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AUTOMOBILE

BRAKING SYSTEM
Q.1 :- What do you mean by brake? Enlist the types. Explain any on of them. OR classify brakes & explain brake drum. Answer :Brake : It is a device used for slowing, stopping & controlling the vehicle. In braking operation, the kinetic energy of vehicle is converted into heat, which is dissipated to atmosphere. Brakes may be classified in the following ways. i) With respect to application: a) foot brake :- service brake b) hand brake :- parking brake ii) With respect to number of wheels to which brake is applied, a) two wheel brake b) four wheel brake iii) With respect to construction a) drum brake b) disc brake Drum brake: In this type, a brake drum is attached concentric to axle hub. Two brake shoes are anchored on the back plate as shown in figure. Friction linings are mounted on the brake shoes. One or two retractor springs are used to keep the brake shoes away from the drum when the brakes are not applied. The brake shoes are anchored at one end, whereas on the other end force F is applied by means of some brake actuating mechanism, which forces the brake shoe against the revolving drum, thereby applying the brakes. An adjuster is also provided to compensate for wear of friction lining with use.

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Q.2: - Explain disc brake. Answer: Disc brake: Construction: It consists of a cast iron disc bolted to the wheel hub & stationery housing called as the caliper. The caliper is connected to some stationery part of vehicle like stub axle. This caliper is cast in to two parts each containing a piston. In between each piston & the disc there is a friction pad held in position by retaining pins or springs. The passages are drilled in the caliper for the fluid to enter or leave in each housing. Working: When the brakes are applied, hydraulically actuated pistons make the friction pads into contact with the disc, applying equal & opposite forces on the disc, causing the friction & hence slowing it down. When brakes are released, hydraulic pressure on the friction pads is released. The piston moves inwards & breaks their contact with the disc.

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Q.3: - Explain the advantages of disc brakes over drum brakes. Answer: The advantages of disc brakes over drum brakes are, 1) In case of disc brakes, friction surfaces are directly exposed to air, whereas in drum type, the friction occurs on the internal surfaces, so heat dissipation problem occurs. 2) The friction pads in case of disc brakes are flat as compared to curved friction linings in case of drum brakes. Therefore there is uniform wear of friction pads in case of disc brakes. This helps in easy selection of material for pads. 3) The design of disc brake is such that there is no loss of efficiency due to expansion. In case of drum brake, as the system becomes hot, the expansion of a drum of internally expanding shoe type brake tends to move the friction surfaces apart, causing a loss of effective pedal travel. On the other hand, disc expansion merely changes the relative positions on friction surface causing no loss. 4) Disc brakes weigh less than drum brake. 5) Design of disc brakes is very simple & involves less number of parts to wear. 6) Easy replacement of friction pads. Q.4 :- Explain hydraulic brake with neat sketch. Answer:Principle: - Force applied on the brake pedal is transmitted to brake shoe through a confined liquid known as brake fluid. Construction: Hydraulic braking system consists of 1) master cylinder 2) wheel cylinder 3) Brake drum 4) brake shoes 5) brake fluid with brake lines. (1) Master cylinder: It consists of two main chambers, fluid reservoir & compression chamber. Reservoir supplies fluid to brake system through two ports. Larger port is called as intake port whereas smaller port is called as By pass port. To prevent leakage, there are rubber seals on both sides of piston in the compression chamber. Towards the break line side of compression chamber, there is a fluid check valve with a rubber cup inside. It serves to retain residual pressure in the brake lines even after the brakes are released. (2) wheel cylinder : Wheel cylinders are provided to force the brake shoes against the drums. Each wheel cylinder is provided with piston, rubber seal, and rubber seal spreaders, springs etc. The brake line from the master cylinder is attached to the inlet port of wheel cylinder. A bleeder port is provided to bleed the air whenever necessary.

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Working: The master cylinder is connected by brake lines to wheel cylinder at each of four wheels. Each wheel cylinder consists of a cylinder brake drum, which is mounted on inner side of wheel & revolves with it. Inside the brake drum, two brake shoes are fitted with friction brake lining on their surfaces. When the brake pedal is pressed, which is connected to master cylinder by means of piston rod, it causes the piston of master cylinder to move. It increases the pressure of fluid inside the master cylinder & in entire hydraulic system. This pressure is instantly transferred to all four wheel cylinders. As soon as the pressurized oil comes inside the wheel cylinder through inlet port, the pistons in the wheel cylinder moves outwards moving the brake shoes out against the brake drum. Thus the brakes are applied. When the driver releases the brake pedal, the master cylinder piston returns to its original position due to return spring, dropping fluid pressure. Brake shoe retracting springs contract & pulls the brake shoes out of contact with brake drum to their original position & brakes are released.

Brake Drum

Wheel Cylinder

Master Cylinder

Flexible Pipe

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AUTOMOBILE

Q.5: - What are the advantages & disadvantages of hydraulic brake system. Answer: The advantages of hydraulic brake system are, 1) Mechanical linkages, joints etc. are eliminated so as to have simple construction. 2) Equal braking effort at all points to all four wheels. 3) Self lubricating 4) High mechanical advantage i.e. less effort required to operate brake 5) Differential braking action can be permitted by using wheel cylinders of different sizes for front & rear wheels. The disadvantages of hydraulic brake system are, 1) Fails the whole system when there is leakage or damage to any part of system. 2) Due to leakage of fluid, damage to brake shoes & linings happens. 3) This system is used to apply brakes intermittently. For parking purposes, separate mechanical linkage has to be used. Q.6: - Enlist the advantages of air brake system over hydraulic system? Answer: Advantages of air brake system over hydraulic system are, 1) The air brakes are more powerful than the mechanical or hydraulic system, hence used in heavy vehicles. 2) Apart from braking, the compressed air from the reservoir can be used for tyre inflation, wipers, horns & many other accessories. Q.7: - Enlist the faults in brakes. Answer: Faults in brakes: a) Brake pedal getting locked. b) Reduced pedal free travel. c) Excessive pedals free travel. d) Brake remains applied after releasing the pedal. e) Excessive effort required on pedal.

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