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PROJECT ON THE JOB TRAINING REPORT

ON

YEILD MANAGEMENT AT FESPA

SUBMITTED TO : PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF Bachelor Degree in Airlines Tourism and Hospitality Management

SUBMITTED BY: SUMIT KOUL ROLL NO. 30301133

SEMESTER : VITH

INDEX DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTER -1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CHAPTER -2 INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY PROFILE COMPANY OVERVIEW HISTORY

CHAPTER -3 WORKING WITH THE COMPANY ABOUT FESPA MEMBERS OF FESPA THE FESPA BOARD EVENT CALENDAR CHAPTER 4 SCREEN PRINTING DIGITAL PRINTING SIGN & VISUAL COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION LIMITATION BIBLIOGRAPHY

DECLARATION
I SUMIT KOUL, Student, PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, here by declare and undertake that the thesis submitted by me entitling YIELD MANAGEMENT AT FESPA A case study of India in partial fulfillment for the award of the Bachelor Degree in Airlines Tourism and Hospitality Management is my original piece of work and the same has not been submitted for the award of my degree or Diploma in any University or institution elsewhere. The material quoted from any other source has been duly acknowledged in text.

SUMIT KOUL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Its been a profound opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Sanjeev Bhatiani General Manager, for providing me a constant support during the completion of this project. I am extremely thankful to my research guide and mentor Ms. YOGITA WADHERA, TEAM LEADER for her continuous and constant hold in carrying out this project without whose support this work could not have been accomplished. I am also gratified to Mr. Naveen Thapa, Project Head who always offered his help and support at the time when I needed the most. I also thank all my respondents who gave me time from their from their very busy schedule to make this project possible. Thank you SUMIT KOUL

CHAPTER -1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
. PRIMARY DATA Primary data for the research requires a lot of information, so it will be collected by way of the questionnaire method. And the sample size is 100 Customer & Managers . Herein, structured questionnaires are given to the respondents of the selected sample out of the population. The sample for this research consists of existing users: 1. Customer 2. Manager The primary data that is collected includes the customer perception regarding the industry and their level of satisfaction. SECONDARY DATA The research required a lot of information about the market, level of satisfaction and trends in the market. The sources of obtaining the secondary data are as follows: 1. Internet 2. Search Engines 3. Brochures / Magazine 4. Books on Marketing I Research Through Structured Questionnaire. It is based on Simple Random techniques. Sample Size : People Survey, Internet.

CHAPTER 2 COMPANY OVERVIEW

INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY PROFILE Services International is a group of professional exhibition and conference organizers in India. We are management consultants in the fields of exhibitions and conferences; specialists rendering professional consultancy in trade fairs and exhibition management. We take care of venue planning, financial control, documentation, press assistance, staffing, registration, liaison, technical support and social event related services. Services International carry out exhibitions with a view to provide interactive platform for dialogue and knowledge of the latest advancements in technology and industry and to promote business & trade. It undertakes exhibition projects of industry and trade shows from visualisation to completion. We offer integrated marketing opportunities via exhibition trade publications and databases. Services International is a leading PCO (Professional Conference Organiser) in India and offers a range of services from marketing to secretariat to public relations, buyers-sellers meet, trade shows, exhibitions and marketing events. We are a Modern Service Provider. Attention is focused on contact with the exhibitors; the chain of communication is the shortest & cost intensive. We try & ensure to achieve a favorable cost benefit ratio for Exhibitors & Visitors. We have organized International exhibitions and conferences on Fire, Coatings, Pharmaceuticals, Glass, Glass Processing and Glazing with the respective association or federation. In addition, we organise Bridal Asia every year, a 100% bridal focused exhibition. We are associated with DMG Business Media Ltd. UK (a division of Daily.Mail & General Trust, UK) to organize their ex~ibitions in the subcontinent.

COMPANY OVERVIEW The best way to success globally is to give physical evidence of best of your product range and Services & Exhibition is only the way to do it. Services International is a group of professional exhibition and conference organizers in India. We are management consultants in the fields of exhibitions and conferences; specialists rendering professional consultancy in trade fairs and exhibition management. We take care of venue planning, financial control, documentation, press assistance, staffing, registration, liaison, technical support and social event related services. The success of exhibition lies on the success of its exhibitors. This is the reason; we are identifying the right market, the right niche and the right opportunity for everybody. Services International's prime objective is to provide high level standards to buyers and sellers and setting unmatched and unique industry standards. We take pride of holding maximum number of quality shows . Services International believes in the augmented products and delivering the same to their clients. We are giving the best example of seven Ps of service Industry.

HISTORY Name of the Exhibition Chemspec India 2005 India International Coatings Show 2005 Bridal Asia 2004 Glass Processing & Glazing 2004 Ceramics & Ceramic Technologies 2004 Glass India 2004 Fire India 2004 Bridal Asia 2003-Delhi Glass Processing & Glazing 2003 Ceramics & Ceramic Technologies 2003 Bridal Asia 2003 - Kolkata India International International Coatings Show 2003 Sunsilk Bridal Asia 2002 Chemspec Europe 2002 Fire India 2002 Bridal Asia 2001 Delhi Metal Engg. 2001 Glass India 2001 Corcon 2000 Bridal Asia 2000 Bridal99 Glass India99 Migrating to Electronic Information Era Association Services International Services International Services International Services International Services International Services International Institution of Fire Engineers (IFE) Services International All India Glass Mfr. Federation Services International Services International Services International Services International DMG World Media Institution of Fire Engineers (IFE) Services International DMG World Media All India Glass Mfr. Federation NACE International Services International Services International All India Glass Mfr. Federation International Federation of Information & Documentation The Hague Netherlands

India International National Coating Show'98 Fire India'97 India International Coating Show'97 Instrumentation'97 National Education India'97 National Glass Processing & Glazing India'96 Asia Pharmaceutical Show'96 Hathakargha '96 Glass India'95 Fire India'94

All India Printing Ink Mfr. Assoc. & Indian Paint Assoc. Institution of Fire Engineers All India Printing Ink Mfr. Assoc. & Indian Paint Assoc. Sponsored by U.G.C and Dept. of Sc. & Tech. (Bangalore, India) All India Assoc. of Edu. The Next Millenium Technology and Ins. of Rural Studies & Dev. All India Glass Mfr. Federation Indian Pharmaceutical Association U.P.Govt. All India Glass Mfr. Federation Institution of Fire Engineers

CHAPTER -3 WORKING WITH THE COMPANY

FESPA
What is FESPA? FESPA is a trade association and an organiser of exhibitions and conferences for the screen and digital printing industry. Formerly, the name FESPA stood for 'The Federation of European Screen Printers Associations'. Now, with the advent of digital technology, FESPA is known by its acronym, which has worldwide recognition. FESPA's objective is the promotion of screen printing and digital imaging through each of the 27 separate National Associations in Europe who are its members. When and Why was FESPA formed? FESPA was formed in 1962 by a small international group of screenprinters and suppliers to share knowledge on screenprinting technology, establish close co-operation between screenprinters and suppliers and promote screenprinting in Europe. What does FESPA do now? - Plans and promotes exhibitions and conferences for screen and digital printing and helps its National Associations by supporting projects and activities organised by them. Having organised many successful exhibitions in Europe, in December 2005 we organised FESPA World Expo India, at Pragati Maidan Exhibition Centre, New Delhi, www.fespaindia.com which was the first international exhibition for screen and digital printing in that region. In May 2006, FESPA organised a new pan-european event FESPA Digital Printing Europe which focused on emerging digital technologies in the areas of sign and graphics, textiles, white goods, glass ceramics, electronics and home furnishings at the RAI Exhibition Centre in Amsterdam, 16th-18th May 2006, RAI, Amsterdam, www.fespadigital.com.. Now we look forward to FESPA 2007, 5th-9th June 2007, Berlin. www.fespa2007.com. The main FESPA event and the largest exhibition in the world for screen and digital printing. The last FESPA event in Munich (May 2005) attracted a record 33,000 visitors from 123 different countries. Other FESPA events currently being planned are FESPA World Expo India 7th - 9th December 2007, New Delhi, FESPA Digital 2008, 1st 3rd April 2008, Geneva, Switzerland and FESPA World Expo Thailand 27th 30th November 2008, Bankok. As soon as more information is available, it will be posted on the FESPA website.

- FESPA is working within the emerging markets in Central and Eastern Europe to promote screenprinting and wide format digital imaging by providing technical training information and through its programme of 'mini-FESPA's' comprising low cost product information booths and technical seminars. - FESPA provides a regular forum for information exchange between member Associations resulting in help from the larger to the smaller Associations in recruitment, training and technical studies. - Through the pages of the FESPA magazine - FESPA World (published 4 times a year) - FESPA provides full communications between member Associations and highlights important developments affecting screenprinting and wide format digital imaging. - Monitors new developments in screenprinting and digital technology and communicates the results to members through seminars and press articles. - Promotes screenprinting and digital imaging to the end user through Press Articles. Who are the members of FESPA? The National Screenprinting and Digital Imaging Associations in... Austria Baltic States Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Netherlands In each of these countries every screenprinter and wide format digital imager can become a member of his/her FESPA National Association. In Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia & Montenegro Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom

countries where there is no National Association affiliated to FESPA, an individual company can join FESPA. This is known as 'Individual Membership'. Outside Europe, the following Associations are Associate members of FESPA: The Screenprinting and Graphic Imaging Association of Australia (SGIAA) China Screen Printing & Graphic Imaging Association (CSGIA) The Screen Printer's Association of India (SPAI) Thai Screen Printing & Graphic Imaging Association (TSGA) What about the Suppliers to the Screenprinting Industry? In every country the suppliers have always been closely linked to the development of the National Associations. Many of these companies belong to FESPA National Associations so they too can benefit from FESPA activities. FESPA is also working closely with the manufacturers of digital printing equipment and supplies in order to keep FESPA members informed about how these new developments can affect their businesses. How do I join my National FESPA Association? Click on 'FESPA Members' on the main menu and contact the association in your country. If your country does not have a FESPAaffiliated association at present, please contact the FESPA Secretariat to see how FESPA can help you to start a National Association. If you live outside Europe, you can become 'an individual FESPA Member'. What is the benefit to me of FESPA membership? - Through your membership of the National Association in your country affiliated to FESPA you will be kept constantly informed about developments in screenprinting and wide format digital imaging throughout Europe and you will also have important links with similar organisations in the world. - You will receive the FESPA Magazine free every four months with news and articles from FESPA member countries. This is published in English, with German, French and Spanish translations available to download at www.fespa.com. - You will receive invitations to seminars, study tours and other worldwide events for screenprinting and wide format digital imaging. - You will receive detailed advance information on FESPA exhibitions.

- You will be entitled to special member's rates for FESPA seminars and conferences. - Through the FESPA Web-site: http://www.fespa.com you will have a constant update on the activities of FESPA and other associated organisations world-wide. - You will have a secretariat always available and willing to help you with information and problem solving. The Conclusion - FESPA is YOU Learn more about FESPA by contacting: Nigel Steffens FESPA LIMITED Association House 7a West Street, Reigate Surrey RH2 9BL, UK Tel: +44 1737 240788 Fax: +44 1737 240770 E-mail: info@fespa.com Website: www.fespa.com

When and Why was FESPA formed? The Convention in Copenhagen, Denmark 9-14 May 1961 This is one of the most important dates in the History of FESPA, for it was here that the decision was taken to form an independent Federation of European Screen Printing Associations and extracts from the speeches that were made at the time give a clear picture of the intentions and motivation behind this decision. The Convention organised by the Danish Association under the chairmanship of Bjarne Dahl, attracted over 300 delegates, many of whom came with their wives. Not only were all the West European countries represented, but also from outside Europe, the USA, Canada and Argentina. The following extracts from the welcome speech given by Bjarne Dahl, President of the Danish Screen-printing Association, clearly show the importance of this Convention from which FESPA was born: "During the infancy of screen-printing there was no co-operation of any kind and those who had in one way or another managed to obtain some knowledge in the techniques guarded this knowledge jealousy, nevertheless screen-printing spread from one country to another, even though certain technical secrets were only provided after payment of high Licence fees. Suppliers of screen-printing materials soon realised that their turnover

depended on the numbers using this process and some took upon themselves the task of teaching the techniques, for which they demanded in return sole supplier rights. This was one of the reasons why, in some countries, users decided to form trade organisations to watch over the interests of the trade and to organise uniform and proper training. Nevertheless we owe our suppliers a great deal and the impressive exhibition which is being held here and also our technical meetings, prove that our suppliers believe in the great and growing future of screen-printing. Due to the great increase in travel since the last war, screen printers from around the world have been making personal contacts and exchanging experience and ideas. Today in Copenhagen is a great meeting opportunity for us all at this Fifth European SPPA Convention." The reasons for an independent FESPA were explained by Bob Levisson, at that time the European President of the SPPA, in an article which he wrote in Screen Printing & Display News in April 1961. These are some of the relevant extracts: "One of the main objects of the European Chapter was the organisation of screen printers' conventions in Europe. However, it soon became clear that these conventions could not be restricted solely to members of this European Chapter, other members of our trade wanted to take part and were naturally welcome to join us. This development made us think. We concluded that for the individual screen printer, in whichever European country he lived, his own national organisation was naturally more important than the SPPA. A second conclusion was the urgency for translations of technical articles from the English text in which they were written. The conclusion is that every screen printer should first and foremost belong to his own national organisation. The various European organisations should then come together (while retaining their full national independence) to form a European Federation of Screen Printers Associations. This Federation should be affiliated to the American SPPA and those individuals who wish to continue to belong to the SPPA should continue to do so. This newly created Federation will be far better placed to organise European Conventions and through their own associations to act as a distribution centre for technical information to all screen printers in Europe." The Copenhagen Convention not only laid the foundations for FESPA, it also set a standard for future congresses and exhibitions. The programme was excellent. The lectures given by an international panel of speakers covered subjects which would still be relevant today. The exhibition was well supported by manufacturers and suppliers some of which have become leaders in the international market for screenprinting machinery and supplies. On an historical note, It was at this Convention that the first Svecia semi-automatic printer and the

McCormick Super Cylinder machine were first demonstrated, developments which were to revolutionise the productivity of screenprinting. A very full and attractive social programme broke down the barriers of language and created friendships and co-operation which have been a hallmark of FESPA ever since. The foundation of FESPA in Hamburg, September 1962 Following the Copenhagen Convention a Steering Committee was set up and made rapid progress in drafting rules and objectives of the new organisation. There had been some differences of opinion as to whether membership should be through individuals or national associations. The British association DPSPA strongly represented through a delegation headed by Roy Foster and Ashford Down their view that this was to be essentially a Federation of National Associations, that only one association should represent each country and that Individual Membership would only be permitted when no national association exists. There was also a consensus that the new organisation was not to be dependant on, or in any way under the control of, the American SPPA. Again this point was accepted, but to this day, representation of FESPA on the International Board of the American Association (SGIA) continues. For many years also the President of the American Association attended FESPA meetings, but without a vote. Not all of the former members of the SPPA European Chapter accepted these changes and some, like Paul Sprinzel who had been very active in the Chapter, never joined their national association and continued as Individual Members of the SPPA. There are many screen printers in Europe with membership of both their national association and the current SGIA. R Levisson (Netherlands) was appointed the first President with E Baron (France) J Floyd (UK) and E Meissner (Germany) as Vice Presidents. The founding associations were represented by Bob Levisson (Netherlands) John Floyd and Roy Foster (UK), Poldi Domberger and Eddy Meissner (Germany), E Baron and Michel Caza (France) Bjrg Hemberg (Sweden), Bjarne Dahl (Denmark) Christian Brynildsen and Edgar Hartvedt (Norway), Carlo Frassinelli (Italy). The first General Secretary was N Schenkman (Netherlands) The Federation was constituted as an Association under Dutch law and its address was that of the Dutch Printing Association the KVGO. The objectives of the Federation were described as the 'sharing of knowledge of screen-printing, the establishment of close cooperation between screen-printers and suppliers and promotion of screen-

printing in Europe' These have remained unchanged to the present day. The FESPA Council comprised delegates of the affiliated national associations with one voting delegate for each hundred members. The Council normally met once each year. The day to day administration was the responsibility of the 'Bureau' which comprised the Chairman, three Vice Chairmen and the General Secretary. Problems of the Early Years There were many difficulties in these early years. At that time English was not universally adopted for the meetings and many of the delegates spoke and understood English very little. In con-sequence the meetings were often very lengthy with constant interpretation becoming necessary through Bob Levisson and the Secretary Miss Becky de Die who were both multi lingual. The different national cultures and attitudes were sometimes hard to understand and accept. At different times both the British and French associations threatened to withdraw from FESPA because they saw little benefit and the cost of membership fees was considered excessive. It was only through Bob Levisson's skilful leadership that FESPA continued to develop and prosper. 1962 - 1975 Development of FESPA Activities It is remarkable that with a budget of no more than 40,000 Dutch Florins each year, so much was achieved, principally through the personal efforts of individual members of the Bureau and Council. The spreading of technical and commercial information and the development of business and social contacts between members of the various national associations were priorities and achieved in the following ways: * International Technical Seminars were held every two years moving from country to country with simultaneous translation into three or four languages. Study Tours were organised with visits to screen printers and manufacturers again moving from country to country. These proved exceptionally valuable and were well supported. The high standards of factory cleanliness, achieved notably in the Scandinavian countries, were an 'eye opener' to many of the visitors whose own standards fell far below this level. There was a remarkable willingness to disclose technical and commercial information in this way which undoubtedly was one of the most important factors in the rapid development of screen-printing. * The FESPA Membership Directory, which contained the addresses of all members of the FESPA associations, was an important source of information to enable screen printers in Europe to contact one another and this was used extensively. Frequently on business or holiday visits members took the opportunity to develop business contacts which in many cases resulted in very valuable exchange of technical

information. The Directory was financed from advertising and was updated year by year until the early 1980's when it was discontinued. * A Directory of Screen-printing Terms was a project headed by Bjarne Dahl from Denmark. Many hours were spent agonising over the correct translation into the languages of English, German, French, Dutch and Italian of technical terms in screen-printing. However this work was eventually worthwhile, for as a result, a Directory was produced of Screen-printing Terms with a cross reference between the five languages and was finally published in 1968. More recently the Directory has been updated and improved by ESMA and national associations have extended this to include for example the languages of Spanish and Hungarian. FESPA Exhibitions Paris 1963 was chosen as the venue for FESPA's first exhibition organised by the French Association. There was much activity at this time amongst machinery manufacturers in developing new screenprinting machinery which would give greater productivity and more consistent registration. Fine art and serigraphy continued to be a strong interest and visitors were delighted to come away from the exhibition with poster samples of this work. Zurich 1966 was the next event and FESPA exhibitions were already becoming larger and more international. Each day of the exhibition was accompanied by a well attended Technical Conference. The Olympia exhibition halls in London became the venue for FESPA 1968. For the first time this was organised by a professional company Batiste and not by the national association. Once again the exhibition stands were becoming bigger and the first floor of the exhibition halls was devoted to screen printers predominantly from the UK which gave an impressive display of screen printed work. There was much interest with the four colour half tone work which was starting to be developed by one or two companies... a new development for screen-printing! There was some amusement when FESPA's German President Eddy Meissner 'took the salute' before the very British 'Brigade of Guards' who counter marched as the principal entertainment event! At FESPA 1970 in Hamburg and again at FESPA 1973 in Amsterdam the exhibition continued to grow and to attract an increasing number of delegates not only from Europe, but also now from the USA, Japan, Australia and South Africa. Milan 1975 was nearly a disaster. Following its policy of moving the exhibitions from country to country around Europe, the FESPA Bureau had agreed to go to Milan for its next exhibition. There were serious problems. Despite the major contribution which Italy's representative

Carlo Frassinelli had made personally, he was not supported by a cohesive association and it became evident that there would be no local support in the organisation from this source. Many German manufacturers and suppliers, saw little value in an exhibition sited in Italy where the markets were dominated by strong Italian manufacturing companies and initially many refused to participate. Eventually there was a compromise, but it resulted in a much smaller presence from some German and Swiss companies than in the past. To solve the organisation problem, Harold Schneider, Batiste Publications, who had planned so successfully the 1968 exhibition in London, volunteered to take over the responsibility and Milan was more successful than had been expected in the number of exhibitors which it finally attracted. However visitor attendance was poor due to an airline strike and also national strikes within Italy at that time which severely affected catering within the hotels. At only 48 hours notice guests for the Gala Dinner had to be transported by coaches 30 kilo-meters into Switzerland in order for this event to continue... a triumph for Harold Schneider's organising skills! Nevertheless Milan 1975 resulted in a very different policy for future FESPA exhibitions. 1975 - 1990 Years of steady progress Under the strong presidency of Eddy Meissner from 1968 to 1975 assisted by the excellent secretarial and diplomatic skills of Becky de Die, the General Secretary, FESPA had matured into a professional federation with a major event in the form of a congress, study tour or exhibition held each year. However, the problems of the Milan 1975 exhibition, resulted in much criticism from exhibitors and at a well attended and stormy meeting of the suppliers the following year, FESPA was strongly advised to discontinue its policy of moving the exhibition to locations in Europe which could not have their full support and also to move to a frequency of every four years in order to achieve a two-year time gap between FESPA and DRUPA. With the agreement of the FESPA Board, a Suppliers Committee was set up under the chairmanship of Tom Kirk (Sericol) who was later succeeded by Walter Frick (Marabu). This committee worked closely with FESPA in the planning of future exhibitions and played a major part in the formation of ESMA in 1990. It was agreed that the next FESPA exhibition would return to Amsterdam which had proved very successful in the year 1973 and this led to four successive exhibitions in that city in 1979, 1984, 1988 and 1992. Amsterdam was popular both with exhibitors and visitors because of the attractions of the city and of the bulb fields in Holland in the spring time, when these exhibitions were held. Also the efficiency and language skills of the Dutch people were an important factor. There was strong support from the Dutch Screen-printing

Association with a special exhibition committee chaired by Ivo Back (FESPA President 1979 - 1984), which was meticulous in its planning. During this time period exhibitor stand space grew from 9,000m2 to over 20,000m2 and visitors from 15,000 to 25,000. The FESPA exhibition had now fully achieved its claim to be the largest and most important international event for screen-printing. However other FESPA events started to decline. Technical seminars during a FESPA exhibition were discontinued in order to ensure that visitors concentrated on the exhibition stands. Also with the growth of technical knowledge and the increasing number of seminars organised on a national level, the attendances at international seminar events were less. The last of these was held in Italy in 1987 at Santa Margarita, Italy. For similar reasons study tours were less attended. A number of the larger screen-printing companies made their own arrangements to visit selected companies with personal visits and also member associations organised study tours on a national basis. Nevertheless a final FESPA study tour organised by Michael Domberger during his term of office as President under the title 'The Wider Horizons of Screen-printing' took delegates to some of the niche applications of screen-printing in Switzerland, for example the decoration of confectionery and the printing of Swatch Watches. This was a great success. Within the FESPA organisation there was a problem with the future of the secretariat, principally due to lack of funds. Becky de Die, who had served FESPA so well for nearly 15 years as General Secretary, died in 1977. She was succeeded briefly by Jan van de Hrst and then in 1978 by Bob de Ruijter, at that time Secretary to the screen-printing section of the Dutch Master Printers the KVGO. Soon however FESPA was faced with the decision of the KVGO, that it could no longer continue to subsidise the cost of a FESPA secretariat as it had done in the past. Various solutions were discussed and one by one rejected. Finally in April 1981, agreement was reached to move the secretariat to London to the International Master Printers Association (IMPA) where there was a professional organisation headed by Geoffrey Wilson with excellent language skills and experience of working for the Master Printers Associations in Europe. This proved to be an excellent and comparatively low cost solution. The new secretariat organised successfully a number of events and assisted with the preparations for FESPA '84 in Amsterdam. However in 1984 the IMPA office was moved to Brussels where it became Intergraf with responsibilities to represent its members in the EU. Although Intergraf continued to serve FESPA's secretarial needs, the availability

of staff dedicated to these needs was considerably reduced and costs in Brussels were much higher than in London. By 1989 available FESPA funds only permitted a very limited time to be purchased from Intergraf and this was not sufficient to fulfil a full programme of FESPA activities including the editorship of the FESPA magazine which had been introduced that year. When it was learned that Derek Down, a long serving member on the FESPA Board, would be leaving the industry following a takeover of his parent company, he was approached by Michael Domberger to take over the position as FESPA General Secretary and following agreement by the FESPA General Assembly, he accepted the position and the FESPA documents and files were moved from Brussels to a new office in Reigate, Surrey in December 1989. 1990 - 2002 New challenges... New opportunities With the appointment at the beginning of 1990, for the first time, of a full time FESPA Secretariat staffed by Derek Down (General Secretary) and Joy Allson, it became possible to develop new programmes. One of these was the FESPA magazine which had been initiated in 1989 by Michael Domberger with the vision that each FESPA member would have his own copy which would tell him what was happening in other associations in addition to FESPA activities. Derek Down accepted the editorship as one of his many tasks. The magazine was published twice each year in the languages of English, German and French (to which Spanish was later added). Advertising revenue was not sufficient to cover the costs of producing the magazine and up to 1993 each edition showed a substantial loss. To solve this problem Nigel Steffens was recruited to join the Secretariat as Advertising Manager in January 1993 and was successful in bringing the magazine into profit. His responsibilities were increased to include the organisation of seminars and 'Mini FESPAs'. In January 2000, as part of Derek Down's phased retirement plan, Nigel Steffens was appointed General Secretary to replace him on the understanding that Derek Down would continue with a number of FESPA duties including the editorship of the magazine up to December 2002. The Annual Secretaries Meeting At the FESPA General Assembly in 1989 there had been strong representations from Scandinavian countries to have a greater involvement in FESPA. In response to this, the General Secretary organised from 1990 annual meetings of association secretaries. These meetings have been very valuable in establishing a close co-operation between member associations and in submitting important issues for the attention of the FESPA Board and General Assembly.

ESMA the European Screen Printing Manufacturers Association This organisation was founded in the summer of 1990 initially with the objective of being an entirely independent organisation dealing with important aspects common to European screen-printing manufacturers and suppliers. However under the leadership of Walter Frick, Marabu, at that time Chairman of the Suppliers Committee, it was agreed that ESMA whilst being an independent organisation, would become a member of FESPA with a non-voting attendance at FESPA Board meetings and full voting membership at the FESPA General Assembly. In order to further assist communication between FESPA and ESMA, Derek Down accepted the additional responsibility of ESMA General Secretary. The resulting support provided to FESPA for the magazine, 'Mini FESPA's', Seminars and the FESPA Exhibition has greatly added to the success of these activities. East European Membership The lifting of the 'Iron Curtain of Communism' in the autumn of 1989 provided for the first time free communication with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Screen-printing had continued quite actively under the communist regime, principally in textiles and in industries such as glass manufacture, ceramics and electronics. West European suppliers of screen-printing products dealt always through government agencies as their customers. There was a new interest in these countries to experience the potential which they saw in Western Europe especially in advertising products. Czechoslovakia who had for a short time been members in the late1960's prior to communist domination, were the first to re-join FESPA followed by Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia (Moscow), Croatia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia and Turkey. The Czechoslovakia membership was subsequently divided into the separate Czech and Slovak Republics. In this way membership of FESPA increased over a period of twelve years from 14 to 26 nations and this now stands at 27 with Baltic United States being the most recently recruited member in 2005. FESPA provided direct help to these new members through a series of 'Mini-FESPA's'. A concept proposed by Michael Domburger and successfully adopted by Presidents Lascelle Barrow and Michel Caza. They comprised product information stands and a two-day seminar in the countries of Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovenia. ESMA strongly supported these events which assisted their members representation in these countries. These programmes brought financial and membership benefits to the countries where these events were held. Further assistance by FESPA was given for training, a priority requirement for East European countries by financing trainers from Western Europe to hold training seminars.

The Digital Challenge The 1990's were a period in which digital technology has revolutionised the world in so many ways. For the printing industry this was seen initially in the pre-press where artwork was now coming almost exclusively in a digital format. At the FESPA '96 exhibition FESPA held two days of seminars presenting to screen printers the challenges and opportunities of digital technology. In the next four years this was followed by a series of seminars which were designed to ensure that screen printers were well prepared for the inevitable changes to come. FESPA Exhibitions Following yet another successful FESPA exhibition in Amsterdam in 1992, FESPA had expected to return once again to Amsterdam in 1996, using the services of an independent organiser. However no agreement could be reached on this point with the RAI organisation in Amsterdam and it was decided in consequence to move the exhibition to Lyon, France with the advantage of attracting new visitors from the rapidly developing markets of screen-printing in France, Spain and Portugal. Despite initial concern from exhibitors, this proved to be a very successful event with a high visitor attendance and much interest taken in the digital companies who were exhibiting at FESPA for the first time. At the exhibitions which followed Munich 1999, Madrid 2002 and Munich again in 2005, the percentage of exhibition space taken by digital companies has continued to grow on each occasion and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Now FESPA has become an international exhibition organiser following the launch of a show in India in 2005 (with another planned for 2007) as well as a show in Bankok in 2008. This is in addition to a dedicated Digital Show (held in Amsterdam in 2006) with another planned for Zurich in 2008. In concluding this brief History of FESPA it is remarkable to see how a strong and influential organisation has grown from small beginnings. This is due to the vision and initiative of the early 'founding fathers' which has been continued through successive periods of presidency. The contribution of the national associations and ESMA should also not be underestimated, for the support and interest shown by these organisations has ensured that the FESPA Board always remains alert to create new initiatives in order to further the objectives of FESPA. Appendix FESPA Presidents 1962 - 2002

R Levisson (Netherlands) 1962 - 1968 E Meissner (Germany) 1968 - 1975 W Rayment (UK) 1975 - 1979 I Back (Netherlands) 1979 - 1984 D Down (UK) 1984 - 1988 M Domberger (Germany) 1988 - 1992 L Barrow (UK) 1992 - 1996 M Caza (France) 1996 - 1999 C van den Berg (Netherlands) 1999 - 2000 M Caza (France) 2000 - 2002 Ricardo Rodriguez Delgado 2002 - 2005 Hellmuth Frey 2005 - 2007 FESPA General Secretaries N Schenkman (Netherlands) 1962 - 1963 B de Die (Netherlands) 1963 - 1977 J van de Hrst (Netherlands) 1977 - 1978 R de Ruijter (Netherlands) 1978 - 1981 G Wilson (UK / Belgium) 1981 - 1989 D Down (UK) 1989 - 1999 N Steffens (UK) 2000... Holders of the FESPA Merit Award awarded for outstanding services to screen-printing or to FESPA I Back (Netherlands) W Frick (Germany) E Hartfeld Johansson (Sweden) R Levisson (Netherlands) J Peters (Belgium) D Down (UK) E Hartvedt (Norway) FESPA Exhibitions 1963 Paris 1966 Zurich 1968 London 1970 Hamburg 1973 Amsterdam 1975 Milan 1979 Amsterdam 1984 Amsterdam 1988 Amsterdam 1992 Amsterdam 1996 Lyon 1999 Munich 2002 Madrid

2005 Munich 2007 Berlin

MEMBERS OF FESPA In each of the countries below screen printers can become a member of FESPA by joining their National Association. In countries where there is no National Screen Printing Association affiliated to FESPA, an individual screen printer can join FESPA. This is known as 'Individual Membership'. Enfocus FESPA and Enfocus combine forces to bring members of FESPA Associations, Certified PDF Workflow Solutions at a substantial discount. The link below will take you to the Enfocus website but to obtain your discount voucher, contact your National Association. Read all about this partnership in the joint press release. FESPA Associations: Austria Christian Handler VERBAND DRUCK & MEDIENTECHNIK Grunangergasse 4 1010 Vienna Austria t: +43 1 512 6609 f: +43 1 513 282619 e: verband@druckmedien.at w: www.druckmedien.at Baltic States Kristine Zakalovska Baltic United Screen Printing Belgium Peter Robberecht FEBELGRA SECTIE ZEEFDRUK SECTION SERIGRAPHIE Belliardstraat 20 bus 16 B-1040 Brussel Belgium t: +32 2 512 36 38 f: +32 2 513 56 76 e: peter.robberecht@ febelgra.com w: www.febelgra.be Bulgaria Mr. Eugeny Ivanov E TRANSFER PRINT TECHNOLOGY

Association (BUSPA) Ganibu dambis 26 Riga LV1005 Latvia t: +371 7501141 f: +371 7501142 e: kristine@sesoma.lv Croatia Ms Mirjana Bjelan CROATIAN SCREENPRINTERS ASSOCIATION 6 Jelene K Hrvatska Zagreb Croatia

PO Box 1 Popovo 7800 Bulgaria t: +35 96 082 3948 f: +35 96 082 3948 e: ett@popovo.net Czech Republic Vladimir Havel CZECH REPUBLIC SCREEN PRINTING ASSOCIATION Sklarska 302 CZ 473 01 Novy Bor Czech Republic

t: +420 487 726355 t: +385 1 45 52 327 f: +420 487 712712 f: +385 1 45 52 327 e: vladimir.havel@sca.com e: mirjana.bjelan@zg.tel.hr w: www.sitotisk-serigrafie.cz Denmark Finland Mr. Finn Obbekaer Ms Regina Aas GRAFISK ARBEJDSGIVER FORENING The Association of Finnish Screen Helgavej 26 Printers Postboks 729 PL 324 5230 Odense M 00811 Helsinki Denmark Finland t: +45 63 12 70 00 f: +45 63 12 70 80 e: fo@ga.dk w: www.ga.dk France Julie Chide GPSF 68 boulevard Saint Marcel 75005 Paris France t: +33 1 44 08 64 22 e: contact@gpsf.fr w: www.gpsf.fr t: +358 40 5674385 e: regina.aas @suomenseripainoliitto.fi w: www. suomenseripainoliitto.fi Germany Mr Torben Thorn Bundesverband Druck und Medien e.V Biebricher Allee 79 Postfach 1869 D - 65008 Wiesbaden Germany t: +49 611 80 31 15 f: +49 611 80 31 13

Greece Mr Kimon Papas Greek Screen Printing Association 35 Agathodedmonos St. GR 118 53 Athens Greece t: + 30 210 52 39 416 f: + 30 210 52 48 237 e: papath@ath.forthnet.gr Italy Mr Massimo Poli SIOTEC - Serigrafie Italiane Organizzate TEcnologie Correlate Via Luigi Devoto 5 20137 Milano C.F. 97428520155 Italy t: +39 02 71 04 05 98 f: +39 02 71 09 24 46 e: info@siotec.it w: www.siotec.it Norway Mr. Jon Halvorsen NORSKE SERIGRAFERS FORENING 3191 Horten Norway t: +47 33 07 15 30 f: +47 33 07 15 31 e: sekretariat@serigrafer.org w: www.serigrafer.org Portugal Mr. Jose Eduardo Carragosela ASSOCIACAO PORTUGUESA DAS INDUSTRIAS GRAFICAS E TRANSFORMADORAS DO PAPEL Largo do Casal Vistoso 2/D

e: tt@bvdm-online.de w: www.bvdm-online.de Hungary Mr. Janos Buranyi Magyar Szitanyomok Szovetsege Gdllo, Szilht utca 39. H-2100 Hungary t: +36 28 516615 f: +36 28 516616 e: mszsz@vnet.hu Netherlands Mr. Marius Gort VERENIGING VAN ZEEFDRUK EN SIGN ONDERNEMINGEN Postbus 220 1180 AE Amstelveen Netherlands t: +31 20 543 55 56 f: +31 20 543 55 35 e: zso@kvgo.nl w: www.zso.nl Poland Robert Kochaniak PSSi DC (Polish Association of Screenprinting and Digital Printing) ul. Romanowicza 1A 30-702 Krakw Poland t: +48 12 296 03 85 f: +48 12 656 01 32 e: biuro@ssp.com.pl w: www.ssp.com.pl Romania Mr Marius Codirla ASOCIATIA ROMANA DE SERIGRAFIE SI IMPRIMERIE TAMPOGRAFICA (ARSIT) Viking Imprimerie

Escitorios B/C/D 1900 Lisbon Portugal t: +351 21 84 91 020 f: +351 21 84 38 739 e: apigtp@mail.telepac.pt w: www.apigraf.pt

5/9 Avram Lancu Street 3400 Cluj Napoca Romania

t: +40 722 282122 f: +40 264 597139 e: viking@mail.dntcj.ro w: www.arsitd. homestead.com Russia Serbia & Montenegro Mr Artem Nadirashvili Mr. Dusan Golubovic Russian Screenprinting Association YSA C/O Midi Print Company Ul. Hajduk Veljkovo Sokace 35 35 Volnaya st. 11000 Beograd Moscow 105187 Serbia & Montenegro Russia t: +381 16 321 2349 t: +7 09 53 65 38 96 f: +381 11 361 5023 f: +7 09 52 32 18 66 e: tehnologika@beotel.yu e: info@midiprint.com e: yuscreenassn@beotel.yu w: www.rspa.ru Slovakia Slovenia Mr. Ludovit Bartos Ms Mateja Skrl SLOVAK SCREENPRINT Slovenian Screenprinting ASSOCIATION Association Kvystavisku 13 Selo 11d SK - 91250 Trencin Crnice Slovakia 5262 Slovenia t: +42 1 32 74 43 5 89 f: +42 1 32 74 30 4 34 t: +38 65 36 66010 e: bartos@bartos.sk f: +38 65 66 022 w: www.sietotlacovyzvaz.sk e: info@efekt.si Spain Sweden Mr. Pablo Serrano Cobos Ms Else-Britt Lindeborg AEDES - ASOCIACIN ESPAOLA SVENSKA SCREENTRYCKARES DE EMPRESAS DE SERIGRAFA E FORENING IMPRESIN DIGITAL Box 24184 Ctra. del Planto 104; 1 A SE-104 51 Stockholm 28220 Majadahonda Sweden Madrid Spain t: +46 8 762 6811 f: +46 8 611 0828 t: +34 91 307 74 44 e: else-britt. f: +34 91 307 76 08 lindeborg@grafiska.se

e: pserrano@aspack.es w: www.asibnet.org Switzerland VSDS Verband Sieb- und Digitaldrucktechnik Schweiz Alte Winterthuererstrasse 88 CH-8309 Nrensdorf Switzerland t: +41 44 837 1040 f: +41 44 837 1042 e: wtroesch@bluewin.ch w: www.vss-apss.ch

w: www.screentryck.org Turkey Mr.Ibrahim Demirseren ARED Acik Hava Reklamcilar Dernegi (Turkish Sign Association) Gursel Mahallesi Kagithane Cad. No. 8/5 Caglayan 80340 Istanbul Turkey t: +90 212 222 83 30 f: +90 212 221 69 46 e: ared@ared.org.tr w: www.ared.org.tr

UK Mr.Michael Turner Digital & Screen Printing Association 7a West Street Reigate Surrey RH2 9BL UK t: +44 1737 240792 f: +44 1737 240770 e: info@dspa.co.uk w: www.dspa.co.uk Individual members of FESPA: Bangladesh Mr M. Saleh Badal Step Media Ltd 24a Bijoy Nagar Skylark Point (7th Floor) Dhaka-1000 Bangladesh t: +8802 9331 533 f: +8802 8319 312 e: info@stepmedialtd.com

Canada Mr. Robert Bellemare BELLEMARE INC CIB Communications Imprimes Bellemare Inc 2700 Daniel-Johnson Laval, Qubec H7P 5Z7 Canada t: +450 686 0056 f: +450 686 2704

e: robert@ cibbellemare.com w: www.cibbellemare.com Japan Japan Mr. Yoshitaka Kumazawa Mr Toshio Yamashiro KUMAZAWA SCREEN PRINTING INC TANAKA CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 7-35 2-Chrome LTD Akabane Kita 7-29 Sagisu Kita-Ku 1-chome Tokyo 115-0052 Fukushima-ku Japan Osaka 553-0002 Japan t: +81 3 3905 1201 f: +81 3 3907 6102 t: +81 6 6452 1991 f: +81 6 6452 3328 e: aon-ink@mtg.biglobe.ne.jp USA USA Ray Roda Michael McCall DISCMAKERS HEINRICH CERAMIC DECAL INC 7905 N. Rt. 130 150 Goddard Memorial Drive Pennsauken Worcester New Jersey MA 01603 USA 08110 USA t: +1 508 797 4800 f: +1 508 754 t: +1 856 661 3441 8054 e: mmcall@heinriche: rroda@discmakers.com decal.com FESPA Associate Members: Australia China Mr Clem Johnson Mrs Pei Guifan SGIAA China Screen Printing & Graphic Reid Industrial Graphic Products Imaging Association Pty Ltd (CSGIA) PO Box 3159 A36 Qianlang Hutong Clontarf Eastern District Queensland 4019 Beijing Australia 100010 China Tel: +61 07 3889 5533 Tel: + 86 10 6401 5007 Fax: +61 07 3889 5544 Fax: + 86 10 6403 4996 e: clem@ e: peiguifan@csgia.org reidindustrial.com.au w: www.csgia.org w: www.sgiaa.asn.au India Thailand Bhargav Mistry Mr. Chaiyaboon Kulsiriswadi Screen Printers' Association of India Thai Screen Printing & Graphic c/o GRAFICA FLEXTRONICA Imaging Association

Plot No. 92, Survey No. 66 Waliv Fata Vasai (E) Thane Maharashtra 401 208 India t: +91 250 248 0998/9 f: + 91 250 248 0786 e: info@s-p-a-i.org w: www.s-p-a-i.org

56/21-25 Soi Srisanga rama 1 Road Patumwan Bangkok 10330 Thailand Tel: + 66 2 215 5512 Fax: + 61 9 445 2485 e: chaiyab@ chaiyaboon.com w: www.thaiscreenprinting .or.th

THE FESPA BOARD:

Hellmuth Frey President Hellmuth Frey (DOB: 1947) has occupied the position of FESPA President since FESPA 2005 in Munich, having visited his first FESPA exhibition in 1963 in Copenhagen. Ricardo Rodriguez Delgado Board Member Ricardo Rodriguez Delgado (DOB: 1941) is the Iberian representative on the board of FESPA, and served as President of the organisation from 2002 to 2005, culminating in the phenomenally successful FESPA 2005 exhibition in Munich. He was also a founder of AEDES, the Spanish Association of Screen Printers, of which he is the current President. Michel Caza Board Member Michel Caza (DOB: 1935) is a multiple award-winning leading

Anders Nilsson Vice President Anders Nilsson (DOB:1953) represents the Nordic region on the FESPA board of directors, and occupies the role of Vice President.

Lascelle Barrow Board Member Lascelle Barrow (DOB: 1946) represents the UK on the FESPA Board, and has previously occupied the roles of President and Chairman, presiding over the move of the FESPA exhibition to its first stand-alone venue in Lyon. He is also a member of the DPSPA.

Christian Duyckaerts Board Member Christian Duyckaerts (DOB: 1970) is FESPAs board representative in

light in the global screenprinting industry, and one of the founding fathers of FESPA in 1962. He also established the French Screenprinting Association (GPSF) in 1959, was FESPAs delegate on the board of the American SGIA for many years, and now occupies the role of President of the Academy of Screenprinting Technology (ASPT). Gyorgy Kovacs Board Member Gyorgy Kovacs (DOB: 1961) acceded to the FESPA board in 1996, following the foundation of the Hungarian Screen Printers Association in 1992, of which he is President, and membership of FESPA a year later. Kurt Sperisen Board Member Kurt Sperisen (DOB: 1937) has acted as a counsellor to FESPA since 2000, and performs an additional role as the organisations International Relations Ambassador.

Belgium, and President of the screen and digital work group of Belgian trade association Febelgra. He is also a member of the Organisation Mondiale de la Presse Periodique.

Enrico Steijn Board Member Enrico Steijn (DOB: 1960) is FESPAs current Treasurer, and a board member of Dutch screenprinting trade association ZSO, a division of KVGO. As such he represents the Netherlands on the board of FESPA.

Dates 2006 26-29 Sep 2007 5-9 June2007 7-9 December 2008 1-3 April 29 May 11 June 27-30 November

EVENT CALENDAR Event Name Location SGIA Show Las Vegas, NV, USA Messe Berlin, Germany FESPA World Expo India Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. FESPA Digital 2008 Geneval Palexpo, Switzerland DRUPA 2008 Dusseldorf, Germany FESPA World Expo Thailadn BITEC, Bangkok

CHAPTER 4 SCREEN PRINTING DIGITAL PRINTING SIGN & VISUAL COMMUNICATION

SCREEN PRINTING

Screenprinting, or serigraphy, also known as Silkscreen is a printmaking technique that traditionally creates a sharp-edged image using a stencil and a porous fabric. A screenprint or serigraph is an image created using this technique. It began as an industrial technology, and was adopted by American graphic artists in the 1930s; the Pop Art movement of the 1960s further popularized the technique. Many of Andy Warhol's most famous works were created using the technique. It is currently popular both in fine arts and in small-scale commercial printing, where it is commonly used to put images on T-shirts, hats, ceramics, glass, polyethylene, polypropylene, paper, metals, and wood. Today, this service has been adapted for the web and there are many companies featuring online printing and quoting services. In electronics, the term screenprinting or screenprinting legend often refers to the writing on a printed circuit board. Screenprinting printing may also be used in the process of etching the copper wiring on the board.

Graphic screen-printing is widely used today to create most mass or large batch produced graphics, such as posters or display stands. Full colour prints can be created by printing first in black then in cyan flowed by magenta and yellow. Screen printing is used over other techniques such as dye sublimation or inkjet printing because of its low cost and ability to print on many mediums. It does however have a high set up cost so batches have to be reasonably large to be cost effective. Screen printing is arguably the most versatile of all printing processes. It can be used to print on a wide variety of substrates, including paper, paperboard, plastics, glass, metals, fabrics, and many other materials. including paper, plastics, glass, metals, nylon and cotton. Some common products from the screen printing industry include posters, labels, decals, signage, and all types of textiles and electronic circuit boards. The advantage of screenprinting over other print processes is that the press can print on substrates of any shape, thickness and size. A significant characteristic of screen printing is that a greater thickness of the ink can be applied to the substrate than is possible with other printing techniques. This allows for some very interesting effects that are not possible using other printing methods. Because of the simplicity of the application process, a wider range of inks and dyes are available for use in screen printing than for use in any other printing process. Utilization of screenprinting presses has begun to increase because production rates have improved. This has been a result of the development of the automated and rotary screenprinting press, improved dryers, and U.V. curable ink. The major chemicals used include screen emulsions, inks, and solvents, surfactants, caustics and oxidizers used in screen reclamation. The inks used vary dramatically in their formulations. History Screenprinting has its origins in simple stencilling, most notably of the Japanese form (katazome). The modern screenprinting process originated from patents taken out by Samuel Simon in the early 1900s in England. This idea was then adopted in San Francisco, California, by John Pilsworth in 1914 who used screenprinting to form multicolor prints in much the same manner as screenprinting is done today. Screenprinting took off during First World War as an industrial process for printing flags and banners. The use of photographic

stencils at this time made the process more versatile and encouraged wide-spread use. The term silk screen has not been in use within the industry since the mid-1940s when the use of silk was discontinued because of its use in the war effort. Since that time, screenprinting has used polyester material for the screen. Screenprinting was pioneered at the Jepson Art Institute by printmaker Guy McCoy, who was among the first to develop the techniques of silk screen printing as a fine art medium. Herbert Jepson was also the founder of the Western Institute of Serigraphy. Screen Printing Process Overview Screen printing consists of three elements: the screen which is the image carrier; the squeegee; and ink. The screen printing process uses a porous mesh stretched tightly over a frame made of wood or metal. Proper tension is essential to accurate color registration. The mesh is made of porous fabric or stainless steel mesh. A stencil is produced on the screen either manually or photochemically. The stencil defines the image to be printed in other printing technologies this would be referred to as the image plate. Screen printing ink is applied to the substrate by placing the screen over the material. Ink with a paint-like consistency is placed onto the top of the screen. Ink is then forced through the fine mesh openings using a squeegee that is drawn across the scree, applying pressure thereby forcing the ink through the open areas of the screen. Ink will pass through only in areas where no stencil is applied, thus forming an image on the printing substrate. The diameter of the threads and the thread count of the mesh will determine how much ink is deposited onto the substrates. Many factors such as composition, size and form, angle, pressure, and speed of the blade (squeegee) determine the quality of the impression made by the squeegee. At one time most blades were made from rubber which, however, is prone to wear and edge nicks and has a tendency to warp and distort. While blades continue to be made from rubbers such as neoprene, most are now made from polyurethane which can produce as many as 25,000 impressions without significant degradation of the image. If the item was printed on a manual or automatic screen press the printed product will be placed on a conveyor belt which carries the item into the drying oven or through the UV curing system. Rotary screen presses feed the material through the drying or curing system automatically. Air drying of certain inks, though rare in the industry,

is still sometimes utilized. The rate of screen printing production was once dictated by the drying rate of the screen print inks. Do to improvements and innovations the production rate has greatly increased. Some specific innovations which affected the production rate and has also increased screen press popularity include:. 1. Development of automatic presses versus hand operated presses which have comparatively slow production times. 2. Improved drying systems which significantly improves production rate. 3. Development and improvement of U.V. curable ink technologies 4. Development of the rotary screen press which allows continuous operation of the press. This is one of the more recent technology developments. Screen Preparation Screen (or image transfer) preparation includes a number of steps. First the customer provides the screen printer with objects, photographs, text, ideas, or concepts of what they wish to have printed. The printer must then transfer a "picture" of the artwork (also called "copy") to be printed into an "image" (a picture on film) which can then be processed and eventually used to prepare the screen stencil. Once the artwork is transferred to a positive image that will be chemically processed onto the screen fabric (applying the emulsion or stencil) and eventually mounted onto a screen frame that is then attached to the printing press and production begins. Screen Printing Presses There are three types of screen printing presses. The flat-bed (probably the most widely used), cylinder, and rotary. Until relatively recently all screen printing presses were manually operated. Now, however, most commercial and industrial screen printing is done on single and multicolor automated presses. Screen Printing Inks Screen printing inks are moderately viscous inks which exhibit different properties when compared to other printing inks such as offset, gravure and flexographic inks though they have similar basic compositions (pigments, solvent carrier, toners, and emulsifiers). There are five different types of screen ink to include solvent, water, and solvent plastisol, water plastisol, and UV curable.

Printing technique A screen is made of a piece of porous, finely woven fabric (originally silk, but typically made of polyester or nylon since the 1940s) stretched over a wood or aluminum frame. Areas of the screen are blocked off with a non-permeable materiala stencilwhich is a negative of the image to be printed; that is, the open spaces are where the ink will appear. The screen is placed on top of a piece of dry paper or fabric. Ink is placed on top of the screen, and a squeegee (rubber blade) is used to push the ink evenly into the screen openings and onto the substrate. The ink passes through the open spaces in the screen onto the paper or fabric below; then the screen is lifted away. The screen can be reused after cleaning. If more than one color is being printed on the same surface, the ink is allowed to dry and then the process is repeated with another screen and different color of ink. Stenciling techniques There are several ways to create a stencil for screenprinting. The simplest is to create it by hand in the desired shape, either by cutting a piece of paper (or plastic film) and attaching it to the screen, or by painting a negative image directly on the screen with a filler material which becomes impermeable when it dries. For a more painterly technique, the artist may choose to paint the image with drawing fluid, wait for the image to dry, and then "scoop coat" the entire screen with screen filler. After the filler has dried, a hose can be used to spray out the screen, and only the areas that were painted by the drawing fluid will wash away, leaving a stencil around it. This process enables the artist to incorporate their hand into the process, to stay true to their drawing. A method that has increased in popularity is the photo emulsion technique: 1. The original image is placed on a transparent overlay. The image may be drawn or painted directly on the overlay, photocopied, or printed with a laser printer, as long as the areas to be inked are opaque. A black-and-white negative may also be used (projected on to the screen) However, unlike traditional platemaking, these screens are normally exposed by using film positives. 2. The overlay is placed over the emulsion-coated screen, and then exposed with a strong light. The areas that are not opaque in the overlay allow light to reach the emulsion, which hardens and sticks to the screen.

3. The screen is washed off thoroughly. The areas of emulsion that were not exposed to light; corresponding to the image on the overlay dissolve and wash away, leaving a negative stencil of the image attached to the screen. Photographic screens can reproduce images with a high level of detail, and can be reused for thousands of copies. The ease of producing transparent overlays from any black-and-white image using a photocopier makes this the most convenient method for artists who are not familiar with other printmaking techniques. The low resolution and size limitations of a photocopier make film positives necessary in professional screen printing environments. Artists can obtain screens, frames, emulsion, and lights separately; there are also preassembled kits, which are especially popular for printing small items such as greeting cards. Versatility Screenprinting is more versatile than traditional printing techniques. The surface does not have to be printed under pressure, unlike etching or lithography, and it does not have to be planar. Screenprinting inks can be used to work with a variety of materials, such as textiles, ceramics, metal, wood, paper, glass, and plastic. As a result, screen printing is used in many different industries, from clothing to product labels to circuit board printing.

DIGITAL PRINTING

Digital Printing Company is an online printing provider dedicated in providing you advanced and competitive four-color and digital printing solutions. Our core proficiencies lie in the prompt development, production and delivery of premium quality brochures, business cards, postcards, flyers, folders, booklets, posters, letterheads, stickers, door hangers and other printed peripheral. We seek to help our clients using a combination of advanced digital printing technologies and expertise which results to cost-effective, streamlined and premium quality printed output. In our years in the industry, we have acquired experience and credibility that assures an unquestionable client satisfaction with regard to every. printing project from the design, printing, distribution up to excellent post-printing assistance.. Digital printing is the reproduction of digital images on physical surface, such as common or photographic paper, film, cloth, plastic, etc. Commercial Digital Printing Since the early nineties, a growing sector of global print production has been Digital, as distinguished from Litho print. Digital Print is used by those requiring the following:

Short to medium run colour and mono work

Fast turnaround Personalisation (As the image is reproduced each time, variations can be easily introduced) Print on Demand (ie. with an automated ordering system)

The advantage over Litho for short run work is that no plates are needed therefore reducing the initial set-up costs substantially. Digital printing solution The rapidly changing and increasing demands for printing services has driven almost every printing company as well as technologicallyconcerned businesses to develop some advancement in digital printing technology. Advantages like workflow efficiency, mass customization, print on demand production, as well as inventory control are just some of the endresults which are taken into the account. And the digital printing solution is constantly being tapped by commercial print service providers to do just that. Utilizingstate-of-the-artdigital printing technology combined with the brilliant expertise of print professionals in the different printing services, these print providers serves as the answer to clients needs especially when it comes to quality digital output. Likewise, even with one-to-one marketing needs, graphic designing, color copying and other related printing requirements. These printing companies are known to perform abovelevel efficiencies with the help of their digital printing solution. This can include advanced printing and copying services which ensures topquality production value and steadfast delivery requirements. Applying these varying digital solutions, printers are given the opportunity to go from design to production while minimizing downtime, waste and cost that some accustomed printing solution offers. Digital printing solution is designed for such purposes recognizing the ultimate desire of print buyers to get quality color and designs. Such so'lutions have revolutionized how print products are supplied to the marketplace, resulting to primary advantaes over competitors. Everything With Professional Digital Color Printing Digital printing technology: The competition in the business industry never slows down, and instead becomes tougher and tougher for many businesses to deal with. They critically need corporate identification materials that are both inexpensive and efficient enough to get their messages across to recipients. This could be

by means of any print production processes such as digital color printing, offset or lithographic among others that can give supplementary advantages through the kind of print outputs they supply. As day-to-day production passes, more and more products are reproduced and seen in the market; catering to the call of businesses and companies that wants to make a strong call and direct impact in the market, desirous to move ahead of their competitors. Businesses like these can benefit much from with the help of a digital printing company who knows everything with professional digital color printing. Marketing materials that will be .used for ordinary purposes, and does not necessarily need to outwardly market the business can also be printed as customers so requested. Close to accurate quality is obtained, processing fitting colors and highlighting the prints' fine details, which is contributory to how much attention you can possibly get from your audience. This is relatively easy particularly if the files are done from digital originals and manipulation of color should be done digitally; thus you need the skills and expertise of graphic designers who knows everything with professional digital color printing to do it capably bit by bit. Digital printing product: Many companies today favor the use of digital printing for meeting the needs of advertising agencies and business establishments. Digital printing is used because of the advantages it provides with regard to the rate of production as well as the quality of the result. But aside from this process, there are still other processes that are being used such as offset printing, screen printing, full color printing and four color printing. Each of this is unique and has different features so it is just up to the printer's discretion to choose which one he would like to use for his project. Through digital process there will be various digital printing product to be developed. Among the categories that can be availed are the printing jobs for multi-page, large format, single-page, specialty, cards and stationery. Included in the product that is usually developed through this are business cards, nightclub flyers, sales brochures, company brochures, catalogs, letterheads, posters, labels and stickers. These are products that can help businesses to have an enhanced image and profitability. In the production of the digital printing product only the high quality materials are used by the printing company especially when it comes to the ink and paper stock. For the regular size prints the paper stock usually used are the matte, gloss and card stock. For the large format prints developed, the substrates typically employed are satin, backlit, cloth, and scrim vinyl and artist canvas. Premium ink is used to prevent

blotting and for the final result to have excellent resolution and brilliant colors. For the development of these printing products, the equipment used scanners, printers and presses, are of high capacity that are able to handle short run printing and large volume print jobs. Any digital printing product can be developed through commercial printing or custom printing. Commercial printing is ideal for large volume print runs as well as rush printing jobs. Custom printing is a practical choice for those who want to have one of a kind designed promotional and marketing prints and products. Digital printing services Digital printing services are one of the available services that many printing companies are offering nowadays. Along with the technology like the digital equipment for an example is the digital printer. The printing process is that easy to manipulate. Digital printing services is one of the innovative ways of printing processes you have today. This process of printing is widely used by many printing company today because of its valuable benefits. This is used in the new advertising trends. Digital printing is the new alternative to old printing processes. Digital printing services are the option for marketing, advertising and the best tool in promotional system. It is important that you use digital printing services to immediately grab the attention of the consumer and your prospect spectators. With your eye-catching information about your company and the full color images, you can easily get many people's interest. That is why it is better to find a company that gives digital printing services that can portray your business or event accurately. Digital printing services output can be seen almost anywhere in your area now and the best example of this is the one that can be seen as vehicle wrapping with digital color graphics. Vehicle wrapping is the product of digital printing in a large format and that combines the strengths of billboard graphic printing and advertising with the functionality of mobile.

SIGN & VISUAL COMMUNICATION

What is the Sign Industry? The sign industry can generally be separated into two distinct communications areas: the on-premise sign industry, and the outdooradvertising industry. ISA represents the interests of the larger, onpremise sign industry. Typically, an on-premise sign can be classified as one actually on the property of the business it is promoting. An outdoor advertisement, for the most part, can be considered a billboard. The advertising space is rented out to a neutral firm, which is promoting a product or its business. The On-Premise Sign Industry On-premise signs constitute a wide range of different types of displays. On-premise signs can include: neon signs hanging in shop windows or storefronts; fiber-optic systems; pole signs in front of fast-food restaurants or gas stations; electronic message boards; rotating time and temperature displays at banks; awnings; canopies; banners; indoor directional signs; projecting signs carved out of wood; or fleet graphics on trucks and buses. The users of on-premise signs include major franchises, hospitals, airports, stadiums, banks, and family-run stores.

Considering how varied the on-premise sign industry is, it consequently draws on materials manufactured by different industries. Material that goes toward the manufacture and fabrication of on-premise signs involve areas such as the steel and aluminum industries, plastics and petroleum companies, industrial fabric fabricators, electrical component and high-technology firms, and the makers of heavy machinery, to name a few. On-premise signs are regulated by state and local sign ordinances. Federal protections include the First Amendment (free speech), Fifth Amendment (just compensation), 14th Amendment (equal protection), the Lanham Act (trademark protection), the Highway Beautification Act of 1965, and the Copyright Act of 1976. For the last 20 years, on-premise sign makers have benefited from corporate franchise and chain takeovers, particularly those who, during the past few years, mass-produced corporate-identification signs. The origins of the modern on-premise sign industry can be associated with the development of the neon sign. Before that, what is now considered the on-premise sign was a painted sign, with illumination provided by incandescent bulbs. Before neon, there was really no onpremise industry and no particular expertise existed. According to industry followers, two things happened to change the onpremise trade: non-patents expired, and the introduction of plastic revolutionized the way signs were made. The Outdoor-Advertising Industry Different from the on-premise sign industry is the outdoor sector. According to Jim Groh, president of Cleveland-based Brilliant Electric Sign Company, Ltd., 30-sheet posters, totaling 320 square feet, and the painted bulleting, equaling 720 square feet, have dominated outdoor displays today in the United States. Nationwide, they standardize the dimensions of these billboards. Sources cited by Groh suggest 75 percent of the $1 billion to $2 billion spent annually on outdoor advertising in America goes toward these large posters and bulletins, making those who invest in these types of advertising the most significant players. Canada, in contrast, discourages large outdoor devices, and bus shelters, transit, and park-bench advertising represent the lion's share of the money spent on the outdoor industry there, says Groh. Four U.S. states ban billboards. Additionally, most of these outdoor signs represent contract rights, not real-estate interests. Overall, the sign industry is an advertising medium, similar to that of television or periodicals or radio. The large outdoor sign or billboard, like other advertising media with potentially vast audiences, sells space based on gross rating pints, frequently determined by a national rating system. This system gives buyers information on reach, telling whom they expose to the billboard material; frequency, which notifies how often we expose someone to billboard goods; and cost-per-

thousand exposures, which is the rating system providing the readership numbers. As one would imagine, to optimize the readership, a standardized sign must be effectively placed, or positioned, for notice or understanding by a driver. In the U.S., the 30-sheet or painted bulletins are usually on the land, so drivers pass them while traveling. Nevertheless, they must also read and see the sign safely. Legislators and regulators depend on specification regulations to ensure sign safety. Typically, billboard codes will specify size, placement, and lighting. Thus, for example, you must likely see illuminated painted bulletins at a uniform level. The outdoor industry is well researched and highly regulated and regimented because of the Highway Beautification Act of 1965, which controls outdoor advertising along interstate highways. Brief History of the Sign Industry To understand and appreciate any industrial segment of the United States economy, it is necessary to view it in perspective over its history. Very few products and services have been in general usage longer than signs. Signs have been a fundamental element in trade, commerce and industry for centuries. They are and will continue to be a fundamental factor in our economy as long as there is a need to identify a place of business or express a reason for its existence.

The earliest centuries Symbolic advertising may have come into existence very early, when individuals banded together into tribes for mutual protection. Certain individuals, who became particularly adept in producing products such as bows, arrows or utensils, probably drew a picture on the entrance of their cave or hut indicating to others that they had products to exchange.

The instinctive desire for product improvement probably provided the basis for competition and craftsmen learned there were rewards for skill and production in quantity. Goods then may have been exchanged on an inter-tribal basis, competition increased, and it became important to tell prospective buyers within a limited territory about the merits of a product or to call attention to the location where the product was for exchange. The earliest advertising medium was probably that of a "crier" or "barker." As trade developed, the producer had a fixed location and called attention to the merits of his goods by hanging out identifying insignia. The use of on-premise, i.e., at the place of sale, advertising as a medium was inaugurated. There are definite records of advertising executed in stone and on bricks as early as 3000 B.C. From 3000 B.C. and for more than 4,000 years thereafter during the Egyptian, Grecian and Roman civilizations, and on through the Middle Ages, the use of advertising displays at the place of business constituted the only important and effective advertising medium. Tradesmen's signs were prevalent in ancient Egypt and Greece. They were widespread in early Rome - sometimes painted, sometimes carved in stone or designed in terra cotta. One of the most widely used signs in Rome was a bush of ivy and vine leaves, associated with Bacchus the God of Wine, and attached to a pole to identify a tavern. Most Roman shops displayed a sign of some sort, and many were uncovered in the ruins of Pompeii and other cities. After the Dark Ages, exploration and trade expeditions clearly enlarged the commercial world. It was a prosperous era in business. Wealth encouraged the arts, and talent found expression in painting, architecture and literature. Merchant's signs in England, France and Italy began to come under artistic influences and reflected novel designs and colors. The signs were a means of expression for many artists, and involved elaborate carvings, gilt and paints. It is important to note that from the beginning of tribal life up to the middle of the 18th century there is no record of any advertising medium in use except that of criers and on-premise signs and displays. Advertising was strictly an outdoor medium used to designate the point of sale and the types of goods sold. In addition to the economic value of signage of all kinds as we know it today, signs have reflected man's culture since these earliest centuries.

The 14th to 18th Centuries In the 14th century, signs were optional in England except for the pubs.In 1393, Richard II required publicans (tax collectors) to exhibit a sign, but it was not compulsory for other business locations. By the 17th century symbol signs became common in Europe such as: Bible.....................................Bookseller Civet Cat...............................Perfumer Key......................................Locksmith Mortar & Pestle.....................Apothecary Red & White Striped Pole............Barber Shoe......................................Shoemaker Sugar Loaf..............................Grocer Three Golden Balls.................Pawn Broker Seventeenth and 18th century England was an endless vista of colorful signboards hanging from shops and banking houses along narrow streets. The signs were quite artistic and even the posts of supports were elaborately worked in wrought iron or in wood carvings as tradesmen competed with each other for better and more distinctive identification for their place of business. When increased travel led to several shops in the same area, signs were accompanied by a name which could be identified by customers. Symbols remained important, however, for many years because many people could not read. The beginning of sign regulation Shops began extending their signs farther and father over the street to attract customers. The signs became more elaborate and heavier--a real danger to pedestrians. Regulations began to limit the extension of signs from shops and also controlled their height to prevent injury to the heads of horsemen riding on the streets. In the early 1700's, Charles II decreed that no sign should hang across the streets. The problem continued, however, resulting in a 1797 statute ordering the removal of signs which projected or could in any way be considered a problem to the public. One unusual such sign in the latter part of the 17th century consisted of 25 life-size figures. (Delderfield, 1972).

Without street names or building numbers, signs were used for providing directional information for newspapers and other forms of communication. Signs were therefore used not only by tradesmen and their customers, but by the entire population. During the same period of time in France, and particularly in Paris in the 17th century, merchants also competed for trade by using larger and larger signs. Due to this continuing increase in size, an ordinance was passed in 1761 requiring signs to be fixed against shop walls and projection from buildings was limited to four inches. Thus, today's sign industry has its roots in earlier centuries, beginning with relatively simple carved and then painted symbols and other types of signs, expanding during medieval days when travel and retail business increased, and growing into the diversified sophisticated graphics signage industry as we know it today. 19th and 20th Centuries Gas Lighting. The first illuminated sign dates back to 1840 when P.T. Barnum's Museum was advertised by a gas-lit display. Gas lighting continued to be used on theater marquees, drug stores and other retail stores until the electric lamp was introduced. Incandescent Bulbs In 1881 the first electrical sign was built with incandescent bulbs in London, England and featured the word "EDISON" during the International Electrical Exposition in January, 1882. The United States pioneered the night display type of outdoor advertising, and the era of the illuminated sign is distinctly American. The first electric spectacular was erected in 1891 in New York City. The sign was 50 ft. high and 80 ft. wide and contained 1,457 lamps. The copy was "MANHATTAN BEACH SWEPT BY OCEAN BREEZES." In the early 1900's the use of electric signs in the United States continued to expand as retail merchants recognized the economic advantage (i.e. number of exposures to prospective customers) of on premise signs as compared with newspaper and other forms of advertising. The first electric sign company. In Chicago in the fall of 1900 Federal Electric Company (now Federal Sign, Division of Federal Signal Corp.)

was formed as an off-shoot from Commonwealth Edison Co. which had been renting arclights to its customers. In 1905, in support of Federal Sign System (electric)--a new name selected by Federal Electric Company to reflect its position in the young sign industry-Commonwealth Edison Company published a promotional booklet including pictures of a great number of existing signs in the Chicago area; many are now looked back upon as famous spectaculars. The introduction to this booklet stated: "Electric sign advertising is a unique means of arousing interest in any kind of merchandising, and attention thereby is attracted, held, and finally turned into purchases...Electric advertising is the cheapest and most efficient means of advertising obtainable. The first cost is small and the upkeep slight, in comparison with other forms of advertising...Customers that cannot be reached in any other manner are obtained through the medium of Electric Sign advertising. In conjunction with other forms of advertising, and Electric sign acts as a follow-up." The same statements can be made today, 70 years later, with respect to a well designed and manufactured electrical sign. Federal Sign System expanded its business by providing incandescent lamp signs to serve both as sidewalk illumination and advertising. Some municipalities granted the right to have a sign extend over the sidewalk only if it provided electrical illumination. Electric signs increased sign values significantly for their users because they reached prospective customers at night. Most of these electric signs consisted of a colored porcelain enamel center panel carrying the advertising message, surrounded by a border of lamps. A patent was issued to Federal Electric Company, one of the few granted to the sign industry over the years, covering a clamp socket to hold the bulbs. By 1906 there were 75,000 electric signs in use in the United States and 1909 brought the first mass-produced signs consisting of four lamps of eight candle power equipped with on and off flashes. In 1910, the great chariot race sign in New York City was one of the most famous electrical displays in the world. Erected on the roof of a seven-story building overlooking Herald Square, it featured a Roman chariot race and the sign was composed of 20,000 bulbs of different colors, 70,000 connections and 2,750 switches. The simulated movement of horses, drivers and whips was accomplished by 2,500 flashes per minute and the sign attracted crowds every night for years.

The erection of an intervening building ended its period of use by a series of advertisers. Neon tubes The 1890's produced several technical innovations which would eventually accelerate the growth of the sign industry. In 1898, English scientists Sir William Ramsay and William Travers discovered neon gas, and it was duly classified in the rare gas family along with other trace elements in our atmosphere such as helium, argon, krypton and later xenon. Independently, but simultaneously, a French scientist named Georges Claude developed a method for liquifying neon gas which he first disclosed in 1902. Up until that time neon was difficult to produce, tremendously expensive and apparently offered no practical commercial application. Georges Claude continued to perfect the characteristics and promise of neon gas. Claude had found that neon was extremely sensitive to electrical charges which produced a reddish glow when applied. Between 1910 and the start of the war in 1914, Georges Claude worked on the commercialization of tubular illumination and produced some neon tubes 1-1/4 in. in diameter and 10 to 15 ft. in length, with electrodes up to 10 in. long. By 1910 he had perfected a neon discharge tube, and obtained a French patent covering the electrodes and processing system. During this period, Count J. De Beaufort, another French scientist, became associated with Claude in his neon developments and just before the war they conceived the idea of bending tubes into shapes to produce letters, wording and decorative effects. When they discovered that a drop of mercury combined with the neon gas produced a brilliant blue light, the luminous tube advertising industry was born. It is generally agreed, without specific examples, that the first commercial neon signs were installed in Paris by Claude during this period. During the First World War, Georges Claude was on duty with the French Government in the chemical warfare section. All French cities were blacked out because of air raids, and all development of neon tubes was deferred. Following World War I, however, the sign industry took on a renewed life when the availability and potential of neon as a sign and advertising medium was quickly recognized. The first recorded use of a neon-luminous sign was in 1921. Although such signs were reportedly in use in Paris as early as 1914. As far as can be determined, the first neon sign in the United States was imported from Paris in 1922 by Earl Anthony for Packard Agency in Los Angeles. The approximate price was $1,250 and it contained just the word "Packard." Two of the signs were purchased, one going to San Francisco.

Through Georges Claude's activities in the United States in the early 1920's, based on the patents he obtained in 1915, several sign companies were formed in this country to exploit these patents and several existing companies obtained patent rights to the neon process. Aided by neon and a growing post-war economy, by 1924 there were about 150,000 electric signs in the United States which sold for an average price of about $400. At the same time, because of the maintenance required for neon signs, a trend developed to lease signs with maintenance. The sign leasing concept has grown to this day, aided by capital conservation and tax factors. Fluorescent tubes As sign customers became increasingly aware of neon's advertising advantages, colors in addition to red and blue were requested. Initially tinted glass was used for tubes, but processing was difficult and the colors were not sharp. Need again became the mother of invention. Erich Koch, a German inventor, created a method of applying a fluorescent powder coating on the inner surface of glass tubes and exposing the tubes to ultraviolet radiation - the resulting glow enabled a variety of colors to be processed. Koch received a German patent in 1933, and Claude's company in France acquired the rights to process and develop it still further to overcome remaining objectionable features such as serious discoloration or blackening and the resultant decrease in light output. Thus, fluorescent tubes became available for sign application. Beginning in 1934, Claude's company began the production of commercial signs and lighting with fluorescent tubes. One of their largest projects, which attracted worldwide attention, was at the Brussels Exposition of 1935. Soon Claude licensees began producing fluorescent tubing, and the General Electric Co., after spending millions of dollars in fluorescent tube research, decided that Claude's patents were basic and entered into a licensing contract with Claude. In granting the license, Claude reserved the rights for the use of this tubing for decorative and advertising purposes. Many large companies, both in Europe and the United States, were involved in this pooling of patents, including General Electric Co., Federal Electric Corp., and Electrical Products Corp. (The latter two companies were the two major sign companies in the United States). Electrical Products Corp. held 18 patents which were pooled with those of Claude to the benefit of the sign industry. In summary, developments in sign illumination, beginning with the incandescent bulb and moving on through neon and fluorescent tubing, provided the major impetus to the growth of the United States sign industry. Evidence of accelerated growth is the 1924-1929 period, when combined gross business for relatively young

sign industry in the United States increased from $50,000 annually to over $18 million. By 1930, practically every city or town, however small, had its neon signs with colors limited to the conventional red neon and mercury blue. From this point on fluorescent tubes took their place along with neon and resulted in increased diversity in the design and manufacture of signs. During the 1930's a number of companies not affiliated with the sign industry developed products specifically designed for use by sign manufacturers, such as transformers, electrodes and ballasts - thereby creating a new sign supply industry. As with any growing industry, its successes and expansion created important new business opportunities for the products and services of other companies. The war years (1914-18 and 1941-45) During World War I, the sign industry was restricted in the use of materials for sign manufacture, and further expansion of the use of signs as an advertising medium was delayed. Because of the maintenance required for neon signs made in earlier years, a trend had developed to leasing neon signs with maintenance by the company who manufactured them. Such maintenance revenue generated by the need for servicing neon signs helped some of the sign companies through the difficult war period. One large sign company diversified into war-related products such as sirens and fuses, and this has now become a significant national business for the sign company. After World War I, the sign industry renewed its growth with the availability of neon to serve and expanding economy with a now defined appreciation of the commercial value of signage. World War II had its effect on the sign industry. On June 30, 1942, the manufacture of metal signs was entirely prohibited; transformers used for signs required copper, thereby eliminating the availability of a key sign component. Some larger companies took in various types of government business related to the war effort, such as aircraft parts, communications equipment and metal housings. Sign maintenance again provided continuing business for some. However, the industry generally went into a period of decline and large numbers of experienced signmen left the industry. Following the war, increased consumer demand caused sign companies to be faced with a short supply of materials, particularly transformers. The suppliers of these products began to create new and redesigned items to supply the sign industry. From 1945 until 1948 neon signs once again flourished. During this period sequentially lit or "spelling" neon, animated neon,

flashing neon and large neon murals began to reappear. The high point of all neon signs probably was reached just prior to 1948. The age of plastics The post World War II sign market, conditioned by the technological advances of the war, demanded new designs, processes, finishes and materials. Most important of these materials in its impact on the sign industry was the advent of colored translucent plastics Many types of plastics had been tried before the war with generally disappointing results. Recognizing the potential in the growing sign industry, the major plastic manufacturers accelerated their development of durable, color-fast, stable materials and simultaneously conducted a concentrated and successful campaign to sell their new products to the ultimate sign user market. The use of plastics, mainly acrylics, in outdoor custom signs called for a new approach in sign design, fabrication skills and illumination. Plastic signs reduced the need for specialized maintenance service and therefore could be sold directly without the lease or maintenance agreement more common with earlier signs incorporating neon tubing. Plastic signs were a relatively easier sign to manufacture than the neon and porcelain enamel metal which required specialized and costly skills, particularly in bending glass tubes. The educational and promotional campaigns of the plastic producing companies were so effective that plastic is now used in nearly 95 percent of the signs in the United States. Because of the low investment and lesser skills required in manufacturing plastic signs, literally hundreds of small sign companies were formed during the 1950's. Many of the existing companies gave up their neon facilities, even though the production of neon was at that time still cheaper than some types of plastic signs. With the introduction of plastic signs, the on-premise neon signs which were so prevalent in many parts of the country tended to deteriorate. The rapidly increasing use of plastic signs represented the tendency of our culture to promote the disposable product and replace the durable. In many instances this meant the loss of beautiful signage artifacts created in the days of neon. The sign industry today Sign companies today are providing the same service to our country's retail, financial and industrial places of business as did the sign producers of ancient times, medieval centuries and the early days of the twentieth century. The sign industry has deep roots in the world's history, and has broadened its contributions to the increased welfare and success of all kinds of customers.

Composed of over 3,000 sign companies, ranging in size from a handful of employees to many hundreds, the broad diversity of signage and related graphic identification are in evidence everywhere about us. It is estimated that the annual revenues generated by the sign industry approximate $600 million. Sign companies offer on-premise illuminated and non-illuminated signs of many types, directional secondary signage, interior signs, faade and other architectural graphics helping to identify the place of business. The industry draws on a long history of creative artistic design skills and a steadily increasing variety of sign materials to enhance creativity in sign manufacture and a basic understanding of the important relationship between a business and its sign. Although the sign industry cannot be classified as utilizing high technology, electronic developments in other industries have led to a variety of neon sign concepts over the past ten years to meet modern day needs. Beginning with relatively simple time and temperature displays, utilized extensively by financial institutions for public service purposes in conjunction with their business identification, the sign industry now supplies a variety of electronic and solid state signage. Some electronic signs enable a customer to display changing messages of varying lengths prepared at his choice on a typewritersized computer at his location. Some users arrange for press service news and bulletins to be automatically fed into the sign selected schedules. Others provide current weather information, pollen count and similar public service data. Several larger sign companies provide complex electronic displays such as the scoreboards at the Los Angeles Coliseum, Houston Astrodome, and the Rose Bowl. One company furnished a computercontrolled multi-display traffic advisory system for the Santa Monica Freeway in Los Angeles. The centuries old sign industry is continuing to prove its ability to design and manufacture signage and displays of all kinds incorporating the latest materials and skills available in order to satisfy the desires and needs of those who serve the general population. Over the centuries, signs have taken their place in man's culture, recognized as symbols reflecting the business and environmental needs of each era. Today, the creative design capability of the sign industry enables it to respond to the will and desires of its customers and those responsible for signage planning in our cities and towns. Signs from earlier days are now recognized and valued as antique artifacts reflecting the American scene, just as many of today's signs

will one day be important to those who cherish the symbols of our 20th century culture. As the sign industry has adapted to change over the centuries, so will it continue to respond to the desires of today's and tomorrow's environment.

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION, LIMITATION & BIBLIOGRAPHY

CONCLUSIONS
Seemed like a really long period when I first began my Industrial Training but went by ever so quickly and have left me craving for much more. I would have to say that it is an absolutely fabulous part of the curriculum and perhaps will remain the most memorable one. As I got my first real experience of being a service personnel in the Company. Needless to say that this experience was a highly enriching and educative one as I went on from one department to another and met and got the opportunity to train under several highly respected senior professionals. I learnt that every individual is different and that every one has something unique to offer. I learnt that every job has its nuances and its value and that no job is superior to the other. I learnt that on needs to constantly improve and improvise. I learnt hat this is just the beginning of a long road ahead full of challenges. But I know that I will be able to run along because I have my foundations firmly built in. It is here that I got the opportunity to continuously introspect and improve as a budding professional and as a human being. I will always look back at the time spent here with fondness and with pride.

I cant thank all the people who have helped me in several different ways that will go a long way in facilitating the commencement of a wonderful journey.

RECOMMENDATIONS
FESPA Industry in India and across the globe needs to give a greater in-depth thought to branding their products and services to reap the benefits of changing customer needs. The FESPA Industry as a whole must understand the importance of Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty and make all efforts to retain customers. Innovation is also proposed as a key to success in the industry currently and also for the future as competition is growing rapidly. Emphasizing on areas like Semiotics would result in generating brand recognition and awareness. This would be a helpful tool inorder to impact the consumers mind. Media is the recommended channel through which the impact can be profound. Ensuring exceptional guest care by each and every employee should be the norm. To ensure this, flatter structures are recommended to stimulate communication process and close working as a team.

Staff levels must be offered better pay packages since they are the ones in direct contact with your customers. Competitive pay packages will also help in retention of staff and better services to the customers. Empower employees, encourage and -support them in their decisions to build confidence. This will lead to better customer service. Outsourcing options should be considered seriously, and in as many services as possible. This will definitely lower payroll costs and may also improve efficiency of operations.

LIMITATIONS
The dissertation is based on the use of secondary data. It gives us a birds eye view of the FESPA Industry and thus cannot be generalized for the overall benefits of Branding on the Industry. Time was a biggest constraint but all efforts were made by me to collect all the relevant information for the dissertation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY INTERNET

www.servintoline.com www.fespa.com www.fespaindia.com www.fespadigital.com

OTHER
Claus, R. J. and Claus K.E., A Brief History of the Sign Industry. In Claus, R. J. and Claus, K.E., Handbook of Signage and Sign Legislation. Palo Alto: Signage Research International, 1975. Chapter 2. Commonwealth Edison Company. Electric Signs. Chicago, Illinois: Commonwealth Edison Co. no date (circa 1905). Delderfield, E.R., British Inn Signs and Their Stories. Devon, England: David & Charles, 1972. Gilchrist, J.M., The First Fifty Years. Chicago: Federal Enterprises Inc. (now Federal Sign), 1951. Simpson, T.W. The "Reason Why" of Electrical Advertising. San Francisco: Federal Electric, May 25, 1920.

Related Interests