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I NOT A ROBOT For those of us who WHO CAN WILL BLAME?

GOD WHO CREATING HEAVEN AND EARTH, AND SAYING GO MULTI-PLUS, PARENT WHO HAS ALOT OF CHILDREN OR THE PARENT WHO HANDLING HIS /HER CHILD TO DIFFERENT CHILD-CARE, POLITICIAN WHO CLEVER BY TRIES TO ADOPTING CHILDREN SAYING HE/SHE MAKE THEM PRATICES DEMOCRACY, YOUTH WHO BEHAVIOUR IS ANTISOCIAL IN THE COMMUNITY BECAUSE HE LACK OF LOVE, CHURCH WHO SURPPOSE TO CARE FOR PEOPLE, INSTEAD USED THE CHILDREN FOR CHILD-CARE AND ABUSE THE CHILDREN, SCHOOL WHO PRACTISE PRISON, CRIMINOLOGISTS, SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, PROBATIONAL OFFICER, PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHIATRY IN THE TREATMENT OF PRISONERS, FOR EDUCATION OR, IN FACT, REHABILITATION IN ANY FORM OR PROBATIONAL OFFICER, OR EXCLUDE OR KIDNAPER. WILL MUST SAVE THE CHILD IN THE WORLD. ECONOMIC, PROVERTY, OVERCROWDING, WAR, FEMINE. ALL THIS MUST CHANGE. (CLIMATE CHANGE). WILL MUST CARE FOR EACH OTHER, NOT ACATABILITY/MONEY / POWER OR ROOBING HOOD/ HUNTING FOR ANOTHER PERSON CHILDREN. IS DISGRACES THEM OR PUTTING THEM FOR ADOPTION. BUT WHY? GOD SAID IF ANYONE OF YOU SICK LET HIM/HER COME TO THE CENTRE, AND CONGREGATION PRAY FOR HIM/HER FOR HEALING OR IF ANYBODY IS BARREL, IT SHOULD NOT BE A BARREL IN THE HOUSE OF THE LORD. AND IN ABOUT THREE DAY KNOW, IN THE SKY 1 NEWS, THEY SAY IN INDIAN, THERE IS SURROGATE WHO CAN HELP ANYBODY TO HAVE A CHILD/OR IVF. IF THERE IS JUSTICE IN THE WORLD, YOU WILL BE MY LOVE I WILL BE YOUR LOVE. (LARM SONG). MONEY IS NOT EVERYTHING. WILL SHOULD DO A PROPER JUSTICE NOT, MICARRAGE OF JUSTICE. MY RESEARCH STUDY MY NARRATOR, COME JOING ME AND LISTEN TO WHAT SCHOOL USE CHILDREN TO PRACTICES BRAIN In recent years there has been a lot of interest in studies of what takes place in the human brain during the early years. In fact there has been so much written about the findings that, massive government-funded projects have been deniedlaunched in response to them. Here are two examples: 1. The World Bank has started to fund programmes in countries like Uganda and the Philippines on the grounds that investment in the early years will bring about long-term gains in terms of later success in life, citing the brain research as a crucial part of the evidence; and 2. The Sure Start Programmes in England, focused on the poorest young children and their families, adopt a model of early intervention also influenced by the brain research findings. In view of this you might want to know some facts about the human brain in order to be able to critically evaluate some of the claims that are currently being made. Interest in brain development has come about because of advances in technology which enable researchers to use non-invasive techniques are described as non-invasive, but later in this I will be asked to think about one of proof named Helen Penn. Mercy Osazenaye, think about this and make her own decisions. Three big ideas from brain science figure most centrally in the education literature, and educators should know four things about these ideas to make their own critical appraisals of brain-based

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education. My own assessment of recent articles about brain research is that well-founded educational applications of brain science may come eventually, but right now, brain science has little to offer education practice or policy (Brier, 1997, 1998) Three big ideas arise from brain science. 1. Early in life, neural connections (synapses) from rapidly in the brain; 2. Critical periods occur in development; and 3. Enriched environments have a pronounced effect on brain development during the early year. Neuroscientists have known about all three big ideas for 20 to 30 years. What we need to be critical of is not the ideas themselves, but how they are interpreted for educators and parents. Will should stop using children and people to practices. Against the law. If will used animal, animal right will frighten for it. I wrote climate changed, because the way the Thurrock Council threatens me and my children, just to get, money from government. Who can l toughed to, PM, used me for Debt in Britain, Alastair Darling planning to use me for social care, after 14 years in Labour Party, 24 years in Great Britain. I am British, bout wish way to go, the school used all my children to practise, Diana was used for Kidnaper twice, l report to Andrew Makinlay MP, Prince was always in detention, even l heard that somebody has sign for him to join Army, l don t not mind, but l should do it myself, this all abuse in the school. The worse one is Joshua; they want to kill in the school, if God is not taking the Glory, what can will be saying. Joshua said, Mummy why those horrible teachers want to kill me. Is not fair. My head teacher hates me, l the only person that he Exclude in Gateway Academic, Tilbury, Essex. But why. Mercy Osazenaye said, for what l heard from the house of parliament, how do they wanted to Adopted my son without let me now, but what kind of school children going to. On 19/03/2010 l was listening to them. TITTLE IS ORDER AND REGULATION EARL OF ERROL CROSSBENCHER said, prosecution is very difficult to keep MERCY OSAZENAYE said, there are planning to prosecute them self not me, but why? God said not everybody calling me Lord will enter into my kingdom. So you James, John, Andrew, David, Mary, Maria, Mercy where are you going to be? BARONESS MORGAN OF DREFELIN CHILDREN, SCHOOL AND FAMILIES MINISTER said, I will like security minimums data base will take it seriously/20/Nov/2008. Independent/27/Nov reviewed/report 25/ Feb/published desame data all the security publish/depress/review all interested contact point/international RSCPA 27/1/2001 the report information about maintain public report security provide how the security work/Lord Demolin also security the correct procedure terrify there no evidence that any risk alto is looking for adoption will are consider adoption should not put any children in risk/to keep it secrecy has been provided to the local security minority is has already now/noble has already now too/there lot of feed back in the Library/lady asked about the number has small people conform Local Authority working the used

will opportunity plan to say about how will do the evaluate 2010/should be published 2009 that will expect how will keep it. About depression the state contact detain of the child/parent/contract the secretary of State/contact/secure manner/order secure shied/Local Authority/very small will be involved in any other contact and will roll out at the number of user/2009/2010 has be used/up to date the number will used for children the speed that she used the identity check she used for Local Authority most used date to date/govt/adviser /Benefit Indentified/automatic out dated/used data/automatic parent disabilities/different/parent department recognised/responsibilities make them now that she now the Job properly/high quality and the data base is secure/contact point to keep children. The people know that she is the best for the job, she now it very well. MERCY OSEZENAYE said, you don t has to creating disease to my life, or create crime to my children life before you can give me a job. Some people will be in mental hospital, for what every one of you done to me and my children. No more Discrimination, abuse, or racist. If l heard anything about me or my children, l will go to tribunal/report to the police. I love to be an independent. Do my own thing on my own. Gate way Academic Tilbury said, Joshua is not brilliant/clever like other children. Children different, Govt promised parent and school that if any child left behind they should get somebody to help them, not discriminate on them. On make the parent small by given the child to the white parent, if the child is black. Is bad behaviour. That the parent can be able to look after the own child. It cannot be right. PM, l steal won t investigation on this matter. Why can will deal with this issue apart direct to another place. Notting like crime, society creating it. Notting like poor, society creating is as well. If anybody putting my child some information, l will make sure, that the person go to prison for it. Criminal people wicked.

Today there is a letter from my son new school. Wonder will never end. like Gate way Academy.

They too want to start


Mr and Mrs Osazenaye 28 Antelope Avenue Gray s Essex RM16 6QT

Dear Mr and Mrs Osazenaye Re: Joshua Osazenaye (9 KCO) Joshua has been excluded from mainstream school for a period of one day. 22 March 2010, for the following reason(s): . Failure to reach targets for two consecutive weeks.

You should be aware that this is an alternative to a fixed term external exclusion and is viewed as extremely serious. Usual school expectations regarding uniform and conduct remain during this time. 1. Joshua will need to report to the school office at 9.00 am on 22 March. 2. He will be supervised throughout the time away from the rest of the school. Work will be provided during the exclusion which will end at 4.00 pm.

Joshua s exclusion expires on 22 March and we expect him to be in school on 23 March 2010 for a normal school day. I understand Ms N Heald, Pastoral support Manager, has tried to speak to you regarding this matter. Yours sincerely

R W Glasby Head teacher PP.

1. Students in inclusion will be collected from the foyer at 9.00 am by a member of staff from the Inclusion centre. 2. Students will remain in the |Centre for the whole of their Inclusion. 3. Students in the inclusion Centre are advised to bring in refreshments for break and a packed lunch, otherwise a cold lunch will be provided by the restaurant at a cost of 1.85 (water is provided in the Inclusion centre). 4. Students who are entitled to dinner tickets will be provided with a packed lunch from the restaurant. 5. The school day for students in inclusion will finish at 4.00 pm.

MERCY OSAZENAYE said why a child is not doing anything wrong. Why inclusion! And he has be punish because he is not brilliant like other, is not is fort. During the time of war in the Gateway Academic, my son has been missed out for two years. Why School is trying to stick my son to where is not belong. What they planning for him are not going to be succeeded (Amen). Holly Ghost will turn the table round to the, people/parent/teacher who planning bad thing to my son. Why, do will do this, because a child is not reach a target, so will should lock him up to the prison, or excluded him, telling him that he is not what it. Government said now child left behind. PM, David Cameron and Nick Clegg, this is big Issues, l want this school to be scrutiny, and investigation has to be consort. Even the teacher must be suspended. How can a child learn why the environment is not friendly? I think Joshua go through a lot he need to left alone without trouble, even he was telling me, about the way the teacher shouting on him, without do anything wrong. Some time the pupils in the school will be real bad to him, if he report, the teacher will ignore or shouting or given the detention. Since Joshua starting this school he always on detention. Why teacher her so cruel/hating This happen in about three years plus Brain is an extremely complex organ and is greedy for oxygen. The cerebral cortex is the area of the brain most associated with thinking and reason. It is divided into two hemispheres which are connected to one another. There is an ongoing debate about the functions of the hemispheres. Each half of the cerebrum is divided into four lobes and each of these is associated with particular activities. At the back of the brain occipital lobe which is primarily concerned with vision above this is the parietal lobe which deals mainly with movement, number and orientation. The temporal lobes are associated with several activities, but chiefly with hearing and language and the frontal lobes deal with feelings, emotions, planning and decision making amongst other higher cognitive functions. The brain is made up of neurones which can be regarded as the building blocks of the brain. These are so numerous that they have been compared to be number of stars in the galaxy. They are serviced, supported and repaired by even more glib cells which from a sort of glue . Neurones work by forming connections or networks. They do this by sending ting electrical signals along the axon (which is like the body of the neurone) to be received by the dendrites (like the arms of another neurone. It is the laying down of connections between neurones that constitute learning. The brain at birth is different from the adult brain. Some connections present in infancy die out. Others have not yet been established. The lobes are not fully developed: the frontal lobe, for example, is not fully formed until young adulthood. THE IMPLICATIONS OF BRAIN STUDIES It is fact that the connections or synapses between neurones are laid down very rapidly in the first few years of life. In humans, by the age of about three or four, the number of these synapses has peaked and in puberty they start to reduce. Some theorists have suggested that this means that children learn most in the early years. We all know that what from the earliest days the human infant is actively seeking to make sense of the world and that this seems to run parallel with the laying down of neural connections. Critics of this approach point out that there is no evidence to show that the more synapses we have the cleverer we are we do, after all, continue to learn throughout our lives.

Much of the research has focused on critical periods supporting the idea that if something has not developed by a particular point in time it will not develop fully. Think about how difficult it is for adults to learn a new language something toddlers do without any apparent effort. You may have read about children who, for one reason or another, are deprived of stimulation in the early years and who then struggle to make up for this sometimes never succeeding. You will remember coming across some of the work of Steven Pinker in his earlier writing Pinker (1994) says: Acquisition of normal language is guaranteed off children up to the age of six, is steadily compromised from then until shortly after puberty, and is rare therefore. Maturational changes in the brain, such as the decline in metabolic rate and number of neurones during the early school-age years, and the bottoming out of the number of synapses and metabolic rate around puberty are possible causes . The most influential body of research has looked at what are called enriched environments . Much of the neuroscientific research has looked at rats and monkeys in complex environments and some of this research has shown that the brain remains plastic or flexible enough to lay down a significant number of new synapses in adulthood in response to new experiences. This may account for our ability to continue learning throughout our lives. Supporters of brain research have argued that young children need to be in enriched environments and often this term is used to mean middleclass environments full of piano lessons, classical music, educational games, etc. We all want our young children to have access to as wide a range of experiences as possible, but it is essential to remember that a rich environment does not necessarily, means a middle-class environment. Children living in deep poverty in Africa nonetheless learn as they experience playing in the sand with sticks and stones, working alongside adults, singing songs and hearing traditional tales, inventing games and observing the changing sky.

EARLY SYNAPSE FORMATION Synapses are the connections through which nerve impulses travel from one neuron to another. Since the late 1970s, neuroscientists have known that the number of synapses per unit Volume of tissue (the synaptic density) in the brain s outer cortical layer changes over the life span of monkeys and humans )Goldman-Rakia, Bourgeois, & Rakia, 1997; Huttenlocher & Dabholkar, 1997; Rakia, Bourgeois & Goldman-Rakia, 1994). Not surprisingly, human newborns have lower synaptic densities than adults. However, in the months following birth, the infant brain begins to form synapses far in excess of the adult levels. In humans, bb age four, synaptic densities have peaked in all brain areas at levels 50% above adult levels. Throughout, synaptic densities remain above adults levels. Around the age of puberty, a pruning process beings to eliminate synapses, reducing synaptic densities to adult, mature levels. The timing of this process appears to vary among brain areas in humans. In the visual areas of the human brain, synaptic densities increase rapidly starting at two months of age, peak at eight to 10 month, and then decline to adult levels at around 10 years. However, in the human frontal cortex the brain area involved in attention, short-term memory, and planning this process beings later and lasts longer. In the frontal cortex, synaptic densities do not stabilize at mature levels until

around age 16. Thus, we can think of synaptic densities changing over the first two decades of life in an inverted-U pattern: low at birth, highest in childhood, and lower in adulthood. This much is neuroscientific fact. The question is what does this inverted-U pattern mean for learning and education? Here, despite what educators might think, the neuroscientists know relatively little. In discussing what the changes in synaptic density mean for behaviour and learning, neuroscientists cite a small set of example, based on animal research and then extrapolate these findings to human infants. On the basis of observations of changes in motor, visual, and memory skills, neuroscientists agree that basic movement, vision, and memory skills first appear in their most primitive from when synaptic densities begin their rapid increase. For example, at the frontal brain areas, infants first show short-term memory skills for places and objects. Infants performance on these tasks improves steadily over the next four months. However, performance on these memory tasks does not reach adults levels until puberty, when synaptic have decreased to adult levels. Thing to know no. 1: Neuroscience suggests that there is no simple, direct relationship between synaptic densities and intelligence. Increases in synaptic densities are associated with the initial emergence of skills and capacities, but these skills and capacities continue to develop after synaptic densities decrease to adult levels. Although early in infancy we might have the most synapses we will ever have, most learning occurs later, after synaptic densities decrease in the brain. Given the existence of the U-shaped pattern and what we observe about our own learning and intelligence over our life spans; we have no reason to believe, as we often reads, that the more synapses we have, the smarter we are. Nor do existing neuroscientific studies support the idea that the more learning experiences we have during childhood, the more synapses will be saved from pruning and the more intelligent our children will be.

Neuroscientists know very little about how learning, particularly school learning, affects the brain at the synaptic level. We should be sceptic level. We should be sceptical of any claims that suggest they do. For example, we sometimes read that complex learning situations cause increased neural branching that offsets neural pruning. As far as we know, such claims are based more on brain fiction than on brain science.

CRITICAL PERIODS IN DEVELOPMENT Research on critical periods has been prominent in developmental neurobiology for more 30 years. This research has shown that if some motor, sensory, and (in humans) language skills are to develop normally, then the animal must have certain kinds of experience at specific times during its development. The best-researched example is the existence of critical periods in the development of the visual system. Starting in the 1960s. David Hubel, Torstein Wiesel, and their colleagues showed that if during the early months of life, cats or monkeys had one eyelid surgically closed, the animal would never regain functional use of that eye when it was subsequently reopened (Hubel, Wiesel, & LeVay, 1977). They also showed that closing one eye during this time had demonstrable effects on the structure of the visual area in the animal s brain. However, the same or longer periods of complete visual deprivation in adult cats had no effect on either the animal s ability to use the eye when it was reopened or on its brain structure. Only young animals, during a critical period

in their development, were sensitive to this kind of deprivation. They also found that closing both eyes during the critical period had no permanent, long-term effects on the animals vision or brain structure. Finally, they found that in monkeys, reserves closure during the critical period opening the closed eye and closing the open eye allowed a young deprived animal to recover the use of the originally deprived eye. If the reverse suturing was done early enough in the critical period, recovery could be almost complete. These last two findings are seldom mentioned in popular and educational interpretations of critical-period research. Over the past three decades, hundreds of neuroscientists have advanced our understanding of critical periods. We should be aware of three conclusions about critical periods that these scientists generally endorse. First, the different outcomes of closing one eye, both eyes, and reverse suturing suggest that it is not the amount of stimulation that matters during a critical period. If only the amount mattered, closing both eyes should have the same effect on each eye as it had when only one eye was closed. Neuroscientists believe that what matters during critical periods in the development of the visual system is the balance and relative timing of stimulation to the eyes. What does this mean? For one thing, it means that more stimulation during the critical period does not necessarily result in a better-developed visual system. Neuroscientists have learned that critical periods are quite complex and those different critical periods existing for different specific functions (Daw, 1995). For example, within the visual system are different critical periods for visual acuity, binocular function, and depth perception. For humans, even in an early childhood. For language, the critical period for learning phonology learning to speak without an accent- ends in early childhood, but the critical period for learning a language s grammar does not end until around age 16. Neuroscientists now also think that for each specific function of a sensory system, like vision, there are three distinct phases within the critical period. First, there is a time of rapid change during which a function, like depth perception, quickly matures. During the second phase, sensory deprivation can result in deterioration or loss of that function. After the period of sensitivity to deprivation, there seems to be yet a third phase of the critical period. During this phase, the system retains sufficient plasticity to compensate for deprivation and regains near-normal function if appropriate sensory experience occurs. Given these complexities, neuron-scientists know that it makes little sense to speak of a critical period for vision or for Andy other sensory system, let alone of a critical period for brain development. Critical periods are simply windows of learning opportunity that open and then slam shut. Finally, neuroscientists are beginning to understand why critical periods exist and why critical periods have adaptive value for an organism. They believe that as the result of evolutionary processes, highly sensitive neural systems, like vision, have come to depend on the presence of environmental stimuli to fine-tune their neural circuitry. Relying on the environment to fine-tune the system results in neural circuits that are more sensitively tuned than they ever could be if they were hard-wired by genetic programs at birth.

Relying on the presence of certain kinds of stimuli just at the right times would seem to be a highly risky developmental strategy, especially for a system like vision that is fundamental to survival. The reason it is not risky is that the kinds of stimuli needed during critical periods patterned visual input, the ability to move and manipulate objects, noises, the presence of speech sounds are ubiquitously and abundantly present in any normal human environment. Nature has made a bet that the stimuli will be present, but nature has placed its money on an almost sure thing. The brain experts certain kinds of stimuli to be present for normal development, and they almost always are, unless a child is abused to the point of being raised in a deprivation chamber. William Greenbush and his colleagues (1992) have characterized the kind of brain modification that occurs as a result of critical periods experience-expectant brain plasticity . Thing to know No2: If critical periods are a result of our evolutionary history and nature s bet on almost sure things occurring in a child s environment, then neuron-scientific research on critical periods is likely to have little relevance to formal education. Form what we know to date about critical periods, they contribute to be development of basic species wide abilities, like vision, hearing, or language. For this reason, despite what we read, the specifics of home or preschool environments matter little, if at all, to how children are sensory and motor systems develop. For similar reasons, critical periods say little about formal education. Formal schooling instructs children about the social and cultural particular, not about evolution-based, species wide skills and behaviours. Currently, we have no reason to think that there are critical periods for the acquisition of culturally and socially transmitted skills, like reading, mathematics, or music, just to name a few of the favourite example. As far as we know, people can acquire these skills at any age; can benefit from instruction at any age; and can increase their intelligence and expertise, given the right opportunities.

THE EFFECTS OF ENRICHED ENVIRONMENTS Neuroscientist has been studying the effects of enriched environments on rats behaviour and brain development for nearly 50 years. Some of the best and most current of this work is that of Greenbush and his colleagues at the University of Illinois (1992). In this research, neuroscientists study how raising their brain structure rats in different environments effects. Typically, scientists study the effects of two contrasting environments. Some rats are raised alone in small cages with only food and water available. This isolated environment is the typical laboratory environment for a rat. Other rats are raised in large, group cages that also contain novel objects and obstacles. Greenbush calls these environments complex, rather than enriched. He points out that complex environments are enriched only in comparison with a rat s typical lab cage. Neuroscientists use complex environments to mimic the rat s wild or natural environment. They are north special, accelerated rodent learning environments. One should not think of them as high-quality infant care or Head Start for rats. One should think of them more as attempts to create New York City subway tunnel conditions in the laboratory.

In electron microscopic studies, Greenbush and his colleagues found that young rats raised in complex environments have 25% more synapses per neuron in the visual areas of their brains than do rats raised in isolation. However, increases in synapses per neuron ratios do not occur to this extent in all brain areas, and some brain areas show no effects of complex rearing at all. On the basis of this research, we can see that it is definitely not the case, as we often read, that complex environments result in 25% increase in brain connectivity. More important, however, 15 years ago, Greenbush and his colleagues established that the brains of adult rats also from new synapses in response to complex environments. Other studies in monkeys and humans have definitively established that the adult brain remains highly plastic and capable of extensive neural reorganization throughout life. The brain s ability to reorganize itself in response to new experiences is what makes it possible for us to learn throughout our lives. The ability of the mature brain to change and reorganize, a finding seldom mentioned in the education literature, is a new, exciting finding of brain science (Nelson & Bloom, 1997). Thing to know No 3: Researcher on complex environments and related findings tells us that the brain can reorganize itself for learning throughout our lifetimes. This new insight runs counter to our current fixation on early development and critical periods. However, in thinking about how this research relates to educational practices and policy. We must be careful not to confuse complex with enriched. Neuroscientists use complex as a descriptive term for a laboratory simulation of a wild or natural environment. Education writers tend to use enriched as a value-laden term. In the popular and education literature, enriched environments tends to be culturally preferred, middleclass environments. These environments tend to include things that the writers value Mozart, piano lessons, playing chess and to exclude things that they scorn video games, MTV, shooting pool. These writers tend to identify enriched environments with Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Palo Alto, California, and deprived environments with Roxbury and East Palo Alto. As far as neuroscience goes, all these activities and environments are equally complex and neuroscience says nothing about which are more or less enriched than others. In assessing claims about environments and the brains, we should be aware of how easy it is to slide from describing complexity to prescribing enrichment. We should be careful not to use neuroscience to provide biological pseudo-argument in favour of our culture and our political values and prejudices.

EDUCATIORS SHOULD KNOW ONE FINAL THING Thing to know No. 4: Research on early synapse formation, critical periods, and complex environments has a long history. Yet, we have little understanding of what this research might mean for education. Our appeals to this research are often naive and superficial. Other brainrelated themes popular in the education literature emotional intelligence, the social brain, the brain in the entire body, the intelligent immune system, down-shifting have a much less reliable grounding in neuroscience. Educators seeking to base practice on the best science might want to assess recommendations stemming from these ideas even more carefully and critically


WHY RELY ON BRAIN RESEARCH TO JUSTIFY PRACTICE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD. Why then has there been such a furore over brain research underpinning child development? To use the word furore is not an exaggeration. 1. Experience in the first years of life lays the basis for networks of neurons that enable us to be smart, creative and adaptable in all the years that follow. (Time Magazine: 1997). 2. Every lullaby, every giggle and peek-a-boo, triggers a crackling along his neural pathways, laying the groundwork for what could someday be a love of art or a talent for soccer or a gift for making and keeping friends.(Newsweek Magazine 1996). 3. You hold your newborn so his sky-blue eyes are just inches away from brightly patterned wallpaper. ZZZt: a neuron from his retina makes an electrical connection with one in his brain s visual cortex. You gently touch his hand with a clothespin; he grasps it, drops it, and you return it to him with soft words and a smile. Crackle: neurons from his hand strengthen their connection to those in his sensory-motor cortex (Newsweek Magazine 1996). For millions of American children, the world they encounter is relentlessly menacing and hostile. So with astounding speed and efficiency, their brains adapt and prepare for battle. Cells from trillions of new connections that create the chemical pathways of aggression; some chemicals are produced in over-abundance, some are repressed... what research can now tell us with increasing certainty is just how the brain adapts physically to this threatening environment how abuse, poverty, neglect or sensory deprivation can reset the brain s chemistry in ways that makes some genetically vulnerable children more prone to violence. (Kodiak 1996: ix-x). Others using more sober language make very similar points. Anne Meade, in a book Promoting Evidence Based Practices in Early Childhood Education. (2001). Brain research contains considerable implications for the role of play in early childhood, is this type of play where children use all modalities the senses, physical activity, emotion and representations particularly conducive to synaptic growth ? (2001: 22). Mary Ewing Young, responsible for the World Bank s $1000 million loan programme to develop early childhood programmes in 29 countries, claims, at some length citing Chugani that brain research justifies the Bank s investment in early childhood (1998). I have traced elsewhere (Penn 2002) how those responsible for early childhood intervention for targeted poor populations. These intervention programmes are based on the provision of enriched environments (i.e. American early childhood education programmes based on the NAEYCE developmentally appropriate practice manuals). This is, for the World Bank, a more respectable and acceptable argument than the alternative, which is to admit the need for radical socioeconomic intervention to change the lives of poor children. Jerome Kanga also discusses this point the nature of intervention whether it should be on the level of the individual (an enriched environment) or at the level of society. He has been the most persistent psychological critic of the view that intervention in the first three years matters. He argues that the evidence about brain research is used in a very cavalier way.

Psychological determinists have assumed that every kiss, every lullaby, or scolding alters a child s brain in ways that will influence his future. But if sight change in synapses, like some amino acid substitutions, are without functional consequences, then every smile at an infant is not to be viewed as a bank deposit accumulating psychological dividends. Kanga calls this popular emphasis on the developing brain capacity of infants the myth of infant determinism. The reason that such explanations are so popular, he claims, is that interventions protects the myth of equality in a society that, like the USA, is profoundly unequal. Instead, he argues that social class (and cultural context and there are the most powerful predictors of future performance. So many people believe in infant determinism (because) it ignores the power by

both Capital and the organised left in Britain, sex, race, and working classof social class membership. Though a child s social class is the best predictor of future vacation, academic accomplishments and psychiatric health, Americans wish to believe that their society is open, egalitarian, without rigid class boundaries. To acknowledge the power offers a new andof class is to question this ethnical canon (1998, p. 147). Arguing for the funding and provision of services for young children has been, at least in AngloAmerican Countries, an uphill struggle. Children have been a very low political priority in these countries. The so-called findings of brain research have given these struggles an extra edge. In

particular they appear to offer a solution to childhood poverty and inequality that can be addressed on an individual level enriched environments for targeted populations rather than on a societal level - redistribution of resources. (More than one in five children comes from impoverished backgrounds in the UK and USA OECD 2001). They also appear to offer the possibility to individual parents to enormous popular interest in the Time and Newsweek articles, and the rush of popular books, like that of Kodiak, quoted above. His book inside the Brain: revolutionary Discoveries of How the Mind Works won a Pulitzer Prize. Underlying these claims about the importance of brain research is the debate about scientific method. Although they also involve speculation and conjecture, university agreed scientific methods have been extremely successful in revealing the physical world. The discoveries of

sciences have gone hand in hand with rapid technological developments, from computers and radar to bombs. Human sciences can boast no such successes. Genetic and neuroscientific research are extremely important and mesmerizing areas of research in their own right. But their great attraction to the field of human sciences is that they appear to offer an incontrovertible underpinning to behavioural and social events. A new branch of psychology, evolutionary psychology, rests on the exploration of such claims. Meanwhile, philosophers doggedly persevere trying to explain the nature of explanation: How can there be an objective world of money, property, marriage, governments, elections, football games, cocktail parties and law-courts in a world that consists entirely of physical particles in fields of force, and in which some of these particles are organized into systems that are conscious biological beasts such as us? (Searle: 1995: 247). Mary Midgley, in a series of papers and articles, sensibly suggests that there are many different ways of knowing and explaining the world and many ways of being in it. Our contribution is to be alert, well informed and critical no mean task given the inevitable scientific dogfights about the status of new knowledge in frontier breaking biosciences like genetics and the neurosciences. On contrary Mercy Osazenaye, argues that we should be concerned to justify our practices not only in terms of what we know but in terms of what we value. Ethnics, values, and social commentary have their place in all methodological enquiries, point which are taken up. everything. PM, you real upset me. Journalist need to know

Why Alastair Darling is threaten me like that. I want my I want all what you

money you people owed me.

Annoting of God is so difficult to upset.

people take away from me mostly MY TWO PROPERTY and the rest, because my spirit is has been threaten badly, wounded, is like war, violence, pull and push, foot ball, are being used all over the place, and you do not good to me. PM, David Cameron and Nick Clegg, three of you owned me

apologies; you has to say sorry to me and my children.

MP 425/04 CIDD Land and Children Defence PM Private Adviser Civil servant

ON FRIDAY DECEMBER 25, 2009 ON THURROCK GAZETTE (1) SEX ATTACK TRIAL: A man accused of sexually assaulting a 15 years old girl will stand trial. Venus Edmund, 31, of The Green, Newham, denies the attack, alleged to have happened in Thurrock on October 11 these years. He did admit possession of cocaine and cannabis when he appeared at Basildon Crown court, Edmund, who was given conditional bail, will stand trial on March 27 next year. (2) Rape charge, a man accused of raping a woman has appeared in court. Adekunle Adeleye, 40, is alleged to have attacked the 25 year old women in Chaffed Hundred on Friday December 4, after meeting her in Galleon Road. Adeleye of Fleming Road, Chaffed Hindered, was arrested and charged with rape. He appeared at Basildon Magistrates Court last Wednesday where he did not enter pleas to the charge. Adeleye was remained in custody and will reappear at Basildon Crown Court in February next year


for example, in practices of sexual harassment.

In terms of the particular concerns of this section, the fourth cell is the most important drawing attention to the way male rationalities may shape or structure relationships within the private sphere, notably within families. What this means is that although some individual men may be minimally involved in domestic matters, their actions and attitudes may still have consequences for the routine ordering of family life. Hearn, for example, lists what he sees as the major institutions s of patriarchy: hierarchic heterosexuality, fatherhood, the professions, and the state (Hearn, 1987, p.89). These institutions have varying degrees of relationships with family and domestic institutions, being closest in the case first two and more distant in the case of the second pair. It is possible only to hint of the specific issues that may be considered. More traditionally we might focus attention on formal systems of lineage and descent, patrilineal sysystemss, patterns of inheritance, and so on. The continuing (if increasingly contested) significance of the practices of using the male surname as the bases defining the identity of the family has not perhaps been explored as much as it might. In this sense, it can be said that men literally define the family.







NEXT WE MAY LOOK AT THOSE INSTITUTIONS OF CHURCH AND STATE THAT HAVE, TRADITIONALLY OR CONTINUINGLY, AN INTEREST IN FAMILY REGULATION. MATTERS TO DO WITH DIVORCE, ABORTION, AND BIRTH CONTROL COME IMMEDIATELY TO MIND. PERHAPS MATTERs that clearly have the aim and sometimes the consequence of regulating relationships within the family and household, and which themselves emerge from institutions that are male dominated. Finally, and overlapping with this last category, we have the rise of perspective for class struggleto see the child on the street as an undesirable vagrant. This perspective is based on the seemingly less. I powerful sections of the class, the wages less. We see for the first time what the class really is. It is black and white workers, women and men, children and the unemployed.

If sex and race are pulled away from class virtually all that remains of class is the truncated, provincial, sectarian politics of the white male metropolitan left. The racist/sexist, class, purist nature of the organise left in Britain has been responsible for reenforcing those divisions within the class created by capitalist production. They told us that unless we worked say at fords and joined the unions we were not in a position to wage class struggle, and even worse, that we were not struggling at all. It is no accident that draws throughout on the experiences of the struggle against capital by Black people! We were the first section of the class to find for ourselves a lever of power outside the factory. We extended the struggle from our place of work into our communities where our strength lay with the young wage less brothers and sisters. We created our own forms of organisation is opposition to the arrogant factory theory of the left, and resisted on the streets the brutality of the police whose job it is to do drive us back into the work we are refusing any longer do instead of joining with us the left said, we were spiting the working class we responded at the time by saving that working class has already been divided at the time by saying that the working class has already been divided and not by us. We had experiences the reality of this division by our own self organisation. A major contribution of the Black power movement to working class struggles was that if posed concretely the possibilities of an international revolutionary movement. For instance, the struggle against imperialism in African was actively links a with the struggle against racism in the united states for example, in the Polaroid workers strike. The white left could not see that this was class struggle. They insisted the fight against racism and police brutality was not necessarily a fight against capitalism. They told us that the real working class struggle could only be fought through the unions. The parallels that are made between the black movement and the white women s. Liberation movement indicate the extents to which the one has influence the other and thus the opposition of the left to the auortonomous organisation of women was predictable several tendencies in the Black movement have their counterparts in the women s movement.

1. The Nationalist tendencies. These are best identified by the calls for sedation. They were saying the source of our oppression and exploitation was not only capitalism but also the fact that the white victims of capital had a primary racial loyalty to their master, as opposed to class locality to us. Viewed in this way the only alternanatibve to the present situation is separation or suicide. 2. The Integrationists. Their social base is the black middle-class and they aspire only to give colour to the white power structure. Their sole complaints are they are excluded from centres of power within the ruling class because of their colour. Their demands are for black Judges, Lawyers; Teachers; polices; Social Workers e. t. C. It is from this section of the movement that a number of black people have been employed by the race Relations industry on the surface to see that we get a fair deal. In reality their function is atom mediate the struggle of black people and to keep the ruling class., informed as to the nature of our rebellion.

3. The Black Left. Many of these organisations have reproduced the white left in the black communities with one difference. They added the struggle against racism and imperialism to the manifestations. Each of these tendencies at some stage of the struggle was temporararily able to capture the leadership of the movement and to mobile thousands of black people who were daily carrying out struggle within their specific situation is the worker in production and the unemployed. But organisations are not the movement. Stripped of these position tendencies, what we see is the class moving in its own specific interest. All these tendencies faithfully report themselves in the women s movement. The Radical Feminist is the black Nationalists. By identifying the man as being the sole enemy their solution is total separation. But white the Black Nationalists, in the U.S. demanded a separate state, the Radical Feminist would settle for a separate commune. The socialist women have merely added the form sexist to the definition of the white, male dominate left. What we, want to stress in that none of these tendencies, within either movement, has been able to resolve the operant contradictions posed by class and castle. They see class as subordinate to castle or the other way around and as a consequence remain politically and organisationally stagnant, they have been unable class as a white has achieves in relation of our role to capital, something that the black movement never adequately did. They never attempted a serious analysis of the black women s exploitation in the context of labour and capital. Any analysis, that was made started and ended with an acknowledgement of the black women s doubly explored position as black and as woman. The solutions that resulted were morally reformist. Promises on the part of the brothers to be less male chauvinistic. (Boastful, warlike person.) It was not the problem not the solution that could release our power. On the other hands, black power gave us social power as black people. It also gave us a voice and focused attention on that voice. We drew the attention of the white women s movement for the first time, through the platforms that Black Power gave us. The women s movement began to take a look at our particular situation but had no basis on which to integrate our experience. Peace of England; peace of Inland; peace of every land of Island; Happy to my joyful tiding; Whole the World has peace at last. Let the rain of blessing fall on us (Amen). My husband is having is father tenement now Justice of Peace (JP). A Deacon Honourably Solomon Osazenaye. My study does begin to examine the origins of some of the assumptions that partners brings to a marriage, but in many cases the simple analysis of differences by gender or sex does leave the way open to a kind of sociological, if not biological, essentialism. The solutions to the problem are various. In some, relatively few, cases the dichotomous variables, male and female, may be replaced by a continuous scale of masculine/feminine, which may not be mapped on to socially or biologically constructed men and women. A more sociological responses not as givens or straightforward independent variables but as being themselves the product of the complex interplay between biography and history. In order to do this we need, first, to consider the constructions of masculinities at the societal levels. Many of the current usages of the terms patriarchy point to man/woman relationships that are located through society and are not confined to home or family. Hartmann s well-known definition underlines this;

I define patriarchy as a set of social relations which has a material base and in which there are hierarchical relations between men, and solidarity among them, which enable them to control women. Patriarchy is thus the system of male oppression of women.(Hartman, 1983,p 194). She sees a distinction between a direct personal system and an indirect impersonal system of control. This is a distinction which, at first glance, might be seen to parallel the familiar public/private distinction although it may, more interestingly, be seen as cutting across it l here use the term patriarchal as a shorthand term for a complex system of male power that may well, as l discussed elsewhere, be better described by some alternative term. However, l want to emphasize that the analysis of the formation of gender identity at the societal level must include some recognition of gender identity at the societal level must include some recognition of systematic power differences. The distinctions mapped out in are designed to highlight possible interrelationships rather than watertight distinctions, and the interesting theoretical and analytical problems arise when we begin to consider the interplay between these different areas of patriarchal control. Men exercise control over women in a variety of ways and a variety of spheres and theses patterns of control are themselves interrelated. Thus, the inequalities in domestic power are not simply the outcomes of processes that places within the socially defined private sphere of the family but are also related to legislation in the areas of work and employment, understanding of family needs and obligations, and relationships between women and men outside the family as manifested, professionals and professional identities that develop or elaborate interests in the family and marital matters. The clinical gaze, whether it be focused on birth control, sexuality, or the rearing of children may often be a male gaze, or, even where this is not the case, may come from professionals who are located within male dominanated institutions. A lot of system men can used to control women. President of united state of American Barrack Obama saying they should let everybody developed on its own way; no more oppression and abuse or bullying. Pm, said, is good to learning from each other, what you know let other share with it. Mercy Osazenaye said is good to talk and communication with each other not putting individual inside the ping hole /Paradoxes Box. It true is not good to be by yourself, Pm, remember l am not alone in the house l got five children around me. Two is adult and three are teenager. But if, you and Jeremy Hunt can arrange people to working with; l won t to work; is something l can do myself, rent an office in the community room, is just 80 a week; l can used it as my own office. I just want to be respected not ignored me; l want you to listen to me, negotiating not just grip my work; let me feel human l not a robot; Is part of why l wrote the Climate Change; will need to move on and change is necessary as well. Is not mean that l talking to straight man and gay men, l do not hate anybody l am a married women, man are the crown of women and there the head; l believed that God create Adam and Eve, and he asked them to multiple; but is up to individual to chosen what he want to be. But you do not has to hate anybody that is chosen is own way in another way, e.g. gay, lesbian is the own choices; it does not make me to hate them. The story inside the Easterneder; l learn, because of (Gay) a whole beautiful family destroyed; and is never come back/ or repair. Will all knew the way Asia family love each other, mostly the family. Where l comes from is very difficult to say you are a gay or lesbian or straight; but is up to you. I have many different friends.

God said love your neighbour abuse; bullying each other.

that is the world, LOVE . And stop interfering; intimidating;

Long life my queen; you will leave long; during your time, everybody will happy; peace will rain. (Amen). God be the glory; remember your Ten Commandment; mostly thus shall not kill. MP Journalist Independent expect of operation child line estimated that 18,000 calls were made daily, of which about 8,000 got through. In these new- yet old-and shocking narratives arose as to whom responsible was for undermining that confident image so perfectly represented by the Duke of west minister. In many feminist publications of the early 1980s the answer was, unequivocally, the fathers. This was the term used by Elizabeth ward, in her Book Father /Daughter rape, as the collective description for those men in positions of authority fathers/stepfathers/uncles/babysitters who have abuse girl children she argued that incest is not separable from other forms of child abuse. It is simply an extension of a socially sanctioned sexuality that is coercive and unequal, committed by males against those weaker females who are available to them; for Florence Rush in The Best Kept Secret, the family itself is an instrument of sexual and other forms of child abuse. The protector and the rapist are the same person! Mary McLeod and Ester savage argued that sex abuse happens in normal families not deficient s ones. Far from being its negation, the ever present fantasy of incest is an extension of power maintained through sexuality. It wields the happy family together, while it throws a shadow across every clam to perfection. The picture of a family mat be favourably juxtaposed with pictures of physically damage children but the possibility of incest forces us to reassess the composition of the group itself. This view poses problems for an imagery which seeks to find ways of representing a child in a secures setting beyond the family group. Child watch s little girl with the telephone was one such attempt. The popular press aimed to preserve the image of the united family. For the Journalists, the interfering professionals were to blame. They invented abuse where there was none and maliciously removed children from their families. Ref My nightmare by Vanessa age 8 ran the headline in the Daily Mail. They said, Daddy has done something to you. Vanessa said, l kept telling them there was nothing wrong. I got so tired of them not believing me. The campaigns were for parents rights and for children to be set free and returned home so that the family image could be restored. But even when reunited, those families could be photographed from behind, as a negative of the familiar groups. The only narrative of child sexual abuse which meshes easily with other interlinking narratives of child and family centres on the sexualised image of the young girl. It is a narrative of subheading in

bold type rephrased the wry comment from the young girl interviewed in the News of the World Magazine. In the text her words are: Perhaps l wriggled my nappy at him in a provocative way! The rewriting makes the ludicrous Irony sound suddenly possible. The image of the adolescent girl, degraded and made available by premature sexual experiences, is the only image to accompany features on child abuse in which the young person is regularly shown, looking directly at the viewer. Aware of her sexuality, she can be accused of provoking assault. Faced with this pressure from the image, the first incest survivors to speak out could hardly trust themselves. No one knows the inner torment l feel. I m racked with guilt in case l provoked it. I m a freak! wrote Liz in the leveller magazine. I read this story inside the magazine, is so sad for this young child. He image of the alone remains the most striking of contrasts with the image of the happy family group, foe she signals that the innocence of childhood is always deceptive. She holds immeasurable dangers for adult men. Her seductiveness may provoke them into betraying their dignity, and what is more, she knows their terrible secret. After all, Freud s first moves towards developing his theory of the Oedipus complex came when, in the Mid 1890s, he decided that his women patient s memories of paternal abuse in their infancy were based on a universal fantasy. His institution was confirmed, he wrote, when he recognised his own ambivalent feelings towards his daughter. In the theory, the incestuous desires of the father were superseded by the by the oedipal longings of the son. Either way, the position of the man at the apex of the family group is always under threat. He is exposed as capable of provoking total disruption at just as joint where he claims to be the upholder of rationality and order. The ongoing debates around child abuse have raised the issue of childhood sexuality, only to declare it impossible topic. A climate has been created where the exploration of children s sexuality or even sensuality seems possible only under condition of exploitation, or else is deemed unspeakable. But the imagery of childhood is never without its ambiguities. The danger to children is balanced by an all pervasive scene of a danger from them. Children in all their enforced irrationality, pose a threat to adult, both in their own tendency to violence and loss of control. In popular narratives, the newspaper accounts of young boys who rejoice in cruelty are only a few steps away from the threading young tyrants of the consumer advertisements. In the advertisements children s demands may test their parents, patience, but things are never allowed to go too far. The child may never disrupt the stable, consuming family. Instead they can be seen teasing thief parents, developing strategies to exploit their imposed dependence, using their knowledge to display a lack of knowledge, and recognising their hold over adults. Their refusal to conform and their ability to drive adults crazy are compounded by their knowing provocativeness. In their pioneering work on child abuse, Henry and Ruth Kemp point out that some abused children may become demon children; negative aggressive; hyperactive. It is difficult to get away from a feeling that this potential of childhood should be kept down at any cost. A fear of the unmanageable child merges into a fear of the diabolical child, with power to overturn the order of social life. This image can be fully expressed only in fictional characters carrier where children exercise demonic and destructive powers. Adult love of children is accompanied by adult hatred of children and adult fear of children s hatred.

The image of violent children is complementary to that of children who had been violently treated. Violence against children is a secret, spoken of with difficulty. Yet it remains the ultimate threat, built into the structuring of difference between adult and child. Images of violence are necessary to express the fear we feel; actual violence is the cost of an order based on domination and exclusion. The unstable state of childhood in itself provokes the fear which is so visible in the imagery. Mercy Osazenaye Campaign for Treatment the Black/White Children desame in the school. (I just used this opportunity). I do this on base of what happen to my son in Gateway Academic, Tilbury, and Essex. Where they don t threat children equally. Where they discriminate on children JOSHUA: said, l frighten with my friend, both of us did not getting desame punishment. It is because l am black child and the other boy is white, this is not good will need to threat, children equally. Is the because of colour, will are both British. Four teacher restrain me without do anything wrong, white boy start this trouble, but he stuff free, to the extend, l prayed to God to spear my life, from horrible people. I can breathe mummy, l can at all. MERCY SAID: my son told me that mummy l can breathe this people want to kill my enemy. But is not good, school suppose to be a happy place, not prison, criminologists, not place for psychiatry in the treatment of prisoners, is should be used for education. He was crying for 30 minutes before he can even talk to me. JOSHUA SAID: I now God will forgive my ex-principal, Mr Kelvin Sadler l heard that he has two sons, is this way he maltreated them. This time of forgiveness, l forgives him. My name is Joshua. But l want them to leave my mummy alone is good mother, l love her very much. They should do something that nothing like this should happen again. I the only Black boy that is excluded permanent in Gate way. Where a lot of terrible children is. I am not real bad. But why are they threatening me like that. It cannot be right. This people, conspiracy together, with council, and National police, they demonstrate in my own house, taken everything l got, so they can used my family for economic. I want everybody to search the mind and soul, not everything that shine is Gold, my mummy tries she buy a house and put us, but some jelouse people destroyed it. Everybody should remember the TEN COMMENDEMENT . Said thou shall not killed, you don t need to shunt people before you killed. Nigeria people should band not to practices in this country for sometime. MERCY OSAZEWNAYE said Song: will pulling done stronger pole, in the name of Jesus. Will pulling done stronger pole, in the name of the Lord It could be different, it could be chaining. Will pulling down stronger pole, in the name of the Lord.

MERCY SAID: Staff selection boards, no matter how vigilant. These few would be better out of the services. I think we have to ask ourselves just what sort of temple is being constructed here by people in the name of a law which can expel anyone who smile. PM, Alastair Darling, and Peter Mandelson, is not only politician only is the way. What about all this complain l just mention. Please make it better place, for me and you and children to leave. My job is to make a change, l know people will be saying, is she the only one there, No, but l just do my part. I am a social worker, teacher, politician, media, journalists, a good parent, celebrity, civil servant and police, l am the police who do the research. As a celebrity, you are to now everything. I am a member of labour Party, l join in about 14ys ago. But is not good for me because a lot of thing happen to my life. I was listened to Shahid Maliki Community Minister. All what happen to me and my family in Thurrock is Holocaust. Let Holly Ghost intervene.


Formatted: Normal


Education yourself, I recall him saying, Do not let yourself be diverted from that task. Nothing will be more important for the new nation of Pakistan than an educated and professionally qualified group of people. His vision of Pakistan was of a modern, economically and technologically advances, socially cohesive, open and outward looking nation. We need to ask ourselves. To what extent have we measured up to those earlier expectations? To what extent has the dream been realized?. Let us look at the balance sheet of the past forty-three year s performance. On the credit side, there can be no question that Pakistan today is far more economically advanced than the predominantly rural and poverty-stricken society of 1947. It has a much more developed financial and industrial system, and social and economic conditions are clearly better than at Independence. Most the economic progress can be attributed to two extended periods of economic growth: first, during the 1960s under the leadership of President Zia UlHaq. For the rest, the record of economic performance has been checkered, characterized stop-go cycles and, at times, worse.

On the debit side, Pakistan s economy has been weakened in recent years by structural factors which governments have been unwilling or unable to tackle resolutely and comprehensively. For a country at its stage of development, Pakistan has a very low savings rate and a dismal record of domestic resource generation for investment. Infrastructure has decayed, and some indicators for example, education, and the status of women are reminiscent of some of the poorest African countries. As if all this were not enough, exports have failed to keep pace with external obligations and the balance of payments is severely strained and, in recent months, the gulf crisis has greatly aggravated the country s economic difficulties. I regret to say that without tough action, Pakistan will undoubtedly face before long an economic crisis of unprecedented severity. Such a crisis cannot be cured by additional foreign aid, whether bilateral or multilateral. In my view, Pakistan is already excessively dependent on external assistance. Aid, especially from multilateral institutions, has a legitimate function in development. But it can easily become a crutch which inhibits raising domestic resources. In any case, there should be no doubt that Pakistan s ability to attract substantial foreign assistance will depend critically on its own house in order, quickly and effectively. Now let me turn to the social items on the balance sheet, where the prognosis is much more disquieting. First, l feels that the conduct of Pakistani society today is much more personalized and much less Institutional than at Independence. Pakistan inherited some strong institutions at its inception a professional civil service, a respected judiciary, and a firm administration of law and order. True, these bodies and institutions needed to be recast to serve an independent nation rather than a colonial power. But they did provide an orderly and predictable frame work for the conduct of people s lives. Since Independence, however, the integrity and effectiveness of these institutions has steadily eroded and we have failed to develop new political and economic institutions that could adequately respond to the needs of different groups in a growing, developmentally-oriented society. Consequently, Pakistani society today increasingly functions within a framework of personal rather than institutional relationship. Second, we have become a deeply divided society divided by religion, by sect, by place of origin, and by every other difference, imaginable or unimaginable, l find to my dismay that familial or provincial or sectarian differences are stronger rallying cries than love or tolerance or the spirit of solidarity which founded this nation. If we continue to divide by religion and dogma, or we continue to think of ourselves first as Sindhis, Punjab s, Perhaps, or Mohair s, rather than as Pakistanis then we began to see the writing on the comic character pogo who went into battle looking for the enemy and when he reached the battlefront, he shouted: We have found the enemy and it is us! Third, we have become a violent society. When l grew up, the stray incident of violence mostly in the villages and most related to conflicts over women, property, or livestock was big news in the news in the papers. It was quite unlike today when firearms are freely available and a few citizens can take the law into their own hands and impose their will on others, when the resolution of disputes through violence has become common-place, and organised thuggery can go virtually unnoticed. Honourable, Mr PM recently gave us some frightening figures on the loss of life caused

by ethnic violence in the Sind province. The point is not just that people should not live in fear of violence; the point is also that a society cannot devote itself seriously to development if it is consumed by violence. Because they know that bad people are coming to destroyed it/or take what is not belong to them. They will be punished for what they do to me. Fourth, we have become a society beset by deep social ills. (Mental, Deluded, or frustration). The most serious threat to social stabile is growing drug addiction. It makes it worst, the best solution is to have faith in your heart, faith can move mountain. Just belied in your heart. It is the Bible when God was tells people that, if any one of you has sick, let all put hand on him/her and prayed for healing. You don t need to go to church. But believed in God. And followed Ten Commandment. Or you are Muslim believed in it. Whatever your denomination is JUST BELIEVED IN IT. Its ravages should not be minimized. They go far beyond a threat to public health standards. In countries such as Colombia, drugs threaten the very foundations of democratic government. I am also dismayed that little social stigma attaches any longer to bribery and corruption. They appear to have become more or less acceptable as a way of life. Not so long ago, the strongest deterrent against corruption in public life was the fear of ostracism from one s peers and friends rather than the fear of criminal prosecution. Maintaining standards of social morality is a more fitting subject for public debate than arcane issues of religious dogma and sectarianism. Fifth, we have become a confused society- confused about our past, but even more confused about our future. The history of Pakistan s political evolution, in which the army and civil service have been leader, has understandably caused controversy about the type of government the country should establish. On the economic side, Pakistan s founding father failed to elaborate any clear approach to economic management. On societal issues, Pakistanis seem more preoccupied with questioning their neighbour s conscience and religious beliefs than with worrying about the moral and social standards that should govern everyone s behaviour. This confusion cannot be dispelled by merely harping back to models that existed long ago and endeavouring to replicate them without change under the very different conditions of today. These problems can be resolved only by responding to the problems of today with solutions that are equally contemporary. Consistency with the spirit and tenets of Islam is hardly, if ever, a problem because Islam is a religion about life, not abstraction. It recognizes and accepts change, and its principles have a universal character. Confronted by the confusion and chaos of the present, l detects a tendency amongst Pakistanis to live in the past and to romanticize it to look at the mausoleums of the dead and to talk nostalgically about the ancient glories of bygone Muslim expires . Certainly, the past yields its lessons. But what bears more reflections is not the glories of Islam in the seventh or the eight century, or the Muslim renaissance in Spain and North African some 800 years later, or even the splendour of the Ottoman empire not so long ago, but the causes of their decline and fall. And make no mistake, some of the same signs of a house divided which we see in Pakistan today led to the disintegration of those glorious ancient regimes. For this reason, if no other, we must confront present reality and it is in many ways a tough reality come to terms with it, and begins building for the future.

As we look to the future, Pakistan again enjoys a great opportunity. The country has the prospect of political stability under a democratically elected government with a mandate for five years. Honourable, Mr PM, no future historian could ignore your personal contribution to helping to reestablish democratic government and the rule of law in the country. It remains for the elected representatives of the people to undertake the comprehensive economic and social reforms essential to restoring national cohesion and sustainable economic growth. The new government has two major national responsibilities. One, as l has suggested, is to tackle serious economic problem which could deteriorate into a crisis if left unattended. The other is to provide good governance. What does l mean by good governance ? to being with, l mean less government especially in the economic and social fields. For Britain, Mrs Thatcher defined it as a change from a dependant to a self-reliant society, from a Give-it-to-me to a Do0it-yourself nation . It means more delegation and decentralization of authority from central government to provincial governments to local bodies, and from local bodies to nongovernmental and community organisations. The approach in the 1990 s must be for the people to take tighter hold of their own destiny and to reduce their dependence on government. Good governance also means tolerant government tolerant of differences in political, religious, and sectoral beliefs, and of personal conflicts. It means a government that respects dissent, protects the independence of the judiciary, and ensures that justice is done. Good governance means an open government a government that preserves and protects free speech and a free press, and is subject to free public discussion. Such public discussion requires institutions that can inform the people and help them reach rational judgements. Unfortunately, this is not always possible Pakistan. Our mosques no longer function as madressahs, our schools and colleges have in some cases become centres of political agitation instead of learning, and indepent citizens institutions and channels of communication are few in number. In addition, good governance means compassionate government that is genuinely committed to improving the lot of the poor. While Pakistan has made progress in alleviating the worst of poverty, there continue to be severe problems of infant mortality, low life expectancy, and a very low literacy rate. These require a renewed effort to promote social sector development, and particularly to bring women more directly into development. Finally, l mean government that is prepared to govern when it need to govern. It must not flinch from taking hard decisions to stimulate national renewal. Fundamental economic reforms to stave off the economic crisis that looms ahead. The reinforcement of law and order and of due process to ensure that justice is done without fear or favour, and the fostering of institutions needed for good governance. This, in my view, is the agenda for good governance before the democratically elected new leaders. At the top of the agenda is the need to heal and bind up the wounds of the nation, not deepen them. This is the time to recognize that political opposition is positive part of democracy, no matter how rancorous the past. It is for those in power to stretch out the hand of conciliation and invite all

Pakistanis including those in opposition to join hands in a spirit of national consensus and earl with the urgent threats to our country s well-being and solidarity. What must be done? Pakistan must boldly implement structural reforms that will shift economic and social management increasingly to the private sector, and to nongovernmental organisations of the people. It is the people who are and should be the beginning and the end of development, governmental or private. More than ever before, developing human resources and strengthening Pakistan institutions political, social, and economic ought to be one of the new government s most pressing priorities. Experience in the developing world over the last half-century provides incontrovertible evidence that well-motivated proponents of development have been-zealous in expanding the role of the state in economic affairs. This has brought about an excessive centralization of decision making, greatly inflated the bureaucracy, and stifled the private sector. Pakistan is no exception to this general trend. In this over-regulated environment, the private sector has also not behaved responsibly it has tended to evade laws and regulations rather than observe them, this must change. The business of government is to provide that right environment for other businesses, not to manage them. Winston Churchill once said: Some see private enterprise as a predatory target to be shot. Others see a cow to be milked. But few are those who see it as a study horse pulling the wagon. It is this study horse that must now be harnessed to the national wagon. I suggest formulating a social contract which will facilitate these structural reforms. A social contract would spell out the rights and duties of the state and the rights and duties of the groups which constitute Pakistan. A social contract would underpin a national consensus derived from understandings between the centre and the provinces and between the provinces an local bodies, between business and the government, between landlords and tenants. Given the political reality in Pakistan, the armed forces must also be part of the social contract. The crux is that without consensus without such institutions it will be much harder to secure the revenue and investment for long-term development, especially social development. This is a fitting occasion for me to pay a tribute to Syed Babar Ali for his personal contribution in demonstrating how an enlightened private sector can be vibrant force for development. He is the true architect of Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) and through preservance, and a sense of commitment, he has translated the glimmer of an idea into a high quality national institutions. The private sector and community organisations should be strongly encouraged to establish similar institutions in other disciplines in natural sciences, medicine, economic, and computer sciences. Some of the finest educational institutions of North America are funded by endowments from public spirited citizens and private institutions rather than handouts from the government. Pakistan cannot remain isolated from the rest of the World. Pakistan cannot be a small island in an ocean of change. Pakistan needs the rest of the world, and needs it markets, technology, and, most important of all, recognition as a responsive state making its full contribution to a peaceful and prosperous community of nations.

A Chinese proverb says: It is more useful to stand before a window than before a mirror . It means that a person who stands before a mirror tends to look only at himself, whereas the man at the window looks at the world outside and is therefore better able to see his place and role in life. Many of you here today stand at the threshold of new careers and new professional responsibilities. I hope you too look outward and rise above the parochialism and prejudices that have stifled initiative in the past and curtailed national solidarity. And the brings me back to what Quaid-e_Azam had to say to the students on that summer day in 1946. The more we analyze the process of development, the more we begin to understand the central role of education in building a vibrant and growing society. It is the quality of human resources and of institutions and there is a very close link between the development of human capital and institutional development which nurtures nations. We should see the contribution of an institution such as the Lahore University of Management Sciences in that perspective.