrium equation for joint B. Kharagpur . M B + k BBθ B = 0 (23.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Under the action of unit displacement along u1 . the change in length of the members AE ′ is Δl1 = cos θ 1 (23. Now it is sought i to evaluate u 1 and u 2 by stiffness method. (3) and (4) as shown in the figure. The applied forces and unknown joint displacements are shown in the positive directions. neglect the self weight of members. On this restrained /kinematically determinate structure. k12 and k 22 .4b. This is shown in Fig. Let us denote the new length of the members by l1 + Δl1 .23. They are denoted by k11 . The truss is subjected to external loads P and P acting at E.23. The joint stiffness k11 . the joint E displaces to E ′ . The members are numbered from (1). First give a unit displacement along u1 holding displacement along u 2 to zero and calculate reactions at E corresponding to unknown displacements u1 and u 2 in the kinematically determinate structure. is the change in length of the member AE ′ .23. In the first step.23. (2). k 21 .There is four members in the truss and they meet at the common point at E. make all the unknown displacements equal to zero by altering the boundary conditions as shown in Fig. In the next step. apply all the external loads except the joint loads and calculate the reactions corresponding to unknown joint displacements u 1 and u 2 . Since. This is done in following steps: 1. There 1 2 are two unknown displacements at joint E and are denoted by u 1 and u 2 .4a. Now consider the member AE .3 Two degrees of freedom structure Consider a plane truss as shown in Fig. ⎧( R L )1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎩( R L ) 2 ⎭ ⎩0⎭ (23. From the geometry.10) 2. The length and axial rigidity of i-th member is l and EAi respectively. Obviously the new length is not equal to length AE .11a) Version 2 CE IIT. there are no external loads other than the joint loads. Kharagpur . in the present case. k 21 . This is justified as Δl1 is small. the reactions ( R L )1 and ( R L ) 2 will be equal to zero.Thus the structure is kinematically indeterminate to second degree. Thus. where Δl . The member AE ′ also makes an angle θ 1 with the horizontal.This is done as follows. calculate stiffness coefficients k11 . In the analysis. k 21 of the whole truss is composed of individual member stiffness of the truss.4c.

FAE' by Δl1 = F AE ' l1 A1 E (23.11a) and (23.The elongation Δl1 is related to the force in the member AE ′ .11c) This force acts along the member axis.11b). Thus. This force may be resolved along u1 and EA1 cos 2 θ 1 (23. Kharagpur .11e) Version 2 CE IIT.11b) Thus from (23. the force in the members AE ′ is ′ FAE = EA1 cos θ1 l1 (23. horizontal component of force FAE is ′ l1 ′ and vertical component of force FAE is EA1 cos θ 1 sin θ 1 l1 (23.11d) u 2 directions.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

The sum of all horizontal components of individual forces gives us the stiffness coefficient k11 and sum of all vertical component of forces give us the required stiffness coefficient k 21 .4d.13) In the next step. Thus.23. the elongation Δl1 is given by displacements u1 and Δl1 = sin θ 1 (23. EA1 sin θ 1 cos θ 1 horizontal component of force in the member AE ′ is (23. we need to sum vertical components of forces in all the members meeting at joint E . Version 2 CE IIT.14d) In order to evaluate k 22 . From the geometry. the new length of the member AE ′ is l1 + Δl1 . Thus. The joint E gets displaced to E ′ when a unit vertical displacement is given to the joint as shown in the figure.Thus.12) k 21 = ∑ (23.14b) Thus axial force in the member along its centroidal axis is l1 Resolve the axial force in the member along u1 and u 2 directions.14a) EA1 sin θ1 (23. give a unit displacement along u 2 holding displacement along u1 equal to zero and calculate reactions at E corresponding to unknown u 2 in the kinematically determinate structure. The corresponding reactions are denoted by k12 and k 22 as shown in Fig.14c) l1 and vertical component of force in the member AE ′ is EA1 sin 2 θ 1 l1 (23.Expressions of similar form as above may be obtained for all members. k11 = EA3 EA1 EA2 EA4 cos 2 θ 1 + cos 2 θ 2 + cos 2 θ 3 + cos 2 θ 4 l1 l2 l3 l4 4 k11 = ∑ i =1 EAi cos 2 θ i li EAi cos θ i sin θ i li (23. Kharagpur .

20) Version 2 CE IIT.15) Similarly. (23. This may be expressed as. Joint forces in the original structure corresponding to unknown displacements u1 and u 2 are ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧ P1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ (23.19) {F } = ⎨ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎬.16) 3.18) {F } = {Ri } + [k ]{u} where. Kharagpur . k12 = ∑ i =1 4 EAi sin θ i cos θ i li (23.17) ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎩ P2 ⎭ Now the equilibrium equations at joint E states that the forces in the original structure are equal to the superposition of (i) reactions in the kinematically restrained structure corresponding to unknown joint displacements and (ii) reactions in the restrained structure due to unknown displacements themselves.k 22 = ∑ i =1 4 EAi sin 2 θ i li (23. F2 = (R L )2 + k 21u1 + k 22 u 2 This may be written compactly as F1 = (R L )1 + k11u1 + k12 u 2 (23. ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎧(R ) ⎫ {R L } = ⎨ L 1 ⎬ ⎩(R L )2 ⎭ [k ] = ⎡ ⎢ k11 ⎣k 21 k12 ⎤ k 22 ⎥ ⎦ {u} = ⎨ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎩u 2 ⎭ (23.

For example take P1 = P2 = P .1853 L L (23.21) {R L } = ⎧ ⎨ k11 = k12 = k 21 = k 22 = 0⎫ ⎬ ⎩0⎭ ∑ EA EA cos 2 θ i sin θ i = 0.0135 2.0611 L EA L u 2 = 0.9367 L L EA EA sin 2 θ i cos θ i = 0. Kharagpur . θ 3 = 105° and θ 4 = 140° Then.22) ∑ ∑ ∑ ⎧ P ⎫ EA ⎡0. A1 = A2 = A3 = A4 = A sin θ i and θ 1 = 35° . θ 2 = 70° .451 EA Version 2 CE IIT. yields u1 = 1. {F } = ⎨ ⎧P ⎫ ⎬ ⎩P ⎭ (23.9367 0.0135 L L EA EA sin 2 θ i cos θ i = 0.0135 L L EA EA sin 3 θ i = 2. Li = L .1853⎦ ⎩u2 ⎭ Solving which.0135⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩ P ⎭ L ⎣ 0.

Kharagpur .5c.5b): (i) (ii) Two rotations as indicated by u1 and u 2 and One horizontal displacement of joint B and C as indicated by u 3 .Example 23.The given frame has three degrees of freedom (see Fig.23.23. Solution In the first step identify the degrees of freedom of the frame .Neglect axial displacements. In the next step make all the displacements equal to zero by fixing joints B and C as shown in Fig.1 Analyze the plane frame shown in Fig.5a by the direct stiffness method. Assume that the flexural rigidity for all members is the same .23.Thus. Version 2 CE IIT. On this kinematically determinate structure apply all the external loads and calculate reactions corresponding to unknown joint displacements .

5d) Version 2 CE IIT.m (R ) F D 2 = −24 kN.23. F D 3 F ⎧( RD ) ⎫ 1⎪ ⎧6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨( RD )2 ⎬ = ⎨−24 ⎬ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎪( RD )3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ (3) Next calculate stiffness coefficients.(R ) F D 1 = 48 × 2 × 4 ⎛ 24 × 3 × 9 ⎞ + ⎜− ⎟ 16 36 ⎠ ⎝ (1) = 24 − 18 = 6 kN.m = 12 kN. Apply unit rotation along u1 and calculate reactions corresponding to the unknown joint displacements in the kinematically determinate structure (vide Fig.m (2) (R ) Thus. Kharagpur .

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

5EI k22 = EI k32 = 0 (5) Apply a unit displacement along u 3 and calculate joint reactions corresponding to unknown displacements in the kinematically determinate structure.23.5e) k12 = 0. apply a unit rotation along u 2 and calculate reactions corresponding to three degrees of freedom (see Fig.667 4 6 k 21 = 2 EI = 0.166 EI 6× 6 k31 = − (4) Similarly. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.k11 = 4 EI 4 EI + = 1.5 EI 4 6 EI = −0.

502 EI 270.166 E L2 k 23 = 0 k33 = 12 EI = 0.166 0 0.5 ⎢ −0. ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨u2 ⎬ = − EI ⎪u ⎪ ⎩ 3⎭ Solving 0.5 −0. yields ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧6 ⎫ ⎧ 1.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪−0.996 EI 14.166 ⎫ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪ 1 0 ⎬ ⎨u2 ⎬ ⎨ F2 ⎬ = ⎨−24 ⎬ + EI ⎨ 0.166 0 0.587 EI (8) u3 = − Version 2 CE IIT.5 −0.056 EI 63 (6) Finally applying the principle of superposition of joint forces. ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎬ = ⎨0⎬ as there are no loads applied along u1 .k13 = − 6 EI = −0.056 ⎪ ⎪u3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭⎩ ⎭ ⎩ F3 ⎭ ⎩12 ⎭ Now.Thus the ⎪ F ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ unknown displacements are.166 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0. Kharagpur .667 0. u 2 and u 3 .056 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −1 ⎧6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨−24 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩−24 ⎭ (7) u1 = u2 = 18.

Summary
The flexibility coefficient and stiffness coefficients are defined in this section. Construction of stiffness matrix for a simple member is explained. A few simple problems are solved by the direct stiffness method. The difference between the slope-deflection method and the direct stiffness method is clearly brought out.

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Module 4
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method
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Lesson 24
The Direct Stiffness Method: Truss Analysis
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Instructional Objectives
After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Derive member stiffness matrix of a truss member. 2. Define local and global co-ordinate system. 3. Transform displacements from local co-ordinate system to global co-ordinate system. 4. Transform forces from local to global co-ordinate system. 5. Transform member stiffness matrix from local to global co-ordinate system. 6. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix. 7. Analyse plane truss by the direct stiffness matrix.

24.1 Introduction
An introduction to the stiffness method was given in the previous chapter. The basic principles involved in the analysis of beams, trusses were discussed. The problems were solved with hand computation by the direct application of the basic principles. The procedure discussed in the previous chapter though enlightening are not suitable for computer programming. It is necessary to keep hand computation to a minimum while implementing this procedure on the computer. In this chapter a formal approach has been discussed which may be readily programmed on a computer. In this lesson the direct stiffness method as applied to planar truss structure is discussed. Plane trusses are made up of short thin members interconnected at hinges to form triangulated patterns. A hinge connection can only transmit forces from one member to another member but not the moment. For analysis purpose, the truss is loaded at the joints. Hence, a truss member is subjected to only axial forces and the forces remain constant along the length of the member. The forces in the member at its two ends must be of the same magnitude but act in the opposite directions for equilibrium as shown in Fig. 24.1.

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Now consider a truss member having cross sectional area A , Young’s modulus of material E , and length of the member L . Let the member be subjected to axial tensile force F as shown in Fig. 24.2. Under the action of constant axial force F , applied at each end, the member gets elongated by u as shown in Fig. 24.2.

The elongation u may be calculated by (vide lesson 2, module 1).
u= FL AE

(24.1)

Now the force-displacement relation for the truss member may be written as,

F=

AE u L

(24.2)

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F = ku
where k =

(24.3)

AE is the stiffness of the truss member and is defined as the force L required for unit deformation of the structure. The above relation (24.3) is true along the centroidal axis of the truss member. But in reality there are many members in a truss. For example consider a planer truss shown in Fig. 24.3. For each member of the truss we could write one equation of the type F = ku along its axial direction (which is called as local co-ordinate system). Each member has different local co ordinate system. To analyse the planer truss shown in Fig. 24.3, it is required to write force-displacement relation for the complete truss in a co ordinate system common to all members. Such a co-ordinate system is referred to as global co ordinate system.

24.2 Local and Global Co-ordinate System
Loads and displacements are vector quantities and hence a proper coordinate system is required to specify their correct sense of direction. Consider a planar truss as shown in Fig. 24.4. In this truss each node is identified by a number and each member is identified by a number enclosed in a circle. The displacements and loads acting on the truss are defined with respect to global co-ordinate system xyz . The same co ordinate system is used to define each of the loads and displacements of all loads. In a global co-ordinate system, each node of a planer truss can have only two displacements: one along x -axis and another along y axis. The truss shown in figure has eight displacements. Each displacement Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

(degree of freedom) in a truss is shown by a number in the figure at the joint. The direction of the displacements is shown by an arrow at the node. However out of eight displacements, five are unknown. The displacements indicated by numbers 6,7 and 8 are zero due to support conditions. The displacements denoted by numbers 1-5 are known as unconstrained degrees of freedom of the truss and displacements denoted by 6-8 represent constrained degrees of freedom. In this course, unknown displacements are denoted by lower numbers and the known displacements are denoted by higher code numbers.

To analyse the truss shown in Fig. 24.4, the structural stiffness matrix K need to be evaluated for the given truss. This may be achieved by suitably adding all the member stiffness matrices k ' , which is used to express the force-displacement relation of the member in local co-ordinate system. Since all members are oriented at different directions, it is required to transform member displacements and forces from the local co-ordinate system to global co-ordinate system so that a global load-displacement relation may be written for the complete truss.

24.3 Member Stiffness Matrix
Consider a member of the truss as shown in Fig. 24.5a in local co-ordinate system x' y ' . As the loads are applied along the centroidal axis, only possible displacements will be along x' -axis. Let the u '1 and u' 2 be the displacements of truss members in local co-ordinate system i.e. along x' -axis. Here subscript 1 refers to node 1 of the truss member and subscript 2 refers to node 2 of the truss member. Give displacement u '1 at node 1 of the member in the positive x' direction, keeping all other displacements to zero. This displacement in turn Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

induces a compressive force of magnitude
q '1 =

EA u '1 in the member. Thus, L

EA EA u '1 (24.4a) ( − ve as it acts in the − ve direction for u '1 and q' 2 = − L L equilibrium). Similarly by giving positive displacements of u' 2 at end 2 of the EA member, tensile force of magnitude u ' 2 is induced in the member. Thus, L
q"1 = − EA EA u ' 2 and q"2 = u'2 L L

(24.4b)

Now the forces developed at the ends of the member when both the displacements are imposed at nodes 1 and 2 respectively may be obtained by method of superposition. Thus (vide Fig. 24.5d)

p '1 = p '2 =

EA EA u '1 − u '2 L L EA EA u '1 u '2 − L L

(24.5a)

(24.5b)

Or we can write Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧ p'1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩ p' 2 ⎭ L ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩u ' 2 ⎭

(24.6a)

{p'} = [k ']{u'}
Thus the member stiffness matrix is k'= EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(24.6b)

(24.7)

This may also be obtained by giving unit displacement at node 1 and holding displacement at node 2 to zero and calculating forces developed at two ends. This will generate the first column of stiffness matrix. Similarly the second column of stiffness matrix is obtained by giving unit displacement at 2 and holding displacement at node 1 to zero and calculating the forces developed at both ends.

24.4 Transformation from Local to Global Co-ordinate System.
Displacement Transformation Matrix A truss member is shown in local and global co ordinate system in Fig. 24.6. Let x ' y ' z ' be in local co ordinate system and xyz be the global co ordinate system.

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The nodes of the truss member be identified by 1 and 2. Let u '1 and u' 2 be the displacement of nodes 1 and 2 in local co ordinate system. In global co ordinate system, each node has two degrees of freedom. Thus, u1 , v1 and u 2 , v 2 are the nodal displacements at nodes 1 and 2 respectively along x - and y - directions. Let the truss member be inclined to x axis by θ as shown in figure. It is observed from the figure that u '1 is equal to the projection of u1 on x' axis plus projection of v1 on x' -axis. Thus, (vide Fig. 24.7)

u '1 = u1 cosθ + v1 sin θ u ' 2 = u 2 cosθ + v2 sin θ
This may be written as

(24.8a) (24.8b)

⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎡cos θ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩u ' 2 ⎭ ⎣ 0

sin θ 0 0 cos θ

⎧u1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨u ⎬ sin θ ⎦ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

(24.9)

Introducing direction cosines l = cos θ ; m = sin θ ; the above equation is written as

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⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ u '1 ⎫ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩u ' 2 ⎭ ⎣0 0 l m ⎦ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭
Or,

(24.10a)

{u '} = [T ] {u}

(24.10b)

In the above equation [T ] is the displacement transformation matrix which transforms the four global displacement components to two displacement component in local coordinate system.

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Let co-ordinates of node 1 be (x1 , y1 ) and node 2 be (x 2 , y 2 ) . Now from Fig. 24.8,

l = cos θ =

x 2 − x1 L y 2 − y1 m = sin θ = L

(24.11a) (24.11b)

and L = ( x 2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 − y1 ) 2 Force transformation matrix

(24.11c)

Let p'1 , p' 2 be the forces in a truss member at node 1 and 2 respectively producing displacements u '1 and u' 2 in the local co-ordinate system and p1 , p 2 , p3 , p 4 be the force in global co-ordinate system at node 1 and 2 respectively producing displacements u1 , v1 and u 2 , v 2 (refer Fig. 24.9a-d).

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Referring to fig. 24.9c, the relation between p '1 and p1 , may be written as,

p1 = p'1 cosθ p 2 = p'1 sin θ

(24.12a) (24.12b)

Similarly referring to Fig. 24.9d, yields

p3 = p ' 2 cos θ

(24.12c) (24.12d)

p 4 = p' 2 sin θ

Now the relation between forces in the global and local co-ordinate system may be written as

⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡cos θ ⎪ p ⎪ ⎢ sin θ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣

0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ p '1 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ cos θ ⎥ ⎩ p ' 2 ⎭ ⎥ sin θ ⎦

(24.13)

{p} = [T ]T {p'}

(24.14)

where matrix {p} stands for global components of force and matrix {p'} are the components of forces in the local co-ordinate system. The superscript T stands for the transpose of the matrix. The equation (24.14) transforms the forces in the local co-ordinate system to the forces in global co-ordinate system. This is T accomplished by force transformation matrix [T ] . Force transformation matrix is the transpose of displacement transformation matrix. Member Global Stiffness Matrix From equation (24.6b) we have,

{p'} = [k '] {u'}
Substituting for {p'} in equation (24.14), we get

{p} = [T ]T [k '] {u '}

(24.15)

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Making use of the equation (24.10b), the above equation may be written as {p} = [T ]T [k '][T ]{u} (24.16)

{p} = [k ] {u}

(24.17)

Equation (24.17) represents the member load displacement relation in global coordinates and thus [k ] is the member global stiffness matrix. Thus,

{k } = [T ]T [k '][T ]
⎡ cos 2 θ ⎢ EA ⎢ cos θ sin θ [k ] = ⎢ L − cos 2 θ ⎢ ⎢− cos θ sin θ ⎣ ⎡ l2 lm ⎢ 2 [k ] = EA ⎢ lm2 m L ⎢− l − lm ⎢ 2 ⎢− lm − m ⎣ cos θ sin θ sin 2 θ − cos θ sin θ − sin 2 θ − l 2 − lm ⎤ ⎥ − lm − m 2 ⎥ l2 lm ⎥ ⎥ lm m2 ⎥ ⎦ − cos 2 θ − cos θ sin θ cos 2 θ cos θ sin θ

(24.18)

− cos θ sin θ ⎤ ⎥ − sin 2 θ ⎥ cos θ sin θ ⎥ ⎥ sin 2 θ ⎥ ⎦

(24.19)

Each component k ij of the member stiffness matrix [k ] in global co-ordinates represents the force in x -or y -directions at the end i required to cause a unit displacement along x − or y − directions at end j .

We obtained the member stiffness matrix in the global co-ordinates by transforming the member stiffness matrix in the local co-ordinates. The member stiffness matrix in global co-ordinates can also be derived from basic principles in a direct method. Now give a unit displacement along x -direction at node 1 of the truss member. Due to this unit displacement (see Fig. 24.10) the member length gets changed in the axial direction by an amount equal to Δl1 = cos θ . This axial change in length is related to the force in the member in two axial directions by
F1' 2 ' = EA cos θ L

(24.20a)

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In the next step evaluate member stiffness matrix of all the members in the global co ordinate Version 2 CE IIT. we can have two displacements. remaining columns of the stiffness matrix may be obtained. Kharagpur .20c) cos θ sin θ L The forces at the node 2 are readily found from static equilibrium.20e) The above four stiffness coefficients constitute the first column of a stiffness matrix in the global co-ordinate system.This force may be resolved along u1 and v1 directions. 24. Number all the joints and members of a plane truss. In a plane truss at each node.20b) cos 2 θ L EA Vertical component of force F1'2 ' is k 21 = (24. Thus horizontal EA component of force F1'2 ' is k11 = (24. Denote unknown displacements by lower numbers and known displacements by higher numbers as shown in Fig. Thus.20d) (24. Also indicate the degrees of freedom at each node. Similarly. 24.5 Analysis of plane truss. k 31 = − k11 = − k 41 = − k 21 EA cos 2 θ L EA = cos θ sin θ L (24.4.

For this purpose consider a two member truss as shown in Fig. Kharagpur . the stiffness matrix K for the entire truss is found.axis are also shown. Now the member stiffness matrix in the global coordinate system for both the members are given by Version 2 CE IIT.system. joint numbers.11. 24. its length and its inclination with the x . In the figure. member numbers and possible displacements of the joints are shown. The assembling procedure is best explained by considering a simple example. Assemble all the stiffness matrices in a particular order. The area of cross-section of the members.

for member 1. Similarly k 211 must go to location (3. node 1 and 2 in Fig. The above procedure may be symbolically written as.11b) are referred by 2 and 1 respectively.23a) Version 2 CE IIT. 24. However in the truss. Kharagpur .21b) Note that the member stiffness matrix in global co-ordinate system is derived referring to Fig. 24. Similarly for member 2. ⎡ l2 2 ⎢ EA2 ⎢ l 2 m2 = L2 ⎢ − l 2 2 ⎢ ⎢− l 2 m2 ⎣ l 2 m2 2 m2 − l 2 m2 2 − m2 − l2 − l 2 m2 2 [k ] 2 l2 l 2 m2 2 − l 2 m2 ⎤ 2 ⎥ − m2 ⎥ l 2 m2 ⎥ 2 ⎥ m2 ⎥ ⎦ (24.3) in the global stiffness matrix. the nodes 1 and 2 are referred by nodes 3 and 4 in the truss. The member stiffness matrix is of the order 4 × 4 .3) in the global stiffness matrix. as overall stiffness matrix. For example the element k 111 of the member stiffness matrix of member 1 must go to location (3. However the truss has six possible displacements and hence truss stiffness matrix is of the order 6 × 6 .21a) On the member stiffness matrix the corresponding member degrees of freedom and global degrees of freedom are also shown.22) ⎡ l12 l1m1 ⎢ m12 EA l m1 = 1⎢ 1 2 L1 ⎢ −l1 −l1m1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ −l1m1 − m1 ⎣ −l12 −l1m1 l12 l1m1 −l1m1 ⎤ ⎥ − m12 ⎥ l1m1 ⎥ ⎥ m12 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ l2 2 ⎢ EA2 ⎢ l2 m2 + L2 ⎢ −l2 2 ⎢ ⎢ −l2 m2 ⎣ l2 m2 m2 2 −l2 m2 − m2 2 −l2 2 −l2 m2 l2 2 l2 m2 −l2 m2 ⎤ ⎥ − m2 2 ⎥ l2 m2 ⎥ ⎥ m2 2 ⎥ ⎦ (24. It is also known as structure stiffness matrix. The node 1 and node 2 remain same for all the members. Thus. K = ∑ki i =0 n (24.e.Global 3 Memb 1 ⎡ l12 ⎢ EA1 ⎢ l1m1 1 ⎡k ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ L ⎢ −l 2 1 1 ⎢ ⎢ −l1m1 ⎣ 4 2 l1m1 m12 −l1m1 − m12 1 3 −l12 −l1m1 l12 l1m1 2 4 −l1m1 ⎤ ⎥ − m12 ⎥ l1m1 ⎥ ⎥ m12 ⎥ ⎦ (24.11b. The stiffness matrix of the entire truss is known as assembled stiffness matrix. the same node ( i. Now it is required to put elements of the member stiffness matrix of the entire truss. it is clear that by algebraically adding the above two stiffness matrix we get global stiffness matrix.

Thus. Kharagpur . The missing columns and rows in matrices k 1 and k 2 are filled with zeroes. Version 2 CE IIT.The assembled stiffness matrix is of the order 6 × 6 . Hence. ⎡ l1 2 ⎢ ⎢ l1 m1 2 EA1 ⎢ − l1 K= ⎢ L1 ⎢− l1 m1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ l1 m1 m1 − l1 m1 2 − m1 0 0 2 − l1 2 − l1 m1 − m1 l1 m1 2 m1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 − l1 m1 2 l1 l1 m1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ l2 2 ⎢ ⎢ l 2 m2 2 EA2 ⎢ − l 2 + ⎢ L2 ⎢ − l 2 m 2 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ l 2 m2 2 m2 − l 2 m2 2 − m2 0 0 − l2 − l 2 m2 2 − l 2 m2 2 − m2 l 2 m2 2 m2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (24.24) 0 0 0 0 0 0 l2 l 2 m2 0 0 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Adding appropriate elements of first matrix with the appropriate elements of the second matrix. it is easy to visualize assembly if we expand the member stiffness matrix to 6 × 6 size.

After evaluating global stiffness matrix of the truss.27.26) where {p} is the vector of joint loads acting on the truss. {u u } denote vector of unknown forces and unknown displacements respectively. { p} = [ K ] {u} (24. Hence the above equation may be partitioned and written as. Also some displacements are known due to support conditions and some displacements are unknown. The above equation is known as the equilibrium equation. Expanding equation 24.28a) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . {u} is the vector of joint displacements and [K ] is the global stiffness matrix. the load displacement equation for the truss is written as. ⎧{ p k }⎫ ⎡[k11 ] ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩{ pu }⎭ ⎣[k 21 ] [k12 ]⎤ ⎧{uu }⎫ [k 22 ]⎥ ⎨{u k }⎬ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (24. {u k } denote vector of known forces and known displacements respectively.⎡ EA1 2 EA2 2 ⎢ L l1 + L l2 1 2 ⎢ EA2 ⎢ EA1 ⎢ L l1m1 + L l2 m2 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA − 1 l12 ⎢ L1 K =⎢ ⎢ EA − 1 l1m1 ⎢ L1 ⎢ ⎢ EA − 2 l2 2 ⎢ L2 ⎢ ⎢ EA − 2 l2 m2 ⎢ L2 ⎢ ⎣ EA1 EA l1m1 + 2 l2 m2 L1 L2 EA1 2 EA2 2 m1 + m2 L1 L2 − − − − EA1 l1m1 L1 EA1 2 m1 L1 EA2 l2 m2 L2 EA2 2 m2 L2 − − EA1 2 l1 L1 − − EA1 l1m1 L1 EA1 2 m1 L1 − − EA2 2 l2 L2 − EA1 l1m1 L1 EA1 2 l1 L1 EA2 l2 m2 L2 0 0 EA2 2 l2 L2 EA1 l1m1 L1 EA1 2 m1 L1 0 0 EA1 l1m1 L1 0 0 EA2 l2 m2 L2 EA2 ⎤ l2 m2 ⎥ L2 ⎥ EA2 2 ⎥ − m2 ⎥ L2 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ EA2 l2 m2 ⎥ L2 ⎥ EA2 2 ⎥ m2 ⎥ L2 ⎥ ⎦ If more than one member meet at a joint then the stiffness coefficients of member stiffness matrix corresponding to that joint are added. It is observed that some joint loads are known and some are unknown. And {pu }.27) where {p k }. { pk } = [ k11 ]{uu } + [ k12 ]{uk } (24.

32) Version 2 CE IIT. (24.30) The member forces are evaluated as follows.31) ⎧ p '1 ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡cos θ ⎨ ⎬= L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎩ p'2 ⎭ sin θ 0 0 cos θ ⎧ u1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨u ⎬ sin θ ⎦ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (24. Substituting equation (24. u 5 and u 6 . one obtains {p'} = [k '][T ]{u} Expanding this equation.28b). {u k } = {0} . { p k } = [k11 ]{u u } Solving {u u } = [k11 ] { p k } −1 (24.{ pu } = [ k21 ]{uu } + [ k22 ]{uk } (24. 24. Now the support reactions are evaluated from equation (24.28a). { pu } = [k 21 ]{u u } (24.28b) In the present case (vide Fig. Kharagpur . u 4 . The known displacements are zero due to boundary conditions.6b) {p'} = [k ']{u'}. And from equation (24. Thus.29) where [k11 ] corresponding to stiffness matrix of the truss corresponding to unconstrained degrees of freedom.11a) the known displacements are u 3 .10b) {u '} = [T ] {u} in equation (24.

12a. Assume EA to be constant for all members.1 Analyse the two member truss shown in Fig.Example 24. 24. Version 2 CE IIT. The length of each member is 5 m . Kharagpur .

5⎥ ⎦ (5) Writing the load displacement-relation for the truss for the unconstrained degrees of freedom { pk } = [ k11 ]{uu } (6) Version 2 CE IIT.25 ⎦ ⎣ 0.433 0 0 ⎥ EA ⎢ − 0.433 0.75 ⎢ ⎥ − 0. [ ] − 0.25 − 0.25 ⎥ 0.5 0 ⎤ 5 ⎣ 0 0.5 ⎥ ⎢ 0.433 [K ] = ⎢ ⎥ 0.433 (2) [k ] 2 (3) The global stiffness matrix of the truss can be obtained by assembling the two member stiffness matrices.433 ⎥ 5 ⎢ − 0.25 − 0.75 0 0.25 0.75 0. the number of nodes and members are shown in Fig.25 ⎦ ⎣− 0.433 − 0. By inspection it is clear that the displacement u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = 0 .433 ⎦ ⎣ Again stiffness matrix for the unconstrained degrees of freedom is.433 − 0.433⎥ 0. Also the external loads are p1 = 5 kN .24.75 − 0.75 − 0.25 ⎥ 0.75 − 0.75 − 0.433 0.75 5 ⎢ − 0. (4) [K ] = EA ⎡ ⎢ 1.75 0.12b.75 ⎢− 0.433 ⎤ ⎡ 1.433 ⎢ ⎥ 0.433 0.25 0 0 ⎥ 5 ⎢− 0.25 ⎥ ⎢ 0. The degrees of freedom at each node are also shown.433 − 0.25 ⎢ − 0.75 ⎢ ⎥ − 0.433 0 0 0. Kharagpur .75 ⎢ 0.433 EA ⎢ ⎥ = − 0.433 − 0.25 − 0.433⎥ 0.433 − 0.433 − 0.433 − 0. Thus.25 EA ⎢ ⎥ k1 = 0.433⎤ 0.433 0.5 ⎢ 0 − 0.25 ⎥ 0.75 − 0.433 − 0.75 0.433 ⎡ 0.433 ⎤ ⎡ 0.433 0 0 0. p2 = 0 kN . (1) Now member stiffness matrix for each member in global co-ordinate system is (θ1 = 30°) . − 0.The co-ordinate axes.433 0.25 − 0.

{p'} = [k ']{u'} = [k'][T ]{u} Version 2 CE IIT. m = 0.75 −0. Member 1: l = 0. (9) ⎡ −0.433 −0.5 0 ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩0⎭ 5 ⎣ 0 0.866 . Kharagpur .433 −0.5⎦ ⎩u 2 ⎭ ⎧5⎫ EA ⎡1.75 0.443 ⎟ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎝ The answer can be verified by equilibrium of joint 1. Also.433 ⎥ AE ⎩ 0 ⎭ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.30).443 ⎟ ⎪ 4⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎨ ⎬= p5 ⎪ ⎜ −2.5 ⎟ ⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎜ 1.5⎦ ⎩u 2 ⎭ u1 = 16.5 0 ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩ p 2 ⎭ 5 ⎣ 0 0.5 .433⎤ ⎢ ⎥ EA −0.667 ⎫ { pu } = ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎢ −0.25 ⎥ 1 ⎧16.5 ⎞ ⎪ p ⎪ ⎜ −1. { pu } = [k 21 ]{u u } Substituting appropriate values in equation (9). L = 5 m .667 .⎧ p1 ⎫ EA ⎡1. u2 = 0 EA (7) (8) Support reactions are evaluated using equation (24. (10) (11) p3 + p5 + 5 = 0 Now force in each member is calculated as follows.25 ⎦ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎛ −2.

⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ p '1 ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎪v 4 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬= L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 l m ⎥ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎩ p' 2 ⎭ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l L m −l { p '1} = AE 16. Version 2 CE IIT. ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ p '1 ⎫ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎪v6 ⎪ = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 l m ⎥ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎩ p' 2 ⎭ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l L m −l { p '1} = AE 16. Suitable transformation matrices are derived to transform displacements and forces from the local to global co-ordinate system.667 ⎫ [ −0. Kharagpur .667 ⎫ [ −0. a few plane truss problems are solved using the direct stiffness matrix approach. The member stiffness matrix of truss member is obtained in global co-ordinate system by suitable transformation.866 . The system stiffness matrix of a plane truss is obtained by assembling member matrices of individual members in global co-ordinate system.866] ⎧ ⎨ ⎬ = −2.88 kN 5 ⎩ AE ⎭ Summary The member stiffness matrix of a truss member in local co-ordinate system is defined.88 kN L ⎩ AE ⎭ Member 2: l = −0. m = 0. L = 5 m . In the end.866] ⎧ ⎨ ⎬ = −2.5 .

Kharagpur .Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 25 The Direct Stiffness Method: Truss Analysis (Continued) Version 2 CE IIT.

Analyse plane truss supported on inclined roller supports. In this lesson few plane trusses are analysed using the direct stiffness method.1a and evaluate reactions. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix. 25.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. 25. Example 25. Kharagpur . Analyse plane truss by the direct stiffness matrix. The transformation of force and displacement from local co-ordinate system to global co-ordinate system were accomplished by single transformation matrix. the direct stiffness method as applied to trusses was discussed.1 Introduction In the previous lesson. Assume EA to be constant for all the members. Also the problem of inclined support will be discussed. 2. Also assembly of the member stiffness matrices was discussed. 4. Transform member stiffness matrix from local to global co-ordinate system. 3. Version 2 CE IIT.1 Analyse the truss shown in Fig.

Thus displacements 6. Kharagpur . Also.75 − 0.25 ⎢ 0.25 − 0.619 ⎢ − 0.433 − 0.433 ⎢ ⎥ 0.433 ⎥ 4.433 − 0.7 and 8 are zero due to boundary conditions.433 − 0. Nodal points 2-1 Version 2 CE IIT. Element 1: θ = 60°.1b.433 0.75 ⎥ EA ⎢ 1 ⎥ k = 0.75 ⎦ ⎣− 0. L = 4.433⎤ ⎡ 0. First write down stiffness matrix of each member in global co-ordinate system and assemble them to obtain global stiffness matrix.The numbering of joints and members are shown in Fig. Nodal points 4-1 [ ] 0.75 (1) Element 2: θ = 90°.433 0.25 0.00 m.25 − 0. the possible displacements (degrees of freedom) at each node are indicated. 25.619 m. Here lower numbers are used to indicate unconstrained degrees of freedom and higher numbers are used for constrained degrees of freedom. L = 4.

75 0.433 L = 2.433 − 0. Thus.25 4.25 − 0. Kharagpur .75 ⎦ ⎣ 0.75 − 0.31 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎦ Nodal points 2-3 (4) Element 5: θ = 0°.619 ⎢ ⎥ − 0.31 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣0 (5) The assembled global stiffness matrix of the truss is of the order 8 × 8 .433 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 0. [k ] 3 − 0. L = 2. Note that the element k11 of the member stiffness matrix of truss member 1 goes to location (7.619 m.75 ⎥ 0.31 m.7 ) of global stiffness matrix.433 0.0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 − 1 0 0⎤ 0 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎦ Nodal points 3-1 (2) Element 3: θ = 120°.433 ⎤ ⎡ 0. L = 4.433 − 0. Nodal points 4-2 (3) Element 4: θ = 0°. On the member stiffness matrix the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling.433⎥ 0.[k ] 2 ⎡0 0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 1 = 4.433 0. 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎦ [k ] 5 ⎡1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = 2.25 0.25 ⎢− 0. Version 2 CE IIT. Now 1 assemble the global stiffness matrix. [k ] 4 ⎡1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = 2.31 m.

162 − 0.162 − 0.433 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ 0. − 0.487 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8) Solving which.162 ⎣ − 0.108 ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0 0.094 − 0.094 − 0.054 − 0.25 0 0. Kharagpur .094 − 0.054 0.094 − 0.162 ⎥ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (7) 0 − 0.25 0 0.866 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0.094 − 0.487 0.0934 0.25 0 0 0 0 The displacements u1 to u 5 are unknown.094 0.108 ⎢ 0 0.054 0.433 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 ⎥ 0.0934 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0.25 0 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0. Version 2 CE IIT.866 ⎢ − 0.433⎥ ⎨u 3 ⎬ 0 ⎬ = EA⎢ 0 0 0.094 − 0.433 − 0.162 ⎥ ⎦ (6) Writing the load-displacement relation for the truss.054⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ 0 0 0 ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.433 ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪p ⎪ 0 ⎢− 0.433 − 0.108 ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.1 2 3 4 0 − 0.575 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0.094 − 0. yields 0 0 ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡ 0. The displacements u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 .094 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0.054 − 0.433 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 0 0.25 0 0 [K ] = EA⎢ ⎢− 0.487 − 0.094 − 0.25 0 0 0 0 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 ⎡ 0. Also p1 = p 2 = p3 = p5 = 0 .162 ⎢− 0.094 − 0. the unknown displacements are evaluated.25 0.487 0.0934 ⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎥ 0 0 0.094 − 0.162 0 0 ⎥ 0 0 0.054 0.162⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ − 0.094 − 0.094 0.054 0.162 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0.094 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎥ − 0.094⎤ 0.25 0 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎨ ⎬ = EA⎢ − 0.094 − 0. Thus.162⎥ ⎥ − 0.094 − 0.054 0.054 − 0.433 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0.094 − 0.162 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0.054 − 0.433 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0.094 − 0.094 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ 0.575 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − 0.0934 0.433 ⎢ 0 ⎢− 0.25 0 0.866 0 ⎨ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪− 10⎪ − 0. But p4 = −10 kN .162 ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ − 0.575 0 ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0.487 − 0.094⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ 0.

u3 = . Member 1: l = 0.0 m −l { p '1} = AE 1 ⎧−74. Kharagpur .642⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 13.162 0 ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ 0 0 0 (10) Thus.64 ⎪ − 0. u1 = ⎧ 6.866] ⎨ ⎬ = 5.668 13.668 6.668 ⎫ ⎪ − 34.094⎤ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨ 6.6.619 m −l { p '1} = AE 1 ⎧ 6. L = 4. ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 8 ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 4. p6 = 5.50 . L = 4.866 .094 − 0. u2 = .619 m . u5 = AE AE AE AE AE Now reactions are evaluated from equation.334 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (9) 0 ⎡ 0.0 kN 4.334 − 34.77 kN 4.162 ⎧ p6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0. ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎪ u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 4 .642 ⎫ [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = −10. m = 0.64 ⎭ (12) Member 2: l = 0 .433 ⎨ p 7 ⎬ = EA⎢ ⎪p ⎪ ⎢− 0. p7 = 0 .094 − 0.667 ⎫ [ −0.0 .5 −0.668 ⎬ ⎥ EA ⎪− 74.00 kN .00 kN . m = 1.866 . Version 2 CE IIT.619 AE ⎩ −34. p8 = 5.64 − 74.642 .054 − 0.0 m . u4 = . (11) Now calculate individual member forces.094 − 0.619 m . m = 0.619 AE ⎩−34.64 ⎭ (13) Member 3: l = −0.50 . L = 4.

866] ⎨ 6. ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 8 ⎬ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 2.77 kN AE ⎪ ⎪ ⎩−34.31 AE ⎩13.0 m .0 m .31.619 m −l ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ]⎪ 6 ⎪ −m ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ AE { p '1} = [ −0.31.31 m −l { p '1} = AE 1 ⎧ 0 ⎫ [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = −2. Assume that all members have the same axial rigidity.667 ⎬ = 5.5 4. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. L = 2.334 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 0.0 .2 AE 1 ⎧ 6.88 kN 2.5 −0.667 ⎫ [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = −2.{p'1 } = AE [l 4.667 ⎭ (15) Member 5: l = 1.334 ⎭ (16) Determine the forces in the truss shown in Fig. m = 0 .619 ⎧13.88 kN 2. 25.2a by the direct stiffness method.31 AE ⎩6. m = 0 . L = 2.31 m −l { p '1} = Example 25.64 ⎭ (14) Member 4: l = 1.0 . ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 2.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

2b. In the given problem u1 . The possible degree of freedom are also shown in Fig. Element 1: θ = 0°. 3 4 Nodal points 2-1 1 2 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎦ 3 4 1 2 (1) [ ] Element 2: θ = 90°. 25.0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 L = 5. Kharagpur .00 m. First let us generate stiffness matrix for each of the six members in global co-ordinate system. Nodal points 4-1 Version 2 CE IIT.2b.The joint and member numbers are indicated in Fig. ⎡1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 k1 = 5. 25.u 2 and u 3 represent unconstrained degrees of freedom and u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 due to boundary condition. L = 5.00 m.

00 m.5 − 0.5 0.5 ⎢ 0. Kharagpur .5⎥ 6 EA ⎢ ⎥ = 0. L = 5. 5 6 Nodal points 3-2 3 4 (4) [k ] 4 ⎡0 0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 1 = 5.0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 − 1 0 0⎤ 7 0 − 1⎥ 8 ⎥ 0 0⎥ 1 ⎥ 0 1⎦ 2 Nodal points 3-4 Element 3: θ = 0°.07 ⎢− 0.00 m.5 ⎥ 1 7.5 0.07 m.7 8 1 2 (2) [k ] 2 ⎡0 0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 1 = 5.0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Element 4: θ = 90°. Nodal points 4-2 Version 2 CE IIT.5 Element 6: θ = 135°.07 m. L = 7. L = 5.5 − 0.5 0.5 − 0.5 ⎢ ⎥ 0. 5 6 7 8 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎦ 5 6 7 8 (3) [k ] 3 ⎡1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = 5. L = 7. 5 6 1 2 (5) [k ] 5 0.5⎤ 5 ⎡ 0.5 ⎦ 2 ⎣− 0.5 − 0.5 − 0.5 − 0.0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 − 1 0 0⎤ 5 0 − 1⎥ 6 ⎥ 0 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 1⎦ 4 Nodal points 3-1 Element 5: θ = 45°.

271 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎢− 0.071 − 0.5⎥ 8 EA ⎢− 0. Here.271 0 0 0 ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ − 0.20 0 0.071 0 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8⎭ (8) The displacements u1 .20 − 0.071 − 0.20 0 0.071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.071 0.071 0.071 − 0.271 0.5 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0.071⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪p ⎪ − 0.071 0.07 ⎢− 0.5 − 0.071⎥ ⎢ 0 [K ] = AE ⎢ − 0.071 − 0.20 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p6 ⎪ − 0.071 − 0.5 ⎤ 7 ⎢ 0. Hence the global stiffness matrix is of the order ( 8 × 8 ).071 − 0.5 0. Version 2 CE IIT.071⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎨ ⎬ = EA⎢ ⎨ ⎬ − 0.2 − 0.071 0.20 − 0.271 − 0.271 0 0 ⎥ ⎢− 0.071 0.071 0.071 ⎢ 0 − 0.5 0.071 − 0.5⎥ 3 7.071 − 0.271 − 0.271 0 0.271 ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0.071 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ 0 0 0 0. Kharagpur . p1 = 5 kN .5 − 0.071⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 0.071 − 0.071 − 0.271 0.071 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡ 0.071 0.071 − 0.071 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0.071 0.071 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦ The force-displacement relation for the truss is. − 0.5 ⎦ 4 There are eight possible global degrees of freedom for the truss shown in the figure.5 − 0.u 2 and u 3 are unknowns.5 − 0.271 0 0. Thus the global stiffness matrix is.071 − 0.271 ⎥ ⎪u 8 ⎪ 0.5 − 0.20 0.20 ⎢ ⎥ − 0.271 − 0.071 − 0.20 0.071 − 0.5 0.071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ − 0.071 − 0.20 − 0.20 − 0.071 0 0 0.071 − 0.071 0.20 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ 0.271 ⎢ 0.071 − 0.7 8 3 4 (6) [k ] 6 ⎡ 0. On the member stiffness matrix. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembly.2 − 0.071 − 0.071 − 0.071 0 0 ⎢ ⎥ − 0.271 ⎥ 0.271 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − 0.5 0. (7) − 0.5 − 0.20 0 0 0.071 − 0.071 0.071 0 ⎥ 0 0 0.071 0.071 − 0.5 ⎥ = 0. p3 = 0 and u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 .071 − 0.20 0 0 0.071 0.071 ⎥ 0 0.271 − 0. p2 = −10 .20 ⎥ 0.

271 0. Nodal points 2-1 Version 2 CE IIT.20 0 ⎥⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p6 ⎪ − 0.071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0. u3 = AE AE AE Now reactions are evaluated from the equation.20 0 0 0.271 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢− 0.071 0.071 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ − 0. p8 = 15. yields u1 = 72.80 kN .071 ⎥ ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.071⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ 0 7 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.071 − 0.071 0.071 0 0 0.20 0.071 − 0.071 0.071 0.071 − 0. u2 = .271 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ − 0. ⎧ 5 ⎫ ⎡ 0.071 − 0.071⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ p4 ⎪ = EA⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0.071⎤ 0 ⎧ p4 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ p ⎪ ⎢− 0. − 0.00 m. p6 = −1.071 − 0.271 − 0.071⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p ⎪ 0.071 − 0.8 0 kN .271 0 0 ⎥⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢− 0. p7 = 3.071 − 0.20⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨u 2 ⎬ ⎨− 10⎬ = ⎢ 0.071 − 0.20 0.271 ⎪− 10⎪ ⎢ 0.071 − 0.071 − 0.071 0 0 − 0.271 0.825 − 55.855 53. Element 1: θ = 0°.20 − 0.20 0 0.071 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ (11) p4 = −3.19 kN .071 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 5 ⎫ ⎡ 0.071 0.271 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8 ⎭ (9) Thus.071 − 0. In the next step evaluate forces in members.00 kN L = 5.20 0 0.2 − 0. p5 = −1.19 kN .071 0.071 − 0.20 − 0.071 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ 0 0.071 − 0.071 0.071 − 0. Kharagpur .20 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ 0 0 0.97 .271 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (10) Solving which.− 0.271 0 0 0.071 0 ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ 5⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨u 2 ⎬ ⎨ p 6 ⎬ = ⎢− 0.271 − 0.

07 m.19kN AE ⎩−55. {p'1 } = { p '1} = Element 5: θ = 45°.00 m.{p'1 } = AE [l 5. Nodal points 4-1 ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 8 ⎬ ⎪ u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = AE [l 5 m −l { p '1} = Element 3: θ = 0°. AE [0 ]{0} = 0 5 Nodal points 3-4 (14) Nodal points 3-2 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 6 ⎬ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {p'1 } = Element 4: θ = 90°.0 (12) L = 5.855⎭ 5.80 kN AE ⎩72. AE [l 5 m −l AE 1 [ 0] {53. 1 ⎧53.00 m. L = 5. Kharagpur .0 m −l ⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ]⎪ 4 ⎪ −m ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ { p '1} = Element 2: θ = 90°. {p'1 } = AE [l 7. 1 ⎧ 0 ⎫ AE [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = 11.07 m −l Version 2 CE IIT.825} = 0 5 AE Nodal points 3-1 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 6 ⎬ ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (15) L = 7.00 m.97 ⎭ 5 (13) L = 5.825⎫ AE [1 −1] ⎨ ⎬ = −3.

Version 2 CE IIT. AE 1 ⎧ 72.3a). i.07 m −l { p '1} = AE 1 [ 0.2 Inclined supports Sometimes the truss is supported on a roller placed on an oblique plane (vide Fig.707] ⎨ ⎬ = −1. Kharagpur . the displacement perpendicular to roller support is zero.688 kN 7. Nodal points 4-2 ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − m ]⎨ 8 ⎬ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (16) {p'1 } = AE [l 7.38 kN 7. At a roller support.707 −0.825} = 5.07 AE (17) 25.855 ⎫ [ − 0.707] {53.07 m.{ p '1} = Element 6: θ = 135°. displacement along y" is zero in the present case. 25.97 ⎭ L = 7.e.07 AE ⎩−55.

3b but having the length comparable with other members meeting at that joint. 25. Since the area of cross section of this new member is very high. it does not allow any displacement along its centroidal axis of the joint A . Kharagpur . One way to handle inclined support is to replace the inclined support by a member having large cross sectional area as shown in Fig.If the stiffness matrix of the entire truss is formulated in global co-ordinate system then the displacements along y are not zero at the oblique support. The inclined member is so placed that its centroidal axis is perpendicular to the inclined plane. Version 2 CE IIT. a special procedure has to be adopted for incorporating the inclined support in the analysis of truss just described. Another method of incorporating inclined support in the analysis is to suitably modify the member stiffness matrix of all the members meeting at the inclined support. So.

Let x' y ' be the local co-ordinate axes of the member.4. m" = sin θ x" (25. l" = cos θ x" . u '1 = u1 cos θ x + v1 sin θ x u ' 2 = u"2 cos θ x" + v"2 sin θ x" This may be written as (25. Then from Fig. v "2 be the nodal displacements along x" and y" .2) ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎩u ' 2 ⎭ ⎣0 0 l" m" ⎦ ⎪u"2 ⎪ ⎪v"2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ or (25. At node 1. where y" is perpendicular to oblique support. it is connected to a inclined support. v1 be the nodal displacements of node 1 in global co-ordinate system xy . The nodes are numbered as 1 and 2. Kharagpur . At 2.4. Version 2 CE IIT. At node 2.are in the local co-ordinate system x" y" at node 2. Let u1 .3a) {u'} = [T ']{u} where [T '] is the displacement transformation matrix. the global co-ordinate system xy is also shown. Let u "2 .1) ⎧ u1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ v1 ⎪ ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎡cos θ x sin θ x ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎥ ⎨u" ⎬ cos θ x" sin θ x" ⎦ ⎪ 2 ⎪ 0 ⎩u ' 2 ⎭ ⎣ 0 ⎪v"2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Denoting l = cos θ x . 25. Let u '1 and u ' 2 be the displacements of nodes 1 and 2 in the local co-ordinate system. m = sin θ x . 25.Consider a truss member as shown in Fig. consider nodal co-ordinate system as x" y" .

Hence p1 = p '1 cos θ x p 2 = p'1 sin θ x (25.4b) Version 2 CE IIT. 25. the force p '1 has components along x and y axes. Kharagpur .5.Similarly referring to Fig.4a) (25.

Similarly, at node 2, the force p ' 2 has components along x" and y" axes.

′′ p "3 = p '2 cos θ x
′′ p "4 = p '2 sin θ x

(25.5a) (25.5b)

The relation between forces in the global and local co-ordinate system may be written as,

⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡cos θ x ⎪ p ⎪ ⎢ sin θ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ x ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ p "3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎪ p "4 ⎪ ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢

0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ p '1 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ′′⎥ ⎩ p '2 ⎭ cos θ x ⎥ ′′ ⎥ sin θ x ⎦

(25.6)

{p} = [T ']T {p '}

(25.7)

Using displacement and force transformation matrices, the stiffness matrix for member having inclined support is obtained.

[k ] = [T ']T [k '][T ']
⎡l ⎢m [k ] = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0
Simplifying,

0⎤ 0 ⎥ AE ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ l m 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ l" ⎥ L ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 l" m" ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎥ m"⎦

(25.8)

⎡ l2 − ll" − lm" ⎤ lm ⎢ ⎥ − ml" − mm"⎥ m2 EA ⎢ lm [k ] = ⎢ L − ll" − ml" l"2 l" m" ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ m"2 ⎥ ⎢− lm" − mm" l" m" ⎣ ⎦

(25.9)

If we use this stiffness matrix, then it is easy to incorporate the condition of zero displacement perpendicular to the inclined support in the stiffness matrix. This is shown by a simple example.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Example 25.3 Analyse the truss shown in Fig. 25.6a by stiffness method. Assume axial rigidity EA to be constant for all members.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

The nodes and members are numbered in Fig. 25.6b. The global co-ordinate axes are shown at node 3. At node 2, roller is supported on inclined support. Hence it is required to use nodal co-ordinates x"− y" at node 2 so that u 4 could be set to zero. All the possible displacement degrees of freedom are also shown in the figure. In the first step calculate member stiffness matrix. Member 1: θ x = 143.13°, θ x" = 6.87°, L = 5.00 m. Nodal points 1-2 l = −0.80 ; m = 0.6 ; l" = 0.993 ; m" = 0.12 .

1

2

3

4 1 2 3 4
(1)

[ ]

− 0.48 0.794 0.096 ⎤ ⎡ 0.64 ⎢− 0.48 − 0.596 − 0.072⎥ 0.36 EA ⎢ ⎥ k1 = ⎢ 0.794 − 0.596 0.986 0.119 ⎥ 5.0 ⎢ ⎥ 0.014 ⎦ ⎣ 0.096 − 0.072 0.119

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Member 2: θ x = 0°, θ x" = 30°, L = 4.00 m. Nodal points 2-3 l = 1 ; m = 0 ; l" = 0.866 ; m" = 0.50 .

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

5

6

3

4 5 6 3 4
(2)

[k ]
2

− 0.48 0.794 0.096 ⎤ ⎡ 0.64 ⎢− 0.48 − 0.596 − 0.072⎥ 0.36 EA ⎢ ⎥ = 0.119 ⎥ 4.0 ⎢ 0.794 − 0.596 0.986 ⎢ ⎥ 0.014 ⎦ ⎣ 0.096 − 0.072 0.119

Member 3: θ x = 90°, .

L = 3.00 m. , l = 0 ; m = 1 Nodal points 3-1
5 6 1 2
(3)

[k ]
3

⎡0 0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 1 = 3.0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 − 1

0 0⎤ 5 0 − 1⎥ 6 ⎥ 0 0⎥ 1 ⎥ 0 1⎦ 2

For the present problem, the global stiffness matrix is of the order (6 × 6 ) . The global stiffness matrix for the entire truss is.

1 ⎡ 0.128 ⎢ − 0.096 ⎢ ⎢ 0.159 [k ] = EA⎢ ⎢ 0.019 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

2 − 0.096

3

4

5

6 0 ⎤ − 0.333 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0.333 ⎦ ⎥ 1 2 3 4 5 6

0.159 0.405 − 0.119 − 0.119 0.385 .0.014 0.132 − 0.217 0 − 0.333 0

0.019 0 − 0.014 0 0.132 − 0.217 0.065 − 0.125 − 0.125 0.25 0 0

(4)

Writing load-displacement equation for the truss for unconstrained degrees of freedom,
⎧− 5⎫ ⎡ 0.128 − 0.096 0.159 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 5 ⎬ = ⎢− 0.096 0.405 − 0.119⎥ ⎨u 2 ⎬ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ 0.159 − 0.119 0.385 ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3 ⎭

(5)

Solving ,

u1 =

− 77.408 3.728 33.12 ; u2 = ; u3 = AE AE AE

(6)

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Now reactions are evaluated from the equation

0.132 ⎤ ⎧− 77.40⎫ ⎧ p4 ⎫ ⎡0.019 .0.014 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ 1 ⎪ 3.728 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 − 0.217⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ p 5 ⎬ = AE ⎢ AE ⎪ ⎪ ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 ⎥ − 0.333 ⎦ ⎩ 33.12 ⎭ ⎩ 6⎭ ⎣

(6)

p4 = 2.85 kN ; p5 = −7.19 kN ; p6 = −1.24 kN

Summary
Sometimes the truss is supported on a roller placed on an oblique plane. In such situations, the direct stiffness method as discussed in the previous lesson needs to be properly modified to make the displacement perpendicular to the roller support as zero. In the present approach, the inclined support is handled in the analysis by suitably modifying the member stiffness matrices of all members meeting at the inclined support. A few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 4
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 26
The Direct Stiffness Method: Temperature Changes and Fabrication Errors in Truss Analysis
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Instructional Objectives
After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Compute stresses developed in the truss members due to temperature changes. 2. Compute stresses developed in truss members due to fabrication members. 3. Compute reactions in plane truss due to temperature changes and fabrication errors.

26.1 Introduction
In the last four lessons, the direct stiffness method as applied to the truss analysis was discussed. Assembly of member stiffness matrices, imposition of boundary conditions, and the problem of inclined supports were discussed. Due to the change in temperature the truss members either expand or shrink. However, in the case of statically indeterminate trusses, the length of the members is prevented from either expansion or contraction. Thus, the stresses are developed in the members due to changes in temperature. Similarly the error in fabricating truss members also produces additional stresses in the trusses. Both these effects can be easily accounted for in the stiffness analysis.

26.2 Temperature Effects and Fabrication Errors

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Consider truss member of length L, area of cross section A as shown in Fig.26.1.The change in length Δl is given by

Δ l = αL Δ T

(26.1)

where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material considered. If the member is not allowed to change its length (as in the case of statically indeterminate truss) the change in temperature will induce additional forces in the member. As the truss element is a one dimensional element in the local coordinate system, the thermal load can be easily calculated in global coordinate system by

′ ( p1 )t = AE ΔL
′ ( p2 )t = − AE ΔL
or

(26.2a) (26.2b)

1 {(p ) }= AEΔL⎧+ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ −
' t

(26.3)

The equation (26.3) can also be used to calculate forces developed in the truss member in the local coordinate system due to fabrication error. ΔL will be considered positive if the member is too long. The forces in the local coordinate system can be transformed to global coordinate system by using the equation,

⎧( p1 )t ⎫ ⎡cos θ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪( p 2 )t ⎪ ⎢ sin θ ⎬= ⎨ ⎪( p 3 )t ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ 4 t⎭ ⎣

0 ⎤ ' 0 ⎥ ⎧ p1 ⎥⎪ ⎨ ' cos θ ⎥ ⎪ p 2 ⎥⎩ sin θ ⎦

( )⎫ ⎪ ( )⎬ ⎪ ⎭
t t

(26.4a)

where ( p1 )t , ( p 2 )t and ( p 3 )t , ( p 4 )t are the forces in the global coordinate system at nodes 1 and 2 of the truss member respectively Using equation (26.3), the equation (26.4a) may be written as,
⎧ ( p1 )t ⎫ ⎧ cos θ ⎫ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 t⎪ ⎪ sin θ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = AE ΔL ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ ( p3 )t ⎪ ⎪− cos θ ⎪ ⎪ ( p4 ) t ⎪ ⎪ − sin θ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

(26.4b)

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

The force displacement equation for the entire truss may be written as,

{p} = [k ]{u} + {( p) t }

(26.5)

where , {p} is the vector of external joint loads applied on the truss and {( p )t } is the vector of joint loads developed in the truss due to change in temperature/fabrication error of one or more members. As pointed out earlier. in the truss analysis, some joint displacements are known due to boundary conditions and some joint loads are known as they are applied externally.Thus,one could partition the above equation as,
⎧ p k ⎫ ⎡[k11 ] ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ p u ⎭ ⎣[k 21 ]

[k12 ]⎤ ⎧{u u }⎫ ⎧( p k )t ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨{ }⎬ + ⎨( ) ⎬ [k 22 ]⎦ ⎩ u k ⎭ ⎪ pu t ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

(26.6)

where subscript u is used to denote unknown quantities and subscript k is used to denote known quantities of forces and displacements. Expanding equation (26.6),

{ pu } = [ k21 ]{uu } + [ k22 ]{uk } + {( pu )t }

{p k } = [k11 ]{u u }+ [k12 ]{u k }+ {( p k )t }

(26.7a) (26.7b)

If the known displacement vector {u k } = {0} then using equation (26.2a) the unknown displacements can be calculated as

{u u } = [k11 ]−1 ({p k }− {( p k )t }) If {u k } ≠ 0 then {u u } = [k u ]−1 ({p k }− [k12 ]{u k }− {( p k )t })

(26.8a)

(26.8b)

After evaluating unknown displacements, the unknown force vectors are calculated using equation (26.7b).After evaluating displacements, the member forces in the local coordinate system for each member are evaluated by,

{p ′} = [k ′][T ]{u} + {p ′}t
or
' ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ '⎬ ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

(26.9a)

=

AE L

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡cos θ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎣

sin θ 0

0 cos θ

⎧u1 ⎫ ' ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎤ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎧ p1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬+⎨ ' sin θ ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ p 2 ⎦ ⎩ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

( )⎫ ⎪ ( )⎬ ⎪ ⎭
t t

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Expanding the above equation, yields

{p1′} =
And,

AE {cosθ L

sin θ

− cos θ

⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − sin θ }⎨ 1 ⎬ + AEΔL ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪v 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭
⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪v ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ sin θ } ⎨ 1 ⎬ − AE ΔL ⎪u2 ⎪ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

(26.10a)

′ { p2 } =

AE {− cos θ L

− sin θ

cos θ

(26.10b)

Few problems are solved to illustrate the application of the above procedure to calculate thermal effects /fabrication errors in the truss analysis:Example 26.1 Analyze the truss shown in Fig.26.2a, if the temperature of the member (2) is o raised by 40 C .The sectional areas of members in square centimeters are 5 2 o shown in the figure. Assume E = 2 × 10 N / mm and α = 1/ 75, 000 per C .

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

The numbering of joints and members are shown in Fig.26.2b. The possible global displacement degrees of freedom are also shown in the figure. Note that lower numbers are used to indicate unconstrained degrees of freedom. From the figure it is obvious that the displacements u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 due to boundary conditions. o The temperature of the member (2) has been raised by 40 C . Thus,

ΔL = αLΔT 1 ΔL = 3 2 (40 ) = 2.2627 × 10 −3 m 75000

( )

(1)

The forces in member (2) due to rise in temperature in global coordinate system can be calculated using equation (26.4b).Thus,

⎧( p 5 ) t ⎫ ⎧cos θ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪sin θ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p 6 )t ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = AEΔL ⎨ ⎨ ⎪− cos θ ⎪ ⎪( p1 )t ⎪ ⎪− sin θ ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ 2 t⎭
For member (2),
A = 20cm 2 = 20 × 10 −4 m 2 and θ = 45 o

(2)

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧( p5 )t ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p6 )t ⎪ ⎪ −4 −3 11 3⎪ 2 ⎨ ⎬ = 20 × 10 × 2 × 10 × 2.2627 × 10 /10 ⎨ ⎬ ⎪( p1 )t ⎪ ⎪− 1 ⎪ ⎪ p ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎩( 2 )t ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ 2⎭ ⎪ ⎩

(3)

⎧( p5 )t ⎫ ⎧1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪( p6 )t ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 150.82 ⎨ ⎬ kN ⎪( p1 )t ⎪ ⎪−1⎪ ⎪ p ⎪ ⎪−1⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩( 2 )t ⎭

(4)

In the next step, write stiffness matrix of each member in global coordinate system and assemble them to obtain global stiffness matrix Element (1): θ = 0 0 , L = 3m, A = 15 × 10 −4 m 2 ,nodal points 4-1

⎡1 ⎢ 15 × 10−4 × 2 × 1011 ⎢ 0 ' ⎡k ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 3 × 103 ⎢ ⎣0

0 −1 0 ⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎦

(5)

Member (2): θ = 45 o , L = 3 2m, A = 20 × 10 −4 m 2 , nodal points 3-1
0.5 − 0.5 − 0.5⎤ ⎡ 0 .5 ⎢ 0 .5 0.5 − 0.5 − 0.5⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− 0.5 − 0.5 0.5 0.5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0.5 ⎦ ⎣− 0.5 − 0.5 0.5

[k ] = 20 ×10
2

−4

× 2 × 10

11

3 2

(6)

Member (3): θ = 90 o , A = 15 ×10 −4 m 2 , L = 30m, nodal points 2-1

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

the displacements u1 and u 2 are not known.14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 3⎢ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 10 ⎢ − 47.14 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ 0 − 100 [k ] = 10 3 ⎢ ⎢− 47.14 0 0 47.14 − 47.14 0 0⎥ ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ 0 47.14 0 0 0 0 100 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ (8) Writing the load displacement equation for the truss ⎡ 147. one gets ⎡ 147. All other displacements are zero.14 0 0⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 100 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ + 640 ⎨ ⎬ u5 ⎪ 0 47.14 0 − 47.14 47.14 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47.14 ⎢ 47. Kharagpur .14 − 47.14 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢− 47.14 147.14 − 47.Thus. Version 2 CE IIT.14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ − 100 ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ 8⎭ 47.14 − 47.14 − 100 0 0 0 0 − 100 − 47.assembling the three member stiffness matrices.14 0 0⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ 0 0 0 100 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎩u8 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎢ 47.14 − 47.14 ⎢ − 100 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ − 47.14 − 47.14 47.14 47.14 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢ ⎣ (9) 0 In the present case.14 ⎢ ⎢− 47.14 147.14 − 47. Also p1 = p 2 = 0 (as no joint loads are applied).14 47.14 0 − 100 0 0 0 0 − 47.14 − 100 0⎤ ⎧u ⎫ 1 ⎧− 1⎫ − 100 − 47.⎡0 0 ⎢ 15 ×10 × 2 × 10 ⎢0 1 ⎡k 3 ⎤ = ⎣ ⎦ 3 x 103 ×103 ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎣0 −1 −4 11 0 0⎤ 0 −1⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎦ (7) The global stiffness matrix is of the order 8× 8 .14 47.

14 47.63 ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎪−77.14 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 47.14 − 47. Kharagpur .14 − 47.14 47.14 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩0 ⎭ ⎩−1⎭ −1 (11) u1 = 7.⎧ p1 ⎫ − 47.14 − 47.14 0 0⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ + 640⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎬ + ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ = 10 ⎢ ⎢− 47.14 147.14 0 0⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎢ − 100 ⎪0⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ 0 ⎥ 0 0 100 0⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪p ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪−77.14 0 ⎢− 47.14 − 47.14 0 ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 100 0 100 0 0 0 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎨ ⎬== ⎢ p5 ⎪ − 47.14 47.763 ×10−4 m u2 = 7.14 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 47.14 0 − 100 − 47.63⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (12) Version 2 CE IIT.14 ⎤ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎧−1⎫ (⎨ ⎬ − 150.14 47.14⎥ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎢0 0 47.63⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪77.14 47.63 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ kN ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪77.14 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 100 0 0 0 0 0 100 ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪p ⎪ 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ + 640⎨ ⎬ u5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8⎭ (10) Thus unknown displacements are ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎨ ⎬= 3 ⎩u2 ⎭ 10 ⎡147.14 − 100 0 ⎡ 147.14 − 47.763 × 10−4 m Now reactions are calculated as ⎧ p3 ⎫ 0 ⎤ 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎧0⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎡0 0 ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎥ ⎪0⎪ ⎢0 100 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 100 ⎥ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎢ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 47.14 0 0 47.14 47.14 − 47.14⎥ ⎩u 2 ⎭ ⎢0 0 47.14 147.82 ⎨ ⎬) ⎢ 47.

10a) and (26. Thus the member (1) is in tension.78 kN.2942 × 10 −3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (13) ′ p 2 = −109.707 -0.10b).281 [-0. for member (1). Kharagpur . Member (2) θ = 45 o ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ' p 2 = 10 3 × 94.2c. The member end forces can also be calculated by using equation (26.763 × 10−4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ = 77.707] ⎨ ⎬ 3.26.2942 × 10 −3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪3.707 0.763 × 10−4 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪7. For example. θ = 0o ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ' p 2 = 10 3 × 100 [− 1 0 1 0] ⎨7. Thus member (2) is in compression Version 2 CE IIT.The member forces can be easily calculated from reactions.The support reactions are shown in Fig.763 kN.707 0.

01m too short before placing it in the truss. Assume AE=300 kN for all members.26.3a. Kharagpur .2 Analyze the truss shown in Fig.Example 26. Version 2 CE IIT. if the member BC is made 0.

01) ⎪sin θ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎬ ⎨ ⎨ ( p1 )0 ⎬ − cos θ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− sin θ ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ 2 0⎭ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪− 0.The assembled stiffness matrix is of the order 8× 8 and is available in example 25.3b.75⎪ ⎪ =⎪ ⎨ ⎬ kN 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0.The displacements u 3 . For the present problem the unconstrained degrees of freedom are u1 and u 2 .26. For the sake of completeness the member of nodes and members are shown in Fig. Kharagpur .01m.Solution A similar truss with different boundary conditions has already been solved in example 25.75 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (1) Now force-displacement relations for the truss are Version 2 CE IIT. u 4 . In the given problem the member (2) is short by 0. u 6 .1. u 7 and u 8 are zero due to boundary conditions. u 5 .1.The forces developed in member (2) in the global coordinate system due to fabrication error is ⎧( p 3 )0 ⎫ ⎧cos θ ⎫ ⎪ ( p 4 )0 ⎪ AE (− 0.

054 0.054 − 0.162⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪0.094⎥ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎢− 0.054 0. for member (2).162 ⎥ ⎩ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ⎢− 0. For example.25 0.054 0. Kharagpur .26. The member forces can also be calculated by equation (26.094 − 0.75 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0.094 − 0.162 − 0.75⎪ ⎢ 0 p4 ⎪ − 0.108 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 p2 ⎪ 0. u 2 = −4.575⎥ ⎦ ⎩u 2 ⎭ AE ⎣ −1 ⎛ ⎧0⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎞ ⎜⎨ ⎬ − ⎨ ⎬⎟ ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩0.10a) and (26.123⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪0.094⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.487 0.162 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪0 − 0.75⎪ − 0.10b).094 − 0.424⎪ ⎪ p 5 ⎪ ⎪− 0.094 0.123 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p 8 ⎪ ⎪0.094 − 0. solving 0 ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎡0.433 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪ 0.3c.433 0 0 0 0.0934 ⎪ 7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪p ⎪ 0 0 0 0 0.25 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎨ ⎬ = AE ⎢ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬+⎨ 0 0.433 − 0.575 0 − 0.3478 ×10 −3 m Reactions are calculated as.094 ⎥ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬ + ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = AE ⎢ p6 ⎪ 0.211 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪0.25 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢− 0.866 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0 − 0.054 − 0. θ = 90 o Version 2 CE IIT. ⎧ p3 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪− 0.433 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0.487 − 0.⎧ p1 ⎫ 0 0 0 − 0.162⎥ ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (4) (5) ⎧ p 3 ⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪− 0.25 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪− 0.094 − 0.094 − 0.211 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (6) The reactions and member forces are shown in Fig.094 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪0 − 0.054 − 0.094 − 0.162⎥ ⎩u 2 ⎭ ⎪0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0.094 − 0.094 − 0.108 ⎨ ⎬= ⎢ 0 0.75⎭ ⎠ ⎝ (3) u1 = 0 and.162 ⎭ ⎦ ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ (2) Note that u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 Thus.162 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪0 ⎢− 0.0934 0.

424 kN Example 26. Version 2 CE IIT.The temperature of the member BC is raised by 40 o C and member BD is raised by 50 o C .26.4239 ≅ 0.01) 300 − 4.⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ AEΔL 300 ' p2 = [0 -1 0 1] ⎨u ⎬ − L 4 ⎪ 1⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ = 300(−0. Kharagpur .4a.3 (7) Evaluate the member forces of truss shown in Fig.3478 × 10 −3 − 4 4 ( ) = 0.Assume AE=300KN for all members and α = 1 per 75000 o C.

In the given problem u1 . ⎧( p 7 ) f ⎪ ⎪( p 8 ) f ⎨ ⎪( p1 ) f ⎪( p ) ⎩ 2 f ⎫ ⎧cos θ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −3 ⎪sin θ ⎪ ⎬ = 300 × 3. Kharagpur .26. as it was prevented from expansion.333 × 10 −3 m 75000 (1) The forces are developed in member (2).4b. u 2 .Solution For this problem assembled stiffness matrix is available in Fig. u 3 . ΔL2 = αLΔT = 1 × 5 × 50 = 3.26. u 4 and u 5 represent unconstrained degrees of freedom. Due to support conditions. The temperature of the member (2) is raised by 50 o C.Thus.The joints and members are numbered as shown in Fig.333 × 10 ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪− cos θ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− sin θ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Version 2 CE IIT.4b. u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 .

8⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p 2 )t ⎪ ⎪− 1.707 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8 t⎭ ⎧1 ⎫ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = 0 .8 ⎪ ⎪ 6 t⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p 7 )t ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪( p 8 )t ⎪ ⎩1 ⎩ ⎭ (4) Writing the load-displacement relation for the entire truss is given below. ΔL5 = αLΔT = 1 × 5 2 × 40 = 3.000 The forces developed in member (5) as it was not allowed to expand is ⎧( p 5 )t ⎫ ⎧0.8 ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 t ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪( p 4 )t ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ ( p 5 )t ⎬ ⎨0.707 ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪− 0.⎧0 ⎫ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (2) The displacement of the member (5) was raised by 40 o C .8 ⎨ ⎬ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3) The global force vector due to thermal load is ⎧( p1 )t ⎫ ⎧− 0. Kharagpur .707 ⎪ ⎬ = 300 × 3.771× 10 ⎨ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪( p 7 )t ⎪ ⎪− 0. Thus.771×10 −3 m 75. Version 2 CE IIT.8 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪0.707 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪( p 6 )t ⎪ − 3 ⎪0.

071 − 0.071 − 0.10b) Member (1): L=5m.071 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ − 0.071 − 0.071 − 0.071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0.0013m (6) Now.071 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − 0.0005m.2 0.2 ⎥ ⎨u 3 ⎬ + ⎨0 ⎬ 0 ⎨ p7 ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 0.071 0.071⎤ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎧0.20 0 0.0020 m.071 − 0.8 ⎪ − 0.071 0 ⎥⎜ ⎨0⎬ − ⎨0 ⎬ ⎟ ⎨u 3 ⎬ = AE ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u ⎪ 0 ⎪⎟ − 0. u 4 = 0 u 5 = −0. problem p1 = p 2 = p 3 = p 4 = p 5 = p 6 = p 7 = p 8 = 0 and Thus solving for unknown displacements. reactions are computed as.⎧ p1 ⎫ 0.129 0 0 ⎥⎜ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎜⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢− 0.071 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0.271 0 0 0 − 0.0013m.271 ⎜⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎢ 0.2 − 0.271 − 0.071⎤⎛ ⎧0⎫ ⎧− 0.071 0.8⎫ − 0.071 − 0.071 − 0.071 0.071 0 0 − 0.2 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 0.271 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.071 0 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎦⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 8⎭ ⎣ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (7) All reactions are zero as truss is externally determinate and hence change in temperature does not induce any reaction. the unknown displacements are calculated as u1 = 0.8 ⎪ ⎟ 0. θ = 0 o Version 2 CE IIT.20 0 0.2 ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪p ⎪ 0.2 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1.271 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎜ ⎢ − 0.2 ⎢− 0.271 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪0.071 0.129 − 0.8 ⎪ ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ − 0.271 ⎥⎜ ⎪0⎪ ⎪0.071 − 0.271 0.8 ⎪ ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎝ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭⎠ ⎩u 5 ⎭ (5) Solving equation (5).2 0.071 ⎡ 0.071 0.071 0.20 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧− 0.271 − 0. Now member forces are calculated by using equation (26.071 − 0. u 2 = 0.8 ⎪ − 0.071 0.071 − 0.8⎫ ⎞ 0.071 − 0.271 ⎥ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎪1 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎩ 8⎭ In the above u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 .2 − 0.071 0.071 0 0 − 0.8⎫ 0 ⎧ p 6 ⎫ ⎡− 0. u 3 = −0.071 − 0. ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ − 0. Kharagpur .071⎥⎜ ⎪0⎪ ⎪− 1.071⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ − 0.071 0 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎡ 0.071 0 0 0.071 − 0.271 − 0.2 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎬ (5) ⎨ ⎬ = AE ⎢ ⎨ ⎬+⎨ 0 0 0. − 0.071 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪0.071 u2 ⎪ − 0.071 0.

L = 5 2 . nodal points 3-2 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u 300 ' p2 = [0 -1 0 1] ⎪ 6 ⎪ =0 ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (11) Member (5): θ = 45 o .0780kN Member (4): θ = 90 o .⎧u 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u AE ' [-1 0 1 0] ⎪ 4 ⎪ p2 = ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ' p 2 = 0. θ = 0 o .nodal points 3-1 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u 300 ' p2 = [-0.707 -0.333 ×10 −3 ⎨ ⎬ 5 2 ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (12) =-0.nodal points 3-4 ⎧u 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u 300 ' p2 = [-1 0 1 0] ⎪ 6 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (10) =0. θ = 90 o .nodal points 4-1 ⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u AE ' [0 -1 0 1] ⎪ 8 ⎪ − 300 × 3.707] ⎪ 6 ⎪ − 300 × 3.1080 Kn (8) Member 2: L=5m.707 0.nodal points 4-2 Version 2 CE IIT.707 0. Kharagpur .771×10 −5 p2 = ⎨ ⎬ 5 ⎪u1 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9) =0.1087 kN Member (3): L=5m.8619 kN Member (6) : θ = 135 o . L = 5m. L = 5 2 .

the direct stiffness method as applied to the truss analysis was discussed. these effects are accounted for in the stiffness analysis. Due to the change in temperature the truss members either expand or shrink. Version 2 CE IIT. in the case of statically indeterminate trusses.⎧u 7 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ u 300 ' p2 = [0. A couple of problems are solved.707 -0.707 -0. the stresses are developed in the members due to changes in temperature.707] ⎪ 8 ⎪ = 0. Thus.707 0. imposition of boundary conditions. In this lesson.0150 kN. However. Assembly of member stiffness matrices. and the problem of inclined supports were discussed. ⎨ ⎬ 5 2 ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (13) Summary In the last four lessons. Similarly the errors in fabricating truss members also produce additional stresses in the trusses. the length of the members is prevented from either expansion or contraction. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 27 The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

27. there are four nodes and eight degrees of freedom. Let us use lower numbers to denote unknown degrees of freedom (unconstrained degrees of freedom) and higher numbers to denote known (constrained) degrees of freedom. one could number sequentially as shown in Fig.1a. The beam ABCD is divided into three beam members. In the case of truss. we break the given beam into a number of beam elements. 27. The given continuous beam is divided into three beam elements as shown in Fig. Such a division is shown in Fig. the stiffness matrix of the entire truss was obtained by assembling the member stiffness matrices of individual members. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix for a beam. However this can be much simplified provided we follow the procedure adopted for trusses. 3. However. If the axial deformations are neglected then each node of the beam will have two degrees of freedom: a vertical displacement (corresponding to shear) and a rotation (corresponding to bending moment). Towards this end. nodes are located at the supports. Thus each span is treated as an individual beam.1 Introduction.1d. This is done whenever the cross sectional area changes suddenly or if it is required to calculate vertical or rotational displacements at an intermediate point. This procedure runs into trouble when the structure is large and complex. In fact the load displacement relation for the entire structure was derived from fundamentals.1b. 27. In chapter 23. For example. It is noticed that. Such a method of identification is adopted in this course for the ease of imposing boundary conditions directly on the structure stiffness matrix. 4. numbers enclosed in a circle represents beam numbers. one could obtain the global stiffness matrix of a continuous beam from assembling member stiffness matrix of individual beam elements. consider a continuous beam ABCD as shown in Fig. Kharagpur . In Fig. 27. Hence. The procedure adopted therein is not suitable for computer implementation. Write the global load-displacement relation for the beam. This is preferred while solving the problem on a computer.1b. 27.1c. Version 2 CE IIT. The stiffness matrix of each individual beam element can be written very easily. in this case. a few problems were solved using stiffness method from fundamentals. In a similar way. Derive member stiffness matrix of a beam element.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. 2. The possible displacement degrees of freedom of the beam are also shown in the figure. Write down global load vector for the beam problem. 27. However sometimes it is required to consider a node between support points.

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2 Beam Stiffness Matrix. there are four possible degrees of freedom for this member and hence the resulting stiffness matrix is of the order 4 × 4 . 27. The elements of the stiffness matrix indicate the forces exerted on Version 2 CE IIT. Hence. A area of cross section of the member and I zz is the moment of inertia about z ' axis. single headed arrows are used to indicate translational and double headed arrows are used to indicate rotational degrees of freedom.2 shows a prismatic beam of a constant cross section that is fully restrained at ends in local orthogonal co-ordinate system x' y ' z ' . Displacements are considered as positive in the direction of the coordinate axis. Two degrees of freedom (one translation and one rotation) are considered at each end of the member. Fig. Let L be the length of the member. Kharagpur . In this method counterclockwise moments and counterclockwise rotations are taken as positive. The positive sense of the translation and rotation are also shown in the figure. The beam ends are denoted by nodes j and k .In the above figures. The x' axis coincides with the centroidal axis of the member with the positive sense being defined from j to k . 27.

the member by the restraints at the ends of the member when unit displacements are imposed at each end of the member. In Fig. In particular they form the first column of element stiffness matrix. 27. The restraint actions at ends are calculated referring to tables given in lesson … Version 2 CE IIT. The restraint actions are shown in the figure.3a. The restraint actions are also shown in the figure. Let us calculate the forces developed in the above beam member when unit displacement is imposed along each degree of freedom holding all other displacements to zero. By definition they are elements of the member stiffness matrix. the unit rotation in the positive sense is imposed at j end of the beam while holding all other displacements to zero. Kharagpur . Now impose a unit displacement along y ' axis at j end of the member while holding all other displacements to zero as shown in Fig. This displacement causes both shear and moment in the beam. 27.3b.

if the supports are unyielding. then only rotational degree of freedom Version 2 CE IIT.3d.1) The stiffness matrix is symmetrical. Kharagpur . unit displacement along y ' axis at end k is imposed and corresponding restraint actions are calculated. Hence the member stiffness matrix for the beam member is 1 ⎡ 12 EI z ⎢ L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 L [k ] = ⎢ 12 EI ⎢ z ⎢ − L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 ⎣ L 2 6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 6 EI z − L2 2 EI z L − 3 12 EI z L3 6 EI z − L2 12 EI z L3 6 EI z − L2 4 6 EI z L2 2 EI z L 6 EI z − L2 4 EI z L ⎤1 ⎥ ⎥2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥4 ⎦ (27. Similarly in Fig. 27.In Fig. For continuous beam problem. The stiffness matrix is partitioned to separate the actions associated with two ends of the member.3c. 27. unit rotation about z ' axis at end k is imposed and corresponding stiffness coefficients are calculated.

shown in Fig. 27.4 is possible. In such a case the first and the third rows and columns will be deleted. The reduced stiffness matrix will be,

⎡ 4 EI z ⎢ L [k ] = ⎢ 2 EI z ⎢ ⎣ L

2 EI z ⎤ L ⎥ 4 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L ⎦

(27.2)

Instead of imposing unit displacement along y ' at j end of the member in Fig. 27.3a, apply a displacement u '1 along y ' at j end of the member as shown in Fig. 27.5a, holding all other displacements to zero. Let the restraining forces developed be denoted by q11 , q 21 , q31 and q 41 .

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The forces are equal to,

q11 = k11u '1

;

q 21 = k 21u '1

;

q31 = k 31u '1

;

q 41 = k 41u '1

(27.3)

Now, give displacements u '1 , u ' 2 , u '3 and u' 4 simultaneously along displacement degrees of freedom 1,2,3 and 4 respectively. Let the restraining forces developed at member ends be q1 , q 2 , q3 and q 4 respectively as shown in Fig. 27.5b along respective degrees of freedom. Then by the principle of superposition, the force displacement relationship can be written as,

⎡ 12 EI z ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎢ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢q ⎥ ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ L2 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 12 EI z ⎢ q3 ⎥ ⎢− L3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢q 4 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎣ L

6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 6 EI − 2z L 2 EI z L

12 EI z L3 6 EI z L2

12 EI z L3

6 EI z L2

6 EI z ⎤ ⎡ u '1 ⎤ L2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 EI z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ u'2 L ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 6 EI z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 2 ⎢u ' 3 ⎥ L ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 4 EI z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢u ' 4 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ L ⎦

(27.4)

This may also be written in compact form as,

{q} = [k ] {u'}

(27.5)

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27.3 Beam (global) Stiffness Matrix.
The formation of structure (beam) stiffness matrix from its member stiffness matrices is explained with help of two span continuous beam shown in Fig. 27.6a. Note that no loading is shown on the beam. The orthogonal co-ordinate system xyz denotes the global co-ordinate system.

For the case of continuous beam, the x - and x' - axes are collinear and other axes ( y and y ' , z and z ' ) are parallel to each other. Hence it is not required to transform member stiffness matrix from local co-ordinate system to global co

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ordinate system as done in the case of trusses. For obtaining the global stiffness matrix, first assume that all joints are restrained. The node and member numbering for the possible degrees of freedom are shown in Fig 27.6b. The continuous beam is divided into two beam members. For this member there are six possible degrees of freedom. Also in the figure, each beam member with its displacement degrees of freedom (in local co ordinate system) is also shown. Since the continuous beam has the same moment of inertia and span, the member stiffness matrix of element 1 and 2 are the same. They are,
Global d .o. f 1 Local d .o. f 1 ⎡ k '11 ⎢k ' [k '] = ⎢ 21 ⎢ k '31 ⎢ ⎣ k ' 41 2 2 k '12 k ' 22 k '32 k ' 42 3 3 k '13 k ' 23 k '33 k ' 43 4 4 k '14 ⎤ k ' 24 ⎥ ⎥ k '34 ⎥ ⎥ k ' 44 ⎦ 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4

(27.6a)

Global d .o. f 3 Local d .o. f 1

4 2
2

5 3 k k k
2 2 2

6 4
13 23 33

[k ]
2

⎡ k 11 ⎢ 2 k 21 =⎢ 2 ⎢ k 31 ⎢ 2 ⎢ k 41 ⎣

k k k

2 2 2

12 22 32

k 2 42

k 2 43

k 214 ⎤ ⎥ k 2 24 ⎥ k 2 34 ⎥ ⎥ k 2 44 ⎥ ⎦

1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6

(27.6b)

The local and the global degrees of freedom are also indicated on the top and side of the element stiffness matrix. This will help us to place the elements of the element stiffness matrix at the appropriate locations of the global stiffness matrix. The continuous beam has six degrees of freedom and hence the stiffness matrix is of the order 6 × 6 . Let [K ] denotes the continuous beam stiffness matrix of order 6 × 6 . From Fig. 27.6b, [K ] may be written as,

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Member AB (1) ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ [K ] = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
1 k11 1 k12 1 k13 1 k14

0 0 2 k13 k k k
2 23 2 33 2 43

0 0 2 k14 k k k
2 24 2 34 2 44

k k

k 0 0

1 21 1 31 1 41

k k

k 0 0

1 22 1 32 1 42

k 1 2 k 33 + k11 k +k 2 k 31
1 43 2 k 41 2 21

1 23

k 1 2 k 34 + k12 k +k 2 k 32
1 44 2 k 42 2 22

1 24

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

(27.7)

Member BC (2)
The 4 × 4 upper left hand section receives contribution from member 1 ( AB ) and 4 × 4 lower right hand section of global stiffness matrix receives contribution from member 2. The element of the global stiffness matrix corresponding to global degrees of freedom 3 and 4 [overlapping portion of equation (27.7 ) ] receives element from both members 1 and 2.

27.4 Formation of load vector.
Consider a continuous beam ABC as shown in Fig. 27.7.

We have two types of load: member loads and joint loads. Joint loads could be handled very easily as done in case of trusses. Note that stiffness matrix of each member was developed for end loading only. Thus it is required to replace the member loads by equivalent joint loads. The equivalent joint loads must be evaluated such that the displacements produced by them in the beam should be the same as the displacements produced by the actual loading on the beam. This is evaluated by invoking the method of superposition.

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The loading on the beam shown in Fig. 27.8(a), is equal to the sum of Fig. 27.8(b) and Fig. 27.8(c). In Fig. 27.8(c), the joints are restrained against displacements and fixed end forces are calculated. In Fig. 27.8(c) these fixed end actions are shown in reverse direction on the actual beam without any load. Since the beam in Fig. 27.8(b) is restrained (fixed) against any displacement, the displacements produced by the joint loads in Fig. 27.8(c) must be equal to the displacement produced by the actual beam in Fig. 27.8(a). Thus the loads shown

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in Fig. 27.8(c) are the equivalent joint loads .Let, p1 , p 2 , p3 , p 4 , p5 and p 6 be the equivalent joint loads acting on the continuous beam along displacement degrees of freedom 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 respectively as shown in Fig. 27.8(b). Thus the global load vector is,

⎧ Pb − ⎪ L ⎪ Pab 2 ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Pa wL ⎞ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎪ − ⎜ L + 2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎛ wL2 Pba 2 ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪− ⎜ − 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ 12 L ⎝ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − ⎛ wL + 2 P ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ 2 wL ⎪ ⎪ 12 ⎩

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎞⎪ ⎟ ⎟⎪ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(27.8)

27.5 Solution of equilibrium equations
After establishing the global stiffness matrix and load vector of the beam, the load displacement relationship for the beam can be written as,

{P} = [K ]{u}

(27.9)

where {P}is the global load vector, {u} is displacement vector and [K ] is the global stiffness matrix. This equation is solved exactly in the similar manner as discussed in the lesson 24. In the above equation some joint displacements are known from support conditions. The above equation may be written as

⎧{p k }⎫ ⎡[k11 ] ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪{pu }⎪ ⎢[k 21 ] ⎩ ⎭ ⎣

[k12 ]⎤ ⎧{u u }⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬ [k 22 ]⎥ ⎪{u k }⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭

(27.10)

where {p k } and {u k } denote respectively vector of known forces and known displacements. And {pu }, {u u } denote respectively vector of unknown forces and unknown displacements respectively. Now expanding equation (27.10),

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{ p k } = [k11 ]{u u } + [k12 ]{u k } { p u } = [k 21 ]{u u } + [k 22 ]{u k }

(27.11a) (27.11b)

Since {u k } is known, from equation 27.11(a), the unknown joint displacements can be evaluated. And support reactions are evaluated from equation (27.11b), after evaluating unknown displacement vector. Let R1 , R3 and R5 be the reactions along the constrained degrees of freedom as shown in Fig. 27.9a. Since equivalent joint loads are directly applied at the supports, they also need to be considered while calculating the actual reactions. Thus,

⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎬ = − ⎨ p3 ⎬ + [K 21 ]{u u } ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

(27.12)

The reactions may be calculated as follows. The reactions of the beam shown in Fig. 27.9a are equal to the sum of reactions shown in Fig. 27.9b, Fig. 27.9c and Fig. 27.9d.

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From the method of superposition,
Pb + K 14 u 4 + K 16 u 6 L Pa R3 = + K 34 u 4 + K 36 u 6 L wL R5 = + 2 P + K 54 u 4 + K 56 u 6 2 R1 =

(27.13a) (27.13b) (27.13c)

or

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⎧ ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎪ Pb L ⎪ ⎡ K 14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ R3 ⎬ = ⎨ Pa L ⎬ + ⎢ K 34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ wl ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ + 2 P ⎪ ⎢ K 54 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎩2 ⎭

K 16 ⎤ ⎥ ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ K 36 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ K 56 ⎥ ⎦

(27.14a)

Equation (27.14a) may be written as,

⎧ ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎪ Pb L ⎪ ⎡ K 14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ R3 ⎬ = − ⎨ Pa L ⎬ + ⎢ K 34 ⎪R ⎪ ⎪ wl ⎪ ⎢K ⎩ 5⎭ ⎪ 2 + 2 P ⎪ ⎣ 54 ⎩ ⎭

K 16 ⎤ ⎧u ⎫ K 36 ⎥ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎥ u K 56 ⎥ ⎩ 6 ⎭ ⎦

(27.14b)

Member end actions q1 , q 2 , q3 , q 4 are calculated as follows. For example consider the first element 1.

⎧ Pb ⎫ q1 ⎫ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎧0⎫ ⎧ ⎪ Pab 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪q 2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ + [K ]element1 ⎨ ⎬ =⎨ ⎨ ⎬ Pa ⎬ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ ⎪ Pa 2 b ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪− L2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩

(27.16)

In the next lesson few problems are solved to illustrate the method so far discussed.

Summary
In this lesson the beam element stiffness matrix is derived from fundamentals. Assembling member stiffness matrices, the global stiffness matrix is generated. The global load vector is defined. The global load-displacemet relation is written for the complete beam structure. The procedure to impose boundary conditions on the load-displacement relation is discussed. With this background, one could analyse continuous beam by the direct stiffness method.

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Module 4
Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method
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Lesson 28
The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams (Continued)
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Instructional Objectives
After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Derive member stiffness matrix of a beam element. 2. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix for a beam. 3. Write the global load-displacement relation for the beam. 4. Impose boundary conditions on the load-displacement relation of the beam. 5. Analyse continuous beams by the direct stiffness method.

28.1 Introduction
In the last lesson, the procedure to analyse beams by direct stiffness method has been discussed. No numerical problems are given in that lesson. In this lesson, few continuous beam problems are solved numerically by direct stiffness method. Example 28.1 Analyse the continuous beam shown in Fig. 28.1a. Assume that the supports are unyielding. Also assume that EI is constant for all members.

The numbering of joints and members are shown in Fig. 28.1b. The possible global degrees of freedom are shown in the figure. Numbers are put for the unconstrained degrees of freedom first and then that for constrained displacements.

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The given continuous beam is divided into three beam elements Two degrees of freedom (one translation and one rotation) are considered at each end of the member. In the above figure, double headed arrows denote rotations and single headed arrow represents translations. In the given problem some displacements are zero, i.e., u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 from support conditions. In the case of beams, it is not required to transform member stiffness matrix from local co-ordinate system to global co-ordinate system, as the two co-ordinate system are parallel to each other.

First construct the member stiffness matrix for each member. This may be done from the fundamentals. However, one could use directly the equation (27.1) given in the previous lesson and reproduced below for the sake convenience.

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1875 − 0.375 ⎤ ⎡ 0. node points 3-4. Here equation (1) is used to generate element stiffness matrix. Global d . Version 2 CE IIT.1c. f 6 5 3 1 0. as the length and flexural rigidity of all members is the same.375 0.5 ⎥ ⎥ [k '] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.1875 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.375 ⎤ ⎡ 0.375 − 0.375 1.1875 − 0. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling.375 − 0.375 0.375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0. f 3 1 4 2 0. 28.5 1.1875 0. Member 2: L = 4 m . The member stiffness matrix for all the members are the same.375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.5 − 0. node points 2-3.375 − 0.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 6 5 3 1 (2) On the member stiffness matrix.375 1.1875 − 0.⎡ 12 EI z ⎢ L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 L [k ] = ⎢ 12 EI ⎢ z ⎢− L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 ⎣ L 6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 6 EI z − 2 L 2 EI z L − 12 EI z L3 6 EI − 2z L 12 EI z L3 6 EI − 2z L 6 EI z ⎤ L2 ⎥ 2 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ 6 EI ⎥ − 2z⎥ L 4 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L ⎦ (1) The degrees of freedom of a typical beam member are shown in Fig.1875 − 0.0 − 0.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 1 4 2 [k ] 2 (3) Member 3: L = 4 m .o.0 0. Global d .1875 0.375 0. Member 1: L = 4 m . node points 1-2.375 0.375 1.1875 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0.5 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.o.375 0.375 − 0. Kharagpur .

5 0 0.5 − 0.375 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 − 0.1875 0.375 0.0 0. The equivalent loads for the present case is shown in Fig.o.375 0 0 0.1875 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0. 28.375 0 − 0. The assembled global stiffness matrix may be written as.5 2.0 0.375 0 1.375 1.375 0.375 − 0.375 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0.375 − 0.375 − 0.5 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.1875 − 0.5 0 − 0.1875 0 0.1d.375 0 0 0.375 [K ] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.375 0 − 0.375 0 0 0 0.375 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0.0 0. The displacement degrees of freedom are also shown in Fig. Kharagpur .0 0.1875⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0.1875 ⎦ 0 0.1875 − 0.375 ⎤ ⎡ 0. f [k ] 3 4 2 8 7 0.375 0.5 1.375 (5) Now it is required to replace the given members loads by equivalent joint loads.375 0.375 − 0.5 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ − 0. Version 2 CE IIT.375 − 0.375 0 0 1.375 − 0.Global d .1875 − 0.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 8 7 (4) The assembled global stiffness matrix of the continuous beam is of the order 8× 8 .5 ⎢ ⎢ 0.1875 0 0 0. 28.375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.1875 ⎤ ⎥ − 0.0 − 0. ⎡ 2.375 0.1875 0.0 ⎢ ⎢ 0.1875 0 0 0 0.1d.

33⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (6) Writing the load displacement relation for the entire continuous beam.375 0 0 1. − 0.375 − 0.187 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢− 0.187 0.5 − 0.33⎪ ⎢ 0.375 − 0.375 − 0.5 0.375 − 0.0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪2.0 0.375 − 0. {p k } = ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎧ − 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎪2.Thus the global load vector corresponding to unconstrained degree of freedom is.187 − 0.187 0 0 0.5 0.187 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p7 ⎪ − 0.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0.375 0 0 0 0.375 0.375 0.187 ⎦ 0 0 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (7) where {p} is the joint load vector.375⎥ 0.187 − 0. {u} is displacement vector.375 0.375 0 0 1.0 0.0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p8 ⎪ − 0. Kharagpur .375 0 0 ⎤ ⎧−5⎫ ⎡ 2.5 0 0.0 0.375 0.375 − 0.375⎥ 2.187 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.5 − 0.375 0 0 0 0.375 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0. Version 2 CE IIT.

= 1 EI zz u1 = − 2. Thus solving for unknowns u1 and u 2 . 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢− 0.977⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 1.33⎪ ⎢0.955 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 0.977 EI zz and u2 = 1.375 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ 0.715⎪ ⎭ ⎩ Version 2 CE IIT.909 ⎪ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0.5 0 ⎥ 1 ⎪− 2.5 2.909 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Thus displacements are.909 EI zz (10) The unknown joint loads are given by.375⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (11) ⎧ 0. Kharagpur .We know that u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 . yields ⎧ −5 ⎫ ⎡2.0⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 2.715 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1.75EI zz ⎩ ⎭ (9) ⎧− 2.0 0.5 2.375 0 ⎥ EI zz ⎪ 1.5 ⎥ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p8 ⎪ − 0.977 ⎪ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.116 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − 1.5⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = EI zz ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪2.488 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ − 1.5⎤ ⎧ − 5 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0.0 ⎥ ⎪2.0 − 0.333⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8) ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬= ⎪u 2 ⎪ 3.116 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0.

977⎪ − 0.375 − 0.1875 − 0.375⎥ EI zz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ 1.488 ⎪ ⎪− 1.116 ⎪ ⎪10.67⎪ ⎪ 0.0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0.375 1.715 ⎫ ⎧ 5.5 1.375 − 0. ⎧ R3 ⎫ ⎧ p 3F ⎫ ⎧ p 3 ⎫ ⎧ 5 ⎫ ⎧ 0.715⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R8 ⎪ ⎪ p8F ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪− 0.375 0.58⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (14) Version 2 CE IIT.375 ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎢ ⎪q4 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ 0.375 1.116 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ p 5F ⎪ ⎪ p 5 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ − 1.284 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (12) Member end actions for element 1 ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎡ 0.1875 − 0.1875 − 0.909 ⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ − 0.6 ⎫ ⎪ 2.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪ 0 ⎪ − 0.0 ⎦ ⎭ ⎩ (13) 0.375 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩⎭ ⎧−1.1875 − 0.4 ⎪ ⎪− 4.116⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ R7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪− 2.375 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.977⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = + EI zz ⎢− 0.375 ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ 4.116 ⎪ ⎪− 1.5 ⎣ 0.0 ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬ + EIzz ⎢ ⎢− 0.116 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 2.116⎫ ⎪−1.488⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ 1.375 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎨ ⎥ 0.489⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬+⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ F⎬ + ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ R6 ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ − 1.1875 0.98 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 5.375 ⎪q ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎢ 0. Kharagpur .715⎪ ⎪ 3.977⎪ ⎭ ⎩ Member end actions for element 2 − 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎥ 0.0 0.1875 0.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪− 2.The actual reactions at the supports are calculated as.716 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ R4 ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪ 9 ⎪ ⎪ 1.375 1.375 EIzz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪− 2.1875 0.1875 ⎪q ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ 0.955 ⎪ ⎪− 1.

375 ⎤ ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎧ 4. 28. Assume EI to be constant for all members. node points 1-2.1875 ⎪q ⎪ ⎪ 2.2a.909⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ + EI zz ⎢ =⎨ ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0.1875 − 0. Assume that the supports are unyielding. First construct the member stiffness matrix for each member.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪1.375 − 0. Member 1: L = 4 m . 28.72 ⎫ ⎪ 4.67⎪ − 0.2 Analyse the continuous beam shown in Fig.375 1. Kharagpur . double headed arrows denote rotations and single headed arrow represents translations. Also it is observed that displacements u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = 0 from support conditions.5 1.67 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ 0. The global degrees of freedom are also shown in the figure. In the above figure.0 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.0 0.2b.28 ⎪ ⎪− 1.72⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Example 28. Version 2 CE IIT.375 0. Two degrees of freedom (one translation and one rotation) are considered at each end of the member. (15) The numbering of joints and members are shown in Fig.1875 0.375 0.0 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ ⎪− 2.0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0.375⎥ EI zz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪ 4.Member end actions for element 3 0.375 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ 4.375 − 0.1875 − 0.58 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 3. The given continuous beam is divided into two beam elements.

1875 0.375 − 0.375 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0. The equivalent loads for the present case is shown in Fig.1875 − 0.375 − 0. f 3 1 4 2 0. Global d .375 ⎣ 0 .375 1.375 ⎢ ⎢ 0.375 1.o.0 − 0.375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.5 ⎥ ⎥ [k '] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.375 ⎥ ⎥ 0. 28.375 0 0 0 0.1875 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ (3) 0 ⎥ 0.1875 − 0.1875 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 6 5 3 1 (1) On the member stiffness matrix.375 − 0.375 0. Version 2 CE IIT.1875 − 0.5 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.0 0.375⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0. Global d .375 ⎤ ⎡ 0.375 0.1875 − 0.1875 − 0.375 − 0.375 1.375 − 0.The member stiffness matrix for all the members are the same.0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 1 4 2 [k ] 2 (2) The assembled global stiffness matrix of the continuous beam is of order 6 × 6 .o.375 0.2c.5 1 . Member 2: L = 4 m .5 − 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.375 ⎤ ⎡ 0. The assembled global stiffness matrix may be written as. as the length and flexural rigidity of all members is the same.375 0.1875 − 0.1875 0.5 ⎢ ⎢ 0. Kharagpur .375 − 0. node points 2-3.375 − 0.375 − 0.5 ⎢ ⎢ 0 [K ] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ − 0.1875 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.1875 0 0 0 .375 − 0.375 0 1 .375 0.1875 0. f 6 5 3 1 0.5 0 − 0.375 0. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling. 2 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ 0.1875 ⎥ ⎦ Now it is required to replace the given members loads by equivalent joint loads. The displacement degrees of freedom are also shown in figure.375 0.

Kharagpur .Thus the global load vector corresponding to unconstrained degree of freedom is. Version 2 CE IIT.67⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (4) Writing the load displacement relation for the entire continuous beam. {p k } = ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎪6.

5 1.62 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (7) Thus displacements are.375 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0.5 1.375 0.67⎪ ⎢0.1875 0.1875 − 0.62 ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.62 EI zz The unknown joint loads are given by.375 − 0.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ = EI zz ⎢ ⎬ ⎨ ⎢ − 0.0 ⎥ ⎪6.5 0 − 0.375 ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ Version 2 CE IIT.2 ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪6.5 0 ⎥ EI zz ⎪ 7.375 − 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢− 0.75EI zz ⎩ ⎭ = 1 EI zz ⎧− 1.5⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0. yields ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡2.0 0. u1 = − 1.375 0.905 EI zz and u2 = 7.375⎥ 1 ⎧− 1.905⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 7.5⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = EI zz ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪6.0 − 0.0 ⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 1.375 − 0.375 0 0 0 0.5 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.375 − 0. Kharagpur .67⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (6) ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬= ⎪u 2 ⎪ 1.375 ⎥ ⎥ 0.375 − 0.1875 0 0 0.375 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.0 0.5 2.0 0. 0.1875 ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (5) We know that u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = 0 .1875 − 0.67⎪ ⎢ 0.375 ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎩ 0. Thus solving for unknowns u1 and u 2 .1875⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0.375 − 0.375 0 1.905⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.

375 1.714⎪ ⎪ 9.375 0.286 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (9) Member end actions for element 1 0.375 − 0.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪− 1.1875 ⎪q ⎪ ⎪ 6.0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0.1875 − 0. 857 ⎪ ⎪ − 2 .857⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎪ ⎪ 10 ⎪ ⎪ − 2.905⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ ⎪− 6. Kharagpur .0 ⎦ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ 0.714 ⎪ ⎪− 8.375 0.67⎪ ⎪ − 0.375⎥ EI zz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪ 10 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ 7.565⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪7.14 ⎪ ⎪ 7.62 ⎪ ⎪q 4 ⎪ ⎪− 6.1875 − 0.66⎪ − 0.375 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ 9. 714 ⎩ The actual support reactions are.5 1.1875 ⎪q ⎪ ⎪ 6.66⎪ − 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ ⎡ 0.375 − 0.5 ⎥ 1 ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ + EI zz ⎢ =⎨ ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢− 0.285 ⎫ ⎪ 5.86 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬=⎨ ⎬+⎨ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪− 6.375 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧12.66 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ 0.1875 0.707 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 10.66 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ 0.375 1. 14 ⎪ =⎨ ⎪ − 0 .375 0.565⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Member end actions for element 2 (10) 0.375 ⎤ ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎡ 0.⎧ 2 .375 0. 95 ⎪ ⎪ − 0 .62 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R6 ⎪ ⎪ 10 ⎪ ⎪− 0.0 0.856⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ Version 2 CE IIT.14 ⎫ ⎪8.1875 0. ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8) ⎧ R3 ⎫ ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎧ 2.1875 − 0.375⎥ EI zz ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪ 10 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪− 1.857 ⎫ ⎧22.0 0.95 ⎪ ⎪ − 7.375 − 0.905⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ + EI zz ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢− 0.1875 − 0.5 1.375 − 0.

In this lesson. The procedure to impose boundary conditions on the loaddisplacement relation is discussed. Kharagpur . a few continuous beam problems are analysed by the direct stiffness method.Summary In the previous lesson the beam element stiffness matrix is derived from fundamentals. Assembling member stiffness matrices. Version 2 CE IIT. the global stiffness matrix is generated.

Kharagpur .Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 29 The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams (Continued) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

1d. the analysis of continuous beam by direct stiffness matrix method is discussed. 29.2 Support settlements Consider continuous beam ABC as shown in Fig. 29.1a. Since the beam is restrained against displacement in Fig. the equivalent joint loads are shown. a few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure. Let the support B settles by an amount Δ as shown in the figure. 29. Thus to incorporate the effect of support settlement in the analysis it is required to modify the load vector by considering the negative of the fixed end actions acting on the restrained beam. the global load vector is formulated by considering fixed end actions due to both support settlements and external loads.1d must be equal to the displacement produced in the beam by the actual loads in Fig. 29. 29. Assume that the flexural rigidity of the continuous beam is constant throughout. At the end. The support settlements also induce fixed end actions and are shown in Fig. 29.1b and Fig. Both temperature changes and support settlements induce fixed end actions in the restrained beams. the displacements produced in the beam by the joint loads in Fig. 2.1c.1 Introduction In the last two lessons. Kharagpur . It is assumed in the analysis that the supports are unyielding and the temperature is maintained constant.1a. The fixed end actions due to loads are shown in Fig. Analyse continuous beam subjected to temperature changes and support settlements. However. 29. Compute moments developed in statically indeterminate beams due to temperature changes.1b. support settlements can never be prevented altogether and hence it is necessary to make provisions in design for future unequal vertical settlements of supports and probable rotations of fixed supports. In Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. The effect of temperature changes and support settlements can easily be incorporated in the direct stiffness method and is discussed in this lesson. These fixed end forces are handled in the same way as those due to loads on the members in the analysis. 29. In other words. 29. 29. 3.1c. Compute moments developed in the continuous beam due to support settlements.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

As the cross section of the member remains plane after bending.2b. Let temperature in span AB be constant.1) where α is the co-efficient of the thermal expansion of the material. 29. in which span BC is subjected to a differential temperature T1 at top and T2 at the bottom of the beam. Also due to differential temperatures there will not be any vertical forces/reactions in the beam. Kharagpur . the temperature change induces fixed end moments in the beam as shown in Fig.3 Effect of temperature change The effect of temperature on the statically indeterminate beams has already been discussed in lesson 9 of module 2 in connection with the flexibility matrix method. The fixed end moments developed are. 29. the equivalent joint loads can easily be constructed. Let d be the depth of beam and EI be the flexural rigidity.2) Corresponding to the above fixed end moments. the relative angle of rotation dθ between two cross sections at a distance dx apart is given by dθ = α (T1 − T2 ) d dx (29. Consider the continuous beam ABC as shown in Fig. When beam is restrained. T M 1T = − M 2 = α EI (T1 − T2 ) d (29.2a.29. Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur . Assume E = 200 GPa and I = 4 × 10 −4 m 4 .Example 29. by 5 mm as shown in the figure.3a) having constant flexural rigidity EI . throughout due to vertical settlement of support B .1 Calculate support reactions in the continuous beam ABC (vide Fig. 29. Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

29.24 0.24 0. Kharagpur . node points 2-3.o.096 0. the unconstrained degrees of freedom are u1 and u 2 . node points 1-2.24 ⎣ 0.3c.096 − 0. 29.m F M BC = −96 kN.m (1) The fixed-end moments due to support settlements are shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.40 ⎥ − 0.40 0. For this problem. F M AB = 6 EI Δ = 96 kN.096 − 0.096 − 0. The numbering of the joints and members are shown in Fig.80 0.80 0.40 ⎥ − 0. L2 F M BA = 96 kN.24⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0.096 ⎢ 0. f 6 5 3 1 0.24 ⎦ ⎣ 6 5 3 1 (2) Member 2: L = 5 m .40 0.096 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0. let us construct member stiffness matrix for each member. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling.24 0.24 ⎥ [k '] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.80 ⎥ − 0.m F . The fixed end actions due to support settlement are.24 − 0.24 On the member stiffness matrix.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0.24 0.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0. Assembled stiffness matrix [K ] is given by. f 3 1 4 2 3 1 4 2 (3) [k ] 2 0.096 − 0.o.3d. 29.096 0.The continuous beam considered is divided into two beam elements.24 ⎥ ⎢ = EI zz ⎢− 0. The assembled global stiffness matrix is of order 6 × 6 . In the next step. M CB = −96 kN. The possible global degrees of freedom are also shown in the figure.80 ⎦ − 0. The equivalent joint loads due to support settlement are shown in Fig. Global d .3b.24 − 0.24⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0.24 0.m. Global d . A typical beam element with two degrees of freedom at each node is also shown in the figure. Member 1: L = 5 m .

4 1.429 × 10 −3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ 137.14 ⎪ ⎪ 1.714 × 10 −3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ u1 = −0. ⎧u1 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬= ⎪u 2 ⎪ 1.4 0.4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ − 0.24 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0.192 − 0. ⎧0⎫ ⎡1.096 ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩u 6 ⎭ (6) Since.096 − 0. We get.6 0. ⎧0⎫ ⎡ 1.096 0 0 0. Version 2 CE IIT.429 × 10 −3 radians.24 ⎥ ⎥ 0.24 0 0.4 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎢ ⎢− 0.8 0. Kharagpur .24 − 0.096 0.⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ [K ] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ − − − − − − − − − ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (4) Thus the global load vector corresponding to unconstrained degrees of freedom is. unknown joint loads are calculated by.24 0.8 − 0 .8⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ Thus solving for unknowns u1 and u 2 .4⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎪96⎪ ⎢0.285⎫ ⎧− 0.6 ⎥ ⎪96⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 = EI zz ⎧− 34.24 0. 8 0.24 − 0.24 0 0 0 0.4 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢ 0.12 EI zz ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 0 .24 ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 0.096 − 0. {p k } = ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎪96⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (5) Thus the load displacement relation for the entire continuous beam is.714 × 10 −3 radians (7) Now.24 − 0.24 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0. u 2 = 1. 4 0.4 0 − 0.24 − 0.096⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0. 6 ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎢ 0. u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = 0 due to support conditions.

vertically downwards.24 ⎤ ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢− 0. Support B Support C 0.2 R5 = 82.4 ⎪ ⎪ − 8. 29. R5 and R6 must include the fixed end support reactions. Version 2 CE IIT.71⎪ ⎪ 82.17 kN (10) A continuous beam ABCD is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 5 kN / m as shown in Fig.010 m vertically downwards.72 kN.29 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R6 ⎪ ⎪ 38. Kharagpur . Assume E = 200 GPa and I = 4 × 10 −4 m 4 .285⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ EI zz ⎪ 137.8⎫ ⎧ 32.14 ⎪ ⎢ 0.91 ⎫ ⎧− 43. 23 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Now the actual support reactions R3 .17 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (9) R3 = −43.88⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎪ ⎪ 38. Compute reactions due to following support settlements. 71 ⎪ ⎪ − 8 .68⎪ ⎪ 13.23 ⎪ ⎪ 30.005 m 0.88 kN.4a.m. R4 = 13.24 ⎪ p6 ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (8) ⎧ 32 .24⎥ 1 ⎧− 34. Thus.0. 4 0 ⎥ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0. R4 . R6 = 30.29 kN. 68 ⎪ =⎨ ⎪ − 13 .4 ⎪ ⎪− 24. ⎧ R3 ⎫ ⎧− 76.24 − 0. 91 ⎪ ⎪ − 24 .72 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬+⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎪ − 13. Example 29.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

w L2 M = = 10.m. 5 × 103 5 ⎠ ⎝ F A F M B = 96 + 96 = 192 kN.m. It is observed from the figure that the unconstrained degrees of freedom are u1 and u 2 . Member 1. 29. L = 5 m .4(c).m. F MA = − 6 EI (ψ ) L where ψ is the chord rotation and is taken + ve if the rotation is counterclockwise. node points 1-2.4(d). The fixed end actions due to support settlement are. F M C = 96 − 192 = −96 kN. 29. The fixed end actions due to support settlements are shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. F M D = −192 kN. F MC = 0 F M D = −10.m.42 = 0 kN.42 − 10.Solution The node and member numbering are shown in Fig.42 kN. 29. 29. (2) In the next step.42 kN. (1) The vertical reactions are calculated from equations of equilibrium.005 ⎞ M =− ⎜− ⎟ = 96 kN.m. The fixed end actions due to external loading are. construct member stiffness matrix for each member. The equivalent joint loads due to support settlement and external loading are shown in Fig. wherein the continuous beam is divided into three beam elements.m. and fixed end moments due to external loads are shown in Fig. Substituting the appropriate values in the above equation.4(e). 6 × 200 ×109 × 4 ×10−4 ⎛ 0.m.4(b). 12 F A F M B = 10.

096 − 0.24 ⎥ [k '] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0. Global d .096 − 0. the corresponding global degrees of freedom are indicated to facilitate assembling.o.o. Global d .096 − 0.24⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0.096 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.40 0.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0.096 0.24 − 0.24 0.24 − 0. f 6 5 3 1 0. Version 2 CE IIT.24⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.24 0.24 0. f [k ] 3 4 2 8 7 0.24⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.o.80 0.40 0. f [k ] 2 3 1 4 2 0.096 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0. node points 2-3. Kharagpur .80 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 1 4 2 (4) Member 3.096 0.40 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.24 0.24 − 0.24 − 0.80 0.24 0.096 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0. L = 5 m .80 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 4 2 8 7 (5) On the member stiffness matrix.24 0. The assembled global stiffness matrix is of the order 8 × 8 .096 0.Global d .24 0.24 − 0. L = 5 m .24 − 0. Assembled stiffness matrix [K ] is.096 − 0.24 0.096 − 0.40 ⎥ − 0.24 0.096 − 0.80 0.24 − 0.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0.24 ⎦ ⎣ 6 5 3 1 (3) Member 2. node points 3-4.80 ⎥ − 0.40 ⎥ ⎥ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢− 0.40 0.

096 0 0.40 ⎢ ⎢ 0.24 0.40 − 0.24 [K ] = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.096 − 0. 0 0.24 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0.24 0 0 0.096 0.192 − 0.40 0 0.80 0.80 0.24 0 − 0.24 0.24 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0.192 0 0 0.096 0.40 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ − 0.24 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0.096⎥ (6) 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ − 0.0 0.80 − 0.096⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 0.096 0.24 0 − 0.24 0 − 0.40 0 0.24 0 0 0 0.24 ⎥ ⎥ 0.096 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector corresponding to unconstrained degree of freedom is.40 0 − 0.24 − 0.096 ⎦ 0 ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ We know that u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 .60 ⎢ 0.24 0.24 0 0 0 0.60 ⎥ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ Thus solving for (8) unknowns ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9) Version 2 CE IIT. {p k } = ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎧− 192⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (7) Writing the load displacement relation for the entire continuous beam.096 0 0 − 0.24 0.192 0 0 0.60 0.24 0.24 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0.24 0 0.096 0 0.60 0.096 − 0.24 − 0.60 0.096 0.40 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0.40 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ − 0.40 1.24 0 ⎤ − 0.096 0 0 0 0. ⎧− 192⎫ ⎡1.24 − 0. Kharagpur .096 0 0 − 0.24 0 0.24 0.24 ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ 0.375 0 − 0.24 ⎤ ⎥ − 0. ⎧− 192⎫ ⎡ 1.40⎤ ⎪ ⎪ = EI zz ⎢ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎢0.24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = EI zz ⎢ ⎢ 0.24 − 0.096 0 0 0 0.24 0 0 0.60 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎢ 0.⎡ 1.40 1.24 0 0 0.192 − 0.40 0 − 0. displacements u1 and u 2 from equation.80 − 0.40 1.24 0 0 0.40 − 0.

R4 .80 × 10 −3 radians.04 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 34.40⎤ ⎧− 192⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎨ ⎬= ⎬ 3 ⎪u 2 ⎪ 2.56⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 38.24 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.24⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ⎧− 1. R5 .20 × 10 −3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (10) u1 = −1.60 − 0. Kharagpur .56 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 57. Thus.40 1.40 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 0.4(80 × 10 ) ⎢− 0.60 ⎥ ⎪ 96 ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧− 1.24 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0. R6 .20 × 10 −3 radians (11) The unknown joint loads are calculated as. Version 2 CE IIT.⎧u1 ⎫ ⎡ 1. R7 and R8 must include the fixed end support reactions. u 2 = 1.04⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (12) Now the actual support reactions R3 .80 × 10 −3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪ 1.60⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ⎪− 34.80 × 10 −3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ −3 ⎪ 1. ⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎬ = 80 × 10 ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 0.40 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.40 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 23.20 × 10 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ 23.24 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− 0.

Both temperature changes and support settlements induce fixed end actions in the restrained beams.26 kN (14) Summary The effect of temperature changes and support settlements can easily be incorporated in the direct stiffness method and is discussed in the present lesson.04 kN. Kharagpur .82 kN. R5 = 48.42⎪ ⎪ 38.60 ⎪ ⎪ 48. R8 = 66.34 kN.42 ⎪ ⎪− 57.64 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R5 ⎪ ⎪ p 5F ⎪ ⎪ p 5 ⎪ ⎪ 106. a few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure.82 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬+⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ F⎬ + ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪ R6 ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪ 50.02 kN.9 ⎪ ⎪− 34.26 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (13) R3 = 48. Version 2 CE IIT.2 ⎪ ⎪ 34.02⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R8 ⎪ ⎪ p8F ⎪ ⎪ p 8 ⎪ ⎪ 89.⎧ R3 ⎫ ⎧ p 3F ⎫ ⎧ p 3 ⎫ ⎧ 25 ⎫ ⎧ 23. R7 = −164.04 ⎫ ⎧ 48.64 kN. R4 = −55.04 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ R 4 ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪ − 90.3 ⎪ ⎪− 23.56 ⎪ ⎪ 16. At the end.04⎪ ⎪ 66.34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ R7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪− 202. These fixed end forces are handled in the same way as those due to loads on the members in the analysis. In other words. R6 = 16.56 ⎪ ⎪ − 55.m.40 ⎪ ⎪− 164. the global load vector is formulated by considering fixed end actions due to both support settlements and external loads.m.

Kharagpur .Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 30 The Direct Stiffness Method: Plane Frames Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

In the case of plane frames. 3. 30. Initially.2 Member Stiffness Matrix Consider a member of a plane frame as shown in Fig. This is achieved by transformation of forces and displacements to global co-ordinate system.axis. In this lesson. Derive plane frame member stiffness matrix in local co-ordinate system. Version 2 CE IIT. Write the global load-displacement relation for the plane frame. 2. The possible displacements at each node of the member are: translation in x' . Kharagpur . Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix of the plane frame. 4. 30. all the members lie in the same plane and are interconnected by rigid joints. the stiffness matrix of the plane frame member is derived in its local co-ordinate axes and then it is transformed to global co-ordinate system. The axial deformation of member will be considered in the analysis. The global orthogonal set of axes xyz is also shown in the figure.and y ' direction and rotation about z ' . members are oriented in different directions and hence before forming the global stiffness matrix it is necessary to refer all the member stiffness matrices to the same set of axes. The member is assumed to have uniform flexural rigidity EI and uniform axial rigidity EA for sake of simplicity. The internal stress resultants at a cross-section of a plane frame member consist of bending moment.1 Introduction In the case of plane frame. Impose boundary conditions on the load-displacement relation. The significant deformations in the plane frame are only flexural and axial.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. 5. Transform plane frame member stiffness matrix from local to global coordinate system.1a in the member coordinate system x' y ' z ' . 6. Analyse plane frames by the direct stiffness matrix method. The frame lies in the xy plane. shear force and an axial force. 30. the analysis of plane frame by direct stiffness matrix method is discussed.

b as. Version 2 CE IIT.1a. Combining them. 30.Thus the frame members have six (6) degrees of freedom and are shown in Fig.1a. we could write the load-displacement relation in the local coordinate axes for the plane frame as shown in Fig 30. The relation between axial displacement and axial forces is derived in chapter 24. The forces acting on the member at end j and k are shown in Fig.30. Kharagpur . Similarly the relation between shear force. bending moment with translation along y ' axis and rotation about z ' axis are given in lesson 27.1b.

u 5 . Version 2 CE IIT. u ' 2 . u '5 .3.1b) where [k '] is the member stiffness matrix. Let u '1 . Kharagpur . u 2 .3 Transformation from local to global co-ordinate system 30. 30.⎡ AE ⎧ q '1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪q ' 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪q'3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪q ' ⎪ ⎢− AE ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪q'5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩q ' 6 ⎭ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 12 EI z L3 6 EI z L2 0 − 12 EI z L3 6 EI z L2 − 0 6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 0 6 EI z L2 − AE L 0 0 − 0 12 EI z L3 6 EI z L2 0 12 EI z L3 − 6 EI z L2 − AE L 0 0 2 EI z L ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 6 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L2 ⎥ 2 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6 EI z ⎥ − 2 ⎥ L ⎥ ⎥ 4 EI z ⎥ L ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u ' 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u '3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪u ' ⎪ ⎪ 4⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u '5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩u ' 6 ⎭ (30. u '3 and u ' 4 .1 Displacement transformation matrix In plane frame the members are oriented in different directions and hence it is necessary to transform stiffness matrix of individual members from local to global co-ordinate system before formulating the global stiffness matrix by assembly. In Fig. u 6 respectively are displacements of ends j and k of the member in global co-ordinate system. 30. 30. Two ends of the plane frame member are identified by j and k . u 3 and u 4 . Similarly u1 .2a the plane frame member is shown in local coordinate axes x ′y ′z ′ and in Fig.2b.1a) This may be succinctly written as {q'} = [k ']{u'} (30. The member stiffness matrix can also be generated by giving unit displacement along each possible displacement degree of freedom one at a time and calculating resulting restraint actions. the plane frame is shown in global coordinate axes xyz . u ' 6 be respectively displacements of ends j and k of the member in local coordinate system x' y ' z ' .

2a) (30. u '3 to u1 .2a and b. u 2 . x -axis. one could relate u '1 . Kharagpur . u ' 2 . u 3 as.2c) Version 2 CE IIT.2b) (30. From u '1 = u1 cosθ + u 2 sin θ u ' 2 = −u1 sin θ + u 2 cosθ u '3 = u 3 This may be written as. (30.30.Let θ be the angle by which the member is inclined to global Fig.

l = cosθ and m = sin θ . (30. then.3a) {u'} = [T ]{u} (30.3b) In the above equation.m 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧u '1 ⎫ ⎡ l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪u ' 2 ⎪ ⎢− m l 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪u ' 3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬= m 0⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ 0 0 l ⎪u ' 4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 − m l 0⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪u '5 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪u ' 6 ⎪ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Where. y 2 ) . Kharagpur . This may be written in compact form as. Again. l = cos θ = Where L = x 2 − x1 L and m = sin θ = y 2 − y1 .4) (x2 − x1 )2 + ( y 2 − y1 )2 Version 2 CE IIT. y1 ) and coordinate of node k are (x2 . [T ] is defined as the displacement transformation matrix and it transforms the six global displacement components to six displacement components in local co-ordinate axes. if the coordinate of node j is (x1 . L (30.

p3 and p 4 . p 2 . 30.3a in local coordinate system. q' 2 . q '5 . p1 . p 6 are the forces in members at node j and k respectively as shown in Fig. p1 = q'1 cosθ − q' 2 sin θ p 2 = q'1 sin θ + q' 2 cosθ (30.3b in the global coordinate system.3a and b. q'3 and q ' 4 . p5 . Kharagpur . Now from Fig 30.3.5b) Version 2 CE IIT. 30.2 Force displacement matrix Let q'1 .30.5a) (30. q ' 6 be respectively the forces in member at nodes j and k as shown in Fig.

9) The equation (30. 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 l − m 0⎥ ⎥ l 0 m 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 ⎧ q'1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪q ' 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪q'3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪q ' 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪q ' 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪q ' 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (30.3. l = cosθ and m = sin θ .7) {p} = [T ]T [k '][T ]{u} or (30.8) {p} = [k ]{u} (30. {p} = [T ]T {q'} 30.6b) results in.10) Version 2 CE IIT. The global member stiffness matrix [k ] is given by.6b) {q'} = [k ']{u'} Substituting the above value of {q'} in equation (30.1b).3 Member global stiffness matrix From equation (30.5c) Thus the forces in global coordinate system can be related to forces in local coordinate system by ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡ l − m ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p 2 ⎪ ⎢m l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ = ⎨ ⎬ 0 ⎪ p4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ Where. {p} = [T ]T [k ']{u '} Making use of equation (30. the above equation may be written as (30.3b).p3 = q '3 (30. Kharagpur .9) represents the member load-displacement relation in global coordinate system.6a) This may be compactly written as. we have (30. [k ] = [T ]T [k '][T ] (30.

Also the local degrees of freedom of beam element are shown in the figure as inset. 30. Assume E = 200 GPa . 30. Each node has three degrees of freedom. Solution: The plane frame is divided in to two beam elements as shown in Fig. The flexural rigidity EI and axial rigidity EA are the same for both the beams. Version 2 CE IIT.4b. Example 30. Degrees of freedom at all nodes are also shown in the figure.1 Analyze the rigid frame shown in Fig 30. I ZZ = 1.04 m 2 . Few numerical problems are solved by direct stiffness method to illustrate the procedure discussed. Finally the global load-displacement equation is written as in the case of continuous beam.33 × 10 −4 m 4 and A = 0. the assembly of member stiffness matrices is carried out in a similar procedure as discussed for truss.After transformation. The numbering of joints and members are also shown in Fig. Kharagpur .3b.4a by direct stiffness matrix method.

Member 1: L = 6 m . Here the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates is only given. The origin of the global co-ordinate system is taken at node 1. Kharagpur . θ = 90° node points 1-2.Formulate the element stiffness matrix in local co-ordinate system and then transform it to global co-ordinate system. Version 2 CE IIT. l = 0 and m = 1 .

333 × 106 3 0 8.88 × 10 3 7 − 2.48 × 103 1.44 × 103 ⎥ ⎥ 1.0 × 10 6 0 0 2.⎡ k 1 ⎤ = [T ] [ k '] [T ] ⎣ ⎦ T 1 ⎡1. we get. node points 2-3 .48 × 103 0 0 −1.78 ×103 ⎥ ⎦ (1) Member 2: L = 4 m . Carrying out assembly in the usual manner. θ = 0° .333 ×106 0 0 0 17. l = 1 and m = 0 .0 × 10 6 0 0 8 0 − 5 × 10 3 − 10 × 10 3 0 5 × 10 3 − 10 × 10 3 9 ⎤ ⎥ 10 × 10 3 ⎥ ⎥ 8.0 × 10 6 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− 2. Kharagpur .44 × 103 0 4.78 ×103 4.66 × 10 ⎦ 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 (2) The assembled global stiffness matrix [K ] is of the order 9 × 9 . [k ] = [T ] [k '][T ] 2 T 4 ⎡ 2. Version 2 CE IIT.48 × 103 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 4.333 × 106 ⎥ 0 8.44 ×103 ⎡k1 ⎤ = ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 1.88 × 10 3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3 ⎥ − 10 × 10 ⎥ 3⎥ 26.48 × 103 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 3 ⎢ 4.88 × 103 ⎥ ⎥ 0 4.44 × 103 ⎤ ⎥ 0 −1.88 ×10 4.0 × 10 6 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 5 0 5 × 10 3 10 × 10 3 0 − 5 × 10 3 10 × 10 3 6 0 10 × 10 3 26.44 × 103 1.44 ×10 ⎣ 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 4.44 × 103 1.44 ×103 0 4.333 ×106 0 ⎥ 0 17.66 × 10 3 0 − 10 × 10 3 8.

44 − 2000 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 [K ] = 0 0 1338.0 0 0 0 0 ⎤ − 4.5 0 4.44 − 1.48 0 4.3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢− 4.44 2001.44 ⎡ 1.66⎦ ⎣ 0 Version 2 CE IIT.44 0 8.88 4. Kharagpur .44 0 − 10 13.44 0 8.3 10 0 10 ⎥ (3) − 1333.44 10 44.44 0 17.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ − 1333.48 − 4.3 −5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢− 4.77 4.48 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1333.33 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 ⎥ − 2000 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 5 −5 − 10 − 10 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 10 13.33 0 − 10 26.88 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ − 1.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

Version 2 CE IIT. u 7 . Kharagpur .The load vector corresponding to unconstrained degrees of freedom is (vide 30. u8 . u 2 . ⎧ p 4 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ {p k } = ⎪ p5 ⎪ = ⎪− 24⎪ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪ − 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (4) In the given frame constraint degrees of freedom are u1 .4d). u 9 . u 3 . Eliminating rows and columns corresponding to constrained degrees of freedom from global stiffness matrix and writing load-displacement relationship for only unconstrained degree of freedom.

44 ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎡2001. R8 .695 × 10 -5 ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ .0. 30.57⎪ ⎪ − 12.0 4. R3 . R2 .85 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬=⎨ ⎬+⎨ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ R7 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪− 12. u5 = −1. R7 .44 ⎪ −6 ⎪ 10 44.57 ⎫ ⎧ − 11.44⎤ 0 ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡ − 1. 9 respectively (vide Fig.92⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (7) Version 2 CE IIT.88 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ 3 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ + 10 ⎢ ⎢− 2000 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ R7 ⎪ ⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F⎪ ⎢ 0 −5 − 10 ⎥ ⎪ R8 ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎢ 0 ⎪ R9 ⎪ ⎪ p9 ⎪ 10 13.1.44⎥ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ Solving we get.28 × 10 −6 m. Kharagpur .40 ⎪ ⎪ 25.59 ⎪ ⎪ 22.3 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪p F ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎪ ⎢ 4.4e).28 × 10 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ u 5 ⎬ = ⎨. -6 ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎧ 6.48 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ R2 ⎪ ⎪ p 2 F ⎪ ⎢ − − 1333.695 × 10−5 Let R1 .57 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R8 ⎪ ⎪ 24 ⎪ ⎪ 1.44 0 8.33 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ F ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨u 5 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ − 12 ⎫ ⎧ 0. 8.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 3 1338. R9 be the support reactions along degrees of freedom 1.13 × 10 -3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨u 5 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (5) (6) u4 = 6. 3..14 ⎪ ⎪ 16.3 10 ⎥ ⎨− 24⎬ = 10 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 4.42 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R2 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 22.92 ⎪ ⎪− 25.40 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R9 ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎪ − 1.59 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎪ ⎪ 18 ⎪ ⎪ − 1. 2. 7. Support reactions are calculated by 4 5 6 − 4.

30.ordinate system is taken at A (node 1).5b.33 × 10−5 m 4 and A = 0. Solution: The plane frame is divided in to three beam elements as shown in Fig.2 Analyse the rigid frame shown in Fig 30. The numbering of joints and members are also shown in Fig. The flexural rigidity EI and axial rigidity EA are the same for all beams.5b. The possible degrees of freedom at nodes are also shown in the figure. Assume E = 200 GPa . Version 2 CE IIT. I ZZ = 1. The origin of the global co.5a by direct stiffness matrix method.01 m 2 . Kharagpur .Example 30. 30.

999 × 10 2 kN/m. L 6 EI = 9.666 × 103 kN. θ = 90° .Now formulate the element stiffness matrix in local co-ordinate system and then transform it to global co-ordinate system. Member 1: m= y2 − y1 = 1. 3 L Version 2 CE IIT.998 × 102 kN 2 L 4 EI = 2.m L 12 EI = 4. AE = 5 × 105 kN/m. Kharagpur . node points 1-2 . L L = 4 m . l= x2 − x1 = 0 and L The following terms are common for all elements. In the present case three degrees of freedom are considered at each node.

Kharagpur .0 × 10 6 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 5 0 0. l = 1 and m = 0 .666 × 10 ⎦ 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 − 0.0 × 10 6 0 0 9 0 ⎤ ⎥ 1 × 10 3 ⎥ ⎥ 1.50 × 10 3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ − 1 × 10 3 =⎢ ⎢− 0.5 × 10 3 − 1 × 10 3 0 0.33 × 10 3 3 4 − 0.0 × 10 5 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− 5.66 × 10 3 1 × 10 3 0 1.0 × 10 0 0 5. θ = 270° .5 × 10 3 − 1 × 10 3 (2) x2 − x1 = 0 and L Member 3: m= L = 4 m . node points 3-4 .66 × 10 ⎦ 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 (1) Member 2: L = 4 m .33 × 10 3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3 ⎥ − 1 × 10 ⎥ 3⎥ 2.50 × 10 3 0 1 × 10 3 0.[k ] = [T ] [k '][T ] 1 T 1 ⎡ 0. l= y2 − y1 = −1 .5 × 10 3 1 × 10 3 6 0 1 × 10 3 2.50 × 10 3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ − 1 × 10 3 ⎣ 2 0 5 × 10 5 0 0 − 5 × 10 5 0 3 − 1 × 10 0 2.33 × 10 3 7 8 6 − 5.50 × 10 3 0 1 × 10 3 5 0 − 5 × 10 5 0 0 5 × 10 5 0 6 − 1 × 10 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3⎥ 1.666 × 10 3 0 − 1 × 10 3 1.5 × 10 3 1 × 10 3 0 − 0. θ = 0° node points 2-3.33 × 10 ⎥ 3 ⎥ 1 × 10 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3⎥ 2. L Version 2 CE IIT. [k ] = [T ] [k '][T ] 2 T 4 ⎡ 5.

50 × 10 3 0 − 1 × 10 3 0. Carrying out assembly in the usual manner.0 1.5 − 1.66 × 10 3 − 1 × 10 3 0 1.5 ⎢ ⎢ − 1.5 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 0 0 1.0 − 0.0 0 1.0 0 500.33 − 1.0 0 1.0 0 ⎢ ⎢− 0.0 ⎥ 0 0 0 − 0.33 1.0 0 − 0.0 500.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 500 0 0 500.50 1.33 1.50 × 10 3 0 − 1 × 10 3 11 0 − 5 × 10 5 0 0 5 × 10 5 0 12 1 × 10 3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3⎥ 1.33 − 1 0 2.50 0 ⎡ 0.50 ⎢ ⎢ 0 500 0 0 − 500 ⎢ ⎢ − 1.0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ − 1.0 0.5 0 1.0 0 1. 0 − 1.33 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 500.50 0 1.0 0 2.0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1.0 Version 2 CE IIT.5 0 1.66 1.0 1.66 × 10 ⎦ 7 8 9 10 11 12 (3) The assembled global stiffness matrix [K ] is of the order 12 × 12 .33 × 10 ⎥ 3 ⎥ − 1 × 10 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 3⎥ 2.5 − 1. we get. Kharagpur .[k ] = [T ] [k '][T ] 3 T 7 ⎡ 0.0 − 500 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1.50 × 10 3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 × 10 3 =⎢ ⎢− 0.33 0 − 1.0 3 [K ] = 10 × ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 − 500 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 0 − 0.33 × 10 3 10 − 0.0 5.33 ⎥ − 1.5 −1 ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 500 0 ⎥ − 500 ⎥ 0 1.0 0 − 500 0 ⎥ ⎥ 1.0 − 0.0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 5.50 × 10 3 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 × 10 3 ⎣ 8 0 5 × 10 5 0 0 − 5 × 10 5 0 9 1 × 10 3 0 2.66⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 (4) − 1.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

84 × 10 -5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪.33⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = 10 ⎢ ⎢− 500 0 0 500. ⎧ p 4 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ {p k } = ⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p8 ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ p9 ⎪ ⎪ 24 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (5) In the given frame. u 2 .8.43 × 10 -2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪.5 1. 0 1.65 × 10 -5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u 9 ⎪ ⎪ 3. (6) ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎧ 1.43 × 10 -2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪u8 ⎪ ⎪.0 0 − 0.85 × 10 -3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (7) Version 2 CE IIT.5 − 1 ⎥ ⎪u8 ⎪ − 24⎪ − 0. Eliminating rows and columns corresponding to constrained degrees of freedom from global stiffness matrix and writing load displacement relationship.14 × 10 -3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ 1.5 0 1 ⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 500.5 − 1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 24 ⎪ 1 1.33⎥ ⎪u 9 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ Solving we get. u11 .0 − 500 0 0 ⎤ ⎧u 4 ⎫ ⎧ 10 ⎫ ⎡500.3. Kharagpur .0 5. u12 . u 3 .5.0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎢ 1.33 1 − 1 5. u10 .0 1.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪− 24⎪ ⎢ 0 500.0 1.5 1.33 0 − 1. constraint (known) degrees of freedom are u1 .The load vector corresponding to unconstrained degrees of freedom is.

In the case of plane frames.0 0 1. the analysis of plane frame by the direct stiffness matrix method is discussed.71 ⎪ ⎪ 19.42 ⎪ ⎪ 19.33 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ + 10 ⎢ 0 0 0 0 − 0. a few problems are solved to illustrate the methodology. R3 . R10 . R11 . members are oriented in different directions and hence before forming the global stiffness matrix it is necessary to refer all the member stiffness matrices to the same set of axes.71 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ 3. This is achieved by transformation of forces and displacements to global co-ordinate system.0⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪ R10 ⎪ ⎪ p10 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u8 ⎪ − 500 ⎪ R11 ⎪ ⎪ p11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F ⎢ 0 ⎪ R12 ⎪ ⎪ p12 ⎪ 0 0 1.42 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (8) Summary In this lesson. 3.5 − 1. 2.12 respectively. In the end. R12 be the support reactions along degrees of freedom 1.10.43 ⎪ ⎪ 3.33 ⎥ ⎪u 9 ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ F ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎧ 0.0 0 1.28 ⎪ ⎪ 28.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R2 ⎪ ⎪ p 2 F ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ − 500 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R3 ⎪ ⎪ p3 F ⎪ ⎢ 1. Initially.99⎪ ⎪− 10. Support reactions are calculated by 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧u 4 ⎫ − 1. R2 . Kharagpur .43 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬+⎨ ⎪ R10 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪− 10.Let R1 . Version 2 CE IIT.28 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R12 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ 19.0 ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎡− 0.99 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R2 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ 19.99⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R11 ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ 28. the stiffness matrix of the plane frame member is derived in its local co-ordinate axes and then it is transformed to global co-ordinate system.99 ⎫ ⎧ 0.11.

Module 5 Cables and Arches Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 31 Cables Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Unlike rigid structures. In the following sections. it should be noted that deformations are still small. In the last two lessons of this module. Cables are mainly used to support suspension roofs. bridges and cable car system. For long span structures (for e. 3.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. State the type stress in a cable.1 Introduction Cables and arches are closely related to each other and hence they are grouped in this course in the same module. Analyse cables subjected to uniformly distributed load. Version 2 CE IIT. 31. cables subjected to uniform and concentrated loads are discussed. in case bridges) engineers commonly use cable or arch construction due to their efficiency. They are also used in electrical transmission lines and for structures supporting radio antennas. 5. Differentiate between rigid and deformable structures.g. cables subjected to concentrated load and cables subjected to uniform loads are considered. Beams trusses and frames are examples of rigid structures. 4. In the second lesson. Cables and fabric structures are deformable structures. Define funicular structure. arches in general and three hinged arches in particular along with illustrative examples are explained. Rigid structures support externally applied loads without appreciable change in their shape (geometry). Structure may be classified into rigid and deformable structures depending on change in geometry of the structure while supporting the load. Kharagpur . However. deformable structures undergo changes in their shape according to externally applied loads. Analyse cables subjected to concentrated loads. 2. In the first lesson of this module. two hinged arch and hingeless arches are considered.

A cable may be defined as the structure in pure tension having the funicular shape of the load. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Cable is a funicular structure.2b). Now let us modify our definition of cable.The shape assumed by a rope or a chain (with no stiffness) under the action of external loads when hung from two supports is known as a funicular shape.2a and 31. 31. It is easy to visualize that a cable hung from two supports subjected to external load must be in tension (vide Fig.

If the weight of the cable is negligible as compared with the externally applied loads then its self weight is neglected in the analysis. D and E i. Cables are used to support the dead weight and live loads of the bridge decks having long spans. L3 . The four reaction components at A and B . cable tensions in each of the four segments and three sag values: a total of eleven unknown quantities are to be determined. the cables are considered to be perfectly flexible (no flexural stiffness) and inextensible. It is subjected to axial tension only and it is always acting tangential to the cable at any point along the length. For example. hd . In such cases cable is assumed to be uniformly loaded. ∑ Fy = 0 ) at each of the point A.1) 31.2 Cable subjected to Concentrated Loads As stated earlier. 31. one could write two force equilibrium equations ( ∑ Fx = 0. Otherwise if the total length of the cable S is given then the required equation may be written as S = L1 + hc + L2 + ( hd − hc ) 2 + L2 + ( hd − he ) 2 + L2 + ( h + he ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 (31. Consider a cable ACDEB as loaded in Fig. The stiffened deck prevents the supporting cable from changing its shape by distributing the live load moving over it. Let us assume that the cable lengths L1 . he ) are known.2. As they are flexible they do not resist shear force and bending moment. Version 2 CE IIT. B. D. C . L4 and sag at C . The bridge decks are suspended from the cable using the hangers. From the geometry. Kharagpur . a total of ten equations and the required one more equation may be written from the geometry of the cable. E ( hc . In the present analysis self weight is not considered.3 Cable subjected to uniform load. if one of the sag is given then the problem can be solved easily. L2 .e. for a longer length of cable.31.

Let us determine the shape of the cable subjected to Version 2 CE IIT.3a. Let the slope of the cable be zero at A .Consider a cable which is uniformly loaded as shown in Fig 31. Kharagpur .

Δy → 0 Δθ → 0 and ΔT → 0 .3b) we get T cos θ = constant At support (i.2a.2b) (31. As the cable is uniformly loaded.e.3a) (31. b.4a) i.3b. Version 2 CE IIT.3a.2a) (31. Let the tension in the cable at m end of the free body diagram be T and tension at the n end of the cable be T + ΔT . Applying equations of equilibrium.e. The slopes of the cable at m and n are denoted by θ and θ + Δθ respectively. c by Δx Δx → 0.. the tension in the cable changes continuously along the cable length.uniformly distributed load q 0 . we get ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Mn = 0 −T sin θ + (T + ΔT ) sin(θ + Δθ ) − q0 (Δx) = 0 −T cosθ + (T + ΔT ) cos(θ + Δθ ) = 0 − (T cos θ ) Δy + (T sin θ ) Δx + (q 0 Δx) Δx =0 2 (31. at x = 0 ).2c) Dividing equations 31. and noting that in the limit as lim Δx → 0 ΔT sin(θ + Δθ ) = q 0 Δx d (T sin θ ) = q 0 dx d (T cos θ ) = 0 dx (31. Consider a free body diagram of the cable as shown in Fig 31. T cosθ = H (31. horizontal component of the force along the length of the cable is constant.3b) lim Δx → 0 −T cos θ x Δy + T sin θ + q 0 0 = 0 Δx 2 dy = tan θ dx (31.3c) Integrating equation (31. Integrating equation 31. Kharagpur .

tension in the cable and the sag y B .T sin θ = q 0 x + C1 At x = 0.6) Due to uniformly distributed load.4a and 31.4c) From the figure. Example 31.e. Now the tension in the cable may be evaluated from equations 31. i. (31. Tmax ⎛ H ⎞ = q0 L + H = q0 L 1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ q0 L ⎠ 2 2 2 2 (31.4a.4a and 31. the cable takes a parabolic shape. However dead weight of the cable is neglected in the present analysis. when x = L . ∴y = q0 x 2 +C 2H q0 x 2 2H (31. y = 0 ⇒ C = 0 and y = Equation 31.5) At x = 0. T sin θ = q 0 x C1 = 0 as θ = 0 at that point.1 Determine reaction components at A and B.5 represents a parabola. Neglect the self weight of the cable in the analysis.4b) From equations 31. Kharagpur . Hence.4b.4b. T = q0 x 2 + H 2 2 T = Tmax . 31. Version 2 CE IIT. T sin θ = 0. and y E of the cable shown in Fig. However due to its own dead weight it takes a shape of a catenary. one could write tan θ = q0 x H tan θ = dy q 0 x = dx H (31.

Since there are no horizontal loads. Taking moment about E. horizontal reactions at A and B should be the same. yields Ray × 14 − 17 × 20 − 10 × 7 − 10 × 4 = 0 Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

consider the equilibrium of joint A (vide Fig. Now horizontal reaction H may be evaluated taking moment about point C of all forces left of C .50 To determine the tension in the cable in the segment AB .5 kN Taking moment about B of all the forces left of B and setting M B = 0 . C .528 m 44. ∑F x = 0 ⇒ Tab cos θ ab = H 44.Ray = 280 = 20 kN.298 ⎠ ⎝ = 48.5 ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ 3 + 0. and D one could calculate tension in different segments of the cable. 14 Rey = 37 − 20 = 17kN.4b).798 m 44.789 kN Tab = The tension Tab may also be obtained as Tab = Ray 2 + H 2 = 202 + 44. we get Ray × 4 − H × y B = 0. Ray × 7 − H × 2 − 17 × 3 = 0 H = 44.52 = 48.31. Kharagpur .789 kN Now considering equilibrium of joint B. ∑F x = 0 ⇒ Tab cosθ ab = Tbc cosθ bc Version 2 CE IIT. y D = 68 = 1. yB = 80 = 1. Segment bc Applying equations of equilibrium.50 Similarly.

52 = 47.05 kN cos θ cd ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 32 + 0.31.5282 = 47.4722 ⎠ ⎝ See Fig. Segment de Tde = Tcd cos θ cd = 4 cos θ de 44.4e.4d. The cable is subjected to uniformly distributed load of 10 kN/m. See Fig.31. Version 2 CE IIT.298 ⎠ ⎝ ≅ 44. run.5 ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ 3 + 0.5 42 + 1. The left support is below the right support by 2 m and the lowest point on the cable C is located below left support by 1 m.2 A cable of uniform cross section is used to span a distance of 40m as shown in Fig 31.5.4c Segment cd Tcd = Tbc cos θbc 44.6 kN See Fig.636 kN The tension Tde may also be obtained as Tde = Rey 2 + H 2 = 17 2 + 44.31.636 kN Example 31.Tbc = 44. Kharagpur . Evaluate the reactions and the maximum and minimum values of tension in the cable.5 = = 45.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

80 kN 6 Now taking moment about A of all the forces acting on the cable.59 2 + 1071.40 kN The tension in the cable is maximum where the slope is maximum as T cosθ = H .76 kN TB = 253.812 = 1081. one could evaluate the value of x .80 × 2 = 146. Let us place our origin of the co-ordinate system xy at C . yields Ray = 40 × 20 × 10 − 1071. Thus.412 + 1071. The maximum cable tension occurs at B and the minimum cable tension occurs dy at C where = θ = 0 and TC = H = 1071.81 kN dx Version 2 CE IIT.Assume the lowest point C to be at distance of x m from B .5.812 = 1101. From equations 1 and 2.3592 = 1071. Kharagpur . ya = 1 = q 0 (40 − x) 2 10(40 − x) 2 = 2H 2H (1) 10 x 2 yb = 3 = 2H (2) where ya and yb be the y co-ordinates of supports A and B respectively. H= 10 × 25. one could write. the horizontal reaction can be determined.359 m From equation 2.80 × 2 = 253. yields Rby = 10 × 40 × 20 + 1071. 10(40 − x) 2 = 10 x 2 3 ⇒ x = 25. Using equation 31.59 kN 40 Writing equation of moment equilibrium at point B .41 kN 40 Tension in the cable at supports A and B are TA = 146.

Ray × 3 − H a × 2 = 0 ⇒ H a = 1.6.07 kN From equation (2). we get. Ray = 98. yC can be evaluated.307 m.5 Ray (2) Taking moment about C of all the forces left of C and setting M C = 0 .5 Ray = 147.5 Ray y C − 200 = 0 (3) Using equation (1). Substituting the value of yC in equation (1). Taking moment of all the forces about support B . y C = 3.3 A cable of uniform cross section is used to support the loading shown in Fig 31. Kharagpur . Determine the reactions at two supports and the unknown sag yC . we get ∑M C =0 Ray × 7 − H a × yC − 50 × 4 = 0 Substituting the value of H a in terms of Ray in the above equation. 2 y C + 1. Ray = 1 [350 + 300 + 100 y c ] 10 (1) Ray = 65 + 10 y c Taking moment about B of all the forces left of B and setting M B = 0 .833 y C − 17 = 0 (4) Solving the above quadratic equation. the above equation may be written as. H a = 1.Example 31. Hence. 7 Ray − 1.05 kN Version 2 CE IIT.

109 kN. The procedures to analyse cables carrying uniformly distributed loads are developed. is defined as the structure in pure tension having the load. the cable funicular shape of the concentrated load and numerical examples are actual problems. Rdy × 10 − 100 × 7 + 100 × 3. and noting that ∑ M C = 0 .93 kN. A few solved to show the application of these methods to Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Rdy × 3 = H d × y C ⇒ H d = 47. Taking moment of all the forces right of C about C .Now the vertical reaction at D . Summary In this lesson.307 − 50 × 3 = 0 Rdy = 51. Rdy is calculated by taking moment of all the forces about A .

Kharagpur .Module 5 Cables and Arches Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 32 Three Hinged Arch Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Now consider a two hinged symmetrical 16 arch of the same span and subjected to similar loading as that of simply supported beam. Define an arch. Analyse three-hinged arch. two-hinged and hingeless arches. the maximum bending moment increases with the square of the span and hence they become uneconomical for long span structures. 32. which in turn reduce the design bending moment.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Identify three-hinged. The vertical reaction could be calculated by equations of statics. For example. Evaluate horizontal thrust in three-hinged arch.1 Introduction In case of beams supporting uniformly distributed load. Now Version 2 CE IIT. as they would develop horizontal reactions. State advantages of arch construction. 3. 32. Kharagpur . in the case of a simply supported beam shown in Fig. 2. 5. the 3PL bending moment below the load is . In such situations arches could be advantageously employed. 4.1. The horizontal reaction is determined by the method of least work.

the actual shape of the arch differs from the inverted funicular shape or the loading differs from the one for which the arch is an inverted funicular. arches are mainly used in bridge construction and doorways. piers or other supports. In earlier days arches were constructed using stones and bricks. Now. If an arch were constructed in an inverted funicular shape then it would be subjected to only compression for those loadings for which its shape is inverted funicular. the bending moment below the load is Since in practice. In modern times they are being constructed of reinforced concrete and steel. arches are also subjected to bending moment in addition to compression. arches and vaults were commonly used to span between walls. As arches are subjected to compression. Version 2 CE IIT. the cable takes the shape of the loading and this shape is termed as funicular shape. Kharagpur . Until the beginning of the 20th century. It is observed in the last lesson that. it must be designed to resist buckling. It is clear that the bending 16 moment below the load is reduced in the case of an arch as compared to a simply supported beam.3PL − Hy .

The indeterminate reactions are determined by the method of least work or by the flexibility matrix method.2 Type of arches There are mainly three types of arches that are commonly used in practice: three hinged arch. two-hinged arch and fixed-fixed arch. Kharagpur . Arches support load primarily in compression. no horizontal reaction is developed. Two-hinged arch and fixed-fixed arch are statically indeterminate structures. 32. It is important to appreciate the point that the definition of an arch is a structural one.A structure is classified as an arch not based on its shape but the way it supports the lateral load. Three-hinged arch is statically determinate structure and its reactions / internal forces are evaluated by static equations of equilibrium. For example in Fig 32. not geometrical.3b. Consequently bending moment is not reduced. In this lesson threehinged arch is discussed. Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

2) Taking moment of all forces right of hinge C about hinge C leads to Hb × h = ⇒ Rby L 2 Rby L 2h = PL 8h (32. yields Rby = PL P = 4L 4 ⇒ Ray = 3P 4 (32. There are four reaction components in the three-hinged arch. One more equation is required in addition to three equations of static equilibrium for evaluating the four reaction components. we have three hinges: two at the support and one at the crown thus making it statically determinate structure.32.5.3 Analysis of three-hinged arch In the case of three-hinged arch. Taking moment of all the forces about hinge A .3) Hb = Version 2 CE IIT. Consider a three hinged arch subjected to a concentrated force P as shown in Fig 32. Taking moment about the hinge of all the forces acting on either side of the hinge can set up the required equation.1) ∑ Fy = 0 (32. Kharagpur .

Example 32. It is subjected to uniformly distributed load of intensity 10 kN/m as shown in Fig.6) For the particular case considered here.375 PL 16 (32.4) 3PL PL − = 0.125 PL 16 16 MD b 1 = h 2 4 3PL PLb = − 16 8h then If MD = (32.Applying ∑ Fx = 0 to the whole structure gives Ha = PL 8h Now moment below the load is given by . Kharagpur . the arch construction has reduced the moment by 66. 32. Version 2 CE IIT. MD = 3PL = 0.66 %. MD = Ray L − H ab (32.5) For a simply supported beam of the same span and loading. moment under the loading is given by.1 A three-hinged parabolic arch of uniform cross section has a span of 60 m and a rise of 10 m.6 Show that the bending moment is zero at any cross section of the arch.

one gets Ray × 30 − H a × 10 − 10 × 30 × 30 =0 2 ⎛ 30 ⎞ 300 × 30 − 10 × 30 × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Ha = 10 = 450 kN From (2) ∑ Fx = 0 one could write. Kharagpur .Solution: Reactions: Taking moment of all the forces about hinge A . yields Ray = Rby = 10 × 60 = 300 kN 2 (1) Taking moment of forces left of hinge C about C . x2 M x = Ray x − H a y − 10 2 (3) Version 2 CE IIT. The shear force at the mid span is zero. Bending moment The bending moment at any section x from the left end is. H b = 450 kN .

Kharagpur . Can you explain why the moment is zero at all points in a three-hinged parabolic arch? Example 32. Solution: Version 2 CE IIT. Calculate the location and magnitude of maximum bending moment in the arch.2 A three-hinged semicircular arch of uniform cross section is loaded as shown in Fig 32.7. It supports the load in pure compression.The equation of the three-hinged parabolic arch is y= 2 10 x − 2 x2 3 30 (4) 10 ⎛2 ⎞ M x = 300 x − ⎜ x − 2 x 2 ⎟450 − 5 x 2 30 ⎝3 ⎠ = 300 x − 300 x + 5 x 2 − 5 x 2 = 0 In other words a three hinged parabolic arch subjected to uniformly distributed load is not subjected to bending moment at any cross section.

(2) M c = Ray × 15 − H a × 15 − 40 × 7 = 0 Ha = 29.67 kN (↑) Ray = (1) Bending moment Now making use of the condition that the moment at hinge C of all the forces left of hinge C is zero gives. M D = Ray × 8 − H a × 13.66 kN (←) The maximum positive bending moment occurs below D and it can be calculated by taking moment of all forces left of D about D . 40 × 22 = 29.267 = 93.Reactions: Taking moment of all the forces about hinge B leads to. H b = 10. Kharagpur .213 kN (3) Version 2 CE IIT.33 × 8 − 10.66 × 13.66 kN (→) 15 Considering the horizontal equilibrium of the arch gives.267 = 29.33 kN (↑) 30 ∑ F y = 0 ⇒ Rby = 10.33 × 15 − 40 × 7 = 10.

Ray = 40 × 30 + 10 × 20 × 20 40 ( 2 ) = 80 kN (↑) Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Solution: Reactions: Taking A as the origin.8a.Example 32. y= 8 8 2 x− x 10 400 (1) Taking moment of all the forces about hinge B leads to. the equation of the three-hinged parabolic arch is given by.3 A three-hinged parabolic arch is loaded as shown in Fig 32. Calculate the location and magnitude of maximum bending moment in the arch. Draw bending moment diagram.

Moment at section x in part CB of the arch is given by (please note that B has been taken as the origin for this calculation).∑Fy = 0 ⇒ Rby = 160 kN (↑) (2) Now making use of the condition that. the necessary condition for extremum (maximum or ∂M x minimum) is that = 0. H b = 150 kN (←) (4) Location of maximum bending moment Consider a section x from end B . the moment at hinge C of all the forces left of hinge C is zero gives. ∂x ∂M x ⎛ 8 8× 2 ⎞ = 160 − ⎜ − x ⎟150 − 10 x ∂x ⎝ 10 400 ⎠ = 40 − 4 x = 0 x = 10 m. Thus. the maximum bending moment is obtained. 8 2⎞ 10 ⎛ 8 M x = 160 x − ⎜ x − x ⎟150 − x 2 400 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 10 (5) According to calculus. (7) Version 2 CE IIT. 8 10 ⎛ 8 ⎞ M max = 160(10) − ⎜ (10) − (10) 2 ⎟150 − (10) 2 400 2 ⎝ 10 ⎠ M max = 200 kN. M c = Ray × 20 − H a × 8 − 40 × 10 = 0 Ha = 80 × 20 − 40 × 10 = 150 kN (→) 8 (3) Considering the horizontal equilibrium of the arch gives.m. (6) Substituting the value of x in equation (5). Kharagpur .

80 Shear force S d at left of D is S d = H a sin θ − Ray cos θ (9) S d = 150sin(21. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. θ D = 21.Shear force at D just left of 40 kN load The slope of the arch at D is evaluated by.57 kN.80) − 80 cos(21. tan θ = dy 8 16 = − x dx 10 400 (8) Substituting x = 10 m. in the above equation.80) = −18.

Evaluate the horizontal thrust and the maximum bending moment in the arch.9. 32. Kharagpur .75 H a ] 25 (1) (2) Taking moment of all the forces right of hinge C about the hinge C and setting M c = 0 leads to. y = −0. as shown in Fig. the equation of the parabolic arch may be written as. Ray = 1 ⎡ 15 ⎤ ⎢50 × 20 + 10 × 15 × 2 − H a × 3.6 x Taking moment of all the loads about B leads to.Example 32.4 A three-hinged parabolic arch of constant cross section is subjected to a uniformly distributed load over a part of its span and a concentrated load of 50 kN.75⎥ 25 ⎣ ⎦ 1 = [2125 − 3.03 x 2 + 0. Version 2 CE IIT. The dimensions of the arch are shown in the figure. Solution: Reactions: Taking A as the origin.

3 (4) From equation (2).0 kN Rby = 135.06 kN.0 kN (5) Bending moment From inspection. Ray = 65.6 x) 0≤ x≤5 (6) For.8748 m M = −14. Version 2 CE IIT.06 x + 0.75 H ] = 200 25 15 85 − 0. the maximum negative bending moment in this region.m. ∂M =0⇒ Ray − H a (−0.Rby × 15 − 6. Span AD Bending moment at any cross section in the span AD is M = Ray x − H a (−0.75 H b ] 15 15 =0 2 (3) Since there are no horizontal loads acting on the arch. Kharagpur . Ray + Rby = 10 × 15 + 50 = 200 1 [2125 − 3. H a = H b = H (say ) Applying ∑ Fy = 0 for the whole arch.6) = 0 ∂x x = 1. For the maximum positive bending moment in this region occurs at D .33 kN 0.75 H ]+ 1 [1125 + 6.15 H + 75 + 0. the maximum negative bending moment occurs in the region AD and the maximum positive bending moment occurs in the region CB .75 H b − 10 × 15 × Rby = 1 [1125 + 6.45 H = 200 H= 40 = 133.03x 2 + 0.

03 × 25 + 0. Kharagpur .M D = Ray 5 − H a (−0.6 × 5) = +25.33(−0.5) 2 2 Hence. Arches are classified as three-hinged. The advantages of arch construction are given in the introduction.6) − 50 − × 2( x − 10) = 0 ∂x 2 x = 17.5 m M = 65 × 17.6(17. the maximum positive bending moment occurs in span CB.5) − M = 56. two-hinged and hingeless arches. Summary In this lesson. Version 2 CE IIT. ∂M 10 = 0 = R ay − H a (−0. The analysis of three-hinged arch is considered here.5)) − 50(12.6 x ) − 50( x − 5) − 10( x − 10) ( x − 10) 2 For locating the position of maximum bending moment.0 kN. M = Ray x − H a (−0.03(17.25 kN. in this span is calculated by.m Span CB Bending moment at any cross section.5) 2 + 0. the arch definition is given.5 − 133.m 10 (7. Numerical examples are solved in detail to show the general procedure of threehinged arch analysis.06 x + 0.03 x 2 + 0.

Kharagpur .Module 5 Cables and Arches Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Lesson 33 Two-Hinged Arch Version 2 CE IIT.

1a.1 Introduction Mainly three types of arches are used in practice: three-hinged. Analyse two-hinged arch for external loading. three-hinged arches were commonly used for the long span structures as the analysis of such arches could be done with confidence. 33. Compute reactions developed in two hinged arch due to temperature loading. 3. Usually. Compute horizontal reaction in two-hinged arch by the method of least work. 33. the degree of statical indeterminacy is one for twohinged arch. two-hinged and hingeless arches. the horizontal reaction is treated as the redundant and is evaluated by the method of least work. 33. for long span structures starting from late nineteenth century engineers adopted two-hinged and hingeless arches. 4. with the development in structural analysis. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . However.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. the analysis of two-hinged arches is discussed and few problems are solved to illustrate the procedure for calculating the internal forces. 2. but there are only three equations of equilibrium available. we have four unknown reactions. Hence. Two-hinged arch is the statically indeterminate structure to degree one.2 Analysis of two-hinged arch A typical two-hinged arch is shown in Fig. In this lesson. In the case of two-hinged arch. In the early part of the nineteenth century. Write strain energy stored in two-hinged arch during deformation.

Hence to obtain.1) The above expression is similar to the one used in the case of straight beams. one must develop an expression for strain energy. bending moment M and the axial compression N . In the above equation. horizontal reaction. M2 Ub = ∫ ds 2 EI 0 s (33. s is the length of the centerline of the arch. in this case. The strain energy due to shear is small as compared to the strain energy due to bending and is usually neglected in the analysis. E is the Young’s modulus of the arch material. the strain energy due to axial compression can be appreciable and is given by. I is the moment of inertia of the arch cross section. any section of the arch (vide Fig 33. In general the horizontal reaction in the two hinged arch is evaluated by straightforward application of the theorem of least work (see module 1. which states that the partial derivative of the strain energy of a statically indeterminate structure with respect to statically indeterminate action should vanish. Kharagpur . The unknown redundant reaction H b is calculated by noting that the horizontal displacement of hinge B is zero. Typically.1b) is subjected to shear force V . The strain energy due to bending U b is calculated from the following expression. In the case of flat arches. the integration needs to be evaluated along the curved arch length.The fourth equation is written considering deformation of the arch. However. Ua = ∫ N2 ds 2 AE 0 s (33. lesson 4).2) Version 2 CE IIT.

Now. where H is chosen as the redundant reaction.2b. 33. Let C at crown be the origin of co-ordinate axes. there is no horizontal displacement. M2 N2 U =∫ ds + ∫ ds 2 EI 2 AE 0 0 Now. 33. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. Then we get a simply supported curved beam as shown in Fig 33.3) ∂U M ∂M N ∂N =∫ ds + ∫ ds = 0 ∂H 0 EI ∂H AE ∂H 0 s s (33.2b. Since the curved beam is free to move horizontally.2a. Since. that the displacement at B must vanish. it will do so as shown by dotted lines in Fig 33. now apply a horizontal force H as shown in Fig. according to the principle of least work ∂U = 0 .4) Solving equation 33. replace hinge at B with a roller support. the horizontal reaction H is evaluated. ∂H s s (33.2. The horizontal force H should be of such magnitude.2c.The total strain energy of the arch is given by.4. in the original arch structure.1 Symmetrical two hinged arch Consider a symmetrical two-hinged arch as shown in Fig 33. Let M 0 and N 0 be the bending moment and axial force at any cross section of the simply supported curved beam.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

From Fig. M − H (h − y ) N + H cosθ ∂U = 0 = −∫ 0 (h − y )ds + ∫ 0 cosθ ds ∂H EI EA 0 0 s s (33. the bending moment at any cross section of the arch (say D ).7a) Version 2 CE IIT.2d). 33.4). Substituting the value of M and N in the equation (33. may be written as M = M 0 − H (h − y ) (33.6) Where θ is the angle made by the tangent at D with horizontal (vide Fig 33.2c.2b and Fig 33. Kharagpur .5) The axial compressive force at any cross section (say D ) may be written as N = N 0 + H cosθ (33.

Also for flat arched. the second term in the denominator may also be neglected.7b) Solving for H . yields s s s M0 ~ N0 H~ 2 y H cos 2 θ y ds + ∫ ds + ∫ −∫ cos θ ds + ∫ ds = 0 EI EI EA EA 0 0 0 0 s s M0 ~ N0 ∫ EI y ds − ∫ EA cosθ ds 0 H = 0 s ~2 s y cos 2 θ ∫ EI ds + ∫ EA ds 0 0 s (33. The above equation is valid for any general type of loading.9) s ~2 y ds ds + ∫ ∫ EI 0 EA 0 As axial rigidity is very high. ~ =h− y y −∫ s M 0 − H~ ~ y N + H cosθ y ds + ∫ 0 cosθ ds = 0 EI EA 0 0 s (33.8) Using the above equation. Finally the horizontal reaction is calculated by the equation H= ∫ EI 0 s s M0 ~ y ds (33. The second term in the numerator is small compared with the first terms and is neglected in the analysis.8) is now written as.Let. The equation (33. Only in case of very accurate analysis second term s considered. H= ∫ EI 0 s s M0 ~ y ds (33. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . the horizontal reaction H for any two-hinged symmetrical arch may be calculated. cosθ ≅ 1 as θ is small. Usually the above equation is further simplified.10) ~2 y ∫ EI ds 0 For an arch with uniform cross section EI is constant and hence.

2.3a). 33.11) ds y ∫~ 2 In the above equation.2 Temperature effect Consider an unloaded two-hinged arch of span L . then its span would increase by α L T if it were allowed to expand freely (vide Fig 33. ~ is the height of the arch y as shown in the figure. Version 2 CE IIT. α is the co-efficient of thermal expansion of the arch material. a horizontal force is induced at the support as the temperature is increased. Since the arch is restrained from the horizontal movement. M 0 is the bending moment at any cross section of the arch when one of the hinges is replaced by a roller support.10) must be used to calculate the horizontal reaction H . When the arch undergoes a uniform temperature change of T °C . then equation (33.H= ∫M 0 s 0 s 0 ~ ds y (33. If the moment of inertia of the arch rib is not constant. Kharagpur .

the above equation can be written as H= α LT ~2 y ∫ EI ds 0 s (33. Kharagpur .14) Version 2 CE IIT. s s H~ 2 y ∂U H cos 2 θ ds + ∫ = α LT = ∫ ds EI ∂H EA 0 0 (33. Neglecting the axial rigidity.Now applying the Castigliano’s first theorem. H= α LT s ~ y cos 2 θ ∫ EI ds + ∫ EA ds 0 0 s 2 (33.12) Solving for H .13) The second term in the denominator may be neglected. as the axial rigidity is quite high.

Solution: Taking moment of all forces about hinge B leads to.4a.3 3 kN (↑) 30 ∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ Rby = 10. Calculate reactions of the arch and draw bending moment diagram.Example 33.1 A semicircular two hinged arch of constant cross section is subjected to a concentrated load as shown in Fig 33. Kharagpur . Ray = 40 × 22 = 29.67 kN (↑) (1) Version 2 CE IIT.

895 Now. H= ∫M 0 s 0 s 0 ~ ds y (3) y2 ∫ ~ ds Now M 0 the bending moment at any cross section of the arch when one of the hinges is replaced by a roller support is given by. Version 2 CE IIT. ~ = R sin θ y x = R (1 − cos θ ) ds = R dθ (2) ⇒ θ c = 62.18° = π rad tan θ c = 13. 33.4b.267 7 2.From Fig. Kharagpur . the horizontal reaction H may be calculated by the following expression.

895 ∫[R ] ay R(1 − cosθ ) sin θ − 40{R(1 − cosθ ) sin θ − 8 sin θ }] dθ π π = Ray R 3 [− cosθ ] π / 2.00 + 225(645.775 = 19. Version 2 CE IIT. the horizontal thrust at the support is. θc ≤ θ ≤ π (4) 3 ~ ∫ M 0 yds = ∫ Ray R (1 − cosθ ) sin θ dθ + ∫ [ Ray R(1 − cosθ ) − 40{R(1 − cosθ ) − 8}]R sin θ Rdθ 0 0 s θc π θc π / 2.4667)] + [40 × 8(1. after integration is.895 + [40 × 8(− cos θ ) ] π / 2. Kharagpur .M 0 = Ray x = Ray R (1 − cos θ ) 0 ≤ θ ≤ θc and.895 − [40 R(− cosθ ) ] π / 2.676) = 105545 .46 2 ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 0⎝ π (6) Hence.4667 Ray R − [40 R(1. M 0 = Ray R(1 − cosθ ) − 40( x − 8) = Ray R(1 − cosθ ) − 40{R(1 − cosθ ) − 8} Integrating the numerator in equation (3).275 − 410. 2 ~2 ∫ y ds = ∫ ( R sin θ ) Rdθ 0 0 s π ⎛ 1 − cos 2θ ⎞ 3⎛ π ⎞ = R3 ∫ ⎜ ⎟dθ = R ⎜ ⎟ = 5301.90 kN 5301.895 0 ⎡ + R 2 ⎢ Ray R(− cosθ ) ⎣ [ π π / 2.533Ray R 3 + R 2 1.46 (7) Bending moment diagram Bending moment M at any cross section of the arch is given by.775 The value of denominator in equation (3).895 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ = 0.4667) ] [[ ] ] (5) = 52761 . H= 105545.895 = Ray R 3 2 ∫ (1 − cosθ ) sin θ dθ + R 0 π π / 2.

33. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .5 sin θ 0 ≤ θ ≤ θc (8) M = 439. The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.M = M 0 − H~ y = Ray R (1 − cos θ ) − HR sin θ = 439.95(1 − cos θ ) − 298.4c.5 sin θ − 40(15(1 − cosθ ) − 8) θc ≤ θ ≤ π (9) Using equations (8) and (9). bending moment at any angle θ can be computed.95(1 − cosθ ) − 298.

Example 33. the equation of two hinged parabolic arch may be written as. Taking A as the origin. Adding both. Calculate reactions of the arch if the temperature of the arch is raised by 40°C . Assume co-efficient of thermal expansion as α = 12 × 10 −6 / °C . It is subjected to loading as shown in Fig. In the first step calculate the horizontal reaction due to 40 kN load applied at C . one gets the horizontal reaction at the hinges due to combined external loading and temperature change. The horizontal reaction due to 40 kN load may be calculated by the following equation. Kharagpur .33. y= 2 10 x − 2 x2 3 30 (1) The given problem is solved in two steps. In the next step calculate the horizontal reaction due to rise in temperature.2 A two hinged parabolic arch of constant cross section has a span of 60m and a rise of 10m. Version 2 CE IIT.5a.

Kharagpur .H1 = ∫M 0 s 0 s 0 y ds (2a) ds y ∫~ 2 For temperature loading.99 = 74885 .67 kN . ∫M 0 s 0 y ds = ∫ Ray x y dx + ∫ Ray x − 40( x − 10) y dx 0 10 10 60 [ ] (3) Please note that in the above equation.33) x ( 3 x − 30 2 x ) dx + 10[(33. The vertical reaction A is calculated by taking moment of all forces about B .76 + 69404 . For 40 kN load. Now consider the equation (3).75 l 10 60 (4) Version 2 CE IIT. H2 = α LT y2 ∫ EI ds 0 s (2b) Where L is the span of the arch. Hence. the integrations are carried out along the x-axis instead of the curved arch axis. the above equation (3) can be easily evaluated. Using equation (1).33 kN 60 Rby = 6. horizontal reaction is given by. Ray = 1 [ 40 × 50] = 33. 2 10 2 2 10 2 ∫ M 0 y dx = ∫ (33.33) x − 40( x − 10)]( 3 x − 30 2 x ) dx ∫ 0 0 = 6480 . The error introduced by this change in the variables in the case of flat arches is negligible.

33. At the midpoint of each division calculate the ordinate yi by using the 2 10 equation y = x − 2 x 2 . For this purpose.71 kN 3200 (6) The horizontal reaction due to rise in temperature is calculated by equation (2b). The above integrals are approximated as. H1 = ∫M 0 l 0 l 0 y dx = dx ∫y 2 75885. Kharagpur .94 kN.10 2 ⎤ ⎡2 ∫ y dx = ∫ ⎢ 3 x − 30 2 x ⎥ dx ⎦ 0⎣ 0 l 60 2 2 (5) = 3200 Hence. Version 2 CE IIT. s M0 y y2 ds and ∫ ds ∫ EI EI 0 0 are accomplished numerically.75 = 23. divide the arch span in to n equals divisions. the integrations M0y 1 n ds = ∑ (M 0 ) i yi (Δs)i ∫ EI EI i =1 0 s s (8) 1 n y2 2 ds = (9) ∑ ( y) i (Δs) i ∫ EI EI i =1 0 The complete computation for the above problem for the case of external loading is shown in the following table.65 kN.0333 m 4 (7) Hence the total horizontal thrust H = H1 + H 2 = 83. 3 30 s When the arch shape is more complicated.5b). kN/mm 2 and I = 0. the horizontal reaction due to applied mechanical loads alone is given by. H2 = 12 × 10 −6 × 60 × 40 EI × 12 × 10 −6 × 60 × 40 = 3200 3200 EI Taking E = 200 H 2 = 59. Length of each division is represented by (Δs) i (vide Fig.

25 1830.1 9.5 156.83 19.86 588.886 9179.8 = 23.9 9.73 ∑ ( y) (Δs) 3200.66 156.66 3300. the horizontal reaction is treated as the redundant and is evaluated by the Version 2 CE IIT.06 496.06 21.834 75943.902 4493.91 179.85 59. Summary Two-hinged arch is the statically indeterminate structure to degree one.9 9.81 ( M 0 ) i yi (Δs ) i ( y ) i (Δs) i 2 ∑ 1139.47 7636.5 496.5 9.1 7.93 219.1 7.3 0 i 2 i i i kN (10) This compares well with the horizontal reaction computed from the exact integration.3 H1 = ∑ (M ) y (Δs) = 75943. Kharagpur .Table 1.75 14192.89 139.87 99.86 337.1 1.798 225.65 10685.95 259.082 13497.5 5.99 299.9 Moment at that Point ( M 0 ) i (kNm) 99.9 5.97 299.18 13062.06 337. Numerical integration of equations (8) and (9) Segme nt No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Horizontal distance x Measured from A (m) 3 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 Correspond ing yi (m) 1.8 21. Usually.06 588.

Towards this end. Kharagpur .method of least work. Finally. a few numerical examples are solved to illustrate the procedure. The reactions developed due to thermal loadings are discussed. the strain energy stored in the twohinged arch during deformation is given. Version 2 CE IIT.

Module 5 Cables and Arches Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 34 Symmetrical Hingeless Arch Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Compute reactions and stresses in hingeless arch due to temperature change.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. Apart from three equilibrium equations three more equations are required to calculate bending moment. However. three at each fixed end. 3. Kharagpur . A hingeless arch (fixed–fixed arch) is a statically redundant structure having three redundant reactions. The deflection and the moment at the center of the hingeless arch are somewhat smaller than that of the two-hinged arch.2 Analysis of Symmetrical Hingeless Arch Consider a symmetrical arch of span L and central rise of hc Let the loading on the arch is also symmetrical as shown in Fig 34.1 Introduction As stated in the previous lesson. Analyse hingeless arch by the method of least work. 34. These three extra equations may be set up from the geometry deformation of the arch. the hingeless arch has to be designed for support moment. Consider reaction components Version 2 CE IIT. shear force and horizontal thrust at any cross section of the arch. Analyse the fixed-fixed arch by the elastic-centre method. In the case of fixed–fixed arch there are six reaction components. two-hinged and three-hinged arches are commonly used in practice. 2.1. 34.

1) where M and N are respectively the bending moment and axial force of the arch rib. the unknown redundant reactions M a . Considering only the strain energy due to axial compression and bending. the strain energy U of the arch may be written as U =∫ M 2 ds N 2 ds +∫ 2 EI 2 EA 0 0 s s (34. if we take the internal forces at the crown as the redundant. H a and Ray may be evaluated. Version 2 CE IIT. using the above three equations. the shear force at the crown is zero. Since the support A is fixed. Hence. Since the arch and the loading are symmetrical. bending moment M a . one could write following three equations at that point. the problem gets simplified. Kharagpur .at the left support A i.e.2b) ∂U =0 ∂Ray (34.2a) ∂U =0 ∂H a (34. at the crown we have only two unknowns. Hence.. ∂U =0 ∂M a (34.2c) Knowing dimensions of the arch and loading. vertical reaction Ray and horizontal thrust H a as redundants.

3a) (34.Hence. s is the length of centerline of the arch. I is the moment of inertia of the cross section and A is the area of the cross section of the arch.4a) ∂U M ∂M N ∂N =∫ ds + ∫ ds = 0 ∂N c 0 EI ∂N c EA ∂N c 0 s s (34. we can write from the principle of least work ∂U =0 ∂M c ∂U =0 ∂N c (34. Let M 0 and N 0 be the bending moment and the axial force at any cross section due to external loading. Now the bending moment and the axial force at any section is given by Version 2 CE IIT.4b) Where.3b) ∂U M ∂M N ∂N =∫ ds + ∫ ds = 0 ∂M c 0 EI ∂M c EA ∂M c 0 s s (34. Since the arch and the loading is symmetrical. Kharagpur . consider bending moment M c and the axial force N c at the crown as the redundant.

5b) (34.6) Equation (34.4a) and (34.7b.5a) (34. then the problem becomes more complex. the redundant M c and N c may be calculated provided arch geometry and loading are defined. = y.M = M c + Nc y + M 0 N = N c cosθ + N 0 ∂N ∂M ∂M =1. M N ∫ EI (1)ds + ∫ EA (0)ds = 0 0 0 M ds y ds Mc ∫ + Nc ∫ = − ∫ 0 ds EI EI EI 0 0 0 M N ∫ EI yds + ∫ EA cosθ ds = 0 0 0 Mc y Nc y 2 Nc M0 y N0 2 ∫ EI ds + ∫ EI ds + ∫ EA cos θ ds = −∫ EI ds − ∫ EA cosθ ds 0 0 0 0 0 s s s s s s s s s s s s (34. For such problems either column analogy or elastic center method must be adopted. If the loading is unsymmetrical or the arch is unsymmetrical. Version 2 CE IIT. ∂M c ∂N c ∂N c ∂N =0.7a) (34. one could still get the answer from the method of least work with little more effort. Kharagpur .7b) From equations 34. However. = cos θ .4b) may be simplified as. ∂M c (34.7a and 34.

Kharagpur .10) Version 2 CE IIT. ∂U M ∂M =α L T = ∫ ds ∂H t EI ∂H t 0 s α LT == ∫ 0 s Mt y y2 ds − H t ∫ ds EI EI 0 s (34.34. the moment at any cross-section of the arch M = M t − Htt Now strain energy stored in the arch (34.3 Temperature stresses Consider an unloaded fixed-fixed arch of span L .9) Also. M ∂M ∂U ds =0=∫ EI ∂M t ∂M t 0 s ∫ (M t − H t y) ds = 0 EI 0 s s Mt ∫ 0 ds yds − Ht ∫ =0 EI EI 0 s (34.8) U =∫ 0 s M 2 ds 2 EI Now applying the Castigliano’s first theorem. The rise in temperature. would introduce a horizontal thrust H t and a moment M t at the supports. Now due to rise in temperature.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .Solving equations 34.1 A semicircular fixed-fixed arch of constant cross section is subjected to symmetrical concentrated load as shown in Fig 34.9 and 34.4. Determine the reactions of the arch.10. M t and H t may be calculated. Example 34.

Ray = Rby = 40 kN (1) Now the strain energy of the arch is given by.Solution: Since. Kharagpur . the arch is symmetrical and the loading is also symmetrical. Version 2 CE IIT.

M = Ray x − M a − H a y M = Ray x − M a − H a y − 40( x − 10) 0 ≤ θ ≤ θD (4) θD ≤ θ ≤ π / 2 N = H a cos(90 − θ ) + Ra cosθ N = H a sin θ + Ra cosθ N = H a sin θ + ( Ra − 40) cos θ y = R sin θ x = R (1 − cos θ ) 0 ≤ θ ≤ θD (5) (6) θ ≤θ ≤π /2 And ds = Rdθ See Fig 34. Then we have. ∂U ∂U = 0 and =0 ∂M a ∂H a (3) The bending moment at any cross section is given by. integration need to be carried out between limits 0 to π / 2 and the result is multiplied by two.552 π /2 Version 2 CE IIT. π /2 2 π /2 π /2 ∫ 0 M ds = 0 EI π /2 ∫ 40R(1 − cosθ )Rdθ − ∫ M 0 0 a Rdθ − H a ∫ R sin θ Rdθ − π ∫ 40[ R(1 − cosθ ) − 10]Rdθ = 0 0 / 2.5. Kharagpur .U =∫ M 2 ds N 2 ds +∫ 2 EI 2 EA 0 0 s s (2) Let us choose H a and M a as redundants. ∂U M N = ∫ (−1)ds + ∫ (0)ds = 0 ∂M a 0 EI EA 0 s s ∫ EI ds = 0 0 s M Since the arch is symmetrical.

42 kN (8) (7) Version 2 CE IIT.477 − 1.785) + 2 a (0.571M a R − H a R 2 − 41.92 = 0 1.837 = 0 ∂U M N = ∫ (− y )ds + ∫ (sin θ )ds = 0 ∂H a 0 EI EA 0 s s 1 EI π /2 π /2 ∫ (− R sin θ ){[40 R(1 − cosθ )] − M a − H a ( R sin θ )}Rdθ − 0 1 ∫ (− R sin θ ){[40[ R(1 − cosθ ) − 10]]}Rdθ + EI π / 2.22. Kharagpur .58 H a + 2 M a = 0 Solving equations (6) and (7).0554) − (0.8310 R 2 − 1.304 R 2 + 135.333) − 2 (0.552 π /2 ∫ 0 {− R ( Ray ) sin θ cos θ M R2 H R3 H R 40 R 3 40 R 3 sin θ + sin θ cos θ + a sin θ + a sin 2 θ + a sin 2 θ − }dθ + EI EI EI EI EA EA { 40 R 3 40 R 3 400 R 2 40 R sin θ − sin θ cos θ − sin θ − sin θ cos θ }dθ = 0 EI EI EI EA π /2 π / 2.571M a + 15 H a − 308.28 kN M a = −466.785) − 2 ( ) + I I 2 IR I R A R A 2 40 40 400 40 (0. H a and M a are evaluated.552 π /2 ∫ 0 π /2 ( H a sin θ + Ra cos θ ) 1 (sin θ ) Rdθ − ∫ (sin θ )40 cosθ Rdθ = 0 EA EA π / 2.552 ∫ H H − 40 40 1 M 40 1 (1) + ( ) + a (1) + a (0.0555) = 0 I I RI R A − 266 + 23.56 + 135.571M a − 15 H a − 169. Thus. H a = 28.92 R = 0 342.333) − (0.

Version 2 CE IIT.7a) and (34. Towards this. ∫ EI ds = ∫ 0 s y1 s ( y − d ) ds = 0 EI (34.7b) are quite difficult to solve. The distance d is chosen such that y1 (= y − d ) satisfies the following condition. Kharagpur .4 Elastic centre method Equations (34. Now equation (34. 34. However. the distance d may be computed as d= ∫ EI ds 0 s y ∫ 0 s ds EI 34. substitute y = y1 + d in equation (34.10a) 0 Solving which.7a) can be written with respect to new origin O .3.7a).34.10b) The point O is known as the elastic centre of the arch. they can be further simplified if the origin of co-ordinates is moved from C to O in Fig.

Thus we obtain.7b) is also simplified. 34.3).13) and. Let elastic centre O be the origin of co-ordinates and H 0 . Similarly the equation (34.11) In the above equation.14) 34. The magnitude of horizontal force H 0 be such as to counteract the αLT increase in the span due to rise in temperature T .12) Now.1Temperature stresses Consider a symmetrical hinge less arch of span L . ( M c + N c d ) is the moment M 0 at O (see Fig.4. Kharagpur . s N cos θ M 0 y1 ds ds + ∫ 0 ∫ EI EA 0 0 s ~ H0 = Nc = − ∫ 0 s s y 21 cos 2 θ ds + ∫ ds EI 0 EA (34. s ∂U M ∂M =0=∫ ~ ds = 0 ∂M O EI ∂M O 0 s s α LT M ∂M N ∂N ∂U ds + ∫ =∫ ~ ~ ~ ds = 2 ∂H O 0 EI ∂H O 0 EA ∂H O (34. ∫ 1 ds is zero.Mc∫ 0 s s s M (y + d) ds ds = − ∫ 0 ds + Nc ∫ 1 EI EI 0 0 EI s (34. M 0 be the redundants. ~ M 0 = M c + Ncd = − ∫ M0 ds 0 EI ds ∫ EI 0 s s (34. subjected to a temperature ~ ~ rise of T ° C . 2 ~ there must not be any rotation at the crown. Hence. Hence the above equation is rewritten as 0 EI y M c + Ncd = − ∫ M0 ds 0 EI s ∫ 0 s ds EI ~ (34.15) (34. Also from Symmetry.16) Version 2 CE IIT.

Calculate the horizontal thrust and moment at A .18). ~ Example 30.18) Using equation (34. Kharagpur .17) and ~ s⎛ ~ H y ⎞ H cos θ ⎜ O 1 ⎟ y1ds + ∫ ⎜ O ∫ ⎜ EI ⎟ ⎜ EA 0⎝ 0⎝ ⎠ s⎛ ⎞ ⎟ cos θds = αLT ⎟ 2 ⎠ Simplifying the above equation.7a. Usually the area of the cross section and moment of inertia of the arch vary along the arch axis.2 A symmetrical hinge less circular arch of constant cross section is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of 10 kN/m . αLT ~ HO = 2 2 s⎛ y 21 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ds + ∫ ⎜ cos θ ∫ ⎜ EI ⎟ ⎜ 0⎝ 0 ⎝ EA ⎠ s⎛ ⎞ ⎟ds ⎟ ⎠ (34. 34. Version 2 CE IIT. ~ ~ M = M O + HO y ~ N = H O cosθ ~ MO ∫ EI ds = 0 0 ~ MO = 0 s (34. The arch dimensions are shown in Fig. the horizontal thrust H O due to uniform temperature rise in the arch can be easily calculated provided the dimensions of the arch are known.Moment at any section is calculated by.

Version 2 CE IIT.The distance d of the elastic centre from the crown C is calculated by equation. Kharagpur .

the ordinate at d .m M C + NC d = − π 2 6 2 (4) Version 2 CE IIT.29 kN. x = 50 sin θ and ds = 50 dθ .12). π (2) 6 The elastic centre O lies at a distance of 2.2535 m. The moment at the elastic centre may be calculated by equation (34.2535 m from the crown. EI = constant π /6 −5 × 503 % MO = ∫ sin 0 2 θ dθ 50 ∫ dθ 0 π /6 ⎛ π 1 ⎛ π ⎞⎞ − sin ⎜ ⎟ 5 × 50 ⎜ 6 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = −1081. Now the bending moment at any section of the arch due to applied loading at a distance x from elastic centre is 5x −∫ ds 0 EI ds ∫ EI 0 s s 2 ~ MO = (3) In the present case.d= ∫ EI ds 0 s y ∫ 0 s ds EI (1) From Fig. Kharagpur .7b. is given by y = 50(1 − cos θ ) π /6 d= ∫ 0 50(1 − cos θ ) 50dθ EI π /6 ∫ 0 50dθ EI ⎛π 1⎞ 50 ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2⎠ d= ⎝ = 2.34.

Kharagpur .⎛L ⎞ N O = 10 ⎜ − x ⎟ cos θ ⎝2 ⎠ And. y1 = y − d Version 2 CE IIT.

75 − 50 cos θ Now H O is given by equation (34.875 (1 − cos 2θ ) − 25 ⎜ cos θ − 2 ( cos 3θ + cos θ ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎛ ⎛ 1 dθ = 49630. Thus s M 0 y1 N cos θ ds + ∫ 0 ds ∫ EI EA 0 0 s ~ ~ H0 = Nc = − ∫ 0 s s s y 21 cos 2 θ ds + ∫ ds EI 0 EA (5) M0 y 1 ∫ EI 1 ds = EI 0 = 250 EI π /6 ∫ 5 x ( 47.735 EI π /6 (6) N cos θ 1 ∫ 0EA ds = EA 0 s ∫ 10 ( 25 − x ) cos 0 2 θ dθ 10 = EA = 10 EA π /6 ∫ ⎜ 25 ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ 0 0 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 1 + cos 2θ ⎞ 2 ⎟ − 50sin θ cos θ ⎟ dθ 2 ⎠ ⎠ dθ π /6 ∫ (12.y1 = 50 (1 − cos θ ) − 2. Kharagpur .5 (θ + sin 2θ ) )0 − 25 ⎜ −(cos θ )π / 6 + ⎜ − cos 3θ − cos θ ⎟ ⎟ ( 0 ⎜ EA 2⎝ 3 ⎠0 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Version 2 CE IIT.875 (1 − cos 2θ ) − 50 cos θ sin θ ) 2 0 dθ ⎞⎞ 625000 EI π /6 ∫ ⎜ 23.75 − 50 cos θ ) 50 2 0 2 dθ π /6 ∫ ( 50sin θ ) ( 47.14).25 y1 = 47.5 (1 + cos 2θ ) − 25 ( sin θ + sin θ cos 2θ ) ) = π /6 ⎛ π /6 10 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎞ 12.75 − 50 cos θ ) 0 dθ 625000 = EI = π /6 ∫ ( 23.

915 EA ⎝ 6 2 3⎠ ⎛ 49630.06 + 2500 cos 0 θ − 4775cos θ ) dθ = 50 ⎛ π⎞ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π 1 ⎜ 2280. − (15881835.3 ) % H0 = − = −470. Kharagpur .25 kN ( 33614. and I = 3.2 + 545.06 ⎜ 6 ⎟ + 1250 ⎜ 6 + 2 sin 3 ⎟ − 4775sin 6 ⎟ EI ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 105.= s 81. if the second term in the numerator and the second term in the denominator were neglected then.046 23.915 ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ EA ⎠ ⎝ EI (9) (10) Consider an arch cross section of 300 × 500 mm .15 m 2 . Version 2 CE IIT.735 81.72 + 159.795 ⎞ −⎜ + ⎟ ~ EI EA ⎠ ⎝ H0 = − ⎛ 105.046 EI π /6 = s (8) cos 2 θ 50 ∫ EA ds = 2 EA 0 = ∫ (1 + cos 2θ )dθ 0 25 ⎛ π 1 π⎞ ⎜ + sin ⎟ = 23. we get.75 − 50 cos θ ) 0 2 2 50 dθ ∫ ( 2280. Then.43) (11) In equation (5).795 EA π /6 (7) ∫ 0 y 21 1 ds = EI EI = 50 EI π /6 ∫ ( 47.125 × 10−3 m 4 A = 0.

5%.⎛ 49630. This is followed by the analysis of hingeless arch by the elastic centre method.29 N C = −470. Since the arch and the loading are symmetrical. M B = M C + 10 × 25 × 25 2 25 2 (14) = −23.046 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ EI ⎠ ~ (12) Thus calculating H O by neglecting second term in the numerator and denominator induces an error which is less than 0. Hence for all practical ~ purposes one could simplify the expression for H O as.735 ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ EI ⎠ = −472. The analysis of hingeless arch by the method of least work is given in the beginning.78 kN. M A = M B and H A = H B . Version 2 CE IIT.67 kN % H0 = − ⎝ ⎛ 105. M C + NC d = −1081. Summary In this lesson.m Moment at B .22 + 10 × 25 × = 3101.25 M C = −23.m (15) Also H B = N C . ~ H0 = − ∫ M 0 y1 ds 0 EI s ∫ 0 s y 21 ds EI (13) Now we have.22 kN. The procedure to compute stresses developed in the hingeless arch due to temperature change is discussed. hingeless arches are considered. A few problems are solved illustrate the various issues involved in the analysis of hingeless arches. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Module 6 Approximate Methods for Indeterminate Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 35 Indeterminate Trusses and Industrial Frames Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

displacement based methods are discussed for the analysis of indeterminate structures. final design must be done. The above procedure of reducing indeterminate structures into determinate and solving them using equations of statics is known as approximate method of analysis as the results obtained from this procedure are approximate when compared to those obtained by exact methods. one can not perform indeterminate structural analysis by exact methods. Kharagpur . Analyse industrial frames and portals by approximate methods. force method of analysis is applied to solve indeterminate beams. Hence they are commonly referred as exact methods. 3. These methods satisfy both equation of compatibility and equilibrium. Also. 35. one must have information regarding their relative stiffnesses and member material properties. geometry. Based on these results. the material behaviour and joint resistance at beam column joints and soil-structure interaction are never known exactly. the results of approximate methods compare favourably with exact methods of structural analysis. This information is not available prior to preliminary design of structures. Hence.1 Introduction In module 2. It is observed that prior to analysis of indeterminate structures either by stiffness method or force method. Version 2 CE IIT.Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. In some way. this is not a good enough reason for using approximate methods of analysis for the final design. Make suitable approximations so that an indeterminate structure is reduced to a determinate structure. Depending upon the validity of assumptions. usually in such cases. approximate methods are used by design engineers to detect any gross error in the exact analysis of the complex structures. The determinate structure is then solved by equations of statics. Analyse indeterminate trusses by approximate methods. In modules 3 and 4. all structural methods of analysis are approximate as the exact loading on the structure. In this module both indeterminate industrial frames and building frames are analysed by approximate methods for both vertical and wind loads. 2. After preliminary design. trusses and frames. Hence in such cases. However. based on few approximations (which are justified on the structural behaviour under the applied loads) the indeterminate structures are reduced into determinate structures. it is important to analyse the indeterminate structure by exact method of analysis.

In such a case. 35. This truss is externally determinate and internally statically indeterminate to 3 rd degree. This truss is commonly used for lateral bracing of building frames and as top and bottom chords of bridge truss. it is reasonable to assume that panel shear is resisted by only one of its diagonals. this amounts to 3 independent assumptions (one in each panel) and hence now the structure can be solved by equations of static equilibrium alone. 1. In the context of above truss. the shear in each panel is equally divided by two diagonals. 2. In such a situation. Since the given truss is indeterminate to 3 rd degree. As discussed in lesson 10. Kharagpur . it is required to make three assumptions to reduce this frame into a statically determinate truss. Consider an indeterminate truss. both the diagonals are going to be designed as long and slender. For the above type of trusses. joints and unknown reaction components. In some cases. which has two diagonals in each panel as shown in Fig.1. two types of analysis are possible.2 Indeterminate Trusses: Parallel-chord trusses with two diagonals in each panel. j and r respectively are number of members. the degree of static indeterminacy of the indeterminate planar truss is evaluated by i = (m + r ) − 2 j (reproduced here for convenience) Where m. it is reasonable to assume. If the diagonals are going to be designed in such a way that they are equally capable of carrying either tensile or compressive forces. as the compressive force Version 2 CE IIT.35. module 2.

1 Evaluate approximately forces in the truss members shown in Fig. Hence reactions can be evaluated by equations of statics only. Kharagpur . this leads to three independent assumptions and the truss may be solved by equations of static alone. assuming that the diagonals are to be designed such that they are equally capable of carrying compressive and tensile forces. The above procedure is illustrated by the following examples.carried/resisted by the other diagonal member is very small or negligible. Thus. 35. This may be justified as the compressive diagonal buckles at very small load. Example 35.67 kN (↑) (↑) (1) Version 2 CE IIT.2a. it is observed that one need to make n independent assumptions to solve n th order statically indeterminate structures by equations of statics alone. R1 = 23. Again. Generalizing the above method. Solution: The given frame is externally determinate and internally indeterminate to order 3.33 kN R2 = 26.

33 = 0 (3) sin θ = 1 2 (4) 2 F sin θ = 23. Now consider the equilibrium of free body diagram of the truss shown left of A − A . 35.50 kN 2 F= Version 2 CE IIT. For the first panel. compressive and tensile forces in diagonals of each panel are numerically equal. This is shown in Fig. yields − FL0U1 sin θ − FL0U1 sin θ + 23. Hence.33 ≅ 16. Kharagpur . Now in this panel. we have FU 0 L1 = FL0U1 = F (2) Considering the vertical equilibrium of forces.Now it is required to make three independent assumptions to evaluate all bar forces.2b.33 kN .33 23. the panel shear is 23. it is assumed that. panel shear is equally resisted by both the diagonals. Based on the given information.

FU0U1 = 11. FU 0 L1 = 16.33 = 0 (5) FL0U0 = 11.50cos 45 + FL0 L1 = 0 (6) FL0 L1 = 11.Thus.2d) Version 2 CE IIT. 35.) Now consider equilibrium of truss left of section C − C (ref. Fig.67 kN ( comp.50sin 45 + 23.50 kN FL0U1 = 16.50 kN Considering the joint L0 . (Tension ) ( Compression ) ∑F y =0 ⇒ − FL0U 0 − 16.67 kN (Tension ) Similarly. Kharagpur .) ∑F x =0 ⇒ −16.67 kN ( Comp.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . ∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ − FL1U 2 sin 45 − FU1L2 sin 45 + 23.In this panel.36 kN 2 (Tension ) ( Compression ) Taking moment about U 1 of all the forces.33 F= Thus. FU1L2 = 2. Considering the vertical equilibrium of the free body diagram.36 kN 3.36 kN FL1U 2 = 2.33 − 20 = 0 (7) It is given that FL1U 2 = FU1L2 = F 2 F sin θ = 3.33 kN . the shear is 3.33 ≅ 2.

36sin 45 − 20 = 0 (10) Consider the equilibrium of right side of the section B − B (ref.50sin 45 − 2. (8) FU1U 2 = 25 kN ( Comp. Fig.) Considering the joint equilibrium of L1 (ref. 35. 35. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .36 ⎜ ⎟ × 3 + 23.⎛ 1 ⎞ − FL1L2 × 3 + 2. Fig.2f) the forces in the 3 rd panel are evaluated.33 × 3 = 0 ⎝ 2⎠ FL1L2 = 25 kN (Tension ) Taking moment about L1 of all the forces. (9) ∑F y =0 ⇒ FL1U1 = 10 kN (Tension ) FL1U1 + 16.2e).

35. Fig.67 ≅ 18.86 kN ( Comp.86 kN FL2U3 = 18.2g). FL3U 2 = FL2U 3 = F ∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ F= − FL3U 2 sin 45 + FL2U 3 sin 45 + 26.) (Tension ) (12) Considering the joint equilibrium of L3 (ref.We know that.86 kN 2 FL3U 2 = 18. yields Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .67 = 0 (11) 26.

35.2h. This is shown in Fig.) The bar forces in all the members of the truss are shown in Fig. Kharagpur . 35. 35.2a) assuming that the diagonals can carry only tensile forces.3a. bar forces obtained by exact method are shown in brackets.67 kN (↑) (↑) (1) Consider again the equilibrium of free body diagram of the truss shown left of A − A . the load carried by the compressive diagonal member is zero. Hence the panel shear is completely resisted by the tension diagonal.34 kN (Tension ) ∑F y =0 ⇒ FL3U3 = 13. R1 = 23.∑F x =0 ⇒ −18.33 kN ( Comp. Reactions of the truss are the same as in the previous example and is given by. Also in the diagram.86cos 45 + FL2 L3 = 0 FL2 L3 = 13.33 kN R2 = 26. Solution: In this case. Version 2 CE IIT. Example 35.2 Determine bar forces in the 3-panel truss of the previous example (shown in Fig.

Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.Applying ∑ Fy = 0 .

− FU 0 L1 sin 45 + 23. yields Version 2 CE IIT.67 kN ( comp ) Considering the joint equilibrium of L1 (ref. ⎛ 1 ⎞ − FU1U 2 × 3 + 4.33 kN Considering the vertical equilibrium of joint L0 . Fig. ∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ − FU1L2 sin 45 + 23.33 2 ≅ 33 kN FL0U1 = 0 (2) It is easily seen that. 35. 35. FL0 L1 = 0 and FU 0U1 = 23. − FL1L2 × 3 + 23.33 × 3 = 0 ⎝ 2⎠ FU1U 2 = 26.) (3) Since diagonals are inclined at 45° to the horizontal.71 kN FL1U 2 = 0 (5) Taking moment of all forces about U 1 .33 kN .33 − 20 = 0 (4) FU1L2 = 3. Kharagpur .3b) In this panel. Considering the vertical equilibrium of the free body diagram. Fig.33 × 3 = 0 FL1L2 = 23. the shear is 3.33 2 ≅ 4. Now consider equilibrium of truss left of section C − C (ref.71⎜ ⎟ × 3 + 23. we get FL0U0 = 23.33 = 0 FU 0 L1 = 23.33 kN (Tension ) (6) Taking moment about L1 of all the forces. the vertical and horizontal components of forces are equal in any panel.3c).33 kN ( Comp.

35. 35. yields Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .33 kN ( comp ) FL1U1 + 33sin 45 − 20 = 0 (7) Considering the equilibrium of right side of the section B − B (ref.3e). Fig.71 kN (Tension ) Considering the joint equilibrium of L3 (ref.3d) the forces in the 3 rd panel are evaluated.67 = 0 (11) (12) FL2U3 = 37. ∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ FL3U 2 = 0 − FL2U 3 sin 45 + 26. Fig.∑F y =0 ⇒ FL1U1 = 3.

∑ Fx = 0 ⇒ FL2 L3 = 0 =0 ⇒ FL3U3 = 26.) The complete solution is shown in Fig.66 kN ( Comp. Also in the diagram.3f. bar forces obtained by exact method are shown in brackets. Kharagpur . y ∑F Version 2 CE IIT. 35.

They consist of two columns and a truss placed over the columns. 35. the truss is rigidly connected to columns. While analyzing for the gravity loads.4b.4a and 35. They may be subjected to vertical loads and wind loads (horizontal loads). When the concrete footing at the column base is small. However. However if the column are built into massive foundation.35. it is assumed that the truss is simply supported on columns. then it is reasonable to assume that the columns are hinged at the base. while analyzing the frame for horizontal loads it is assumed that.3 Industrial frames and portals Common types of industrial frames are shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. then the column ends are considered as fixed for the analysis purposes. The base of the column are either hinged or fixed depending on the column foundation.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

as shown in Fig. This structure is statically indeterminate to degree one. 35. 35. Their behaviour is similar to industrial trusses. The portals are also assumed to be fixed or hinged at the base depending on the type of foundation. Kharagpur .5). When stiffness of columns is nearly equal then it is assumed that Version 2 CE IIT. To analyse this frame when subjected to wind loads by only equations of statics. Consider a portal which is hinged at the base.5a. it is required to make one assumption.Before considering the analysis of structures to wind load (horizontal load) consider the portals which are also used as the end portals of bridge structure (see Fig.

35. Kharagpur . 35. Reactions and Bending moments: As per the assumption.the shear at the base of each column is equal. Version 2 CE IIT.6) Now V A = V D = P 2 Taking moment about hinge D . shear at the base of columns is given by (vide Fig.7. If stiffness of columns is unequal then it is assumed that the shear at the base of a column is proportional to its stiffness. ∑M D =0 ⇒ RA × d = P × h ⇒ RA = Ph (↓) d Ph And ⇒ RD = (↑) d The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.

This is statically indeterminate to third degree and one needs to make three independent assumptions to solve this problem by equations of static equilibrium alone. Both the assumptions are one and the same. one could say that a hinge forms at the mid point of the girder. Again it is assumed that the shear at the base of each column is equal provided their stiffnesses are equal.It is clear from the moment diagram. Kharagpur .8a and the deformed shape of the industrial frame is shown in Fig.5b. The deformed shape of the portal is shown in Fig. 35. 35. Thus instead of making assumption that the shear is equal at the column base. an imaginary hinge forms at the mid point of the girders. Now consider a portal frame which is fixed at the base as shown in Fig. Version 2 CE IIT.8b.35.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Approximately the inflexion point occurs at the mid height of columns. the bending moment at the base of the column (at A ) produces tension on outside fibres of column cross section. Now we have three independent assumptions and using them. In the case of industrial frames. Kharagpur . The bending moment at top of column produces tension on inside fibres of column.In such a case. the inflexion points are assumed to occur at mid height between A and B . we could evaluate reactions and moments. Version 2 CE IIT. Hence bending moment changes its sign between column base and top. Thus bending moment must be zero somewhere along the height of the portal.

9a). Kharagpur .Taking moment of all forces left of hinge 1 about hinge 1 (vide Fig.yields Ph −MA =0 2× 2 ⇒ MA = Ph 4 Version 2 CE IIT. 35.

the 3 inflexion point occurs at the support and when it is fixed. the inflexion point occurs at mid-height. Ph −MD = 0 2× 2 ⇒ MD = Ph 4 Taking moment of all forces right of hinge 1 about hinge 1 gives. Example 35. Version 2 CE IIT.Similarly taking moment of all forces left of hinge 2 about hinge 2.10a.3 Determine approximately forces in the member of a truss portal shown in Fig. 35. RD d + M D − P h Ph − =0 22 2 ⇒ RD = Ph (↑) 2d Similarly Ph (↓ ) 2d The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig. RA = If the base of the column is partially fixed then hinge is assumed at a height of rd 1 from the base. Kharagpur .9b. Note that when it is hinged at the base of the column. 35.

as per the first assumption. 35.10b) V A = VD = 10 = 5 kN 2 (1) Version 2 CE IIT. the shear at the base of each column is the same and is given by (ref. Kharagpur .In this case.

m Taking moment of all forces right of hinge 1 about hinge 1 gives. consider the equilibrium of truss left of A − A as shown in Fig.Taking moment of all forces right of hinge 2 about hinge 2. RA = 40 kN (↓ ) 9 (4) Forces in the truss member can be calculated either by method of sections or by method of joints.10d. Version 2 CE IIT.m (2) (3) Similarly M A = 20 kN. For example. results MB = P ×4 2 ⇒ M B = 20 kN. Kharagpur . R B × 18 − V B × 4 + 20 − 10(4 + 4 ) = 0 ⇒ RB = 80 40 = kN (↑ ) 18 9 Similarly. 35.

5 × 8 − FL0 L1 × 4 = 0 FL0 L1 = 10 kN (Tension ) (6) Taking moment about L1 .55 kN (Comp.66 kN (Comp ) (7) Version 2 CE IIT.) (5) Taking moment about U 0 . 10 × 4 + 5 × 4 − 40 × 3 − FU 0U1 × 4 = 0 9 FU 0U1 = 11. Kharagpur .∑ Fy = 0 ⇒ − 40 4 + FU 0 L1 × = 0 9 5 ⇒ FU 0 L1 = 5.

Summary It is observed that prior to analysis of indeterminate structures either by stiffness method or force method. one can not perform indeterminate structural analysis by exact methods. one must have information regarding their relative stiffnesses and member material properties. This information is not available prior to preliminary design of structures. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . Depending upon the validity of assumptions. Hence in such cases. based on few approximations (which are justified on the structural behaviour under the applied loads) the indeterminate structures are reduced into determinate structures. Hence. usually in such cases. This methodology has been adopted in this lesson to solve indeterminate trusses and industrial frames. The determinate structure is then solved by equations of statics. the results of approximate methods compare favourably with exact methods of structural analysis as seen from the numerical examples.

Kharagpur .Module 6 Approximate Methods for Indeterminate Structural Analysis Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 36 Building Frames Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

in order to estimate the preliminary size of different members. shear force and axial force. analysis of building frames to vertical loads is discussed and in section 36.1 Introduction The building frames are the most common structural form. Analyse building frames by approximate methods for vertical loads. 36. In the case of building frames.2 and finally superimposing moments appropriately. Usually the building frames are designed such that the beam column joints are rigid. 2.3. Version 2 CE IIT. A two-bay. an analyst/engineer encounters in practice. moment distribution method or direct stiffness method may be used to analyse this rigid frame. module 1 for more details). it is necessary to reduce the given indeterminate structure to a determinate structure by suitable assumptions. The frame has 12 joints ( j ) . Analyse building frame by the portal method for horizontal loads. Before applying approximate methods. and 9 reaction components (r ) .Instructional Objectives: After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1. such as slope-deflection method. 3. These will be discussed in this lesson. A typical example of building frame is the reinforced concrete multistory frames. analysis may be carried out by considering planar frame in two perpendicular directions separately for both vertical and horizontal loads as shown in Fig. However. Thus this frame is statically indeterminate to degree = ((3 × 15 + 9) − 12 × 3) = 18 (Please see lesson 1. approximate methods are used to obtain approximate design values of moments. Kharagpur . 15 beam members (b ) .2. Any exact method. In lesson 36. analysis of building frame to horizontal loads will be discussed.1. In principle this is a three dimensional frame. shear and axial forces in various members. 36. 36. the beam column joints are monolithic and can resist bending moment. However. three-storey building plan and sectional elevation are shown in Fig. Analyse building frames by the cantilever method for horizontal loads.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

3.21L from both ends of the support. the point of inflexion or point of zero moment occurs at 0. Next consider a fixed-fixed beam. bending moment and shear force. Before we discuss the required three assumptions consider a simply supported beam. 2 Analysis of Building Frames to Vertical Loads Consider a building frame subjected to vertical loads as shown in Fig.4a. In this case zero moment (or point of inflexion) occurs at the supports as shown in Fig. in this building frame is subjected to axial force.36.36. subjected to vertical loads as shown in Fig. In this case. 36. Any typical beam. Hence each beam is statically indeterminate to third degree and hence 3 assumptions are required to reduce this beam to determinate beam. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT.4b.36.

In reality 2 ⎝ ⎠ the point of zero moment varies depending on the actual rigidity provided by the columns.4c. Thus the beam is approximated for the analysis as shown in Fig.Now consider a typical beam of a building frame as shown in Fig.21L ⎞ moment is assumed to occur at ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 0.1L from the supports. the support provided by the columns is neither fixed nor simply supported. Kharagpur .4d. In this case. For the purpose of approximate analysis the inflexion point or point of zero ⎛ 0 + 0.36. Version 2 CE IIT.36.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

For interior beams. the point of inflexion will be slightly more than 0. An experienced engineer will use his past experience to place the points of inflexion appropriately. Now redundancy has reduced by two for each beam. 36. With these three assumptions one could analyse this frame for vertical loads.1 Analyse the building frame shown in Fig. Example 36. Version 2 CE IIT.5a for vertical loads using approximate methods. Kharagpur .1L . The third assumption is that axial force in the beams is zero.

6m) from columns as shown in Fig.1L(= 0. Kharagpur . The calculation of beam moments is shown in Fig.5c.Solution: In this case the inflexion points are assumed to occur in the beam at 0. 36.5b. 36. Version 2 CE IIT.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

3 Analysis of Building Frames to lateral (horizontal) Loads A building frame may be subjected to wind and earthquake loads during its life time. The 2 maximum + ve moment in beam BE is 14. the building frames must be designed to withstand lateral loads. A two-storey two-bay multistory frame subjected to lateral loads is shown in Fig.4 kN.6.1 kN.m . This is shown in Fig.m . The columns do carry axial loads. M BC = M BA = = 4. The − ve moment in the beam BE is 8. Hence. 36. Thus. The given frame is statically indeterminate to degree 12. as the moment from the right and the moment from the left column balance each other.5d. Kharagpur . 36. Hence this moment is 8 .1 divided between column BC and BA .Now the beam − ve moment is divided equally between lower column and upper column. The axial compressive loads in the columns can be easily computed. Version 2 CE IIT. 36.m . The actual deflected shape (as obtained by exact methods) of the frame is also shown in the figure by dotted lines. It is observed that the middle column is not subjected to any moment.05kN.

This leads to 10 assumptions. Version 2 CE IIT.1 Portal method In this method following assumptions are made. 36. From the deformed shape of the frame. it is observed that inflexion point (point of zero moment) occur at mid height of each column and mid point of each beam.3. 1) An inflexion point occurs at the mid height of each column. 2) An inflexion point occurs at the mid point of each girder. Depending upon how the remaining two assumptions are made. They will be discussed in the subsequent sections.Hence it is required to make 12 assumptions to reduce the frame in to a statically determinate structure. Kharagpur . we have two different methods of analysis: i ) Portal method and ii ) cantilever method.

M CB = 5 × 1.N . 36. Kharagpur .5 − O y × 2. L we get.5 = 7. (ref. O we get.5 = 0 O y = 3 kN(↑ ) Ny = 0 Taking a section through column hinges J .3) The total horizontal shear at each storey is divided between the columns of that storey such that the interior column carries twice the shear of exterior column. M IH = +7. 36.7c). 36. if we assume that each bay is made up of a portal thus the interior column is composed of two columns (Fig. Fig.5 kN. Taking the section through column hinges M . In this method we have hinges/inflexion points at mid height of columns and beams.m . V × 1 . 5 × 1. beam end moments and reactions. This method is illustrated in example 36.6).5 = 0 M y = 3 kN(↓) Column and beam moments are calculates as.m Taking moment of all forces left of hinge S about S gives. Example 36. Thus the interior column carries twice the shear of exterior column.2 Analyse the frame shown in Fig. Fig. K .m M CF = −7.2.5 − M y × 2 . 36. Version 2 CE IIT.5 kN. The last assumption is clear. Solution: The problem is solved by equations of statics with the help of assumptions made in the portal method. ∑ FX = 0 ⇒ V + 2V + V = 20 or V = 5 kN Taking moment of all forces left of hinge R about R gives.7b). (ref.5 kN.7a and evaluate approximately the column end moments.

∑ FX = 0 or V ' = 15 kN ⇒ V '+2V '+V ' = 60 Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

5 + 5 × 1.Taking moment of all forces about P gives (vide Fig.5 = 0 Ly = 15 kN ( ↑ ) J y = 15 kN ( ↓ ) Version 2 CE IIT.5 − J y × 2. Kharagpur .7d) ∑M p = 015 ×1. 36.5 + 3 × 2.

m M HE = −30 kN.7f) M BC = 5 × 1.Column and beam moments are calculated as.m .m M BE = −30 kN. The last assumption in the cantilever method is based on this fact.2 Cantilever method The cantilever method is suitable if the frame is tall and slender.7g. 36.m Reactions at the base of the column are shown in Fig. Kharagpur .m M EH = −30 kN.3.5 = 45 kN.5 = 22.5 = 7.m . 36. In the cantilever method following assumptions are made. (ref. M ED = 30 × 1. In such a column the bending stress in the column cross section varies linearly from its neutral axis.5 kN.m .5 = 15 kN.5 kN. The method is illustrated in example 36.5 kN .m M EB = −30 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.5 = 7.3. 2) An inflexion point occurs at mid height of each column. M BA = 15 × 1. 36. 1) An inflexion point occurs at the mid point of each girder. 36.5 kN. Consider a cantilever beam acted by a horizontal load P as shown in Fig. the intensity of axial stress in a column is proportional to its horizontal distance from the center of gravity of all the columns in that storey.m M EF = 10 × 1.8.5 = 22. Fig. 3) In a storey. M HG = 15 × 1.m M HI = 5 × 1.

Kharagpur . 36. The columns are assumed to have equal cross sectional areas. x= ∑ xA = (0)A + 5 A + 10 A = 5 m A+ A+ A ∑A (from left column) Version 2 CE IIT.3 Estimate approximate column reactions. The center of gravity of all column passes through centre column. Solution: This problem is already solved by portal method.Example 36. beam and column moments using cantilever method of the frame shown in Fig.8a.

My 5× A =− Oy 5× A ⇒ M y = −O y Taking moment about O of all forces gives.e.G. O y = 3 kN (↑ ) Taking moment about R of all forces left of R .8b. Now the column left of C. Kharagpur . 20 × 1. 36.5 − M y × 10 = 0 M y = 3 kN (↓ ) .Taking a section through first storey hinges gives us the free body diagram as shown in Fig. CB must be subjected to tension and one on the right is subjected to compression. From the third assumption. i. Version 2 CE IIT.

m M CF = −7. Moments M CB = 5 ×1. Fig. VO × 1. Kharagpur . K .5 kN.m Tae a section through hinges J .m M FI = −7.5 = 0 VM = 5 kN ( ← ) Taking moment of all forces right of S about S .m M FE = 15 kN.5 = 0 ⇒ ∑F VO = 5 kN. L (ref.5 kN. X =0 VM + VN + VO − 20 = 0 V N = 10 kN.VM × 1.5 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.m M FC = −7.m M IH = 7.5 = 7.8c). 36.5 kN. Since the center of gravity passes through centre column the axial force in that column is zero.5 kN.5 kN.5 − 3 × 2.m M IF = −7.5 − 3 × 2.

5 = 0 V J = 15 kN(← ) Similarly taking moment of all forces right of Q about Q gives.5 + 3 × 2. 5 ×1.5 − 15 × 2.5 + V j × 1. L y = 15 kN(↑) Taking moment of all forces left of P about P gives.5 + 3 × 10 − J y × 10 = 0 J y = 15 kN(↓) . 5 × 1. Kharagpur .5 + VL ×1. 20 × 3 + 40 × 1. J y can be evaluated. Thus.5 + 3 × 2.5 = 0 VL = 15 kN(←) ∑F X =0 VJ + VK + VL − 60 = 0 VK = 30 kN. Version 2 CE IIT.5 − 15 × 2.Taking moment about hinge L .

m .5 = 15 kN. M ED = 30 × 1. Version 2 CE IIT. analysis of building frame to horizontal loads is discussed.5 = 45 kN. Kharagpur .5 kN. M HG = 15 ×1.5 = 7.5 kN. The analysis of building frames to vertical loads was discussed in section 36.m .Moments M BC = 5 × 1.m . the given indeterminate building fame is reduced into a determinate structure by suitable assumptions.m M EH = −30 kN. Two different methods are used to analyse building frames to horizontal loads: portal and cantilever method.5 kN.m Summary In this lesson.5 = 22. Typical numerical problems are solved to illustrate the procedure.3.m M HE = −30 kN.2.m M EF = 10 × 1. the building frames are analysed by approximate methods.5 = 22. In section 36.m M HI = 5 ×1. M BA = 15 × 1. Towards this end.m M EB = −30 kN.m M BE = −30 kN.5 = 7.5 kN.

Module 7 Influence Lines Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Lesson 37 Moving Load and Its Effects on Structural Members Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Common sense tells us that when a load moves over a structure. or a displacement at a particular point in a structure as a unit load move across the structure. An influence line is a curve the ordinate to which at any point equals the value of some particular function due to unit load acting at that point. • An influence line is a diagram whose ordinates. reactions value at the support also will vary.3 Construction of Influence Lines In this section. • • 37. An influence line represents the variation of either the reaction.1 Introduction In earlier lessons. shear. In this lecture. you were introduced to statically determinate and statically indeterminate structural analysis under non-moving load (dead load or fixed loads). we will discuss about the construction of influence lines. From the designer’s point of view. 37. give the value of an internal force. Some of the definitions of influence line are given below. a reaction. which are plotted as a function of distance along the span. researchers have defined influence line in many ways. you will be introduced to determination of maximum internal actions at cross-sections of members of statically determinate structured under the effects of moving loads (live loads). Shear or Version 2 CE IIT. we can arrive at simple conclusion that due to moving load position on the structure. moment. In the process. Using any one of the two approaches (Figure 37. one can construct the influence line at a specific point P in a member for any parameter (Reaction. which doesn’t exceed the limits of deformations and also the limits of load carrying capacity of the structure. Kharagpur .Instructional Objectives: The objectives of this lesson are as follows: • Understand the moving load effect in simpler term • Study various definitions of influence line • Introduce to simple procedures for construction of influence lines 37.2 Definitions of influence line In the literature.1). it is essential to have safe structure. the deflected shape of the structural will vary. or deflection at a specific point in a member as a unit concentrated force moves over the member.

2 Sign Conventions Sign convention followed for shear and moment is given below.3. Positive for the following case V Moment M Positive for the following case V M M Version 2 CE IIT.1 Tabulate Values Apply a unit load at different locations along the member. 37.1: Approaches for construction of influence line 37.Moment). Shear V or moment M) and plot the tabulated values so that influence line segments can be constructed. Reaction R. Construction of Influence Lines Tabulate Values Influence Line-Equation Figure 37. Classification of the approaches for construction of influence lines is given in Figure 37. listing unit load at x versus the corresponding value of the parameter calculated at the specific point (i. Parameter Reaction R Shear V Sign for influence line Positive at the point when it acts upward on the beam.1. The best way to use this approach is to prepare a table.3. shear. And these locations.e. apply statics to compute the value of parameter (reaction. In the present approaches it is assumed that the moving load is having dimensionless magnitude of unity. say at x. Kharagpur . or moment) at the specified point.

2. Figure 37. if the load is placed at 2.25 Figure 37. there are two ways this problem can be solved.3). Let us say. a unit load is places at distance x from support A and the reaction value RB is calculated by taking moment with reference to support A.37. The above discussed both approaches are demonstrated with the help of simple numerical examples in the following paragraphs. reaction. shear or moment) at a specific point under the effect of moving load at a variable position x.5 m. Kharagpur . the load can be placed at 5.3 Influence Line Equations Influence line can be constructed by deriving a general mathematical equation to compute parameters (e. Both the approaches will be demonstrated here. The beam structure is shown in Figure 37.3.g.4 Numerical Examples Example 1: Construct the influence line for the reaction at support B for the beam of span 10 m. Version 2 CE IIT.3: The beam structure with unit load Similarly.2: The beam structure Solution: As discussed earlier. 7. from support A then the reaction RB can be calculated as follows (Figure 37. 37. away from support A and reaction RB can be computed and tabulated as given below. Σ MA = 0 : RB x 10 .5 = 0 ⇒ RB = 0.0.5 and 10 m. Tabulate values: As shown in the figure.1 x 2.

Influence Line Equation: When the unit load is placed at any location between two supports from support A at distance x then the equation for reaction RB can be written as Σ MA = 0 : RB x 10 – x = 0 ⇒ RB = x/10 The influence line using this equation is shown in Figure 37.75 1 Graphical representation of influence line for RB is shown in Figure 37. Kharagpur .5 5. Example 2: Construct the influence line for support reaction at B for the given beam as shown in Fig 37.5. Figure 37. a unit load is places at distance x from support A and the reaction value RB is calculated by taking moment with reference to support A. Tabulate Values: As shown in the figure.25 0.x 0 2.5 0. Figure 37. Let Version 2 CE IIT.0 0.5: The overhang beam structure Solution: As explained earlier in example 1.4: Influence line for reaction RB. here we will use tabulated values and influence line equation approach.0 7.4.4.5 10 RB 0.

00 1. Kharagpur .5 and the reaction at B can be computed.6: The beam structure with unit load Similarly one can place a unit load at distances 5.7: Influence for reaction RB.33 Figure 37.67 1.67 Graphical representation of influence line for RB is shown in Figure 37.0 7.5 10 12.5 m. When the load is placed at 10. x 0 2. Σ MA = 0 : RB x 7. Version 2 CE IIT.5 RB 0.0 = 0 ⇒ RB = 1.0 m and 7.33 1.0 m from support A.5 = 0 ⇒ RB = 0. from support A then the reaction RB can be calculated as follows.5 . if the load is placed at 2. then reaction at B can be computed using following equation.7. The values of reaction at B are tabulated as follows.us say.33 0.5 5.1 x 2.1 x 10. Figure 37.33 Similarly a unit load can be placed at 12. Σ MA = 0 : RB x 7.0 0.5 m from support A and compute reaction at B.5 .

7. Example 3: Construct the influence line for shearing point C of the beam (Figure 37. Figure 37. The shear force at C should be carefully computed when unit load is placed before point C (Figure 37.8) Figure 37. The resultant values of shear force at C are tabulated as follows.9: The beam structure – a unit load before section Figure 37.Influence line Equation: Applying the moment equation at A (Figure 37.1 x x = 0 ⇒ RB = x/7.8: Beam Structure Solution: Tabulated Values: As discussed earlier. Σ MA = 0 : RB x 7. Kharagpur .5 The influence line using this equation is shown in Figure 37. place a unit load at different location at distance x from support A and find the reactions at A and finally computer shear force taking section at C.9) and after point C (Figure 37.5 .a unit load before section Version 2 CE IIT.6).10).10: The beam structure .

0 -0. Kharagpur .5 15.11: Influence line for shear point C Influence line equation: In this case.X 0 2.11.11.33 -0. Figure 37.13) will show different shear force sign due to discontinuity.5 0.16 0 Graphical representation of influence line for Vc is shown in Figure 37.5(+) 10 12. The equations are plotted in Figure 37.12: Free body diagram – a unit load before section Version 2 CE IIT.5 5.33 0. Figure 37.16 -0.0 7. we need to determine two equations as the unit load position before point C (Figure 37.0 Vc 0.12) and after point C (Figure 37.5 0.5(-) 7.

Taking section at C and computation of moment at C can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : . we can also construct influence line for moment. For example.167.Figure 37.Mc + 0.5 .833 and support reaction B will be 0.= 0 ⇒ Mc = 1.5 m from support A (Figure 37.15).5 . take a section at C and compute the moment. compute the moment Mc for difference unit load position in the span.13: Free body diagram – a unit load after section Influence Line for Moment: Like shear force.15: A unit load before section Similarly. Example 4: Construct the influence line for the moment at point C of the beam shown in Figure 37.= 0 ⇒ .14: Beam structure Solution: Tabulated values: Place a unit load at different location between two supports and find the support reactions.Mc + RB x 7.25 Figure 37.167 x 7. Version 2 CE IIT. then the support reaction at A will be 0. Kharagpur .14 Figure 37. The values of Mc are tabulated as follows. Once the support reactions are computed. we place the unit load at x=2.

5 15.5 .0 Mc 0.18 can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : Mc – (1-x/15) x 7.5 = 0 ⇒ Mc = 7.5 1.16.X 0 2.16: Influence line for moment at section C Influence Line Equations: There will be two influence line equations for the section before point C and after point C.0 Version 2 CE IIT. where 0 ≤ x ≤ 7.a unit load before section When the unit load is placed after point C then the moment equation for given Figure 37.5 5. Kharagpur .0 1.5 10 12.25 2. When the unit load is placed before point C then the moment equation for given Figure 37.5 = 0 ⇒ Mc = x/2.5 3.5 Figure 37. where 7.25 0 Graphical representation of influence line for Mc is shown in Figure 37.75 2.17: Free body diagram .5 < x ≤ 15.17 can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : Mc + 1(7. Figure 37.0 7.5 –x) – (1-x/15)x7.x/2.

19.= 0 ⇒ .18: Free body diagram . Figure 37.0 .Mc + 0.25. compute the moment Mc for difference unit load position in the span. Version 2 CE IIT. Example 5: Construct the influence line for the moment at point C of the beam shown in Figure 37. Once the support reactions are computed. we place a unit load at 2. Kharagpur .75 and support reaction B will be 0.20: A unit load before section C Taking section at C and computation of moment at C can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : .Figure 37. For example as shown in Figure 37.16.20.5 m from support A. take a section at C and compute the moment. Figure 37. The values of Mc are tabulated as follows.a unit load before section The equations are plotted in Figure 37.25 x 5. then the support reaction at A will be 0.Mc + RB x 5.19: Overhang beam structure Solution: Tabulated values: Place a unit load at different location between two supports and find the support reactions.0 = 0 ⇒ Mc = 1.25 Similarly.

Kharagpur .21.21: Influence line of moment at section C Influence Line Equations: There will be two influence line equations for the section before point C and after point C.0 7.5 15.0 Figure 37.x/2.0 –x) – (1-x/10)x5.25 2.x 0 2.23 can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : Mc – (1-x/10) x 5.22: A unit load before section C When a unit load is placed after point C then the moment equation for given Figure 37.5 1. where 0 ≤ x ≤ 5.5 10 12. where 5 < x ≤ 15 Version 2 CE IIT.25 -2.22 can be given by Σ Mc = 0 : Mc + 1(5.0 Mc 0 1.0 = 0 ⇒ Mc = 5 .25 0 -1.5 Graphical representation of influence line for Mc is shown in Figure 37. When a unit load is placed before point C then the moment equation for given Figure 37.0 = 0 ⇒ Mc = x/2.5 5. Figure 37.

reactions A can be computed.24: Beam structure Version 2 CE IIT.1 Concentrated load As shown in the Figure 37. we can find that for the load position of P. Let us assume that there are two kinds of load acting on the beam.5xP.5.24. Figure 37. like earlier examples. influence line of unit load gives value of 0.21. Hence.25. Hence it is necessary to construct the influence line for the reaction. let us assume that unit load is moving from A to B and influence line for reaction A can be plotted as shown in Figure 37. 37. point load P is moving on beam from A to B. Looking at the position. Now we want to know. to generalize our approach.5. Hence.24.23: A unit load after section C The equations are plotted in Figure 37. They are concentrated load and uniformly distributed load (UDL). 37.5 Influence line for beam having point load and uniformly distributed load acting at the same time Generally in beams/girders are main load carrying components in structural systems. for various load positions and load value. shear or moment at any specified point in beam to check for criticality. if load P is at the center of span then what will be the value of reaction A? From Figure 37. Kharagpur .Figure 37. reaction A will be 0. let us say. Similarly. we need to find out what will be the influence line for reaction B for this load.

dx = w ∫ y.y. Let us assume that beam’s influence line ordinate for some function (reaction.dx acting at x.dx is equivalent to area under the influence line. In that case. Hence. The term ∫ y.dx.y.Figure 37.dx). Kharagpur . Figure 37. considering for segment of dx (Figure 37. moment) is y as shown in Figure 37. the concentrated load dP can be given by w. the value of function is given by (dP)(y) = (w. For UDL of w on span. For computation of the effect of all these concentrated loads. we have to integrate over the entire length of the beam.25: Influence line for support reaction at A 37.2 Uniformly Distributed Load Beam is loaded with uniformly distributed load (UDL) and our objective is to find influence line for reaction A so that we can generalize the approach. we can say that it will be ∫ w. shear.27.26).5.26: Uniformly distributed load on beam Figure 37.27: Segment of influence line diagram Version 2 CE IIT.

Version 2 CE IIT. Figure 37.31.5x (1)xl] w = 0. i. Figure 37.30: Simply supported beam Solution: As discussed earlier for unit load moving on beam from A to B.6 Numerical Example Find the maximum positive live shear at point C when the beam (Figure 37.29: Influence line for support reaction at A. 37.l.28: UDL on simply supported beam Figure 37.5 w.30) is loaded with a concentrated moving load of 10 kN and UDL of 5 kN/m. the influence line (Figure 37. Kharagpur . the influence line for the shear at C can be given by following Figure 37.28.e. [0.29) for reaction A can be given by area covered by the influence line for unit load into UDL value.For a given example of UDL on beam as shown in Figure 37.

31: Influence line for shear at section C.375. Vc = 0.5 x 10 = 5 kN. In that case. Our aim is to find positive live shear and hence.5) (0. Finally the loading positions for maximum shear at C will be as shown in Figure 37. Kharagpur . Concentrated load: As shown in Figure 37. the maximum live shear force at C will be when the concentrated load 10 kN is located just before C or just after C. UDL: As shown in Figure 37.375 = 14.5 x (15 –7.31. the maximum positive live shear force at C will be when the UDL 5 kN/m is acting between x = 7. Version 2 CE IIT.32. For this beam one can easily compute shear at C using statics.31.5 and x = 15.5)] x 5 = 9.375 Total maximum Shear at C: (Vc) max = 5 + 9.Figure 37. Vc = [ 0. we will put 10 kN just after C.

E. New Delhi. ISBN 0-07-462304-4 Norris. Anand. New Delhi. H. (2003). and Shah. R. NY. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Structural Analysis. S. Structural Analysis. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. K.7 Closing Remarks In this lesson we have studied the need for influence line and their importance. S.Figure 37. (1991). Mechanics of Structures – Vol. The understanding about the simple approach was studied with the help of many numerical examples. Further we studied the available various influence line definitions. (2002). B. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • • • • • • Armenakas.. Delhi. Finally we studied the influence line construction using tabulated values and influence line equation. McGraw-Hill Book Company. II. ISBN 81-7808-750-2 Junarkar. B. ISBN 0-07-100120-4 Hibbeler. H. and Uang. R.S. (1988). Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. (2003). Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. L. Elementary Structural Analysis. M. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. and Jangid.32: Simply supported beam 37. New Delhi. Ltd. Charotar Publishing House. Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach. (1999). J. C. Wilbur. J. A. Leet. S. ISBN 007-058116-9 Version 2 CE IIT. C-M.. ISBN 0-07-058208-4 Negi. Kharagpur . and Utku. C.

Module 7 Influence Lines Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 38 Influence Lines for Beams Version 2 CE IIT.

Let us say. Figure 38. our objective is to obtain the influence line for the support reaction at A for the beam shown in Figure 38.2: Deflected shape of beam Version 2 CE IIT.1: Simply supported beam First of all remove the support corresponding to the reaction and apply a force (Figure 38. 38.2) in the positive direction that will cause a unit displacement in the direction of RA.1. Heinrich Müller Breslau proposed a technique to draw influence lines quickly.3) for the support reaction at A. The Müller Breslau Principle states that the ordinate value of an influence line for any function on any structure is proportional to the ordinates of the deflected shape that is obtained by removing the restraint corresponding to the function from the structure and introducing a force that causes a unit displacement in the positive direction.1 Müller Breslau Principle for Qualitative Influence Lines In 1886. Figure 38.Instructional Objectives: The objectives of this lesson are as follows: • How to draw qualitative influence lines? • Understand the behaviour of the beam under rolling loads • Construction of influence line when the beam is loaded with uniformly distributed load having shorter or longer length than the span of the beam. The resulting deflected shape will be proportional to the true influence line (Figure 38. Kharagpur .

e. Similarly some other examples are given below.6 shows the actual influence. Here we are interested to draw the qualitative influence line for shear at section C of overhang beam as shown in Figure 38. introduce a roller at section C so that it gives freedom to the beam in vertical direction as shown in Figure 38. Again. Figure 38. Kharagpur .Figure 38.2 and matches with the actual influence line shape as shown in Figure 38.3.5: Deflected shape of beam Now apply a force in the positive direction that will cause a unit displacement in the direction of VC. Version 2 CE IIT. i.4: Overhang beam As discussed earlier. Figure 38.3: Influence line for support reaction A The deflected shape due to a unit displacement at A is shown in Figure 38.4. the beam rotates as a rigid body without any curvature.. which matches with the qualitative influence.5.5. Note that the deflected shape is linear. note that the deflected shape is linear. This is true only for statically determinate systems. The resultant deflected shape is shown in Figure 38. Figure 38.

6: Influence line for shear at section C In this second example.9: Influence line for moment at section C Version 2 CE IIT. we will introduce hinge at C and that will only permit rotation at C.8 and matches with the actual shape of the influence line as shown in Figure 38.Figure 38.9.8: Deflected shape of beam Figure 38. Figure 38. Now apply moment in the positive direction that will cause a unit rotation in the direction of Mc.7. we are interested to draw a qualitative influence line for moment at C for the beam as shown in Figure 38. Figure 38.7: Beam structure In this example. The deflected shape due to a unit rotation at C is shown in Figure 38. Kharagpur . being our objective to construct influence line for moment.

maximum areas should be loaded. UDL of intensity w per unit for the shear at supports A and B will be given by Figure 38.2.1 UDL longer than the span Let us assume that the simply supported beam as shown in Figure 38. Depending upon the length of the load and span. the maximum shear in beam supporting UDL will change. Kharagpur . 38.10: Beam Structure Figure 38. The influence lines for reactions RA.10 is loaded with UDL of w moving from left to right where the length of the load is longer than the span. Following section will discuss about these two cases.11.13 respectively. Either Uniformly distributed load is longer than the span or uniformly distributed load is shorter than the span.11: Influence line for support reaction at A Version 2 CE IIT. It should be noted that for maximum values of shear. Maximum shear in beam supporting UDLs If UDL is rolling on the beam from one end to other end then there are two possibilities. 38.12 and 38.2. RB and shear at section C located at x from support A will be as shown in Figure 38.38.

And maximum positive shear can be obtained when the tail of the load is at the section C.13. As discussed earlier the shear force is computed by intensity of the load multiplied by the area of influence line diagram covered by load. maximum negative shear can be achieved when the head of the load is at the section C. maximum negative shear is given by 1 x wx 2 = − × x× ×w = − 2 l 2l and maximum positive shear is given by Version 2 CE IIT.13: Influence line for shear at section C 1 wl RA = w × × l ×1 = 2 2 − wl 1 RB = − w × × l × 1 = 2 2 Suppose we are interested to know shear at given section at C. Hence. Kharagpur .12: Influence line for support reaction at B Figure 38.Figure 38. As shown in Figure 38.

And maximum positive shear can be obtained when the tail of the load is at the section. then as discussed earlier.1 UDL longer than the span Let us assume the UDL longer than the span is traveling from left end to right hand for the beam as shown in Figure 38. Like the previous section discussion. We are interested to know maximum moment at C located at x from the support A. the maximum moment at sections in beam supporting UDLs can either be due to UDL longer than the span or due to ULD shorter than the span. 38.15) covered.2. In the present case the load will cover the completed span and hence the moment at section C can be given by Figure 38.3. As discussed earlier. the maximum bending moment is given by the load intensity multiplied by the area of influence line (Figure 38. Following paragraph will explain about computation of moment in these two cases. maximum negative shear can be achieved when the head of the load is at the section. Kharagpur . 38.14. As discussed earlier the shear force is computed by the load intensity multiplied by the area of influence line diagram covered by load.= 1 ⎛l − x⎞ w(l − x) 2 ×⎜ ⎟ × (l − x) × w = − 2 ⎝ l ⎠ 2l 38.15: Influence line for moment at section C Version 2 CE IIT.14: Beam structure Figure 38. The example is demonstrated in previous lesson.3 Maximum bending moment at sections in beams supporting UDLs.2 UDL shorter than the span When the length of UDL is shorter than the span.

let us assume that the UDL length y is smaller than the span of the beam AB.3. Take moment with reference to A and it will be zero.16: Beam loaded with UDL shorter in length than span Hence. Let say that the mid point of UDL is located at D as shown in Figure 38. then maximum moment is given by l l w× × 2 2 2 = wl 2 8 38. We are interested to find maximum bending moment at section C located at x from support A.16 at distance of z from support A. Kharagpur .16.2 UDL shorter than the span As shown in Figure 38. Version 2 CE IIT. the reaction at B is given by RB = w × y × z wx (l − x) =− l 2 And moment at C will be M C = R B (l − x) − w y ( z + − x) 2 2 2 Substituting value of reaction B in above equation.1 x(l − x) wx (l − x) w× ×l × =− 2 l 2 Suppose the section C is at mid span. Figure 38. we can obtain MC = wyz w y (l − x) − ( z + − x ) 2 l 2 2 To compute maximum value of moment at C. we need to differentiate above given equation with reference to z and equal to zero.

Ltd. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Structural Analysis.dM c wy y = (l − x) − w( z + − x) = 0 dz l 2 Therefore.4 Closing Remarks In this lesson we studied how to draw qualitative influence line for shear and moment using Müller Breslau Principle. ISBN 81-7808-750-2 • Junarkar. In the next lesson we will study about two or more than two concentrated loads moving on the beam. the moment calculated at the section will give maximum moment value. A. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • Armenakas. and Shah. II. In that case. B. Further we studied how to draw the influence lines for shear and moment when the beam is loaded with UDL. ISBN 0-07-100120-4 • Hibbeler. J. we can state that ab Cb = AB CB ∴ CB AB AB − CB AC = = = Cb ab ab − Cb aC aC AC = Cb CB ∴ The expression states that for the UDL shorter than span. Charotar Publishing House. Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach. R. the load should be placed in a way so that the section divides it in the same proportion as it divides the span. Mechanics of Structures – Vol.. C. S. NY. Anand. E. 38. y y (l − x ) = ( z + − x) l 2 Using geometric expression. we studied the two cases where the UDL length is shorter or longer than span. (1988). (1999). Version 2 CE IIT. Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. Here. Kharagpur . (2002). Delhi. H.

L. Kharagpur . New Delhi. and Jangid. C-M. Structural Analysis. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. Wilbur. R.S. B. and Utku. (2003). K. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. J. ISBN 0-07-058208-4 • Negi. Elementary Structural Analysis. (1991). New Delhi. M. ISBN 0-07-462304-4 • Norris. ISBN 0-07058116-9 Version 2 CE IIT.. H. (2003). C. and Uang. S. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.• Leet. New Delhi. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. S.

Kharagpur .Module 7 Influence Lines Version 2 CE IIT.

Lesson 39 Influence Lines for Beams (Contd. Kharagpur .) Version 2 CE IIT.

We are interested to find maximum shear force in the beam at given section C. In the present lesson. we have studied about construction of influence line for the either single concentrated load or uniformly distributed loads.1.2 Maximum shear at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads Let us assume that instead of one single point load. 39.1 Introduction In the previous lessons. • • • • • • • Construction of influence line for maximum shear at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads Construction of influence line for maximum moment at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads Construction of influence line for maximum end shear in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads Construction of influence line for maximum shear at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads Construction of influence line for maximum moment at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads Construction of influence line for absolute maximum moment in s beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads Understanding about the envelopes of maximum influence line values 39. which are loaded with a series of two or more then two concentrated loads. Kharagpur . In the present case. there are two point loads P1 and P2 spaced at y moving from left to right on the beam as shown in Figure 39.Instructional Objectives: The objectives of the present lesson are as follows. we will study in depth about the beams. we assume that P2<P1. Figure 39.1: Beam loaded with two concentrated point loads Version 2 CE IIT.

maximum negative shear at section C can be given by VC = − P2 x l and maximum positive shear at section C will be VC = P2 (l − x) l Case 2: x=y In this case. x=y and x>y. In that case. maximum negative shear force can be obtained when load P2 will be on section C. They are: x<y. load P1 will be on support A and P2 will be on section C.2.Now there are three possibilities due to load spacing. Case 1: x<y This case indicates that when load P2 will be between A and C then load P1 will not be on the beam. Kharagpur . The maximum negative shear force is expressed as: Version 2 CE IIT. Maximum negative shear can be given by x l and maximum positive shear at section C will be VC = − P2 VC = P2 (l − x) l Case 3: x>y With reference to Figure 39.

select the maximum negative shear value. Kharagpur . there are two point loads P1 and P2 spaced at y moving left to right on the beam as shown in Figure 39. maximum positive shear force can be obtained when load P1 will be on section C.2: Influence line for shear at section C VC = − P2 1 x ⎛ x− y⎞ − P1 ⎜ ⎟ l ⎝ l ⎠ And with reference to Figure 39.3.3 Maximum moment at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads Let us assume that instead of one single point load. Figure 39.Figure 39. 39.2. We are interested to find maximum moment in the beam at given section C. The maximum positive shear force is expressed as: VC = − P1 2 x ⎛l − x− y⎞ + P2 ⎜ ⎟ l l ⎝ ⎠ From above discussed two values of shear force at section.3: Beam loaded with two concentrated loads Version 2 CE IIT.

4. four concentrated loads are moving from right end to left end on beam AB. Let us assume that as shown in Figure 39. Hence.4 Maximum end shear in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads In real life situation. how to find end shear in beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads. moment can be obtained when load P1 will be on section C. The spacing of the concentrated load is given in Figure 39.5. The moment for this case is expressed as: ⎛l − x− ⎛l − x⎞ 2 M C = P1 x⎜ ⎟ + P2 x⎜ l ⎝ ⎝ l ⎠ y⎞ ⎟ ⎠ From above two cases. The moment for this case is expressed as: Figure 39. 39.4. moment can be obtained when load P2 will be on section C. maximum value of moment should be considered for maximum moment at section C when two point loads are moving from left end to right end of the beam. which will be moving on bridges. in this case. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . our aim is to learn. usually there are more than two point loads.With reference to Figure 39.4: Influence line for moment at section C ⎛l − x⎞ ⎛l − x⎞ 1 M C = P1 ( x − y )⎜ ⎟ ⎟ + P2 x⎜ ⎝ l ⎠ ⎝ l ⎠ With reference to Figure 39.5.

there could be increase or decrease in shear value depending upon the next point load approaching support A.6: Influence line for reaction at support A Figure 39.5: Beam loaded with a series of loads As shown in figure.6 and 39. Using this simple logical approach. When load passes the support. Figure 39. Kharagpur . We need to draw influence line for the support reaction A and a point away from the support at infinitesimal distance on the span for the shear VA.7. The influence lines for these cases are shown in Figure 39.7: Influence line for shear near to support A. When loads are moving from B to A then as they move closer to A. we will find out the change in shear value Version 2 CE IIT. the shear value will increase.Figure 39. we are interested in end shear at A.

change in shear will be expressed as dV = ∑ Px − P l 1 When load P2 crosses support A.8. In that case change in shear will be expressed as dV = ∑ Py − P l 2 In case if dV is positive then shear at A has increased and if dV is negative.1 Numerical Example Compute maximum end shear for the given beam loaded with moving loads as shown in Figure 39. In that case. then change in shear can be given by dV = ∑ (8 + 8 + 4)2 − 4 = 0 10 When second load of 8 kN crosses support A and third load 8 kN is approaching support A. Kharagpur . When load P1 crosses support A.4.8 10 Version 2 CE IIT. then P3 will approach A. Here for the present case let us assume that ΣP is summation of the loads remaining on the beam. first load. Therefore.8: Beam loaded with a series of four concentrated loads When first load of 4 kN crosses support A and second load 8 kN is approaching support A. then shear at A has decreased. which crosses and induces negative changes in shear. 39. then change in shear can be given by dV = ∑ (8 + 4)3 − 8 = −3. should be placed on support A.near support and monitor this change from positive value to negative value. Figure 39. then P2 will approach A.

11. the second load 8 kN has to be placed on support A to find out maximum end shear (refer Figure 39. Figure 39. when a series of concentrated loads are moving on beam and we are interested to find maximum shear at a section. Kharagpur .3 = 15.Hence.5 Maximum shear at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads In this section we will discuss about the case. Let us assume that series of loads are moving from right end to left end as shown in Figure.8 + 8 × 0. 39.9: Influence line for shear at A. V A = 4 × 1 + 8 × 0.5 + 4 × 0. Figure 39.10.9). Version 2 CE IIT.10: Beam loaded with a series of loads The influence line for shear at the section is shown in Figure 39.6kN 39. as discussed earlier.

39. Figure 39.5. Figure 39. Kharagpur .11: Influence line for shear at section C Monitor the sign of change in shear at the section from positive to negative and apply the concept discussed in earlier section.Figure 39. Compute the maximum shear at the section C. which are moving from right to left as shown in Figure 39.12: Beam loaded with a series of loads The influence line at section C is shown in following Figure 39.13.12.13: Influence line for shear at section C When first load 4kN crosses section C and second load approaches section C then change in shear at a section can be given by Version 2 CE IIT.1 Numerical Example The beam is loaded with concentrated loads. Following numerical example explains the same.

(y2 – y1). then (y2 – y1) = S (x2 – x1).2 × 4 = 9.2kN 39.4 × 8 + 0. Let us assume the slope of the influence line (Figure 39.4 10 Hence place the second concentrated load at the section and computed shear at a section is given by VC == 0.1 × 4 + 0.14: Beam and Influence line for moment at section C Version 2 CE IIT.e. Figure 39.6 Maximum Moment at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads The approach that we discussed earlier can be applied in the present context also to determine the maximum positive moment for the beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads.dV = 20 × 2 −4=0 10 When second load 8 kN crosses section C and third load approaches section C then change in shear at section can be given by dV = 12 × 3 − 8 = −4. The change in moment for a load P1 that moves from position x1 to x2 over a beam can be obtained by multiplying P1 by the change in ordinate of the influence line i. Kharagpur .7 × 8 + 0.14) is S.

17: Beam loaded with a series of loads – First load at section C Version 2 CE IIT. All the four cases are shown in Figures 39.16: Beam loaded with a series of loads If we place each of the four-concentrated loads at the peak of influence line.15.Hence change in moment can be given by dM = P1 S ( x2 − x1 ) Let us consider the numerical example for better understanding of the developed concept. Kharagpur . Figure 39. Compute the maximum moment at the section C.17-20.16. which are moving from right to left as shown in Figure 39. then we can get the largest influence from each force. Figure 39.1 Numerical Example The beam is loaded with concentrated loads. 39. Figure 39.15: Beam loaded with a series of loads The influence line for moment at C is shown in Figure 39.6.

5 = 12.5kN .17) then change in moment is given by ⎛ 7. it is observed that the slope is downward (7.5 + (50 + 40)⎜ ⎜ (40 − 10) ⎟2.5/(40-10)).18) then change in moment is given by ⎛ 7.m ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ At this stage. hence place second load at the section and maximum moment (refer Figure 39.17.18: Beam loaded with a series of loads – Second load at section C Figure 39.5 = −112. we find negative change in moment. When the first load 40 kN crosses the section and second load 50 kN is approaching section (Figure 39.– Third load at section C Figure 39.5kN .19: Beam loaded with a series of loads .Figure 39.5 ⎞ dM = −40⎜ ⎟2. Kharagpur . the slope is upward (7. For other loads. when the first load crosses the section C.5 + (50 + 50 + 40)⎜ ⎜ (40 − 10) ⎟2.21) will be given by Version 2 CE IIT.5 ⎞ ⎛ 7.20: Beam loaded with a series of loads .5 ⎞ ⎛ 7.m ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ When the second load 50 kN crosses the section and third load 50 kN is approaching section (Figure 39.5 ⎞ dM = −(40 + 50)⎜ ⎟2.5/10).– Third load at section C As shown in Figure 39.

25) = 1193. Kharagpur . However.22.22: Absolute maximum shear case – cantilever beam Similarly for the simply supported beam. After placing the load as close as to fixed support.Figure 39. from design point of view it is necessary to know the critical location of the point in the beam and the position of the loading on the beam to find maximum shear and moment induced by the loads. find the shear at the section close to fixed end.23. Figure 39. In earlier sections. the absolute maximum shear will occur when one of the loads is placed very close to support. Version 2 CE IIT.625)+ 50(7. as shown in Figure 39. for the cantilever beam.8775) + 40(6.87kNm 39. Maximum Shear: As shown in the Figure 39.7 Absolute maximum moment in s beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads. Following paragraph explains briefly for the cantilever beam or simply supported beam so that quickly maximum shear and moment can be obtained. UDL and series of concentrated loads at specified locations. we have learned to compute the maximum shear and moment for single load.5)+ 50(6. absolute maximum shear will occur at a point located very near to fixed end of the beam.21: Influence line for moment at C M c = 40(5.

Figure 39. Figure 39. located in such way that it nearer to P3 at a distance of d1 as shown in Figure 39. Let us assume that load P1. we need to prove an important proposition.24. but the loading position will be at the free end as shown in Figure 39. which are on the beam.24: Absolute maximum moment – cantilever beam The absolute maximum bending moment in the case of simply supported beam. simply supported ends. Version 2 CE IIT. the maximum bending moment under any given wheel occurs when its axis and the center of gravity of the load system on span are equidistant from the center of the span.23: Absolute maximum shear – simply supported beam Moment: The absolute maximum bending moment in case of cantilever beam will occur where the maximum shear has occurred. P3 etc. we can identify position analytically. are spaced shown in Figure 39. Proposition: When a series of wheel loads crosses a beam.25. However. In this regard.25 and traveling from left to right. one cannot obtain by direct inspection. P2. Assume PR to be resultant of the loads. Kharagpur .

7.1 Numerical Examples Example 1: The beam is loaded with two loads 25 kN each spaced at 2. Let us have a look to some examples for better understanding of the abovederived proposition. Our objective is to find the maximum bending moment under load P3.25: Absolute maximum moment case – simply supported beam If P12 is resultant of P1 and P2. Hence. Find the absolute maximum moment Solution: When the a load of 25kN and center of gravity of loads are equidistant from the center of span then absolute bending moment will occur.Figure 39.26. place the load on the beam as shown in Figure 39. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . The bending moment under P3 is expressed as M = PR x (l − x − d1 ) − P12 (d 2 ) l Differentiate the above expression with respect to x for finding out maximum moment.5 m is traveling on the beam having span of 10 m. and distance from P3 is d2. dM PR l d = (l − 2 x − d1 ) = 0 ⇒ l − 2 x + d1 = 0 ⇒ x = − 1 dx l 2 2 Above expression proves the proposition. 39.

367) = 95.461) + 25(1. M x = 25(2.28: Simply supported beam (Example 2) First of all compute the center of gravity of loads from first point load of 100 kN Version 2 CE IIT.27 Figure 39.Figure 39.27: Influence line for moment at X (Example 1) Computation of absolute maximum moment is given below.70kN .26: Simply supported beam (Example 1) The influence line for Mx is shown in Figure 39.28. Kharagpur .m Example 2: Compute the absolute maximum bending moment for the beam having span of 30 m and loaded with a series of concentrated loads moving across the span as shown in Figure 39. Figure 39.

the simple approach is that develop the influence lines for shear and moment at different points along the entire length of the beam. Figure 39. The values easily can be obtained using the concepts developed in earlier sections.4kN . these calculations easily can be done using computers.30: Influence Line for moment at section X (Example 2) M x = 100(4. After obtaining the values.357 m 100 + 100 + 250 + 150 + 100 700 Now place the loads as shown in Figure 39.018) + 100(4. From this diagram.97) + 100(5. both the absolute maximum value of shear and moment and location can be obtained.535) = 4326. it is difficult to formulate such rules for other situations. In such situations.8 Envelopes of maximum influence line values For easy calculations steps of absolute maximum shear and moment rules for cantilever beam and simply supported beam were discussed in previous section. In that case. plot the influence lines for each point under consideration in one plot and the outcome will be envelop of maximums. Figure 39. Kharagpur . draw the influence line as shown in Figure 39.m 39. However.29. the approach is simple but demands tedious calculations for each point.982) + 250(7.= 100(2) + 250(5) + 150(8) + 100(11) 3750 = = 5. Version 2 CE IIT.5) + 150(6.30 for the section X. Nevertheless.29: Simply supported beam with load positions (Example 2) Also.

and Jangid.9 Closing Remarks In this lesson. Delhi. B. J. S. (1999). Also. C. Structural Analysis. ISBN 0-07-100120-4 Hibbeler. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. NY. L. Structural Analysis. New Delhi. Charotar Publishing House. B. we developed simple concept of finding out absolute maximum shear and moment values in cases of cantilever beam and simply supported beam. K. H. E. New Delhi. (1991). and Uang. R. S. C-M. Wilbur.39. Anand. M. ISBN 0-07-058208-4 Negi. (1988). Mechanics of Structures – Vol. and Shah. we have learned various aspects of constructing influence lines for the cases when the moving concentrated loads are two or more than two. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Finally. J. II.. Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 007-058116-9 Version 2 CE IIT. we discussed about the need of envelopes of maximum influence line values for design purpose. R. Leet. Kharagpur . ISBN 81-7808-750-2 Junarkar.. C.S. (2002). A. S. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Elementary Structural Analysis. Ltd. and Utku. (2003). H. ISBN 0-07-462304-4 Norris. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • • • • • • Armenakas. (2003). New Delhi. Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte.

Module 7 Influence Lines Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

Kharagpur .Lesson 40 Influence Lines for Simple Trusses Version 2 CE IIT.

These stringers in turn transfer the load to floor beams and then to the joints along the bottom chord of the truss. Kharagpur . In similar fashion. we have studied the development of influence lines for beams loaded with single point load.1. 40.2 Bridge Truss Floor System A typical bridge floor system is shown in Figure 40.1 Introduction In previous lessons. the loading on bridge deck is transferred to stringers. one can construct the influence lines for the trusses. Front view Version 2 CE IIT. UDL and a series of loads. • Understand the bridge truss floor system and load transfer mechanism • Draw the influence line for the truss reactions • Draw the influence line for the truss member forces 40.Instructional Objectives: The objectives of this lesson are as follows. The moving loads are never carried directly on the main girder but are transmitted across cross girders to the joints of bottom chord. Following section will explain load transmission to the trusses followed by the influence lines for the truss reactions and influence lines for truss member forces. As shown in Figure.

Floor plan Figure 40. which will be critical in terms of maximum loading. These influence lines are useful to find out the support. In this case. Version 2 CE IIT.2 Bridge truss The influence lines for truss reactions at A and B are shown in Figure 40. Kharagpur .1 Bridge floor system It should be noted that for any load position.2. Figure 40. 40. the loads to truss joints are applied through floor beams as discussed earlier. Let us assume that there is truss with overhang on both ends as shown in Figure 40.3 Influence lines for truss support reaction Influence line for truss reactions are of similar to that a simply supported beam. the truss is always loaded at the joint.3.

tensile force nature is considered as positive and compressive force nature is considered as negative. Kharagpur .4 Influence lines for truss member forces Influence lines for truss member force can be obtained very easily. The member force can be found out using the method of joints or method of sections. The truss member carries axial loads.1 Numerical Examples Example 1: Construct the influence line for the force in member GB of the bridge truss shown in Figure 40.3: Influence lines for support reactions 40.(a) Influence line for RA (b) Influence line for RB Figure 40. The data is prepared in tabular form and plotted for a specific truss member force. In the present discussion. Figure 40.4.4.4: Bridge Truss (Example 1) Version 2 CE IIT. 40. Obtain the ordinate values of influence line for a member by loading each joint along the deck with a unit load and find member force.

L1. Figure 40.5 shows a case where the joint load is applied at L1 and force FL2U3 is calculated. successive joints L0.325 -0.6: Influence line for member force FL2U3 Version 2 CE IIT. and L4 are loaded with a unit load and the force FL2U3 in the member L2U3 are using the method of sections. Kharagpur . The influence line is shown in Figure 40.5: Member Force FL2U3 Calculation using method of sections.6.Solution: Tabulated Values: In this case. The computed values are given below. L2. Figure 40. x 0 5 10 15 20 FL2U3 0 -0. L3. Similarly other influence line diagrams can be generated for the other members to find the critical axial forces in the member.650 0. The figure shows the behaviour of the member under moving load.325 0 Influence line: Let us plot the tabular data and connected points will give the influence line for member L2U3. Figure 40.

8-10 and forces in the members are computed using method of joints and are tabulated below.9: Member forces calculation when unit load is applied at L2 Version 2 CE IIT. Typical cases where the unit load is applied at L1. Figure 40. Kharagpur .8: Member forces calculation when unit load is applied at L1 Figure 40. Figure 40.7: Bridge Truss (Example 2) Solution: Tabulate Values: Here objective is to construct the influence line for all the members of the bridge truss. L2 and L3 are shown in Figures 40.7. hence it is necessary to place a unit load at each lower joints and find the forces in the members.Example 2: Tabulate the influence line values for all the members of the bridge truss shown in Figure 40.

we found that there is similarity between the influence line of Version 2 CE IIT.6667 0.1785 -0.50 L3U2 0 -0.167 0.4714 0 0.167 -0.2357 0 -0.6667 1.0 L3L4 0 0.8333 0.6667 -0.5 L1L2 0 0.333 -0.50 L4U5 0 0.000 -1.1678 0.4714 0.0 -1.6667 -0.3333 0.3333 0.4714 0.10: Member forces calculation when unit load is applied at L3 Member Member force due to unit load at: L0 L1 L2 L3 L0L1 0 0.4714 0.4714 0 -0. L4 0.7071 L3U3 0 0 0 0 L3U4 0 0.9428 -0.2357 0 0.0 U2U3 0 -0.3333 0.5 L2L3 0 0.2357 0.000 -1.2357 0.1678 0.6667 1.4714 0.6667 0.9428 L5 0.2357 -0.333 -0.3333 0.6667 0.6667 1. the influence line can be plotted very easily for truss members.7071 L4U4 0 -03333 -0.Figure 40.6667 0.6667 -1.333 -1.8333 0.2357 -0.3333 -0.50 -1.9428 0.3333 1.2357 -0.3333 0.0 L0U1 0 -1.3336 0.1678 0.4714 -0.3333 0.5 U1U2 0 -0.9428 0 -0.8333 -0.6667 -1.4714 -0.3333 0. Further.2357 1 -1.5 U4U5 0 -0.8333 0.5 Closing Remarks In this lesson we have studied how the loads are transferred in bridge truss floor system.2357 0.6667 -1.0 L4L5 0 0.1785 L6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40.3333 0.3336 0.3333 -0.7071 L5U5 0 0 0 0 L6U5 0 -0.5 U3U4 0 -0. Kharagpur .7071 Influence lines: Using the values obtained in the above given table.7071 L2U2 0 0.333 -0.2357 0.50 -0.1678 0.0 -1.5 L5L6 0 0.50 -1.50 -0.7071 L1U1 0 1 0 0 L2U1 0 -0.

(2003). Structural Analysis. New Delhi. (2002). ISBN 81-7808-750-2 Junarkar. M. Ltd. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. It was essential to know the method of sections and method of joints for the analysis of trusses while drawing influence lines. (1991). J. ISBN 007-058116-9 Version 2 CE IIT. S.support reactions for simply supported beam and truss structures. S. R. NY. H. Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. New Delhi. and Uang. Mechanics of Structures – Vol. K. Elementary Structural Analysis. Kharagpur . Structural Analysis. ISBN 0-07-462304-4 Norris. C. B. Wilbur. S. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. New Delhi. Suggested Text Books for Further Reading • • • • • • Armenakas. Delhi. Finally we studied the influence line for truss member forces. C. J. A. C-M. (1988). L. McGraw-Hill Book Company.. ISBN 0-07-058208-4 Negi. (2003). Classical Structural Analysis – A Modern Approach. (1999).S. and Shah. ISBN 0-07-100120-4 Hibbeler. B. H. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.. Leet. Charotar Publishing House. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis. II. and Utku. Anand. R. and Jangid. E.