Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.
4.8 OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS:
Overall Equipment effectiveness is a measure of the value added to production through equipment. TPM maximizes equipment effectiveness through two types of activity: Quantitative: increasing the equipment total availability and improving its productivity within a given period of operating time Qualitative: reducing the number of defective products, stabilizing, and improving quality The goals of TPM are to increase equipment effectiveness so each piece of equipment can be operated to its full potential and maintained at the level. Human workers and machinery should both function steadily under optimal conditions with zero breakdowns and zero defects. Although approaching zero is difficult, believing that zero defects can be achieved is an importance prerequisite for the success of TPM. Overall equipment efficiency is a product of the availability, the performance rate, and the quality products rate. In other words it is the measure of the contribution of the current equipment to the added value generation time, based on the overall consideration of the time / speed performance and non-defective ratio of the equipment. Equipment Effectiveness: Equipment effectiveness (rate) is the operating rate or availability. Operation time Availability = ------------------Loading time The operating rate or availability is the ratio of operation time to loading time. Loading time: The time available (per day) for production. It is obtained by subtracting the Planned (scheduled) down time from the full or total available time per day. Loading time = total time - planned down time Planned down time: The amount of down time officially scheduled in the production plan. Examples: Scheduled maintenance and Management activities, such as, morning meetings. Operation time: The time during which the equipment is actually operating. It is obtained by subtracting the equipment down time (unplanned) from the loading time. Examples of equipment down time or unplanned down time: equipment breakdown or failure fixing/changing tools or dies Adjustments/calibration of machine. Operation time = Loading time - down time
M.H.S.S C.O.E- Byculla
. Equipment failure . Reduced speed . 4. Performance efficiency: The product of operating speed rate and net operating rate.
Performance efficiency accounts for speed losses and Rate of quality products accounts for defect losses.due to the discrepancies between designed and actual speed of equipment. Cutting blade losses.S C. Idling & Minor Stoppages -due to blockage in feeding of raw material/work-piece or abnormal/ faulty operation of sensors etc. Defect 5. Reduced yield . . Six big losses Down time 1.Kandivali
Loading time .down time Availability = ---------------------------------Loading time To achieve overall equipment effectiveness. TPM aims at eliminating the seven losses that are formidable obstacles to equipment effectiveness. 7.Time losses due to regular blade exchanges and extraordinary replacement necessitated by blade damage and volume losses that arise before and after blade replacement. the overall equipment effectiveness combines the factors of time.from breakdowns 2. Theoretical cycle time Operating speed rate = ---------------------------Actual cycle time Net operating rate measures the maintenance of a given speed over a given period of time. it is only a partial indicator of the overall equipment effectiveness. Hence.H.due to scrap and quality defects to be repaired/reworked 6. Set-up & Adjustment . Performance efficiency = Operating speed rate x net operating rate Operating speed rate of the equipment is the discrepancy between the ideal speed (based on equipment capacity as designed) and its actual operating speed.from exchange of dies in injection moulding machine Speed losses 3. Thus.from machine startup to stable production.E. Process defects .S. Availability takes into account only the down time losses.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. speed and quality of the equipment operation and a wholesome indicator of the equipment effectiveness.O. Actual processing time Net operating speed = ---------------------------Operation time
Where. of items x actual cycle time = --------------------------------------------------Operation time Performance efficiency = net operation rate x operating speed rate Processed amount x actual cycle time ideal cycle time --------------------------------------------.O.# defects
Average Total Operating Loss = 30 60%
M.S.H.x --------------------Operation time actual cycle time
Processed amount x ideal cycle time Performance efficiency = ------------------------------------------Operation time
Quality Rating / rate of quality products = No of quality products / input volume. .S C. No of quality products= input volume-(start up defect volume+ no of process defects + no of rework cases) Overall equipment effectiveness = availability x performance efficiency x rate of quality products.E.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.downtime Loading Time Performance Rate
Downtime Speed Loss
Cutting blade losses Idling and Minor Stops Excessive Cycle Time Quality Defects Startup Losses Ideal Cycle Time x Output Quality Rate Input .Byculla
Equipment Operating Time Setup and Adjustment Loading Time Net Operati on
Value Adding Time
Availability (Operating Rate) Loading Time .Kandivali
DE-BOTTLENECKING OF 7111 MACHINE
M.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. .E.O.Byculla
t crank bore was occuring on machine 1828 as the machine life was ending.H.
.Identification & Definition Problem Selected:
Reduction of Cycle time of TAL (7111) Machine (CNC). The cycle time for the line should be 136 secs as per tact time as against machine cycle of 146 secs.E. .
To reduce the machining time of TAL machine by more than 10 secs to balance the line.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.Kandivali DE-BOTTLENECKING OF 7111 MACHINE
2.E. 1828 (Drilling) & 1731 (Finishing).E.O.S C. To improve O.
Initially Front & Rear dowel holes were made on machines no. From past few months deviation of dowel hole w. So new machine were installed 7110 & 7111 both are CNC machines with automated conveyor. The problem of deviation was solved but the cycle time was more compared to old machine.1PROBLEM: .r.
To reduce the Cycle time from 146 secs to 136 secs.
.84 Rear face dowel hole Ø 12.S C.H.033
Rear face dowel hole Ø 7.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.8/7.E. .Kandivali
Front face dowel hole Ø 9.S.564± 0.019 Rear face dowel hole Ø 20.0± 0.
5299 2030 6359 1830 4500 1650 2200
1060 609 1145 457 800 495 176
Initial sequence of operation:-
Tool change & Rotation of pallet by 90° Drilling on front face dia. 7.49 9.13 4.5 11.E.S C.5 Tool change Drilling of dowel hole on Rear face dia.7.5 12.8 Tool change Drilling on Rear face dia.S.4 Tool change Delay due to fixture index 180° Drilling on Front & Rear face dia. .O. 9.5 Tool change Hole milling on Rear face dia.36
M.34 4. 9 Tool change Hole milling on front face dia.5 11.21 4. 11.8 4.5 17.5 9.Byculla
.5 10.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.37 4.5 12. 12.26 4.5 Tool change Hole milling on Front & Rear face dia.
.2 ANALYSIS: .S C.Kandivali
M.E. Cutting parameters. Operator control.O.H. Tools used.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.Discovery of Main Root Causes
Possible causes: -
Brainstorming: .(All relevant brainstormed causes)
Probable causes found in brainstorming session:Loading & unloading time.4 causes were identified
Cause & Effect Diagram .S.
. parameters.8. 7.8. CAUSES
Loading & 1. 7.
M. unloading time. PROBABLE NO. So parameters cannot be changed.O.
Operator control.5 are used seperately for small causes more cycle time
2. The Drill & hole mill used for making dowel hole of dia.
Tools used.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.
Cutting 3. dia 9. As the machine is CNC so no manual control is required.
Possible Root Cause (Probable cause where hypothesis proved valid):The tools used for making dowel hole of dia.H.Kandivali
Testing of Hypothesis:SR.4 & dia 12.S C.
As loading & unloading is done through automated conveyor its time cannot be reduced.feed & depth of cut are made optimum. dia 9. No effect on cycle time. dia 12.4.Byculla
.5 can be combined instead of using different tools for drilling & hole milling as it reduces the machining time.
TESTING & OBSERVATIONS. All cutting speed .E.
As the tool used for drilling & hole milling can be combined.
SOLID CARBIDE HOLE MILL DIA 7.
.to eliminate the loss The Why-Why Analysis was used to arrive at possible solutions.O.3 ACTION: .8 / 7.Kandivali
M.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. .S C.H.S.
Recent tools used:-
SOLID CARBIDE STEP DRILL DIA 7.E.
dia 9.38 / 9.H.S.E.09
M. 7. NO.O.42
Development of Remedies:SR.4 & single tool dia 12.8. .5 are used seperately for small causes more cycle time
18th Feb .
The Drill & hole mill used for making dowel Tools can be combined into a hole of dia.Kandivali
SOLID CARBIDE STEP DRILL – DIA 9. ROOT CAUSE REMEDIAL ACTION TARGET DATE
SOLID CARBIDE HOLE MILL – DIA 9.S C.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.Byculla
Brief about Remedial Action:For combining tools the design was made & was given to vendor to make the tool as per requirement. Tools made:-
COMBINATION TOOL – CARBIDE 7.S C.E.S.Kandivali
Hence it was decided that in order to reduce cycle time the tools used for drilling & hole milling can be combined instead of using separate tools. .O.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.38*12*110
COMBINATION TOOL – CARBIDE 9.H.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Tool change & Rotation of pallet by 90° Drilling on front face dia.5 Tool change Hole milling on Front & Rear face dia.S C.Kandivali
Problems for the remedies:Previous sequence of opeartion:Sr No.20
Limitations:No. Tool setting time more.5 Tool change Drilling of dowel hole on Rear face dia. 7. 9.Byculla
.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.S.8 Tool change Drilling on Rear face dia. 11. Cycle time more.4 Tool change Delay due to fixture index 180° Drilling on Front & Rear face dia.
M. 12.7.O. .E. 9 Tool change Hole milling on front face dia.5 Tool change Hole milling on Rear face dia. of tools used more.H.
5 Tool change Drilling of dowel hole on Rear face dia.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.8 using combination tool Tool change Drilling on Rear face dia.5 Tool change Hole milling on Rear face dia.H.
Actual sequence of operation:Sr No.5 is difficult to operate properly as dia 12.5 using combination tool Tool change & Rotation of pallet by 180° Rear face dowel hole dia. 9.019 is also strict so it is advisable not to use a combination tool for that operation. 12. 7.S C.E. 12.Kandivali
Proposed sequence of operation:Sr No. 7.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Tool change & Rotation of pallet by 90° Front face dowel hole dia. The tolerance on the hole i.5 using combination tool Tool change Drilling of dowel hole on Rear face dia.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Tool change & Rotation of pallet by 90° Front face dowel hole dia.5 hole is on the weakest section of component.e 12. 11.S. So it has not been used in actual practice.8 using combination tool Tool change Rear face dowel hole dia. .20
Limtations:The combination tool for rear face dowel hole of size 12.Byculla
M.5 using combination tool Tool change & Rotation of pallet by 180° Rear face dowel hole dia. 9.O.
49 9.5 Tool change Hole milling on Front & Rear face dia.5 12.8 Tool change Drilling on Rear face dia.H.4 Process comparison:The following table shows the operation time of 7111 (TAL) machine before combining tools:-
Tool change & Rotation of pallet by 90° Drilling on front face dia.37 4.S C.46 secs.8 4. 11. .
M.5 9. 9 Tool change Hole milling on front face dia.4 Tool change Delay due to fixture index 180° Drilling on Front & Rear face dia.5 17. 9.21 4.5 12.O. 12.26.5 10.20
5299 2030 6359 1830 4500 1650 2200
1060 609 1145 457 800 495 176
2.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.Byculla
Machining time:.21 secs.5 11.5 Tool change Drilling of dowel hole on Rear face dia.7.E. 7.13 4. Total cycle time: 146.5 Tool change Hole milling on Rear face dia.26 4. Loading & unloading time:.S.5 11.34 4.125.
O.59 1326 12.26 4.99.21 secs.5 using combination tool 5304 Tool change & Rotation of pallet by 180° Rear face dowel hole dia. .38 4.8 4.5 495 12.20 2200 176 12.5 4500 Tool change Hole milling on Rear face dia.5 392 11. Total cycle time: 128.8 using combination tool 3260 Tool change Drilling on Rear face dia.36 4.E.Byculla
Machining time:.H.68 secs.
M.5 800 10. 12.Kandivali
The following table shows the operation time of 7111 (TAL) machine after combining tools:-
Speed Feed Time (RPM) (MM/Min) (Secs)
Tool change & Rotation of pallet by 90° Front face dowel hole dia.S.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.5 1650 Tool change Drilling of dowel hole on Rear face dia. 9.68. 7.S C.29 22. Loading & unloading time:. 11.
2.5 Results:Graph showing reduction in cycle time:-
REDUCTION OF CYCLE TIME
150 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 1
. .E.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.S.H.O.
.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.O.Byculla
.S C.6 Benefits:The table shows the cost reduction sheet:-
16000 14000 12000 10000
8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 2
Cost reduction by combining Drill (9.
M.Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.S.E.Byculla
.S C. Cost saving through combining tools.0) & Hole mill (9.O. Less inventory of tools.4):COST REDUCTION
16000 14000 12000 10000
8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1
Reduction in cycle time.Kandivali
Cost reduction by combining Drill (7.H. Achieved line balancing. .5) & Hole mill (7. Reduction in setup time as number of tools reduced.