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KANARESE GRAMMAR

With Graduated Ex erc is es


BY
HAROLD SPENCER, B.A.
REVISED BY
W. PERSTON, B.D.
MYSORE CTrY
PRINTED AT THE WESLEY PRESS
1950
Therevision
of `Spencer's
Grammar' was undertaken some
years ago
at
the
request of the Rev .
H. H. Newham, at that
time General Superintendent of the Methodist
Missionary
Society
in Mysore State, the Mission Press having
published
the
original edition, as also its predecessor, the
`Elementary
Grammar' of the Rev . Thomas Hodson (1859). The
work
could not be taken up at once and has had to be done in
oddments
of time. When it was decided to make a revision, it was agreed
to make it fairly thorough that it might reflect, to some extent
at least, the changes which have taken place in written and
spoken Kanarese
as
a result
of
the notable literary renascence
of the period since
this grammar
was written .

The year after


l

Mr .
Spencer's
book was published, that
is, 1915, is commonly
regarded as
marking the appearance of a
new interest in the
history of
Kanarese literature and a new effort to
make the
language
an effective medium of expression in the,
modern
world. This was the year of the establishment of the Kannada
Sahitya Parishat, the Kanarese Literary Academy . As fruit of
the labours of the
founders of
the Academy and their coadjutors
great changes have
been wrought in
the language as popularly
written and spoken
. The movement
represented a reaction
away from a highly
Sanskritized style
of writing, a style of
resounding
compound words, ornate figures
and labyrinthine sen-
tences, and
towards the natural idiom of
Kannada as found in
old ballads
and folk tales .

I ts result is seen in substantial literary


achievement
of considerable variety. From the point
of
view
of
language the consequence has been to forge a fresh style
for
popular writing and journalism, as also for factual statements in
history and branches of modern knowledge. Characteristic
words and idioms have been restored to use which undeservedly
had been allowed
to lapse.
No change
has
been made in the general form of Mr .
Spencer's book.
The
features which distinguished the first
edition are
retained, namely,
the
graded
exercises in translation
and a certain
amount of exposition .
The transliteration of
PREFACE
ia..aoa .oo: . . Roma. . - - : .. c caac - . z- o - . :
- o. . o. o.o. , a: c- - . aca.oo.- o a - - . : - -
. - ::o.:, - xc- . . - ca:- o - c.. ca. - m: o amma A
ca - a: c- - . aoo- o o. - om: o ia.a- :- co- :o.o- .c-
a: a. a. o o o:- .o a- - . a..a- - xam. .a . o.: ao. . - o
o m. ::. o.a. - :
- co. . - a.- : .o:- o. .. o. | .- .c- .a: ac. - o
oc a. . o.. . - como:. . o. o . : coo .o.- - ma. .: . . -
co..

| .- .c- .a: ooo - .o. o :- .o om .. a.o
a :- . - : o .o - : - ao mao-

I- o. .. o. o - co. . - a.- :
.o av- a- . - . ac- o o:- .o:- .am- : .- - .o - o
. . - o. . .a. - ac- a: c- - . - . . c. - o om . m- o . m- o.
va. o.: o. . :

a.o. i ia..ma. a Rao a: c- - . co.:.. - o
o. oo.c .. ma - :
A: . . - como:. . o. o . :_.o, :o . . . : - v. :. o., - o. o
a.o : a.oao amma: av- c- - . .:- o, i. - . : - o. . o. o
.acoama.. oaa.a, . : o.. amma ca:- o o. a , -
io:aa..aoa..o. a..ao. o i. :.ama- . a L) o- -
.. i. - . : mo..m- . a. o. c . o.a .o a. :o mo- - c- .
coo: :.c a: - .. v- :. o |:o- ia..aoa i- . . o. , -
.. . . v. aa.a o - a:- . |. ::. o. - ::, .aco. oa,a, -
|aoama . aa.a o | I i .. a. a. a, a.o o - :,
av- c- - . co.:.. - o

A. occa:. o.a. . . . .: a . v- - xam. - a:
c- - . a- . om - :- .o:

. : o- o a .o c- ac o
. : o - . .- - a: a- . . ac- .. c ma .o c- m- c
a - .. ac.o.. - om- .
Ac.o.. - om- . : a- o.- o m a::. : a. : . . - . oc- :a.
. c- o c. - . ca. a.o o - - . , a: a. :o o o. ia..aoa
. - a .- - a m- . a.o - ma.a- m- . o - :- :. -
- :: o - x- m. a a . - .c-
a.a. o- ,
A. . , L`
. v
:
CRRCI i. Ai A I i.
a- , co. ` , . o . - - , - ao ". " o "L "
L, oo .o - L, o - ao
L, . o . . .- om co om, - ao . o-
L , . a.o co. .m., - ao . . o . a.o . o.o. - co. .m.
L, . - a.o co. .m. - ao . o . a.o . o.o. - co. .m.
L, . . .. aa . o. a a: o o- ac- o om v: - om :o.. o c-
: c - oo .o -
-, :ma. . - a- , a - ". .a. ", - ao comma o : o a.o - :ma. .
. - - o - ca. a. . . " "
, oo .o - , - ao ":am. aa .a" o ":am. a a.a "
L` L, . . .- LL, - :.c:c. : . . oam Q a: o co- .
L` , oo .o - o.- , aoo "o o - - xc- . o.:, :- - "
L-, aoo o - aaa . .: ma. . - . ".- - . - o. . : :.c- c
oo .o - o. "
L-, ocac.. a, ..o- -o,Ao . o "o. a.o", - ao "a.o o. "
L L, oo .o - , o . ) - ao L . )
L , oo .o - L, . a: . . .- , o - :- m. co. o. - ao a comma
L , oo .o - , - mov- - : o a - "a: "
` ` , oo .o - -, - ao " i. .- , . L . )"
` ` , ` . . .- om co om o a- , a - "a ) - . : .o " - ao
" `
o), - :, - . :)" . - o. . o.. . . . .- a - ".o" - ao
".o o.: ao . o - :, o.:)"
` , :ma. . - a:, o- . - - "- c ", a - .o
` - , oo .o - , o ". " - ao "m "
` -, :. x . . .- om co om, - ao o
` , oo .o - , - ao ":- - " o ":- c"
-, oo .o - ` o c- - ao .: . - oom
. o- . - - oo .o - L`
. . ac. - . oo.. ia. v a)
CONTENT'S
PAGES
CHAPTER I
THE ALPHABET-Vowels-Consonants-
Combinationof Vowels with Consonants
EXERCISE I .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

6-17
THE ALPHABET (contd. )-Combination of
Consonants with Consonants-ExERctsE II
-Semi-Vowels, or Semi-Consonants-Ex.
ERCISE III.

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

18-25
MUTATIONAL COMBINATION OF LETTERS
(4oq~ sandhi)-EXERCISE IV.

. . .

. . .

26-30
CHAPTER II
CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS-Classification
according to Origin-Classification accor-
ding to Grammatical Use-DECLENSioNs
AND CONJUGATIONs-The Three Declen-
sions-Gender-Number-Case-Person-
TheTwoConjugations-Moods, Tenseand
Voice. . . .

. . .

. . .

. .

. . . 31-39
THE FIRST DECLENSION-Masculine-THE
FIRST CONJUGATION-Imperative-Present
Tense-SYNTAX-The Present Tense-De-
monstrative Adjectives-The Sentence
EXERCISE V.

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

40-45
THEFIRSTDECLENSION (contd. )-Feminine
-PersonalPronounsof the Third Person-
THE FIRST CONJUGATION (contd. )-Future
Tense-SYNTAX-The Fut ure Tense-
Translation o `And '-EXERCISEVI .

. . .

46-49
THEFIRST DECLENSION (contd. )-Neuter-
THE FIRST CONJUGATION (contd. )-Past
ABBREVIATIONS
A(in 3A) for the 3A declension interj. , interjection
acc . , accusative case interr. , interrog . ,interrogative
adj . , adjective irreg. , irregular
INTRODUCTION
adjctvl. , adjectival Kan. , Kanarese
adv. , adverb loc. , locative case
advbl. , adverbl. , adverbial m. , masculine
alt. , alternative n. , neut. , neuter
LESSON I .
B (in 313), the 313 declension neg. , negative
c. (cum), with nom. , nominative case
cf. , compare p. , page
conj. , conjugation partc . , ptc . , ptcp. , participle LESSON II .
conjunction ptcpl. , participial
cont. , contingent pf. , perf. , perfect
dat. , dative case pers. , person
decl. , declension plu. , plural
e. g. , for example postp. , postposition LESSON III .
ex. , example pref. , prefix
emph. , emphatic pres. , present
f. , feminine pro. , pron. , pronoun
fut. , future redupl. , reduplication
gen. , genitive case rel. , relative LESSON IV.
honfc . , honorific a. , sing. , singular
i. e. , that is Sk. (Skt. ), Sanskrit
impv. , imperat. , imperv. ,imperative tad . , tdb. , tadbhava
mood tr . , transitive (verb)
inf . , infin. , infinitive mood
vbl. , verbal
inatr. , instrumental case
voc. , vocative case
intr. , intrans. , intransitive (verb)
LESSON V.
LESSON VI .
LESSON VII .
and `Adjectival Noun&'-EXERCISE XV. 100-105
ix
USE of VERBAL PARTICIPL99---Coatotnpo-
raneous or Successive Actions-Manner,
Means, Cause-Verbal Participles followed
by a Negative Verb-Participles followed
bya Finite Verb having a different Subject
-EXERCISE XVI . . . . . . . . .
NOUNSOF RELATIONSHIP-PRONOUNS-First
Person-Second Person-SPECIAL USES OF
THE PLURAL-Honorific Plural Dvandva-
sam4sa-TaE IRREGULAR VERB 'A
Continuative Forms of Verbs-Perfect
Forms of Verbs-The Verb %d) with the
Dative Case-Ex ERCI8E XVII. . . . . . .
PRoNouNs(contd. )-Emphatic and Reflex ive
Pronoun aaida
tdnu-Third Person Neuter
on
ted Verbal Forms-Ex ERciss XXIV.

. . .
PAGRi
106-114
115-125
Pronoun-THE I N'S T RUMENTAL CASE--
EXERCISE XVIII

. . .

. . .

. . .

126--132
VERBS ENDING IN '44o im, ETC. -THE
IRREGULAR VERB foa hoqu- EXERCISE
XX.

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 133-141
PRONOUNS (contd. )-Interrogative Pro-
nouns oipdgi yavanu, 44~) e-Repetition
of Pronouns, em-WORDS OF NUMBER-
WORDS OF QUANTITY-THE DATIVE OF THE
POINT OF TIME-EXERCISEXX. . . . . . .
WORDSOF MANNER-PRONOMINALENDINGS
ATTACHED To GENITIVE CASE -USE OF
INTERROGATIVE WoRDs-THE LOCATIVE
CASE-Ex ERcisz XXI.

. . .

. . .

. . .
UNINFLECTEDWORDS Ozaiaavyaya-Used
as Postpositions, along with Relative Parti-
ciples and as independent Adverbs-as
Adjectives-Uninflected Forms partly or
wholly declinable-Conjunctions-Onoma-
topoeic (Imitative) Words-Interjections-
Affix es-Ex ERcin XXII.

. . .
UNINFLECTED WORDS (contd. )--Notes
some Indeclinables-EXERcisz XVIII.
UNINFLECTED WORDS (contd. )-Unconjuga-
142-155
156-164
165-180
181-188
189-196
viii
Tense--SYNTAX-The Past Tense-The PAGES
LESSON XVI.
Crude Form of Nouns compounded with
Verbs-The Word de ddj dJvaru,
God-
EXERCISE VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-53
LESSON VIII. THESECONDDECLENSION-MaSCUline-THE
FIRST CONJUGATION (contd. )-Contingent
Form-SYNTAX-The Contingent Form-
LESSON XVII.
Interrogative Sentences-Ex sRcx sEVIII- . . . 54-60
LESSON IX. THESECONDDECLENSION(co. ; td. )-Feminine
-The FIRST CONJUGATION (contd. )-Im-
perative Mood-SYNTAX-Personal Pro-
nouns of the Third Person-Postpositions-
The irregular verbs, mW, tad), ; kJ, -#ALSJ,
azda, fact)-EXERCISE IX. . . . . . . 61-65
LESSON XVIII.
LESSON X. THE SECOND DECLENSION (contd. )-Neuter
-THE FIRST CONJ UGA T I ON (contd. )-
Negative Mood-Ex ERcisE X. . . . . . 66-69
LESSON XI. THE THIRD DECLENSION-The Third (A)
LESSON XIX.
Declension -- THE FIRST CONJUGATION
(contd. )-Participial and Infinitive Forms-
The Verbal Noun in emda-EXERCISE XI. 70-78
LESSON XX.
LESSON XII. THETHIRDDECLENSION(contd. )-The Third
(B) Declension-THE FIRST CONJUGATION
(contd. )-Negative Forms-The irregular
verbs, oda, agat ria, ejria-EXERCISE XII. 79-85
LESSON XIII. REcAPITULATORY-Conspectus of Regular
LESSON XXI.
Declensions-Construction ofFinite Verbal
Forms-Paradigm of First Conjugation
Verb-SYNTAX-Use of Crude Form of
Nouns-Emphatic " Affix enra -EXERCISE
LESSON XXII.
XIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86-94
LESSON XIV. THE SECOND CONJUGATION-Paradigm-
The irregular verbs, few, of o. ), 9#,pdoa
EXERCISE XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-99
CHAPTER III
LESSON XV. CLASSIFICATION OF DECLINABLE WORDS-
LESSON XVIII.
Nouns-Pronouns-Words of Number and
Quantity-Words of Manner-Adjectives
LESSON XXIV,
LESSON
-
XXV.
LESSON XXVI.
LESSON XXVII.
LESSON XXXVII.
LESSON XXIX.
LESSON XXX.
LESSON XXXI.
LESSON XXXII.
LESSON XXXVII.
x
SOMECOMMONIRREGULAR VERBS, t d d a ba re
- . 5W =a u- t srb a gu- Combina t ion of t ut )
a nd la d - Combina t ion of t iria wit h
Uninflect ed Verba l Forms- EXERCISEXXV.
RELATIVEPARTICIPLES- The Tra nsla t ion of
English Ad ject iva l Cla uses- ExERcisE
XXVI. . . . . . . . . . . . .
RELATIVEPARTICIPLES(cont d . )- The Tra ns-
la t ion of English Ad verbia l Cla uses-
Tempora l- Loca l- Fina l- Ma nner a nd
Degree - Compa ra t ive - Ca usa l - Cond i-
t iona l a nd Concessive- Apposit iona l use of
Rela t ive Pa rt iciples- The Rela t ive Pa rt ici-
ple

t a kka - The Tense of Rela t ive


Pa rt iciples- EXERCISE,XXVII. . . .

- -
NEUTER PARTICIPIAL NOUNS- THE NEGA-
TIvEs mt ) ills, 00 a lla - The Tra nsla t ion
of `Yes' a nd 'No'- EXERCiss XXXVII. . . .
CONDITIONALCLAUSES- Concessive Cla uses
- Id ioma t ic use of Ud d A a d a ru- ADVERSA-
TIVE CLAUSES- ALTERNATIVE CLAUSES
AND WORDS- ILLATIVE CLAUSES- EXERCISE
XXIX-
ADJECTIVES AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS- Des-
cript ive Nouns- 'Ad ject iva l Nouns '- Ka r-
ma d ha ra ya Sa ma sa a nd Ad ject ives- Nouns
used Ad ject iva lly- Rela t ive Pa rt iciples-
EXERCISEXXX. . . . . . . . .
ADJECTIVESAND THEIR EQUIVALENTS(cont d . )
Sa nskrit Ad ject ives- Sa nskrit Ad ject iva l
Nouns- To d ist inguish Sa nskrit from
Ka na rese Word s- Compa rison- EXERCISE
XXXI. . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE CASES- ACCUSATIVE- DATIVE- GENI
TIVE- - EXERCISEXXXII.

. . .

. . .
IDIOMATIC USESOF t iri)- fin in Ad verbia l
sense- t fC0J4a
a yit u represent ing Com-
plet eness- Neut er Forms in sense of
PAGES
197- 202
203- 209
210- 220a
221- 229
230- 238
239- 245
246- 254-
255- 261
LESSON XXXIV.
LESSON XXXV.
LESSON XXXVI.
LESSON XXXVII.
LESSONXXXVII.
LESSON XXXVX.
possibilit y, et c. - t ft ia d enot ing Rela t ion-
ship- wria in Pa ssive significa nce- - urb
wit h Aa d eu mod a lu a nd Wa o; 9 . ) munt u-
EXERCISEXXXVII.

. . .

. . .
IDIOMATIC USES OF SOME COMMON VERBS
a la t rb hogu- a nt fo ha ku- Wa a 44u- Ex.
ERCISE=IV

. . .

. . .

. . .
USESOF THE INFINITIVE- Compound Sen-
t ences wit h Cha nge of Subject - Infinit ive
of Purpose- - Usa ges resembling Accusa t ive
wit h Infinit ive Const ruct ion- Infinit ive a s
Verba l Noun- Pa ssive Conjuga t ion- Ot her
Met hod s of t ra nsla t ing t he English Pa ssive-
DEFECTIVE VERBS- t PD6 a r- W36
ue6 ol- ExERCisEXXXV.
THEI MPER ATI VE MOOD- ABBREVIATED
FORMSOF PRONOUNS AND VERBS- REPETI-
TIONOF WORDS- EXERCISEXXXVI.

. . .
CHAPTER IV
ba l-
IRREGULAR VERBS- Cla ss I- - Cla ss II- #Ja
kuri- Cla ss III- Sect ion (a )- Sid
a
tnnu-
4~{(e 4a ) ennu (a nnu)- Id ioma t ic Uses
of
44a -
. Jod a end u in Report ed Speech-
a od 3 in t ra nsla t ing Cla uses of Rea son=
. hod . ) in t ra nsla t ing Fina l a nd Jussive
Cla uses- Direct a nd Ind irect Speech-
EXERCISE XXXVII.

. . .

. . .

. . .
FURTHER IDIOMATIC USES OF
)4a
ennuva , sot ) emba - . )ot ) ; 34) emba va nu,
. )oWo; *d a embuvud u, et c . - . )od d end a re-
e9od a nt e- ExERcisEXXXVII. . . . . . .
IRREGULAR VERBS (cont d . )- - Cla ss III (b)-
Cla ss III (c)- - &)d a ba ru- &Isevl biju- Cla ss
IV- 4ioi33 iyu- - na i. .. ) sd yu- Cla ss V- 4d a
ked u- 0d j bid u- ea d d a hora 4u- vzma
ka nu- Cla ss VI- 4ria na gu- ExERcisE
XXXVX. . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAGES
263- 269
270- 275
276- - 286
287- 292
293- 302
303- 309
310- 317
LESSON XL.
LESSON XLI.
LESSON XLII.
LESSON XLIII.
LESSON XLIV.
LESSON XLV.
RwAPITULATORY-The Order of Words
and Phrases in a Kanarese Sentence-The
TheOrder of Clausesin aKanaresesentence
-Translation of the English Infinitive
Mood-Co-ordinate Clauses-EXERCISE
XL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THETRANSLATIONOF SUBORDINATECLAUSES
(contd. ) -Adjectival -Adverbial -Noun
Clauses-EXERCISEXLI. . .

. . .

. . .
CHAPTER V
KANNADASANDHI-Kanarese Vowel Sandhi
-Kanarese Consonant Sandhi-EXERCISE
XLII. . . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 334-339
SANSKRIT SANDHi-Sanskrit Vowel Sandhi
-Sanskrit Consonant Sandhi-EXERCISE
XLIII.

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 340-350
SAMASA-Sanskrit

Samosa-ExERcIsE-
XLIV. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 351-356
Kanarese Samosa-Hybrid Samosa-EXER-
clsEXLV.

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . .

357-367
LESSON

XLVI. CORRESPONDENCEINKANARESE . . .
PAGES
318-325
326-333
. . . 368-376
APPENDIX

I.

NOUNSOF RELATIONSHIP

. . .

. . .

379-382
APPENDIX

II. CARDINAL NUMBERS (NEUTER FORMS) -


Fractions . . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 383-385
APPENDIX

III.

IRREGULARVERBS

. . .

. . .

. . .

386-396
APPENDIX

IV.

IMITATIVEWORDS

. . .

. . .

. . .

397-399
APPENDIX

V. THECALENDAR, TIMESAND SEASONs-The


Day-The Week-The Month-The Year
-TheRains-Cycles

. . .

. . .

. . .

400-404
APPENDIX

VI. LIST OF GRAMMATICALTERMS

. . .

. . . 405-406
VOCABULARIES

(1) KANARESE . . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 407-430
(2) ENGLISH . . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 431---444
NOTEONPUNCTUATION

. . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 445
INDICES

(1) SUBJECTS . . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 446--4. 48
(2) KANARESEWORDSANNOTATED IN THE
LESSONS . . .

. . .

. . .

. . . 449-452
KANARESEGRAMMAR
INTRODUCTION
KANARESEGRAMMATICALUSAGES
CONTRASTED WITHENGLISH
This handbook is designed for the use of those who desire
to learn the modern form of Kannada (anglice Kanarese) , their
own mother tongue being English. Theobvious initial obstacle
in this endeavour is that of acquiring an accurate pronunciation
of the words of the language. And here Kanarese does present
considerable difficulty to a foreigner who knows no other Indian
language.

It maybe hoped that, when thework of thePhonetics


Association of the Mysore University has been more fully
developed, there will be a possibility of affording a clear and
accurate account of Kanarese pronunciation such as would form
a reliable guide to a foreign student; but that time is not yet.
In the paragraphs which follow, the roman alphabet, pointed
where necessary, is used to indicate Kanarese sounds. This use
is explained in Lesson I.

But all such suggestions as are there


made amount to no more than an approximate indication of the
proper sounds.

Apassable pronunciation can only be achieved


with the help of someone whose mother tongue is Kanarese.
When the pronunciation difficulty has been partly overcome
it is important that as soon-as possible a beginning be made in
the use of such sentences as maybe learnt. To help make such
use intelligent and to facilitate the acquisition of fresh
sentences, certain features of Kanarese grammatical usagewhich
make it differ from English are here discussed in a preliminary
way.
2

KANARESE GRAMMAR
Take the Kanarese sentence en , , ; 6 0 r\ A , z ~ o3a~ a z SeM
anna (nu) tangi(ge) bale [y] (annu) begane taruvanu . '
Translated literally, it says, `(The) elder-brother to (his) younger-
sister (a) bangle quickly w ill bring. "

In the Kanarese sentence


there is nothing in the order of the subj ect, the indirect and direct
obj ects w hich calls for comment, as it corresponds w ith the
normal English order.

The adverb, as in English, is brought as


near to the verb it modifies as the sense w ill allow ; but here
a difference comes to view .

In Kanarese, the adverb practically


never follow s the verb it modifies, in the English fashion, but
precedes it .

This is connected w ith the general rule in Kanarese


that the finite verb closes the sentence.
In the transliteration above, the letter in square brackets
may be disregarded, for the present . It is one of a few letters
w hich, for the sake of euphony, are inserted betw een the crude
forms of w ords and grammatical endings. The letters in the
small brackets are case endings. They here stand for the fact
that, in formal Kanarese, practically all nouns and pronouns in
sentences have case endings.
The w ord ucK~ ~ anna (nu), above, must be translated
' the elder brother' , and z , ~ 4 o~ L c-~ bale [y] (annu), ' a bangle' .
It is to be noted that Kanarese has neither definite nor indefinite
article.

In the Kanarese sentence above the nouns themselves


convey a complete and clear meaning; but in some sentences
the sense of the indefinite article of English is represented by
the numeral adj ective t, , 0 d, ~ ondu (n . ), tQ z -~ , obba (m. and f . ),
' one' , and the definite article by the demonstrative adj ective
ej d, ' that' , ' those' , or *i, ' this' , ' these' . This is easy to
understand as ' the' is a demonstrative adj ective like ' that' and
' this' , and ' an' or ' a' is j ust a shortened form of ' one' .
Attention has already been draw n to the adverb Z 3e7 ~ 4 begane.
1 With reference to these transliterations it ought to be noticed that in
Kanarese w riting no letter is ever silent (the units in a doubled consonant are
no exception), and this applies to the transliteration .
Avocabulary is given below .
INTRODUCTION

3
Its ending show s that it is an adverb and, generally speaking,
a Kanarese adverb w ill alw ays show that it is such by one o
a number of endings such as, eri age, e3~ ane and, especially,
ein dgi. But in Kanarese it is not only w ords w hich English
regards as adverbs that take the adverbial ending . Nouns and
adj ectives w hich complete the sense of a verb and are used, as
w e say, predicatively also have the adverbial ending . For example,
the sentence, ' The boy grow s tall' , is rendered
d~ ~ r1 z 3s o3. :~ s~ ~ huduga(nu) ettara[v]dgi beleyuttdne.
Here the w ord for ' tall' is adverbial in form. So in sentences
w here the verb ' to be' occurs w ith a noun or adj ective complement,
the complement, according to Kanarese usage, w ill take adverbial
form. ' That flow er is red' is translated U Z &r~ 4 , 4 0 ' A ' ad
d hu, [v] (u) kethpagel . ide.
In colloquial speech, the verb ' tobe' , thus used as acopulative,
is often omitted and w ith it the adverbial ending of the
predicative noun or adj ective.

Thus w e may say


,
tl

4 o ; ~
d huvu kempu . Examples of this usage are to be found on page 21 .
L et us add a short sentence to our first example : UO=rat
adj ; ~ e9

~ ~ e5 diz :~ bale [y] (annu) taruva


anna (nu) adannu' chdpe [y] (a) mele iduvanu, ' The elder-brother
w ho brings the bangle w ill place it on the mat. ' Here, the w ord
taruva, ' w ho brings" , represents a grammatical form w hich is
peculiar to the family of languages to w hich Kanarese belongs .
It is called a relative participle . There are no relative pronouns
in Kanarese.

The relative participle includes in itself the sense


of both the relative pronoun and the finite verb of an English
adj ectival clause. It is participial in form and, as an adj ective,
qualifies the w ord w hich in English grammar w ould be the
antecedent .

Analogies are not w anting in English.

If w e speak
of a policy as ' forw ard-looking' or a sound as ' ear-splitting' ,
the tw o participles are equivalent to ' w hich looks' and ' w hich
1 In this w ord the final u of the crude form kedipu, ' redness' , is elided on
the addition of the adverbial ending age. Such elision of final u is very common,
' adu, ' it' , w ith the acc . ending annu .

3 Or ' w hich brings' .


I{ANARESE GRAMMAR
s p l i t s ' . `Bat t l e-s carred' i s an examp l e of s i mi l ar us e of t he
p as t p art i ci p l e. The rel at i v e p art i ci p l e cov ers t he s ens e of s uch
i ns t ances al ong wi t h al l t he cons t ruct i ons i n whi ch Engl i s h us es
rel at i v e p ronouns and rel at i v e adv erbs .

It has ot her us es al s o .
Thes e are di s cus s ed i n Les s ons XXVI and XXVII; but i t i s as
wel l t o accus t om t he mi nd t o t he form as s oon as p os s i bl e .
The s ent ence abov e i l l us t rat es t he fact , al s o, t hat , i n Kanares e,
t he p l ace of what i n Engl i s h are cal l ed p rep os i t i ons i s t aken by
' p os t p os i t i ons ' .

That i s , t he p art i cl es whi ch gov ern nouns and


p ronouns ( i n Kanares e chi efl y i n t he geni t i v e cas e) come aft er
t he words t hey gov ern and not before . Thus &~d mi l e, ' on' ,
comes aft er za, Da chap e, `mat ' .
Our ori gi nal s ent ence mi ght hav e been wri t t en : . : nJ~uonA
t a4oJ~~ t om 4ACL' d~ anna ( nu) t afgi ( ge) bal e [y] ( annu)
t andu koduv anu, `The el der-brot her wi l l bri ng and gi v e a bangl e
t o hi s younger-s i s t er . ' But t he form oz

t andu, whi ch i s here


t rans l at ed `wi l l bri ng' i s a p as t p art i ci p l e and s o means , `hav i ng
brought ' . The i l l us t rat i on i s chos en for t he s ake of t he
obs erv at i on t hat a Kanares e s ent ence rarel y t ol erat es more t han
one fi ni t e v erb .

One v erb i n t he s ent ence onl y wi l l be fi ni t e i n


form. Verbs whi ch, i n Engl i s h, woul d be co-ordi nat e wi t h i t
are p ut i n t he form of t he p as t p art i ci p l e . As i f we s ai d, i n
Engl i s h, `The brot her hav i ng brought wi l l gi v e' .
Ot her p oi nt s i n whi ch Kanares e us age di ffers from Engl i s h
are, ( a) t he us e i n Kanares e of )off endu, t he p as t p art i ci p l e
of t he v erb

cad ennu, `s ay' , at t he end of s p eech di rect l y


rep ort ed and i n cert ai n s i mi l ar s i t uat i ons , and ( b) t he Negat i v e
Mood of t he Kanares e v erb . The former p oi nt i s deal t wi t h
i n Les s on XXXVII ; a s i mp l e examp l e i s , z3~d s oda zt ewdTt ~
bi da endu hel i danu, `he s ai d, "( you) mus t not "' . t l ~~d bi da,
z3_ F )dt i a baradu, 7u-at z~) s al adu, a, f; dd, ) kudadu i n Exerci s e I
, ( p . 1 5 ), are examp l es of t he Negat i v e Mood . The us e of t he
mood i s not v ery common i n conv ers at i on, excep t i n t he abov e
and a few ot her words .
-INTRODUCTION

5
Anot her di fference bet ween Engl i s h and Kanares e i s t hat i n
t he l at t er, when addres s i ng p ers ons , and ev en wi t h reference t o
p eop l e not p res ent , t he s i ngul ar number can onl y be us ed i n t he
cas e of juni ors and s erv ant s ( Les s on XVII) .
et c anna, el der brot her
ooh t angi , younger s i s t er
u4 bal e, bangl e
z3P ri N bi gane, qui ckl y
t aruv anu, he wi l l bri ng
z-oci , ~ ondu ( n . ) ZN2~ obba
( m. and f. ), one
ej a, t hat , t hos e ( adj . )
-6 ~ i , t hi s , t hes e ( adj . )
zd)dJ7j huduga, boy
-~&t i et t ara, hei ght
bel eyut t ane, he
grows
a6 , p hu, fl ower
4a q kemp u, rednes s
4o-A kerkp age, red ( adv . )
-ae i de, i t i s
t aruv a, whi ch bri ngs
Words us ed abov e
( The P ronunci at i on mus t be l earned from a Muns hi )
UCS4a adannu, i t ( acc . )
znt chap e, mat
&~d mi l e, on
i duv anu, he wi l l p l ace
: ~OL~J t andu, hav i ng brought
koduv anu, he wi l l
gi v e
ennu, s ay
4oC: S~ endu, hav i ng s ai d
t i ed bi da, i t i s not want ed
( mus t not )
4el gci NJ hel i danu, he s ai d
znt jt 4a baradu, i t i s not
becomi ng ( mus t not )
-N--e)v t S, ) s al adu, i t i s not ,
s uffi ci ent
' Uad~kudadu, i t i s not fi t t i ng
( mus t not )
Endi ngs : nom. c~
acc. e cad annu, ( al l decl s . )
dat . A ge
gi n. e9 a
adv bl . er\ agi , UA age, e3
nu, and et o u
ane
The Kanarese Alphabet
V o w els ,
Fo r the seco ndary fo rms o f the vo w els see p . 13 .
s
Fo r the seco ndary fo rms o f the co nso nants see pp . 18, 19 .
p
ph
b
bh
m
Y
r
l
v
sh o r s
s
h
l
rh ( transli ter-
ated 9, i i , ti and
n befo re co n-
so nants o f the
I, td, k i and
gro ups)
h
CHAPTERI
LESSON I
The Alphabet
As w i ll be seen fro m the table o ppo si te there are i n the
Kanarese alphabet fo urteen vo w els, thi rty- fo ur co nso nants and
tw o o ther letters . We shall co nsi der the pro nunci ati o n o f the
vari o us letters bri efly.
Wi th reference to Kanarese vo w els i t i s to be no ted that they
tak e thei r character no t o nly fro m the po si ti o n i n the mo uth
w here they are so unded but also fro m the presence o r absence o f
pro lo ngati o n. Amo ngst Engli sh vo w els the vari eti es o f a i n `stand'
and `star' di ffer i n so und but no t necessari ly i n the ti me they
tak e to pro no unce ; but as betw een Uand ej there i s no t o nly
a ( sli ght) di fference o f so und but the lo ng letter i s i nvari ably
pro lo nged i n pro nunci ati o n . That i s the si gni fi cance o f the
si gn : attached to lo ng vo w els o n the o ppo si te page.
There i s no Kanarese vo w el so und w hi ch has an exact
equi valent i n Engli sh.
e~

The a i n `abo ut' ( pho neti c a) and u i n ` but' ( A)


have bo th been suggested as equi valents. Bo th so unds
are heard.

The latter i s nearer the no rmal Kanarese


pro nunci ati o n but the Kanarese so und i s made w i th
the to ngue sli ghtly lo w er than i n the Engli sh. The
fo rmer so und ( a) i s heard i n a w o rd li k e 40 sari ,
`ri ght', w here the pro nunci ati o n o f e5 a appro aches the
so und o f - ~ e. The tendency to vari ati o n may be
i llustrated i n the fact that so me Kanarese w o rds have
tw o fo rms, i n o ne o f w hi ch - ) e tak es the place o f "
5 a;
e. g . M~ channu o r z&Fad
chennu, beauty and t~ w
challu o r 2ak a chellu, scatter.
Kanarese
Si ns
APPro xi mate
Pho neti c
Equi valents
I
Co mmo nly
used i n
Transli terati o n
I
Kanarese
Si gns
I
Appro xi mate
Pho neti c
Equi valents
Co mmo nly
used
ITransli terati o n
i n
A o r a a ai a, t~ + ri o r r
a : a e e
I i e: e
ai ai
W u u YN o 0
e. M u : u 'to m o : o
ri o r , r au au
Co nso nants'
k h n
k h k h
n
8 g
p
ph
gh gh
za b
n o r ng
bh
z~ tr, ch o r c m
tph chh o r ch
o: a
1
1
d~ , h j h
r o r r
I
r
7 7
u
1! 3
t
t
fo
a
th
th
d s
ct h dh h
n
"t t
th th
O
a_ d
dh dh
a h
KANARESE GRAMMAR
I s produced with the tongue lower s till .

I t dif f ers
little f rom a in `hard' or `f ather' .
The vowel in `it' or `him' res embles the Kanares e
vowel but is pronounced f arther back in the mouth
and with the tongue lower.
Clos ely res embles ee in ` s een' or i in `machine ' .
I t is produced with the tongue s lightly higher than in
the s hort vowel.
The u in `put' or `pull' is produced not s o f ar
back as the Kanares e vowel and with the tongue in a
lower pos ition .
The long vowel is pronounced with the tongue in
a s lightly higher pos ition than in the s hort vowel. I t
is near to the s ound of ue in `rue' or oo in moon'.
a~~

I t may be doubted whether thes e are true vowels .


Syllabic cons onants would be a better name. The
neares t s ugges tion that can be made f or their pronun-
ciation is that of a trilled r joined with a very clos e
s hort u, with lip s preading .
a

The e in `men', though produced with the tongue


s lightly lower, is practically equivalent to this vowel.
I s pronounced with the tongue s lightly higher
than in the s hort vowel.

I t res embles a in `mate' or


ey in `they' ; but whereas the Englis h s ound is a
diphthong (ei) the Kanares e vowel is pure .
This is almos t equivalent to i in `pine' or ei in
`height' (-a+i) but the Kanares e s ound is bes t
repres ented by w. Perhaps every pure Kanares e word
which now begins with Monce began with Uo336 (ay).
a. , 'w

The lengthening is the only dis tinction in s ound


between thes e two.

The o in 'or' is produced- with


the tongue lower than in Y ea . 'w res embles the vowel
s ound in `s ew' ; but the Englis h s ound is a diphthong
(ou) and is pronounced f urther f orward in the mouth .
THE ALPHABET

(I
Kanares e grammar recognis es this f or a diphthong
(U+w).

The s ound is approximately that of ow in


`now'. The-Englis h s ound
is bes t repres ented by au,
the Kanares e s ound by au .
The Cons onants
The thirty-f our cons onants are divided into twenty-f ive
clas s if ied and nine unclas s if ied cons onants .
The clas s if ied cons onants are divided into f ive groups , which
repres ent s ounds produced res pectively in the throat, the palate,
the roof of the mouth, the teeth and the lips . Each group
contains f ive cons onants , viz. , a voiceles s cons onant unas pirated
and as pirated, a voiced cons onant unas pirated and as pirated,
and a nas al cons onant .
I n the table below, as on page 6 , the cons onants have the f orm
which indicates that they are combined with the s hort vowel
Ua, as is the cus tom in s chools .
1 Or Velar, i . e. pronounced with the aid of the s of t palate .
2 Hard, as in `good' .
a
As ng in `king' .
Produced by the arched tongue in the palate jus t above the teeth .
'Res embling ch in `chain' ; but the Englis h s ound equals t plus
d
(s h
in 's hip') while the Kanares e s ound is repres ented by tp, (s ee the note on S
p. 1 1 ).
" With the s ound of ny, as in 'canyon' .
' Or, according to current terminology, Retrof lex.
That is , bi-labial .
Groups
Voiceles s Voiced
Nas al
Unas pirated As pirated Unas pirated As pirated
Guttural' a k kh
7 ~ ga
~' gh i?
Palatal' z~ ch' chh z; j jh ' 7 le
Cerebral' e3 t r3 th d ~ dh n
Dental t th ~S d dh N n
Labial' ph z-~ b bh ~~ n
lO

KANARESE GRAMMAR
The unclassified consonants are-
odoY,dr4,e. ) l, ;~ v,6s', ;;~ sh,"1s,Z6h,0is
Note that as the vowel Ma is inherent in each of the forms in the above
table, it would be more strictly correct to transliterate them by the syllables
ka, kha, etc . , than by the consonants k, kh, etc. The subject is referred to at
greater length later .
Notes on the Pronunciation of the Consonants
1.

In the pronunciation of the aspirated consonants, there is


nothing to correspond to the English sounds represented by the
combinations th and ph in ` thesis' and ` photo' . AKanareseaspirate
is theunaspirated sound with this difference that it is accompanied
by a heavy out-breathing . If an attempt be made to pronounce
suchwords as ` bulkhead',` log-house',' pit-head'
a
and'tap-house'
without pausing before the letter h, an approximation to the
corresponding Kanarese aspirated consonants may be reached .
The munshi should be asked to produce these sounds until the
learner can recognize and reproduce them without hesitation .
2. The consonants of the cerebral or retroflex group and
the unclassified consonants t sh and 0l are pronounced with the
tip of the tongue curled back and touching the roof of the
mouth as far back from the front teeth as possible. Some
English writers detect a likeness to t, d and n in the northern
English pronunciation ( i . e. with the rolled r) of 'mart', 'hard',
` barn' as contrasted with 'mat', 'had', 'ban'.
3 . The consonants of the dental group and the unclassified
' The consonant d r in the modern language represents two consonants,
and eJ of ancient Kanarese. The latter was rougher or more rolled in
sound than the former and there are traces ( of which, however, people are
not conscious) of this difference in popular pronunciation . This is why
there are two phonetic symbols for d r.
x
The modern consonant 10 l represents the two ancient consonants
and W, though their pronunciation was not exactly alike. The ancient
consonants are retained in Dr . Kittel's Kannada-English Dictionary, and when
words containing d r or 0 l are not found in the expected place, they may
be found by referring to eb r or Wl.
' But the letter t in 'pit-head' corresponds to neither ki nor t.
THE ALPHABET

11
consonant vZ are-pronounced - with the tip of the tongue against
the upper front teeth. The sign added to the phonetic symbols
of the : 9 group on page 6 indicates dental pronunciation .

The
English consonants, t, d, are intermediate in place of production
between the Kanarese retroflexes and dentals ; and the Kanarese
dentals are intermediate between the English t and d and the
English 'point-teeth' consonants represented by th in ` thin' and
` then' . Anoticeable difference between the Kanarese dental
letters and the English'th' is that the former are plosive and the
latter is fricative or rubbed . It is impossible to prolong the
pronunciation of the former but easily possible with the latter .
The greatest care must be exercised to distinguish, both in speaking
and in listening to others speaking, between the sounds of the
retroflex and the dental groups, and between both these groups and
the English sounds .
4. The unclassified consonant ;;~ v does the work of both
Englishw and v. Before the vowels e a, el d, tN u, eve u, Qai,
2u o, ~- o, L' au, it closely resembles w in sound, though the
English letter is produced to a larger extent by the lips .

d v
before 'a i, -6s 1, vlj ri, ) e,

e and the consonants uL y and


6 r resembles v in pronunciation, but with a difference.

In
pronouncing the Kanarese letter the upper front teeth do not
touch the lower lip as in English.
5 .

The Kanarese sound represented by 6 s differs from the


English sh in 'ship' in this that, while the English sound is made
with the tip, the Kanarese sound is made with the blade of
the tongue. The sound of ;~ sh takes its character from the
fact that it is pronounced with the tongue-tip bent back and
touching the palate as far in the rear as possible. That there is
a clear distinction in sound between 6 and ' is evident from the
difference in the manner of their production, While in the case of
;i~ thetongue-tip is raised and bent back,in the case of 6 it is turned
down and the sound made with the arched tongue on the palate.
6.

In colloq uial speech the initial vowels a3 e, is e, aQ o,


: kQ:
o
12

KANARESE GRAMMAR
are often combined with a consonantal sound and pronounced
ye, ye, wo, wo, respectively ; e . g . , in 2QOLL ondu, 'one' and )Odj
eradu, 'two' ; but this is not to be reg arded as correct : at least
care must be taken not to exag g erate the consonantal sound.
7 . While, with the above modifications, the Eng lish trans-
literation g iven in the tables of vowels and consonants represents
approximately the Kanarese pronunciation of the several letters,
the g eneral observation applies to them all that a correct
pronunciation can be acquired only by the painstaking imitation
of a reliable Indian teacher .
READING EXERCISE
end file ed, king ; e1Odepth ; szd present world; tN, ( prefix)
contig uous, subordinate ; uvn3 food ; . A left side ; : dti door ;
nz3~~ saw ; "- ' prayer ; 4 - d obstacle ; zed shore ; t4 wealth ;
smoothness ; to path ; ue) streng th ; its tree ; d, juice ;
control ; eon money.
Combination of Vowels with Consonants
It was observed above that the form of the consonants g iven
on pag es 9 and 10 indicates that they are combined with the short
vowel e3 a . Each of them, therefore, constitutes a syllable in itself ;
thus ; ~6=vasa ( not vi) ; ; ~,O=mara ( not mr) ; uda=arasa ( not ars) .
This 'inherent vowel' is represented ( in most cases) by the
upper part of the consonant sig n
( - J ),
which is called the talekattu,
or 'crest' . This is the secondary form of the vowel U a, and
it is used instead of the primary form when the vowel is
combined with a consonant to form a syllable .
Anormal syllable in Kanarese consists of either a consonant
combined with a vowel, or ( at the beg inning of a word only) an
uncombined vowel . Hence the primary ( i . e . , uncombined) forms
of the vowels g iven on pag e 6 are found only at the beg inning
of a word. Aconsonant can be combined only with the vowel
which follows it, never with that which precedes it ; thus the word
uo'N arasa consists of the three syllables a- ra- sa, not ar- as- a.
THE ALPHABET

13
Each of the vowels shewn on pag e 6 has a secondary form
used in combination with consonants . These are shewn, with their
Kanarese names, in the following table . The table on pag es 16,
17 shews all the combinations of the consonants with the vowels .
Vowel ( Prim-
ary Form)
Vowel( Second-
ary Form)
~te3i~hi3~ talekattu
"d Q
ili
Mato g udisu
Msb; ~ Me OF g udisina dirg ha
&z= korhbu
&AOn,w korhbinili
,t 1: 3JJ ttw vatru suli
; ; SZ : dJJ

aJ e? q S9 vatru suli #1
~~ etva
~~ etva
aitva
z,A otva
t, Z

otva
nz
d
autva
Kanarese Name
In order to combine a consonant with any of these vowels,
we must first remove the crest . from the consonant as
shewn in the table on pag es 9 and 10, and then add the secondary
form of the vowel . Thus, if it is required to represent in
Kanarese the sound ke, the crest must first be removed from
- d ka, leaving the form - 4 . To this the secondary form 'e e is
added, resulting in the form 4 e ke. It is to be remembered
that the crest is retained with the secondary forms of the vowels
eN u, UV; u, @ ? J ri, D6~~ ~ ri, thus : d,~ ku, : dr~ ku, 4 ~ kri, -d kri.
Note also that the following letters have no crest
si kha,

r ha, t3 ja, 'W na, . e~ ta, . Mna, 2J ba, v la .


14

KANARESE GRAMMAR
The consonants d* jh and o6 a y, i n combi nati on wi th the
vowel -s i , take the forms SOS; jhi , o~,T yi , i nstead of d, o9~e.
In the combi nati on of d,~ m wi th thi s vowel two forms are
found, ZTe~, Z,4, mi .

;: : ~~ ~ m and o6 ,) y, i n combi nati on wi th the


vowels z , o, tQ o, take the forms ;r mo, art mo, 0 3 ' z yo,
o3 . r~ yo, i nstead of ;S,\ S;, 4~, Jr~, 0 1,) ,Z,
oL,0 e.
It wi ll be seen that i f etv ( ,) ) u, were joi ned to d v, thus,

,
the form would be i denti cal i n appearance wi th ;: ~~ ~ma . In order to
avoi d confusi on the vowels tN u, eJ\ n u, z N o, to, when combi ned
wi th --~ v, take sli g htly di fferent forms, thus, 4 vu, *; vu, ;~p vo,
;,P t vo . Thesame forms occur when these vowels combi ne wi th
p and

ph : thus, qpu,
;~R
pi t, 4z po,
4~
po, 0 phu,
0
phu,
q~
pho,
~e
pho .
If i t i s requi red to wri te a consonant uncombi ned wi th any
vowel, the crest ( i f there i s one) i s removed, and the si g n
_s
attached i n i ts place: thus, : 5a k, z ~6 ch, ;: : ~ p, Z;' r, %0 1.
Where there i s no crest the si g n -6 i s attached to the ri g ht
hand corner of the letter ; e. g . So" kh, n--` re, u` j, -. 0
6
n, U6 t,
n' b, U6 1; but the style i n the case of n i s sli g htly di fferent, 17
6
nl
memory,
then
4JSi i now
i s

what ( pro . ) ?
ti p cattle
*u bag
z 3 e~ li fe
~eF" you
you ( plu .
honfc . for s . )
~~ he
table
EXERCISE I
The words i n thi s Readi ng Exerci se should
all of them bei ng i n common use.
AAer wall
i ~ medi ci ne
d. re) mo9,) rupee
book
JU g ame
thi s ( pro . )
t5t : S~ that ( or i t)
mz t7 road
or

-A why ?
r~o3 ~ favour
hand
fi rewood
1 The form 9- i s an alternati ve for Z~
6 .
be commi tted to
o6 R;~whi ch ( adj . ) ?
e5e7 there
g od
z do,,d~ri ( 4,) ) boy
so
A3 Astrai g ht ( adv . )
so much ( so
many) as thi s
e4o~ so much ( sa
many) as that
how much
( how many) ?
ejci d but
*10 ,~ say ( i mpv. 2 s. )
*14 to say ( i nf. )
z 3 z come ( i mpv. 2 s . i rreg . )
ZJd, to come ( i nf. )
~) U' 6 WL enqui re ( i mpv. 2 s . )
g o ( i mpv. 2 s . )
4rvi to g o ( i nf. )
U4 wash ( i mpv. 2 s . )
. THEALP HABET

i 5
z 3 tz e-~ i t i s wanted ( must)
z ltri i t i s not wanted ( must not)
uew6 ~ i t i s permi tted ( may)
z uz dd,~ i t i s not becomi ng ( must
not)
: d,r@daS,) i t i s not fi tti ng ( must not)
;Ti mS, i t i s not suffi ci ent
N-e) t-~ i t i s suffi ci ent
i nterrog ati ve affi x
Afew si mple sentences are
may be formed wi th the words of the readi ng exerci se.
z ~~e~ z 3 e3 ~ chi la beku, a bag i s wanted.
z 3 ~d meju beda, a table i s not wanted.
Ae

Aj;~~10 ni nu hog u, you g o .


i ~cJZ~J7jc~J Zadd,ri dd,~ hudug anu barakudadu, the
not come.
e5ti d
;e4
UdW6 ~ ddare ni vu barabahudu,
may come.
I not g o?
cSDr~

~z i z 3 Q ~ ndnu hog abi ku, I must


X6 1 U4 kai tole, wash ( your) hands .
76 ;Uz ' ~ saude saku, the fi re wood i s suffi ci ent .
~. i

z 3 eVa aushadha beku, medi ci ne i s wanted.


~ ~ Ui z oV 4e1,~ eshtu rupayi beku, how many
are wanted ?
-m~L
j
N 74,rtt, 8 ahtu sakd, i s thi s much suffi ci ent?
e3 ~,~ 7ne4j ashtu sdladu, that much i s i nsuffi ci ent.
uO Zz ) t ;~L alli vi chdri su, enqui re there.
%Sz sz i lli bd, come here.
m-;) A 4e0 ,) hdg e hg lu, say so .
g i ven below ; si mi lar sentences
boy must
but you ( plu . )
ndnu eke hog abdradu, why must
g o .
1 Accusati ve endi ng
[y]
annu omi tted as often i n colloqui al speech,
si ng ular i s used for the plural .
' Si ng ular for plural as someti mes after numeral adjecti ves.
s
On the i nterrog ati ve parti cle L joi ni ng 4a9~) fi nal em i s eli ded.
rupees
The:
16
Vowels
Velar
e5 a
- d ka
e9 d

' . , i
~nkd

- & ki
KANARESE GRAMMAR
Table Shewi ng the Alphabet wi th the
em u

eva u

V: ~) ri
~d j ~ ku

%kri
g4 i
4- e ki

9 ~- ~ ku .
THE ALPHABET
Combi nati ons of the Vowels and Consonants
ai r, Pri

~e

011~ e

j ai

to.

' ~+o

' au
: 6 kri

4 ke

4e ke

y kai

4J~ ko

4, Ae ko

TO kau
- 3 khs!khe - 3 khai La kho Oat kho W- ' O khau
khri e e
,
17
Consonants
Palatal
a) kha snkhd . 0 khi
7i ga rte gd r\ gi
o~gha ghd ' ghi
ha 2 07e nd Zrg ri i
2 $ cha za7c chd 2 $ chi
Lt khi
ne gi
2 e ghi
zj ~9 e ri i
zS~ chi
g; ~ khu AAkhu ~~ khri
7i , ~ gu
Ti Sm gu gri
0, ) ghu
0, 2 ghu a. ghri
2 za ri u M, 1~ ri u 2 %ri ri
zl~ chu 2 chu , ) chri
117 gri
*, , ghri
rt, 7i ri
2 ~, chri
chhri
nge
; , ~, ghe
M3
he
2 $ the
~
chhe
At ge
; ' e ghe
Z03 e
hi
2 9 e the
ep chhe
A~gai
t%ghai
M3 ~
hai
2 %chai
eke chhri
Aa go
Oj ; gho
r, 3
Ri o
d i ; cho
~a
chho
7i J; e
go
0, 2 t gho
Z03 , Ze Ri o
zi s- ) e cho
~e chho
TS' O
gau
; Rghau
Z' ; 1 nau
za- *"O chau
V
chhau
~chha ep chha e; chhi e9 e chhi ep chhu e~Pchhu 0 chhri
j ri Z2 j e d t j i q6 j ai v- ~j o i e j o zT- j au
V j a
azj d 2 9 j i e ft z; ' ) j u UAj u z. ,
6
j ri
4, j hri 4j he 4e j he 4~j hai 6*, . roj ho #, nt j ho ~j hau
d * j ha d , ~, n j hd W, 3
j hi e. nj hi j hu
s j hu , ) j hri
' o" Y ' r, nri
ra, 3
ne
~x3 e
ne ' X3~n" ai , rSr@ ho a' 3 J~P no ' ' ' ~ n" au
' . ' na nd ' - ^ " g hi
'
. ' a e ni - , - Y ' ~ flu
n" u
- WI )
nri
tri e to et to t~ tai Ure) to kz., ~t to U' , tau
Retroflex e3 to - ~td ~3 ti ~3 e ti
e3 3 to to
e~ tri
-d thri 6 the 6t the 6 thai 6, r@ tho 6st tho f- I thau
6 tha
z- - , ) the e thi se thi ~thu t, r; !ha ~. ~ thri
~
d ri z9 d e z9 e d e ~~ d ai ZUd o d s; t d o ffD d au
zt d a
c3 ~ d a a d i at d l d ~ d u d A d u
d hu d hu
~o)
d hri
z, d hri d he
I t d he
16
d hai
Ja d ho JJe d ho ; !I d hau
I d ha
7z
d hd s d hi d hi
J , ~
nri Mne t ne nai ?U, no rUt no M~ nau
Mna i ) nd t~ ni Cue ni m nu nA nu nri
~) tri 9 to 9 t to y tai 9 a to tnt to V tau
Dental to
3 - . @ td ' s ti
,; t ti Z2 ~~ ~ to
to
thu t~A thu Z3 ~ thri
thri z3
.
the d e the
6~
thai z3 ~ tho tae tho zr thau
z~ tha the q~ thi 4) e thi q~~~
c, ) d u z~A d u
zip d ri
Z~' , d ri z3 d e 6e d e 6~ d ai z3 , r, ~ d o d at d o r3- -z d au
zi d a =- ~D d d nd i nt d i
d hu
d hu c~6 d hri '
d hri d he e d he z3 ~ d hai z, ~a d ho r, e Ad Zj Tz d hau
d ha
zs~ d ha n d hi Ept d hi
nri
nri N ne ~t ni %nai Ns no e no i ~' nau
N na i ~~ ~nd N ni ; , e ni nu nu '
; , z
pu
zt , pri
Ad o pe ae pi 3 ~pai ; ~p po ape po ; f~ pau
Bi - labi al
pa ; U- ,) pd ' L pi ~t pi pu
0pha ~~ phri
phu
phri 4y phe 4. 4 phi , 6 phai * pho pe pho j phau
pha ; p- , ) phd phi phi
bi t bri
z
; ~
bri 2 3 be et be z% bai z1a bo eqe bo z3 O bau
2 J ba zn bd zj bi z' ) e bi 2 J- ~ bu z~A ~~
bhu z~, A bhu
bhri 2 ~, ,
bhri 2 3 bhe 2 3 e bhe Z~ bhai ~a bho Z~~~e bho ZP
bhau
2 ~, bha zp bhd 2 ~ bhi i ; , e bhi 2 3 J
~~ mri
mri ; !, ~ me ; 1, ~e me ; !; % mai ; ; Sa mo ; & F ~e mo ; ~~ ~mau
; : ~~ ~ ma ; ~~ ~and ~~ mi zz- ~) mi d , ~~~ mu ma
09 . n o~~
03 JJr) yu u~' ) yri
o~Oyri ol. ~ ye o5 4 ye 0%yai O& r, ) yo
o3 , r; t yo ( : d fD you
Unclassi fi ed ~ya
03 ~yd OZ, 3 yi yi yu
d j d i ; ru ~~ rri
rri 6 re d t re rai CJ; ro OS) e rd d , rau
d ra om rd t) ri be ri ru
U' r@ lu lri
e~0lri e3 le e3 e le e36 lai e3 J) to e3 , s; e to Uv lau
v la e~ld OD i i
Z vi
eye li U) lu
~, ~
ne vi 4 vu ;, p vu
; ~6 vri
~~vri ; ; t ve 4t vi i vai vo o3 , pe vo vau
; ~ va vd
i i 6, ~ i u
6~ i ri
11 i ri 8 i e 8e se 6~ i ai gs i o 73 Ae so ar" a i au
6 i s
b si
shi
be
4e shi p shu
shu shri
shri 8 she 4- e she A~ shai ms; sho 3 J; e sho - ' - shau
; ea sha M-e) Ad
%~ si
t
, %e si ~~ su , 4i z su
sri
sri - - , ~ se Ne se sai Na so " r~e so 4' 7~) sau
sa %- - e~ sd
i 3 6 ha onha 3 0 hi 3 oe hi e, > , ) hu eoa ha ~~ hri
~~hri 8 he u8t he ~~hai e5 a ho u& Pe
ho 5 ' z hau
I
v, ~ lu qj ~ i f, ~~ lri
- 4. lri 4 le 4e le 4~ j ai 4J~ to Owe to lau
la Y Z I d I i i e
i f
2