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A database model is a theory or specification describing how a database is structured and the theoretical foundation of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated in a database system. It thereby defines the infrastructure offered by a particular database system. CATEGORIES/TYPES OF DATABASE MODELS
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Hierarchical model Network model Relational model Object oriented model

Hierarchical database model

The hierarchical data model organizes data in a tree structure. There is a hierarchy of parent and child data segments. This structure implies that a record can have repeating information, generally in the child data segments. Data in a series of records, which have a set of field values attached to it. It collects all the instances of a specific record together as a record type. These record types are the equivalent of tables in the relational model, and with the individual records being the equivalent of rows. To create links between these record types, the hierarchical model uses Parent Child Relationships. These are a 1:N mapping between record types. This is done by using trees, like set theory used in the relational model, "borrowed" from maths. For example, an organization might store information about an employee, such as name, employee number, department, salary. The organization might also store information about an employee's children, such as name and date of birth. The employee and children data forms a hierarchy, where the employee data represents the parent segment and the

children data represents the child segment. If an employee has three children, then there would be three child segments associated with one employee segment. In a hierarchical database the parent-child relationship is one to many. This restricts a child segment to having only one parent segment. Advantages and disadvantages of Hierarchical model 1.Simplicity: Since the database is based on the hierarchical structure, the relationship between the various layers is logically simple. 2.Data Security :Hierarchical model was the first database model that offered the data security that is provided by the dbms. 3.Data Integrity: Since it is based on the parent child relationship, there is always a link between the parent segment and the child segment under it. 4.Efficiency: It is very efficient because when the database contains a large number of 1:N relationship and when the user require large number of transaction. Disadvantages of Hierarchical model: 1. Implementation complexity: Although it is simple and easy to design, it is quite complex to implement. 2.Database Management Problem: If you make any changes in the database structure, then you need to make changes in the entire application program that access the database. 3.Lack of Structural Independence: there is lack of structural independence because when we change the structure then it becomes compulsory to change the application too. 4.Operational Anomalies: Hierarchical model suffers from the insert, delete and update anomalies, also retrieval operation is difficult.

Network model Definition of Network Database Model A network database model is a database model that allows multiple records to be linked to the same owner file. The model can be seen as an upside down tree where the branches are the member information linked to the owner, which is the bottom of the tree. The multiple linkages which this information allows the network database model to be very flexible. In addition, the relationship that the information has in the network database model is defined as many-to-many relationship because one owner file can be linked to many member files and vice versa.

Network Database vs. Hierarchical Database Model Network Database Model Many-to-many relationship Easily accessed because of the linkage between the information Great flexibility among the information files because the multiple relationships among the files Hierarchical Database Model One-to-many relationship Difficult to navigate because of its strict owner to member connection Less flexibility with the collection of information because of the hierarchical position of the files

Network Database vs. Hierarchical Database Model Network Database Model The files are greatly related Relational Database Model Information is stored on separate tables tied together with other clumps of information

Advantages of a Network Database Model

Because it has the many-many relationship, network database model can easily be accessed in any table record in the database For more complex data, it is easier to use because of the multiple relationship founded among its data Easier to navigate and search for information because of its flexibility Disadvantage of a Network Database Model Difficult for first time users Difficulties with alterations of the database because when information entered can alter the entire database Relational model A relational database is a set of tables containing data fitted into predefined categories. Each table (which is sometimes called a relation) contains one or more data categories in columns. Each row contains a unique instance of data for the categories defined by the columns. For example, a typical business order entry database would include a table that described a customer with columns for name, address, phone number, and so forth. Another table would describe an order: product, customer, date, sales price, and so forth. A user of the database could obtain a view of the database that fitted the user's needs. For example, a branch office manager might like a view or report on all customers that had bought products after a certain date. A financial services manager in the same company could, from the same tables, obtain a report on accounts that needed to be paid. When creating a relational database, you can define the domain of possible values in a data column and further constraints that may apply to that data value. For example, a domain of possible customers could allow up to ten possible customer names but be constrained in one table to allowing only three of these customer names to be specifiable. The definition of a relational database results in a table of metadata or formal descriptions of the tables, columns, domains, and constraints. Properties of the relational database model Properties of Relational Tables: 1. 2. Data is presented as a collection of relations. Each relation is depicted as a table.

3. Columns are attributes that belong to the entity modeled by the table (ex. In a student table, you could have name, address, student ID, major, etc.). 4. Each row ("tuple") represents a single entity (ex. In a student table, John Smith, 14 Oak St, 9002342, Accounting, would represent one student entity). 5. Every table has a set of attributes that taken together as a "key" (technically, a "superkey") uniquely identifies each entity (Ex. In the student table, “student ID” would uniquely identify each student – no two students would have the same student ID). The benefits of a database that has been designed according to the relational model are numerous. Some of them are:

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Data entry, updates and deletions will be efficient. Data retrieval, summarization and reporting will also be efficient. Since the database follows a well-formulated model, it behaves predictably. Since much of the information is stored in the database rather than in the application, the database is somewhat self-documenting. Changes to the database schema are easy to make.

Object-oriented database model

An object database is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming. Both simple and complex objects can he stored in an object-oriented database model. Earlier data models were designed to store text-based data. In object-oriented Amu models, other types of data can be stored- For example, video clips or pictures can be stored in an object-oriented database. Object-oriented databases include abstract data types that allow users to define characteristics of the data to he stored when developing an application. This overcomes the limitations of relational databases. Relational databases limit the types of data that can be stored in table columns. Instead of tables, an object-oriented database model stores data in objects.

An object can store attributes (similar to the attributes stored in table columns in a relational database) and instructions for actions that can be performed on the object or its attributes. These instructions are called encapsulated methods ("encapsulated" because they are included as part of the object). Objects can he placed in a hierarchy so that other objects lower in the hierarchy (subclass objects) can obtain (inherit) attributes from objects higher in the hierarchy (superclass objects). Three objects in an object-oriented database model. The superclass object employee provides the same set of attributes to both subclasses—manager and administrator In other words, every manager would have a Name, Address, and employee as would every administrator). Objects are drawn using a rectangle with rounded corners, which is divided into three parts: the object name, the attributes, and any encapsulated methods. The main advantage of an object-oriented model is to store complex data types. REFERENCE
1.Michael J. Kamfonas/Recursive Hierarchies: The Relational Taboo!--The Relation Journal, October/November 1992

2. ^ E.F. Codd (1970). "A relational model of data for large shared data
banks". In: Communications of the ACM archive. Vol 13. Issue 6(June 1970). pp.377-387.