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Concrete Technology

Concrete Technology

Dimensional Stability of Concrete

Concrete Technology

**Concrete as a Composite Material
**

Both cement paste and aggregates show linear elastic properties. The non-linear portion of the stress-strain curve for non linear stress strain concrete is due to cracking of the cement paste.

**Typical stress-strain stress strain behavior of cement paste, aggregate, and concrete.
**

2

Professor Kamran M. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011

1

Slough. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 2 . 1968. Glucklich. The progress of internal microcracking in concrete goes through various stages. pp. The number and width of these cracks depend on: Bleeding characteristics Strength of TZ Curing history of concrete Below 30% of the ultimate load. Conf.. 176-85. *Based on J. 3 Concrete Technology Dimensional Stability Figure in the previous slide reflects four stages of concrete behavior: Even b f E before the application of external loads.K.Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Schematic Diagram of Concrete Behavior Figure below is the Diagrammatic representation of the stressstrain behavior of concrete under uniaxial compression*. h li i f ll d microcracks already exist in the transition zone between the matrix mortar and coarse aggregate. U. the transition zone cracks remain stable. Cement and Concrete Association. Proc. Int. which depend on the level of applied stress. Wexham Springs. 4 S t a g e 1 Professor Kamran M. on the Structure of Concrete.

as the stress increases. 5 S t a g e 2 Concrete Technology Dimensional Stability S t a g e 3 S t a g e 4 Increase the stress up to 75% of f’c. Until about 59% of the ultimate stress. the TZ microcracks begin to increase in length. a stable system of microcracks may b assumed in TZ. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 3 . width and numbers. At 75 to 80% of f’c the rate of strain energy release reaches the critical level necessary for spontaneous crack growth.Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Dimensional Stability Above 30% of f’c. The TZ cracks become unstable. Above 75% of f’c bridging of cracks in matrix and TZ. be d i TZ At 50 to 60% of f’c. The cracking in the matrix will increase. 6 Professor Kamran M. cracks begin to form in the matrix.

8 Professor Kamran M.Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Elastic Modulus of Concrete Static Concrete Technology Types of Elastic Modulus (E) Dynamic E is given by the shape of σ − ε curve for concrete under uniaxial loading (since the curve for concrete i nonlinear. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 4 . Tangent Modulus (slope of a line drawn tangent to the σ − ε curve at any point on the curve) ( p Secant Modulus (slope of the line drawn from the origin to a point on the curve corresponding to a 40% f’c) Chord Modulus (slope of a line drawn between two points on the σ − ε curve) 7 Concrete Technology Elastic Modulus of Concrete Different types of elastic moduli and the method by which these are determined. three methods for is li h h d f computing moduli are used).

In heterogeneous. the modulus of elasticity can be determined from: E = f (wc . i. with a concrete unit weight between 90 and 155 lb/ft3. 10 Professor Kamran M. f c′) Ec = Wc1.. multi-phase materials. concrete. density.Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Elastic Modulus of Concrete According to ACI Building Code 318.e. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 5 . and modulus of elasticity of each phase.5 × 33 f c′1/ 2 Where: Ec = elastic modulus Wc = unit weight of concrete (lb/ft3) f’c = the 28-day compressive strength of standard cylinders 9 Concrete Technology Factors Controlling Elastic Modulus In single phase solids (homogeneous materials) a direct relationship exists between density and modulus of elasticity. the volume fraction. and the characteristics of TZ determine the elastic behavior of the composite.

mineral admixtures. therefore they play a very important role in determining the stress-strain relationship in concrete. air content. the greater would be the modulus of elasticity of concrete. microcracks. Ec = Ea g + E p (1 − g ) Volume fraction of aggregate Transition zone (TZ): T iti (TZ) Void space. and orientation of CH crystals are more common in TZ than in bulk cement paste. the larger the amount of coarse aggregate with a high elastic modulus in a concrete mixture. The factors controlling the porosity of the cement paste are: w/c. Ea Elastic Mismatch: a a Granite 20×106 psi 3-7 × 106 psi Will develop more Sandstone (porous) cracks in the TZ Lightweight expanded shale 1-3 × 106 psi due to elastic mismatch ≈HCP 11 Concrete Technology Factors Controlling Elastic Modulus Hydrated Cement Paste (HCP): The elastic modulus of the cement paste matrix (Ep) is determined by its porosity. Dense aggregates have a high E. and degree of cement hydration. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 6 . In general.Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Factors Controlling Elastic Modulus Aggregate: Porosity of aggregate (determines stiffness) is the p most important factor that affects E of concrete. 12 Volume of cement paste Professor Kamran M.

strain within the elastic range is called Poisson’s ratio. (cement paste deforms first.20. (low RH) Creep: (1) Loss of adsorbed water under mechanical pressure (2) Delayed elastic response of aggregate (3) Transition zone crack propagation.that’s why its delayed) .15 and 0. Poisson' s Ratio = Lateral Strain =ν Axial Strain With concrete the values of Poisson’s ratio generally vary between 0. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 7 . then aggregate will have elastic deformation . the ratio of the lateral strain to axial .(Elastic deformation of aggregate particles). then aggregate particles become more stresses. 13 Concrete Technology Drying Shrinkage and Creep Causes Drying Shrinkage: Loss of surface adsorbed water from C-S-H + loss of CSH hydrostatic tension in small capillaries (<50 nm). 14 Professor Kamran M.Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Poisson’s Ratio For a material subjected to simple axial load.

Considering the various combination of loading. Creep in concrete is a post-elastic phenomena.2 to 1.Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Drying Shrinkage and Creep ε ds εds ≈ 400 .7 Factors affecting drying shrinkage: S c = f (S p . 16 Professor Kamran M. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 8 . the following terms are defined: True or basic creep. restraining.1200×10-6 in/in (time under drying) (depending on aggregate type and cement) Shrinkage of cement paste n Related to aggregate n≈1. and humidity conditions. n ) material and mix proportions n S c = S p (1 − g ) Aggregate type and content Volume of Cement type and content Shrinkage of concrete cement paste 15 Concrete Technology Creep of Concrete Creep: deformation with time under certain load. V p . drying creep. and creep coefficient. specific creep.

Creep Coefficient = ε E Cc = creep of concrete Cp = creep of cement paste g = aggregate content μ = unhydrated cement log Cp Cc = α log 1 0 1− g − μ α 17 ⎛ Specific Creep = ε cr ⎞ ⎜ σ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (In well-cured concrete) α = f (ν . Curing and testing conditions Aggregate: a) Modulus of Elasticity 18 Professor Kamran M. h b i Specific Creep: is defined as creep strain per unit of stress: Drying Creep: is the additional creep that occurs when the specimen under load is also drying. it is more than basic creep. Ea ) Cc = C p (1 − g ) Concrete Technology Factors Affecting Drying Shrinkage and Creep I.ν a .Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Creep of Concrete True or Basic Creep: Creep with no loss of water to the environment (under 100% RH) When drying shrinkage and creep happen together. Material and mix proportions II. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 9 . E. Creep Coefficient: is defined as the ratio of creep strain to p p ε cr elastic coefficient.

Creep is inversely proportional to the strength of concrete 20 Professor Kamran M. b) Cement content: For a constant W/C ratio an incremental increase in cement content reduces the creep but increases the drying shrinkage. This is the only case in which exists an opposite effect. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 10 .Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Factors Affecting Drying Shrinkage and Creep I. 19 Concrete Technology Factors Affecting Drying Shrinkage and Creep Cement: a) Water/cement ratio: For a constant cement content an incremental increase in W/C ratio increases both drying shrinkage and creep. Curing and testing conditions Aggregate: b) Aggregate content Any increment of these two factors reduce the drying shrinkage & creep. Material and mix proportions II.

22 Professor Kamran M. For a given concrete.Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Factors Affecting Drying Shrinkage and Creep Humidity: One of the most important factors for both shrinkage and creep is the relative humidity of the medium surrounding the g . p g concrete. the one that is kept in a higher temperature will have more creep and drying shrinkage than the other one. An incremental increase on relative humidity of air decreases both the drying shrinkage and creep. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 11 . creep is higher the lower the relative humidity. 21 Concrete Technology Factors Affecting Drying Shrinkage and Creep Temperature: Given the same curing history for two g y specimens.

Shrinkage is not affected by this factor. Nemati Spring Quarter 2011 12 . 23 Professor Kamran M. at a given stress level. lower creep values were obtained for the longer period of curing before the application of the load.Dimensional Stability of Concrete Concrete Technology Concrete Technology Factors Affecting Drying Shrinkage and Creep Age of loading: There is a direct proportionality between the magnitude of sustained stress and the creep of concrete. Because of the effect of strength on creep.

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