School of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering

E ± NOTES

Environmental Science & Engineering

For

B.E. V Semester ECE & Mechanical Engineering

3

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
SYLLABUS
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES

Definition - Scope and importance - Need for public awareness - Forest resources:Use and over - Exploitation - Deforestation - Case studies - Timber extraction Mining - Dams and their ground water - Floods - Drought - Conflicts over water Dams - Benefits and Problems - Mineral Resources: - Use Effects on Forests and Tribal People - Water Resources: - Use and Over-Utilization of Surface and Exploitation, Environmental Effects of Extracting and Using Mineral Resources, Case Studies - Food Resources: World Food Problems, Changes caused by Agriculture and Overgrazing, Effects of Modern Agriculture, Fertilizer- Pesticide Problems, Water Logging, salinity, Case Studies - Energy Resources: - Growing Energy Needs, Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Sources, Use of Alternate Energy Sources, Case Studies - Land Resources:- Land as a Resource, Land Degradation, Man Induced Landslides, Soil Erosion and Desertification - Role of an Individual in Conservation of Natural Resources - Equitable use of Resources for Sustainable Lifestyles.. UNIT II ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY

Concepts of an Ecosystem - Structure and Function of an Ecosystem - Producers, Consumers and Decomposers - Energy Flow in the Ecosystem - Ecological Succession - Food Chains, Food Webs and Ecological Pyramids - Introduction, Types, Characteristic Features, Structure and Function of the (A) Forest Ecosystem (B) Grassland Ecosystem (C) Desert Ecosystem (D) Aquatic Ecosystems (Ponds, Streams, Lakes, Rivers, Oceans, Estuaries) - Introduction to Biodiversity Definition: Genetic, Species and Ecosystem Diversity - Biogeographical Classification of India - Value of Biodiversity: Consumptive Use, Productive Use, Social, Ethical, Aesthetic and Option Values - Biodiversity at Global, National and Local Levels - India as a Mega-Diversity Nation - Hot-Spots of Biodiversity Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat Loss, Poaching of Wildlife, Man-Wildlife Conflicts endangered and Endemic Species of India - Conservation of Biodiversity: In-Situ and Ex-Situ conservation of Biodiversity.Field Study of Common Plants, Insects and Birds.

UNIT III

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Definition - Causes, Effects and Control Measures of:- (A) Air Pollution (B) Water Pollution (C) Soil Pollution (D) Marine Pollution (E) Noise Pollution (F) Thermal

4 Pollution (G) Nuclear Hazards - Solid Waste Management:- Causes, Effects and Control Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes - Role of an Individual in Prevention of Pollution - Pollution Case Studies - disaster Management:- Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone and Landslides.

UNIT IV

SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT

From Unsustainable To Sustainable Development - Urban Problems Related To energy - Water conservation, Rain Water Harvesting, Watershed Management Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People, Its Problems and Concerns, Case Studies Environmental Ethics:- Issues and Possible Solutions - Climate Change, Global Warming, Acid Rain, Ozone Layer Depletion, Nuclear Accidents and Holocaust, Case Studies - Wasteland Reclamation - Consumerism and Waste Products - Environment Production Act - Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act - Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act - Wildlife Protection Act - Forest Conservation Act Issues Involved in enforcement of Environmental Legislation - Public Awareness. UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Population Growth, Variation Among Nations - Population Explosion - Family Welfare Programme - environment and Human Health - Human Rights - Value Education - HIV /AIDS - Women and Child Welfare - Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health - Case Studies. Field Study of Local Area to Document Environmental assets River/Forest/Grassland/Hill/ Mountain. Field Study of Simple Ecosystems - Pond, River, Hill Slopes, etc Field Study of Local Polluted Site - Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural

UNIT I

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES

Definition - Scope and importance - Need for public awareness - Forest resources:-

Case Studies . Fertilizer. air and land. Effects of Modern Agriculture.Pesticide Problems.Dams and their ground water . Environment: It is also defined as the sum of total of water.Energy Resources:. Use of Alternate Energy Sources. Environmental education: It is the process of educating the people for preserving quality environment. Case Studies .Food Resources: World Food Problems. salinity.Growing Energy Needs. All biological and non biological things surrounding an organism is called an environment.Use and Over-Utilization of Surface and Exploitation. Water Logging..Mineral Resources:. Man Induced Landslides.Water Resources:.5 Use and over . Natural environment Man made environment Natural environment: .Deforestation . it's biotic and abiotic and their inter relationship.Floods .Role of an Individual in Conservation of Natural Resources . other living organisms and property.Timber extraction Mining . interrelationship among themselves and also with the human beings.Benefits and Problems . Land Degradation. Types of environment: 1.Land as a Resource.Case studiess . Environmental Effects of Extracting and Using Mineral Resources. UNIT .Conflicts over water Dams .Land Resources:. Case Studies . Environmental Engineering: It is the application of engineering principles to the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment and to the enhancement and protection of public health and welfare. Changes caused by Agriculture and Overgrazing.I Introduction to Environmental Studies Introduction: Environment is a French word meaning surrounding.Use Effects on Forests and Tribal People . Environmental Science: It is the study of environment.Exploitation . 2. Soil Erosion and Desertification .Drought .Equitable use of Resources for Sustainable Lifestyles. Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Sources.

(e. 21% O 2 and 1% other gases. Component of environment: Consist of 3 components 1. Manmade environment: Created by man Powerful engineering agent Man modifies the environment using modern technologies according to his necessity.) soil.6 All natural things. 3. 78% N 2. lithosphere. It is 500 km from earth. 2. Structure of atmosphere: . water.g. Abiotic (or) non living Biotic (or) living Energy component Abiotic component: 3 categories atmosphere. biotic and abiotic are collectively called natural environment. tree and air. Atmosphere: The air that covers the earth is known as atmosphere. It is essential for All living organisms. hydrosphere.

O2+ Troposphere (1 to 15 km) 75% atmospheric air Contain moisture Stratosphere (18 to 50 km) Consists of large amount of O3 Free from moisture and clouds Prevents UV radiation from sun Mesosphere (50 to 85 km) Less ozone More nitrogen oxide Function of atmosphere: .7 Region Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Altitude in Km 0 -15 18 . O2 Ozone No+.50 50 . O2+ No+. H2o.85 85 . Co2. O+.500 Temperature in 15 to -56 -56 to -2 -2 to -92 -92 to 1200 O C Chemical species N2.

In the hydrosphere 97% of water is not suitable for drinking and only3% is fresh water. It plays an important role in living organisms. Store house of minerals and organic matter. plants and micro organisms. (e. It includes oceans. Oxygen . river and water vapour. 2.g) solar energy. streams. Functions of hydrosphere: Drinking purpose Irrigation Power production Industries and transport Biotic or living component: (e.8 1.essential for photosynthesis of plants Nitrogen . geo thermal energy etc. Gases present in atmosphere are essential for sustaining life. lakes. Function: Home for human beings and wild life. Energy component: Flow energy across biotic and abiotic components. nuclear energy.supports life Carbon dioxide .essential nutrient for plant growth. It maintains heat balance on the earth by absorbing the IR radiations.g. Biosphere: Interaction of biological environment with physical environment is called biosphere.) Animals. Hydrosphere: The aquatic envelope of the earth. SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES . Lithosphere: It consists of soil and rock components of earth.

6. 5. service centers. There is a need to meet the people and discuss again and again. the balance of various resources available for future use in the state or a country are analyzed in the study. animals and microorganism in the environment This study enables one to understand the causes and consequences of natural and man induced disasters. This study exposes the problems of over pollution. The endowment or potential. urban centers etc. The resources are over-exploited and there is no foresight of leaving the resources of the future generations. so that the problem is alive till it is eliminated. 8. 3. The unplanned exploitation of natural resources lead to pollution of all types and at all levels. 2. It provides necessary information about biodiversity richness and the potential dangers to the species of plants. effects and relationships between the components. science and technology in eliminating the evils from the society. The people should take a combined responsibility for the deteriorating environment and begin to take appropriate actions to save the earth. IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY World population is increasing at an alarming rate especially in developing countries. should realize the importance of day to day environmental issues. hygiene etc and the role of arts. 3. . The natural resources endowment in the earth are limited. 1. Education and training are needed to save the biodiversity and species extinction. 4. It enables one to evaluate alternative responses to environmental issues before deciding an alternative course of action. 6. 4. 7. The pollution and degraded environment seriously affect the health of all living things on earth. 7. 4. The methods and techniques of exploiting natural resources and advanced. Individuals of school. The individuals should practice environmental conservation principles and create awareness among family members. industries. including man. 9. NEED FORnumber and area of the protected are should be increased so as to protect the wild life. 8. pollutions and measures to minimize theses effects. It provides the knowledge about ecological system causes. The urban areas. village. coupled with industries. 10. pattern of utilization and 2. This study enables environmentally literate citizens to make appropriate judgment This study crates awareness among the people to know about various renewable and non renewable resources of a region. 2. are the major sources of pollution. The PUBLIC AWARENESS 1. 5. and decisions for the protection and improvement of the earth. The individuals could expose the problems by writing in the newspapers/discuss about the environmental evils in forums and make the people to become aware of the same. This study tries to identify and develop appropriate and indigenous eco friendly skills and technologies to various environmental issues.9 1. 3. health. colleges.

Example Soil. 1. plant rice. WATER RESOURCES. Types of public participation. Two types Renewable resources These resources are capable of being regenerated by ecological processes within a reasonable time period. If you plan for 10 years plant trees and if you plan for 100 years educate people" Natural resources: Natural resources are the source which are useful to man or it can be transformed into a useful product. 2. in India and abroad. are doing tremendous efforts Chinese proverb " If you plan for one year. Forest resources: ENERGY RESOURCES LAND RESOURCES FOOD RESOURCES . Pressure group Watch dog Advisory council Enforcing the environmental laws. 4. The Nongovernmental organizations. MINERAL RESOURCES. RESOURCES FOREST RESOURCES. water. 3. air Non Renewable resources These resources are not capable of being regenerated by ecological processes. in conserving the environment.10 5.

They moderate temperature and weather. Forest covering the earth like a green blanket. Trees sandal wood. Types of forest: Ever green forest: Found in equatorial region. Forest not only produce innumerable material goods. It performs very important function both to human and to nature. 3. due to heavy rain the forest are ever green. Therefore they loose their leaves during summer season. They are habitats to millions of plants. Where temperature and rain fall is high. but also provide several environmental services. Deciduous forest: These forest receive only seasonal rainfall. spruce tree Functions of forest: 1. 5. Coniferous trees: Trees contain needle shaped leaves (e. animals and wild life. 2. They recycle rain water. . 4. 6. 1/3 of the world's land surface is covered with forest. They control water quality.g) pine tree.g) silent valley in kerela Important trees teak and rosewood. (e.11 rd One of the important renewable natural resource on earth. They remove pollutant from air. They influence soil condition and prevent soil erosion. 7.

used as a fuel Supply wood for various industries . Minor forest products . 5.Medicines Supply variety of animal products .12 8. 6. Production of oxygen: Photosynthesis produces large amount of oxygen which is essential for life. 6. horns etc.Raw materials as pulp. Regulation of hydrological cycle: Watershed in forest act like giant sponges and slowly release the water fore recharge of spring. Wood . Commercial uses Ecological uses Commercial uses: 1.gum. 1. 3. Wild life habitat: Forest is the homes of millions of wild animals and plants. 3. It is absorbed by plants for photosynthesis. dyes. 2. Many forest lands are used for .honey. Ecological uses: Forest provides number of environmental services. Ivory. Therefore the problem of global warming caused by CO 2 is reduced. resins Many plants . 2. 4. furniture timber etc. Soil conservation: Roots of trees bind the soil tightly and prevent soil erosion.Mining. They also act as wind breaks. 2. grazing. Over exploitation of forest: . Uses of forest: 1. 5. They promote tourism. paper. for dams and recreation. 4. Pollution moderators: Forest can absorb many toxic gases and noises and help in preventing air and noise pollution. Reducing global warming: Carbon dioxide is one of the main green house gas.

Cause of over exploitation: 1. Hence exploitation of forest material going on increases. 3. Increasing agricultural production. there is a demand fort medicine. But at present it is only about 22%. Deforestation in India: In India 1. . Increasing agricultural activities. wood and fuel increases. Increase in demand of wood resources. 2.13 Due to over population.3 hectare of forest land has been lost.) destruction of forests. So over exploitation of forest material occur. Reason for deficiency of forest: In India the minimum area of forest required to maintain good ecological balance is about 33% of total area.e. Deforestation: It is process of removal of forest resources due to natural or man made activities (i. shelter.

Fuel requirement: Wood is the important fuel for rural and tribal population. Through submergence of forest area. road construction etc. . Developmental projects: Developmental projects causes deforestation through two ways.)Mica. Mining operations: It reduces forest areas. (e.g.g) big dams. Over grazing: Over grazing by cattle reduces the cultivation land. 5. 3. Manganese and lime stone.g.14 Causes of deforestation: 1. coal. Destruction of forest area. (e. 4. furniture and paper etc. Raw materials for industries: Wood is an important raw material for various purposes. 2. (eg) teak 6. hydro electric projects. Shifting cultivation: Replacement of natural forest ecosystem for mono specific tree plantation. Forest fires: Forest fire destructs thousands of forest. (e.) making boxes. 7.

Loss of forests put additional pressure on the pristine forests. 5. Breaks the nutrient cycle 12. 10. 2. Mining: The process of extracting mineral resources and fossil fuels like coal from the earth. 6. 8. PREVENTIVE MEASURES (OR) AVOID OF DEFORESTATION (OR) METHODS OF CONSEVATION OF FORESTS 1.15 CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION (or) ILL EFFECTS (or) IMPACT OF DEFORESTATION 1. Increases flood frequency. Economic loss 2. Surface mining: mining of minerals from shallow deposits Underground mining: mining of minerals from deep deposits Steps involved in mining: . 2. Forest pests can be controlled by spraying pesticides by using aero planes Forest fire must be controlled by modern techniques. Over grazing by cattle must be controlled. Loss of biodiversity 3. Nutrient in the soil is poor. Increases the rate of global warming 6. 8. Education and awareness programmers must be conducted. Destructs the habitats of various species 4. Hence Himalayan area facing the serious problem of deforestation. Disruption of weather patterns and global climate 7. magnitude / severity. therefore soil losing their fertility. Steps should be taken by the government to discourage the migration of people into the islands from mainland. Induces and accelerates mass movement / land slides. 3. Types of mining 1. Case study: Deforestation in the Himalayan region. Strict implementation of law of Forest conservation Act. involves clearing of natural forests and plantation of monoculture like eucalyptus. New plants of more or less of the same variety should be planted to replace the trees cut down for timber Use of wood for fuel should be discouraged. Reduction in stream flow 5. Degradation of soil and acceleration of the rate of soil erosion. 9. 4. Breaks the water cycle 11. 7.

Produces noise pollution Reduces shape and size of the forest. 5. Spreading of water borne diseases. Pollute soil. India has more than 1600 large dams.16 1. 2."Temple of modern India" . Exploration Development Exploitation Ore processing Extraction and purification of minerals The extent of damage by under ground mining is less than that of surface mining. Vibrations cause earth quakes. Some times land slides may also occur. 5. Dam . 3. Effects of mining: 1. Effects of dams on forest: 1. Continuous removal of minerals leads to the formation of trench where water is logged which contaminates the ground water.5 lakhs hectares of forest. Thousands of hectares of forest have been cleared.Nehru Dams destruct vast area of forest area. 6. 3. 4. which needs enormous amount of land area for it's operation and management. . 7.g) Narmadha sagar project it has submerged 3. (e. water and air. Destruction of natural habitat. Water logging reduces the salinity of the soil. 3. 2. Killing of wild animals and destruction of aquatic life. Dams and their effects on forests and tribal people: Dams are the massive artificial structure built across the river to store water for much beneficial purpose. 4. 4. 2.

3.65% by weight of water Water exist in three phases solid. liquid and gases. This process is called hydrological cycle. Construction of big dam leads to the displacement of tribal people. 80% of earth surface is covered with water. Body condition of tribal people will not suit with new areas and hence they will be affected by many diseases. (e. Displacement and cultural change affects the tribal people both mentally and physically. Tribal people are ill treated by the modern society.g) Tree 60% by weight of water Animals50 . They do not accommodate the modern food habits and life style. Water resources: Water is essential component of all living things. . 5. 4. All organisms are made up of mostly by water. 6. Hydrological cycle: Water from various water bodies Evaporated by solar energy Enters in to the atmosphere as clouds Falls again on earth as rain or snow Ultimately returns to the ocean. Many of the displaced people were not recognised and resettled or compensated. 2. It is circulated in the hydrological cycle.17 Effects of dam on tribal people: 1.

18 Distribution of water resources: Fresh water resources Surface water under ground water Standing water bodies Flowing water bodies .

Estuaries: These are deltas formed at the mouth of rivers. Rivers Surface water: Water stored on the surface of earth. Under ground water: Water available deep in the ground due to percolation of surface water. The mixing of fresh and salt water gives estuaries. where they join the ocean.19 1. It supports more life. Eutrophic lakes: More nutrients and more turbid. It is very pure and used for almost all purposes in the world. Biological reactions are less. 3. Flowing water bodies: Water flows in streams and rivers. It is the major source. It carries sedimentary materials and dissolved minerals. 2. PH. The nutrients amount is deficient. Standing water bodies Lakes: Oligotrophic lakes: These lakes are deep and clear. Streams 2. Lakes Reservoirs Estuaries 1. Dystrophic lakes: Shallow coloured lakes and low Reservoirs: Generally larger than lakes. .

Clay and crystalline rocks are not good aquifers. Insufficient rain fall Building construction activities sealing the permeability of the soil. Layer of sand and gravels are good aquifers. Decrease of ground water: Increased usage decreases the ground water. Problems: a. lowering of water table decrease the number of aquifers Change the speed and direction of water. . 4. Intrusion of salt water: In coastal area over exploitation of ground water leads to the intrusion of salt Therefore that water cannot be used for drinking and agriculture. Structural damages in the buildings Fracture in pipes. As a result shrinkage of land surface takes place. 2. 3. c. Effects of over utilisation of water: 1. c. b. Reversing the flow of canals. b. the sediments in the aquifers get compacted. water from sea. Lowering of water table: Over utilisation of ground water in arid and semi arid regions for agriculture disturbs the state of equilibrium of the hydrological cycle. Problem: a.20 Under ground water Aquifer: Layers of highly permeable rock containing water is called an aquifer. Ground subsidence: Ground water withdrawal is greater than it's recharge rate.

Cultivated land affected. Problem: Water which contains excess nitrate content is not suitable for drinking. Deforestation. 3. mining and over grazing increase the run off from rains and the level of flood raises. ground water level decreases much faster than can be regenerated. Reduction in the carrying capacity of the channel. Extinction of civilisation. 2. Water spreads in the surrounding area and submerges them. 4. . Over utilisation of water causes earth quakes. Flood Management: 1. Channel management and embankment also control flood. 2. 3. 3. 7. Floods can be controlled by dams. Flood may also be reduced by reduction of run off by increasing infiltration through appropriate afforestation in the catchment area.21 5. Effect of flood: 1. pollution of water: Near the agricultural land ground water decreases therefore water containing nitrogen enters into the ground and pollute the ground water. melting of snow (i. Causes of flood: 1. Flood: It is an over flow of water. It leads to drying up of dug well and bore wells. Drying up of wells: Due to over utilisation. It happens when the magnitude of flow of water exceeds the carrying capacity of the channel within its bank. 2. land slides and famine 6.e) sudden release of water from dams. Heavy rainfall. Flood hazards reduced by forecasting or flood warning.

2. 2.) Maharashtra There has been no recovery from drought for the last 30 years due to over exploitation of water by sugarcane crop. It is generally associated with reduction of water in aquifers. which intern reduce the ground water level and reservoir level. industry or human population may be termed as a drought. 3. Agricultural drought affects cropped plants. Socio economic drought leads to famine. High population. which occurs due to 1.g. 4. When annual rain falls below normal and less than evaporation. Hydrological drought: It occurs when the total amount of rainfall is less than the average rain fall. 3. Drought causes serious damages to plants. animals and human life. Meteorological drought: It occurs when the total amount of rain fall is less than 75% of the normal rain fall. Causes of drought: 1. Socio economic drought: It occurs due to reduction in the availability of food and social security of the people in the affected areas. It will be severe if the rain fall is less than 50%. drought is created.22 Drought: Drought is nothing but scarcity of water. 3. Lack of water for the narrow needs of agriculture. livestock. Agricultural drought: It occurs due to the shortage as well as timing of over all rain fall. lakes and reservoirs. . 2. Intensive cropping pattern (e. Types of drought: 1. Inadequate rain fall Late arrival of rain fall Excessive withdrawal of ground water.

b. 5. 4. Drought causes large migration of people and urbanisation. Drought causes hunger. Raw materials of agro based industries are critically affected during drought time.Mexico and USA Sharing of cauvery water between Karnataka and TamilNadu. National conflicts: a. Conflict through use: Unequal distribution of water led to inter state and international disputes. 2. hence industrial and commercial growth decreases. 3. Modern irrigation technology (drip irrigation) very useful to conserve water. 6.India and Pakistan Colorado river . Drought causes widespread crop failure leading to acute shortage of food and adversely affects human and live stock population. 4. 2. Construction of reservoir to improve ground water level. Drought management: 1. Indigeneous knowledge is essential. b. c. malnutrition and scarcity of drinking water an also changes the quality of water. Sharing of Krishna water between Karnataka and Andrapradesh Siruvani . 6. Afforestation activities also improve the potential of water in the drought area.TamilNadu and Kerala . Worst situation of drought causes desertification. Conflicts over water: Causes of water conflict: 1. Indus . International conflicts: a. Drought increases the degradation of natural resources. 3.23 Effects of drought: 1. Rain water harvesting system. Crop mixing and dry forming are the suitable methods which minimise the risk of crop failures in dry area. 5.

Efforts to implement laws to check these practices to control water pollution. 3. (e.( The inter linking of rivers has been one such solution) Case study: Conflicts on Indian River: According to UN report.g) Damodhar River Most polluted river from 45 major industries Water resource management S.India and Bangladesh Construction of dams or power stations: For hydro electric power generation.engg Source Surface water Ground water Precipitation Water quality Water for irrigation Environmental impact assessment Water supply. Bhramaputra .24 c.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Organisation Central water commission Central ground water board Indian meteorological department Central pollution control board Ministry of agriculture Ministry of environment and forest Central public health and env. 2. fresh water is a serious problem 1 billion people . therefore removal industrial wastes creates conflicts. Management of conflicts over water: 1. sanitation and sewage disposal 8 9 Department of power Department of forest Hydro electric power Watershed management . Conflicts over sharing of river water in the country are studied by many organisation and several solutions are suggested. 2.no fresh drinking water 2 billion people . dams are built across the river.no water for proper sanitation. It creates the conflicts between the states. Conflicts through pollution: Water reservoirs like lakes and rivers are also used for industrial purposes.

wires. 2. cables and electronic devices Medicinal purposes.telephone. 9.sulphur pyrites .fertilisers and fungicides . . but their specific location.S geological survey divides non renewable mineral resources into 3 categories. 3. Undiscovered resources: Assumed to exist on the basic of geological knowledge. 4.Fe.coal. Al & Cu Construction work . Ag & Pt Making alloys for various purposes .Fe. quality and quantity are unknown. Reserves: Minerals are identified. Uses and exploitation of minerals: 1. Ores: These are mineral or combination of minerals from which metal can be extracted.25 Mineral resources: Naturally occurring substances with different physical and chemical properties. Development of industrial plants and machinery. quality and quantity known by direct geological evidence and measurement. 1. Al &Ni Generation of energy . Identified resources: Location. Concentration of minerals at one particular spot is called mineral deposit. 2. 7.phosphoresces Communication purposes . Usable materials can be extracted profitably. particularly in ayurvedic system . Classification of mineral resources: U. 3. 8. existence. 5. 6.Zn & Mn Jewellery -Au. lignite. uranium Designing defence equipments like weapons and ornaments Agricultural purposes .

g Quartz and feldspar Mineral wealth of India S.e. sikkim Rajasthan . Al & Cu Non metallic minerals Non metallic compounds can be extracted. e.P Bihar Karnataka Tamilnadu M. west bangal M.26 Classification of minerals: Metallic minerals: From which metals can be extracted.P Bhar Kerela Gujarat & rajasthan Rajasthan Tamil nadu Assam Tamilnadu.No Mineral 1 Iron 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Coal Manganese Copper Gold Aluminium Lime stone Mica Monozite Lead and zinc Precious stones Magnesite Petroleum Magnesite Gypsum Available state Tamil nadu Orissa.g Fe.

b. 2. Dredging: Chained buckets are used to extract minerals. Surface mining Under ground mining Types of under ground mining a. Strip mining: Bulldozers are used to extract minerals. Environmental damages caused by mining activities: 1. c. Open pit mining: Machines dig holes and remove the ores. Types of mining: 1. Devegetation : topsoil and vegetation are removed deforestation leads to several ecological losses land scape badly affected .27 Mining: The process of extraction of minerals from the earth.

Rapid depletion of mineral deposits Wastage Environmental pollution Needs heavy energy requirements. 5. It affects irrigation and wild life. 4. . Surface water pollution: Radioactive wastes and other acidic impurities affect the surface water. soil and water. sulphur is converted into sulphuric acid which enters into the soil. 3. 4. 4. It pollutes air. Case studies. It causes many health problems. which kills many aquatic animals. Ground water contamination: Mining pollutes ground water . Effects of over exploitation of minerals: 1. Modernisation of mining industries Search for new deposit Reuse and recycling of the metals. 150 tonnes of explosives are used per month. 3. Mining and quarrying in udaipur: 200 open cast mining and quarrying in udaipur. Air pollution: Smelting and roasting are done to purify the metal whih emits air pollutants and damage the nearby vegetation. tilting of buildings and bending of rail tracks. 2.28 2. Subsidence of land: Mainly underground mining results in cracks in houses. 5. The efficient use and protection of mineral resources. 2. 3. Environmental impacts can be minimised by adopting eco friendly mining technology. Management of mineral resources: 1. But 100 minings are illegal.

Environmental degradation like soil erosion. 3. wheat and maize 2. Urbanisation affects agricultural land. corn and other vegetable is difficult. Less % cultivated land. desert. water logging.29 Food resources: Food is an essential requirement for survival of life. Hence production of rice. Range lands: It produces 17% of world's food from trees and grazing animals. Crop plants: Mostly produce grains about 76% of the world's food. minerals and vitamins. at the same time population explosion is high therefore world food problem arises.g fruits. milk and meat 3. proteins.g rice. Main components are carbohydrates. water pollution. Types of food supply: 1.7% of world's food World food problem: 1. 21% land(forest. . fats. In the earth's surface 79% water out of total area. mountain and barren land) . 2. e. wheat. e. salinity affect agricultural land. Ocean: Fisheries .

Over grazing: It is a process of eating the forest vegetation without giving a chance to regenerate.No 1 2 3 4 Deficiency of nutrients Protein Iron Iodine Vitamin . iron and iodine.A Effects Growth Anemia Goiter Blindness rd India 3 largest producer of crops. fats and smaller amount of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals such as Fe. People who can not buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs suffer from under nutrition. Under nutrition. 3. Mal nutrition: Besides minimum calorie intake we also need proteins. we need large amount of carbohydrate. nearly 300 million Indians are still under nourished. Food and agricultural organisation (FAO) of United Nations estimated that on an average.30 Types of nutrition: 1. 1996 has set the goal to reduce the number of under nourished and mal nourished people to just half by 2015. vitamins. They receive less than 90% of this minimum dietry calorie. minerals. Effect of mal nutrition: S. Ca and iodine. . Deficiency leads to malnutrition resulting in several diseases. Nutritious nutrition: To maintain good health and disease resistant. the minimum calorie intake on a global state is 2500 calories/day. World food summit 1996: The world food summit. proteins. 2. Effect of under nutrition: Suffer from mental retardation and infectious diseases.

2. science and industry of managing the growth of plants animals for human use. Land can not be used for further cultivation. OG replace the plant of high nutritive value with plant of low nutritive value. simple tools. surface water. Land degradation over grazing removing the cover of vegetation exposed soil gets compacted soil moisture is not available OG leads to poor. growing and harvesting crops. Soil erosion: When the grasses are removed the soil becomes loose and gets eroded by the action of wind and rain fall. It includes cultivation of the soil. breeding and raising livestock. Agriculture: Agriculture is an art. 2.31 Effects of over grazing: 1. They produce enough food to feed their family and to sell it for their income. organic fertilizer and a mixture of crops are enough. . dry and compacted soil. 3. dairying and forestry. Loss of useful species: OG affects the plant population and their regenerating capacity. Traditional agriculture Modern (or) industrialised agriculture Traditional agriculture: Small plot. Types of agriculture: 1.

c. b. Problems in using fertilisers: a. (e.32 Modern agriculture: Hybrid seeds of single crop variety. Blue baby syndrome(nitrate pollution) Nitrate present in the fertiliser causes blue baby syndrome. Excess of fertilisers causes micronutrient imbalance. Haryana . lot of fertilisers. Eutrophication: Nitrogen and phosphorus in the crop fields washed out by run off water in the water bodies. high tech equipments.g) Punjab and deficiency of nutrient zinc in the soil affect the productivity of the soil. Effects of modern agriculture: 1. Hence algal species increases rapidly. which increases the nourishment of the lakes called eutrophication. pesticides and water to produce large amount of single crops. when the amount exceeds the limit leads to death. Life time of the species is less and they decompose easily and pollute the water which affects the aquatic life.

Second generation pesticide: DDT Number of side effects: 1. Death of non target organism. 2. Producing new pest . Problems in using pestcides: First generation pesticide: Sulphur. lead and mercury.33 2.super pest . arsenic.

2. This damages the nervous system. keep on concentrating in the food chain and it is harmful to human beings. .Most of the pesticides are non bio degradable.34 3. Preventing excessive irrigation Subsurface drainage technology Bio drainage like trees like Eucalyptus Excessive water supply Heavy rain Poor drainage Case study: Pesticides in India: In Delhi the accumulation of pesticide in the body of mother causes premature delivary and low birth weight infant. Remedy: 1.. 4. 3. Causes of water logging: 1. Pesticides in pepsi and coca cola: India has reported that pepsi and coca cola companies are selling soft drinks with a pesticide content 30-40 times higher than EU limits. ENERGY RESOURCES: Energy distribution in the world: Developed countries like USA and Canada constitute only 5% of the world's population but consume 25% of the world's available energy. 2. 3. It directly acts as carcinogen It indirectly supports immune system. Energy consumed by a person in a developed country for a single day is equal to energy consumed by a single person in a poor country for one year. b. Bio magnification . Water logging: Land where water stand for most of the year. Risk of cancer: a.

4. 3. In the poor country GNP and energy consumption are less. Merits of renewable energy resources: 1. Unlimited supply Provides energy security. Decentralised energy production. Fits into sustainable development concept. DC EC PC GNP Types of energy resources: 1. 3. 2. 2. 5.35 Developed country GNP increases and energy consumption increases. Renewable energy resource (or)Non conventional energy resources Non renewable energy resources (or) Conventional energy resources Renewable energy sources: Energy which can be regenerated . Reliable and the devices are modular in size.

Solar cell Uses: It is used in calculators. Cold water is allowed to flow. Solar cell (or) Photovoltaic cell (or) PV cell: Solar cell consist of p.36 Solar energy: Nuclear fusion reaction of sun produces enormous amount of energy. the electrons fron valence band promoted to the conduction band which crosses the p-n junction into n-type semi conductor. Solar water heater: It consist of insulated box painted with black paint with glass lid. p-type forms top layer and n-type forms bottom layer. Inside the box black painted copper coil is present. It is used in remote areas where continuous power supply is a problem. water pumps etc. storing and using solar energy. street light.type semi conductor (Si doped with B) And n-type semi conductor(Si doped with P). Several techniques are available for collecting. solar rays fall on the top layer . electronic watches. Potential difference between the two layers is created which causes flow of electrons. Solar battery: Large number of solar cells connected in series is called solar battery. it is heated up and flows out into a storage tank from which water is supplied through pipes.. .

it forms wind farm. It produces large amount of electricity.37 Wind energy: Moving air is called wind. Wind mills: When a blowing wind strikes the blade of the wind mill. The energy recovered from the force of the wind is called wind energy It's speed is high. flour mills and electric generators. Wind farms: When a large number of mills are installed and joined together in a definite pattern . Condition: Minimum speed for wind generator is 15 Km/hr . And rotational motion of the blade drives number of machines like water pump. it rotates continuously.

2. Low tides . High tides . During high tides sea water enters into the reservoirs and rotates the turbine. During low tides water from reservoir enters into the sea rotate the turbine produce electricity.fall of water in the ocean. Condition: 0 Temperature difference should be 20 C. Bio mass energy: Bio mass: . The energy available due to the difference in temperature of water is called ocean thermal energy. produce electricity. Artificial geysers: Artificially a drill hole up to the hot region and by sending a pipe into it. Natural geysers: Hot water or steam comes out of the ground through cracks naturally is called natural geysers. It does not cause air pollution Very cheap Ocean energy: Tidal energy (or) Tidal power: Ocean tides are due to gravitational force of sun and moon which produce enormous amount of energy. Ocean thermal energy: Temperature difference between surface water and deeper level water in ocean generates electricity. The energy utilised from the high temperature present inside the earth is called geothermal energy. it increases the vapour pressure which rotate the turbine and generates electricity. Deeper level cold water is pumped to cool and condense the vapour in to liquid. Geo thermal energy: 0 Temperature of the earth increases at a of 20 -75 C per/km when we move down the earth. Tidal energy can be used by constructing a tidal barrage. The hot water or steam is used to rotate the turbine and generate electricity.rise of water in the ocean. Process: Ammonia is converted into vapours on the surface of warm water.38 Advantages: 1.

It is obtained by anerobic fermentation of animal dung (or) plant wastes in the presence of water.39 Organic matter produced by plants or animals used as source of energy Bio gas: Mixture of methane. Hydrogen is highly inflammable and explosive. Difficult to store and transport. carbondioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Non polluting one because the combustion product is water. 3. . Bio fuels: fermentation of biomass. Gasohol: Mixture of ethanol and gasoline India trial is going on to use gasohol in cars and buses. Methanol: Obtained from ethanol Calorific value too less. Fuels obtained by the ethanol. 2. Eg cane. photolysis and electrolysis of water. Safe handling is required. Hydrogen fuel: Hydrogen produced by pyrolysis. methanol Ethanol : Produced from sugar Calorific value is less. It has high calorific value. Methane is the major constituent. Disadvantages: 1.

Dry gas and wet gas. E. when coal is burnt large amount of CO 2 is released. Petroleum: Crude oil is a liquid consists of more than hundreds of hydrocarbons and small amount of impurities. 2. 10 nuclear reactors are present in India. Liquefied petroleum gases(LPG): Petroleum gases obtained during FD and cracking can be easily converted into liquid under high pressure as LPG.Bhabha is a father of nuclear power development in India. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. N produces toxic gases during burning. It produces 2% of India's electricity. It is colourless and odourless gas. Nuclear fission. Nuclear energy: Dr. but during cylindering mercaptans are added to detect leakage. It is a mixture of methane and other hydrocarbons. In the world level 25% of oil reserves are in Saudi Arabia. Coal: It is a solid fossil fuel. Nuclear energy can be produced by two types of reactions. The petroleum can be refined by fractional distillation. It is a nuclear change in which heavier nucleus split into lighter nuclei on bombardment of fast moving neutrons. Calorific value is high.H.g . Which causes global warming. the world crude oil reserves are expected to get exhausted in just 40 years. Disadvantages: 1. At present rate of usage. Large amount of energy is released through chain reaction. There are two types.40 Non renewable energy sources: Energy which can not be regenerated. Natural gas: These are found above oil in oil wells. S.

g C) to form heavier nucleus and a large amount of energy is released. This process of propagation of the reaction by multiplication is called chain reaction. Isotopes of hydrogen combine to form helium molecule. It produces 380 MW electricity. Largest wind farm situated near Kanyakumari in Tamil nadu. Hydrogen fuel car: General motar company of china discovered a experimental car ( fuel H 2) can produce no emission only water droplets and vapours come out of the exhaust pipe. . in the second stage it gives nine neutrons and so on.41 Uranium with fast moving neutron gives barium and krypton in addition to three neutrons. This car will be commercially available by 2010. Case Study: Wind energy in India: India generating 1200 MW electricity using the wind energy. Nuclear fission: It is a nuclear change in which lighter nucleus are combined together at extremely high 0 temperature (1 billion E.

3. Loss of soil fertility. which inturn affects millions of plants and animals. To construct building Acts as a dustbin for most of the wastes created by the modern society. salination and contamination of the soil with industrial wastes and cause land degradation. Effects of land degradation: 1. Population: More land is needed for producing food. 2. Urbanisation: Urbanisation reduces the agricultural land. salinity. 4. Soil erosion: The process of removal of superficial layer of the soil from one place to another is called soil erosion. medicine. fibre. soil erosion. Causes of land degradation: 1. 3. Fertilizers and pesticides: It affects fertility of the soil and causes land pollution. increase in water logging. Water logging. 5. Soil texture and soil structure are destructed. alkalinity and acidity problem. 2. Land degradation: It is a process of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility. Urbanisation leads to deforestation. Loss of economic social and biodiversity. 4. It provides food. 5. So land is degraded due to over exploitation. Damage of top soil: Increase in food production generally leads to damage of top soil through nutrient depletion. . fibre and fuel wood. It is a mixture of inorganic materials and organic materials.42 Land resources: Land is the most important valuable resource for mankind. Loss of valuable nutrients.

mining and deforestation are the major biotic agent cause soil erosion. which carry away the fine particles of soil creates soil erosion. wind: It is an important climatic agent. . Soil fertility decreases due to the loss of top soil layer. Construction: Construction of dams. Biotic agent: Over grazing. Land slide: It causes soil erosion. rapid flow and wave action. To slow down the water movement when it flows along the slope. 35% of soil erosion is due to over grazing and 30% is due to deforestation. Sediments run off can pollute water and kill aquatic life. Control of soil erosion (or) Soil conservation practices: The art of soil conservation is based on following basic principles 1. 2. Loss of it's ability to hold water and sediments. water water causes soil erosion in the form of rain. buildings. 3. Normal erosion: It is caused by gradual removal of top soil by the natural process. 2. roads removes protective vegetal cover and leads to soil erosion.43 Harmful effects of soil erosion: 1. 4. To slow down the water for concentrating and moving down the slope in a narrow path. Causes of soil erosion: 1. The rate of erosion is less. 2. run off. Accelerated erosion: It is caused by man made activities. 5. 3. The erosion is much faster than the rate formation of soil. 2. Types of soil erosion: 1.

It prevents the loss of fertility of the soil. Conservational tillage: The process of mixing the residues from previous crops into the soil by ploughing is called conservational tillage.g bio fertilizer Crop rotation: Process of growing different crops in successive year on the samew land. i. . 5. Agroforestry: Planting crops in between rows of trees or shrubs. To encourage more water to enter into the soil.44 3. Reduction in the wind velocity near the ground by growing vegetation. Organic farming: Process of increasing organic input to the soil. that can provide fruits and fuel wood. To increase the size of soil particles. It improves soil permeability and increase organic matter. which in turn improve soil moisture and nutrients. which reduces runoff and erosion. Contour Ploughing: It is very useful areas with low rain fall. It reduces soil erosion by controlling run off. 4. Strip cropping: Planting of crops in rows to check flow of water.e placing some furrows to store water. E. After harvesting the crops the soil will not be eroded because trees and shrubs will remain on the soil and hold the soil particles. Terrace farming: Conversion of steep slopes in to a series of broad terraces which run across the contour. Mulching: Soil is covered with cropl residues and other form of plant litters.

4. Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources: Conservation of energy: 1. 6. It is a progressive destruction or degradation of arid or sen\mi arid lands to destruct. 3. fan and other appliances when not in use. 5. which block the wind and reduces soil erosion. 6. Use always pressure cookers Grow trees near the house to get cool breeze instead of using AC and ai cooler. Causes: 1. 2. Switch off light. Use solar heater for cooking. 5.45 Wind break: Trees are planted in lo0ng rows along the boundaryof cultivated lands. 3. Ride bicycle or just walk instead of using scooter for ashort distance. . Around 600 million people are suffered by desertification. Dry the cloth in the sun light instead of driers. 4. Desertification: It is a form of land degradation. 2. Deforestation Over grazing Over utilisation of water Mining and quarrying Climate change Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides Effects of desertification: 80% of productive land in the arid and semi arid regions are converted in to desert.

Reuse the soapy water. Conservation of soil: 1. carpets etc. Use minimum water for all domestic purposes. .e trees. after washing clothes for washing courtyard. 7. Grow different type plants i. Continuous running of water taps should be avoided. Use drip irrigation.. herbs and shrubs. 2. Rain water harvesting system should be installed in all the houses. 8. 2. In the irrigation process. 5. 3. Sewage treatment plant may be installed in all industries and institution. 4.46 Conservation of water: 1. Watering of plants should be done in the evening. 3. 6. using strong flow of water should be avoided. check the water leaks in pipes and repair them properly. Soil erosion can be prevented by sprinkling irrigation.

Cook required amount of food.47 4. Don't waste the food. 2. 2. Conservation of food resources: 1. road in the forest areas. Avoid the construction of dam. Grassing must be controlled Minimise the use of paper and fuel. Conservation of forest: 1. 4. Use mixed cropping. Use green manures in the garden. 3. give it to some one before spoiling. Use non timber product. 3. 5. Don't store large amount of food grains and protect them from damaging insects. 5. . Plant more trees.

Life style in more developed countries: 22% of world population. Sustainable life style: MDCs should have to reduce the utilisation of natural resources.difference between MDCs and LDCs. QUESTION BANK . Consumption is more and pollution is more. 12% of it's natural resources and 15% of total global income. This will reduce the gap between MDCs and LDCs. that should have to be diverted to LDCs. leads to sustainable development of the entire world.48 Equitable use of resources for sustainable life style: Sustainable development: Development of healthy environment without damaging natural resources. Unsustainable development. 88% of it's natural resources and 85% of total global income. Consumption is less and pollution is less. Degradation of the environment due to over utilisation of natural resources. Causes of unsustainability: Main cause . Life style in less developed countries: 78% of world population.

19.B 1. Define sustainable forestry. What are the measures recommended for conservation of natural resources. 4. Discuss in detail the impacts of over-grazing & agriculture. 12. What are the types of minerals? 17. What are the environmental impacts of mineral extraction? Explain. Define Eutrophication. 9. 11. What is soil erosion? 10. Why alternate energy resources are required? 9. Explain the major impacts of timber extraction and mining. What is meant by sustainable development? 14.49 UNIT . Mention the advantages & disadvantages of modern agriculture. 7. PART . What are conventional energy resources? Discuss about solar energy and Ocean thermal energy. 8. State the need for public awareness for solving environmental problems.A 1. Explain in detail the effects due to pesticides usage in moderns agriculture. State the environmental effects of extracting & using mineral resources. What is nuclear energy? 18. What are the methods of flood control? 7. Define Environmental studies. What is mining? Mention the methods of mining. 20. What are the uses and over-exploitation of water? Explain with a case-study. Mention the effects of ground water usage? 16. 5. Discuss the problems of over-exploitation of Ground water. 6. 12. Mention the scope and importance of Environmental studies.I PART . . Explain as an individual how will you conserve natural resources. 2. 10. 5. Explain briefly the various methods of harvesting solar energy. What are the major causes of deforestation? 15. Enumerate the various benefits and drawbacks of constructing dams. Discuss the major causes & consequences of deforestation? 3. 3. How forests are useful to mankind? 4. 13. How will you achieve sustainable life-style by equitable share of resources. 2. 11. 6. Differentiate between renewable & non-renewable energy resources. What are the merits of using renewable energy resources? 8.

Energy Flow in the Ecosystem . Man-Wildlife Conflicts endangered and Endemic Species of India . Social.Biodiversity at Global.Biogeographical Classification of India . FOOD CHAIN Sun Producer Herbivores Carnivores Top carnivores Decomposers Plants by photosynthesis convert solar energy into protoplasm. Oceans. It flows from producer level to consumer level and never in the reverse direction. . UNIT II ECOSYSTEM: Living organisms cannot be isolated from their non-living environment because the later provides materials and energy for the survival of the farmer. An ecosystem is therefore defined as a natural functional ecological unit comprising of living organisms and their non-living environment that interact to form a stable self supporting system .Ecological Succession . Streams. Food Webs and Ecological Pyramids . Ethical.Structure and Function of an Ecosystem . Small herbivores consume the vegetable matter and convert into animal matter which in turn eaten by large carnivores. About 80% of energy is lost during flow of energy from one tropic level to the next one.Field Study of Common Plants.Value of Biodiversity: Consumptive Use. lake. Lakes. etc. Insects and Birds. The main source of energy in the ecosystem is sunlight.50 UNIT II ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY Concepts of an Ecosystem . Poaching of Wildlife.Conservation of Biodiversity: In-Situ and Ex-Situ conservation of Biodiversity. forest. Aesthetic and Option Values . Consumers and Decomposers . Productive Use.Producers. This sequence of eaten and being eaten . The process of energy flow involves transfer of energy from autotrophy to various components of heterotrophy and help in maintaining bio diversity. grassland. it is the basic force responsible for running all the metabolic activities. Characteristic Features. desert. Structure and Function of the (A) Forest Ecosystem (B) Grassland Ecosystem (C) Desert Ecosystem (D) Aquatic Ecosystems (Ponds. Estuaries) . Species and Ecosystem Diversity . Rivers.India as a Mega-Diversity Nation . Eg.Food Chains. For living organisms. The flow of energy from producer level to top consumer level is called energy flow. Pond.Introduction. ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEM: Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. Types. produces transfer of food energy known as food chain.Hot-Spots of Biodiversity Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat Loss.Introduction to Biodiversity Definition: Genetic. National and Local Levels . The flow of energy in an ecosystem is unidirectional.

Types of ecological pyramids: a) pyramid of numbers b) pyramid of biomass Eg. c) pyramid of energypyramid of number . Lion) Decomposers (Bacteria. The total mass of herbivores in an ecosystem will generally be less than the total mass of plants. biomass and energy of various energy levels is called ecological pyramid. Mouse Rabbit Grasshopper snake Hawk Lizard Grass ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS: The energy biomass and number of organisms gradually decreases from the producer level to the consumer level. Similarly the total mass of carnivores will be less than the total mass of herbivores. In any ecological pyramid the producer forms the base and the successive levels form the tires which can make the apex. In an ecosystem linking of feeding habit relations will provide a food web. fungi) FOOD WEB: The food relationship between various organisms is being depicted by linking all the possible prey and predators of different food level.51 Producers (Plants) Consumer I order (Deer) Consumer II order (Tiger.upright pyramid Grassland ecosystem - birds insects Worms grass . The graphical representation of the number.

temperature etc Biotic : forest trees.52 Parasite ecosystem . sun light.pyramid of number .lions. birds.deciduous.elephants. tigers etc fungi. shrubs and animals Structure: Producer : trees and shrubs Consumer : Primary . evergreen. fungi Parasites Birds Tree MAJOR TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS FOREST ECOSYSTEM Definition: It is a natural ecosystem consisting of dense growth of trees and wild animals Types: tropical .snakes. Secondary . lizards etc Tertiary . deer etc.inverted pyramid Bacteria. wet green Littoral and swamps Sub tropical Characteristics: Abiotic: soil. bacteria Decomposers : Functional components: Ecological pyramids (upright) lions lizards deers trees .

that contains high saline water due to over evaporation .etc. aquatic plants.phytoplankton eg.shallow. bathing. fishes etc. Ponds are very often exposed to anthropogenic pressure like cloth washing. swimming etc. River ecosystem: large streams flowing from mountain highlands are rivers. insects. Dal lake in Srinagar. 3.that swims in water eg. Algae . high primary productivity . Oxygen and nutrient content are uniform. Types: 1. Snails Types of lakes : Many types. Stream organisms have to face extreme difference in climatic conditions but they do not suffer from oxygen deficiency as pond and lake organisms.lakes that contain many endemic species .oligotrophic lakes .organisms: algae. Fresh water systems are classified as lentic and lotic ecosystems. 2.that float on the surface of water Benthos .Limnetic zone Third layer .seasonal in nature . especially during summer is a common one.53 AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM Definition: Deals with water bodies and biotic communities present in them-Classified as fresh water and marine ecosystems. Pond ecosystem: Small fresh water ecosystem .eutrophic lakes with very high nutrient content due to fertilizer contamination .dystrophic lakes . Naini lake in Nainital Organisms: planktons . Top layer . Thus stream are worst victims of industrial pollution.endemic lakes .Zonation or stratification. The animals have narrow range of tolerance towards oxygen deficiency.enough sunlight.Profundal zone Eg.desert salt lakes .with less nutrient content .that contains highly acidic water (low pH) . This is because large surface area of running water provides more oxygen supply.Littoral zone Second layer . warm.zooplankton eg.volcanic lakes . prone to anthropogenic activities . Fishes Neustons . Streams: fresh water ecosystem where water current plays a major role. cattle bathing.very poor or no sunlight .formed by water emitted from magma due to volcanic eruptions .that attached to sediments eg. Rotifers Nektons . Lake ecosystem: Big fresh water ecosystem . very .

deposited in plains and delta .however to be protected from pollution. Biotic: Phytoplankton. 3.regulate biochemical cycles. . sand etc. Mg. temp.2.large quantity of dissolved oxygen . Two zones: coastal zone .abundant sunlight 2.54 Three phases: 1.major sinks of carbon di oxide . nutrients are brought .organisms are highly tolerant . etc.O.vertically divided in to 3 zones. Characteristics: Structural Components: Abiotic: pH.very rich in biodiversity also . oils.50.strongly affected by tidal actions . Estuary: coastal area where river meet ocean . 2. mountain highlands . D.very rich in nutrients .provide Fe. nutrient rich. Third phase: river shapes the land .away from continental shelf .high primary productivity. 4. drugs etc. 1. snails insects.warmer .lots of silts. . etc. Oceans: Gigantic reservoirs of water covering >70% of earth surface . natural gas. nutrients.000 species huge variety of sea products. fishes.dim sunlight 3.many species are endemic .supports the growth of plants and fishes that require less oxygen are seen.high food productivity . euphotic zone . bathyal zone .high sunlight . insects phytoplankton Energy flow: Phytoplankton Insects small fishes huge fishes Decomposition sediments . birds.very rich in biodiversity.warm. Open sea .gentle slopes of hills . climatic conditions.plants attached to rocks and fishes that require more oxygen are found. shallow . Second phase . abyssal zone dark zone . Functional components: Ecological pyramid birds fishes Worms.rushing down water fall of water .world's largest ecological unit.

fires are common in dry seasons .cleaned for agriculture. Temperate grasslands .overgrazing leads to desertification.known as permafrost summer insects and birds appear. Savannas in Africa. Three types . nutrients. Polar grasslands .found in arctic polar region . Animals . giraffes etc. caterpillar.soil is quite fertile .few shrubs and trees are also found . Components: Structural Components: Abiotic: soil pH.Zebra. Tropical grass lands .high in photosynthesis . Biotic: grass. birds.organism .depending on the climate 1. soil moisture.55 GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM: dominated by grass . 3. worms.arctic wolf. . etc. etc. temp. Very cold winter and very hot summer dry summer fires do not allow shrubs and trees to grow .found near the boarders of tropical rain forests.termite mounds produce methane .global warming.A thick layer of ice remains frozen under the soil surface throughout the year . climatic conditions.deliberate burning leads to release of high CO 2 . Functional components: Ecological pyramid birds insects Worms grass Energy flow: Grass worms Insects small birds huge birds . 2.rainfall average but erratic . Eg.flat and gentle slopes of hills. insects. fox. etc. butterfly.leads to fire . .

But based on new discoveries. Biomes can be considered life zones. environment with similar climatic. ecological processes (which capture energy). The concept of biodiversity may be analyzed in 3 different levels. . Biodiversity Hotspots: Most of the world's biodiversity are near the equator especially tropical rain forest and coral reefs. taxonomists estimate there are between 3-50 million different species may be alive today. only 10-15% live in North America and Europe. There are 1. The variety of living organisms. including tropic levels. consumers and decomposers) in a system. by research expeditions. Genetic diversity is a measure of the variety of versions of same gene within individual species. The biomes shelter an astounding variety of living organisms (from driest desert to dripping rain forest. mainly in tropics. the total number of races. Thus biodiversity is the total variety of life on our planet. topographic and soil conditions and roughly comparable biological communities (Eg. the biodiversity. The sum of total of various types of microbes. forest). shape. They are 1 ecosystem diversity 2 species diversity 3 genetic diversity Ecosystem or ecological diversity means the richness and complexity of a biological community. Of all the world's species. varieties and species. makes the world beautiful. colour and inter relationship). from highest mountain to deepest ocean trenches. food webs and material recycling. life occurs in a marvelous spectrum of size. plants and animals (producers.4 million species known presently. Species diversity describes the number of kinds of organisms within individual communities or ecosystems. Grassland.56 Decomposition sediments BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is the abbreviated word for biological diversity (bio-life or living organisms. Insects make up more than one half of all known species and may comprise more than 90% of all species on earth. diversity-variety).

once the drugs were not introduced. South Africa and California are all mid-latitude area isolated by barriers that prevent mixing up of biological communities from other region and produce rich. nutrient cycling and food production all depend on biodiversity. Eg. waste disposal. desert or mountain can also have high conc. Each species in the biosphere has its own significance. . For natural medicinal products Penicillin . Besides these biodiversity is so important due to having consumptive use values. Drugs and medicine: Living organisms provides many useful drugs and medicines. Areas isolated by water.000 edible plants could be used by human. Benefits of biodiversity: We benefit from other organism in many ways. Even insignificant organisms can play irreplaceable roles in ecological systems or the source of genes or drugs that someday become indispensable. childhood leukemia was fatal. It is the combination of different organisms that enables the biosphere to sustain human race. has at least 8000 species of flowing plants. Food: Many wild plant species could make important contributions to human food suppliers either as they are or as a source of material to improve domestic crops.chincona bark . unusual collection of species. South America has 200 000 species of plants. Biodiversity is vital for a healthy biosphere. of unique species and biodiversity. Significance of Biodiversity: Biosphere is a life supporting system to the human race. In many environments. About 80. high diversity may help biological communities to withstand environmental stress better and to recover more quickly than those with fewer species. social values. Soil formation. Biodiversity is must for the stability and proper functioning of the biosphere.fungus is the source . The United Nations Development Programme derived from developing world plants. with an area twice as large.57 The Malaysian Peninsula. ethical values and aesthetic values. while Britain. New Zealand. productive use values. solar energy absorption.Analgesic Twenty years before. Ecological benefits: Human life is inextricably linked to ecological services provided by other organisms.Malaria treatment Morphine .Antibiotic Quinine . animals and microbes to be more than $30 billion per year. for instance. has only 1400 species. Now the remission rate for childhood leukemia is 99%. air and water purification.poppy bark .

construction of dam. many plant species become extinct Increase in the production of pharmaceutical companies made several number of medicinal plants and species on the verge of extinction. Species die put Human caused reduction: The climate change caused by our release of green house gases in the atm. market hunting and habitat destruction caused the entire population to crash with in 20 years. is a normal process of the natural world. Tiger. discharge of industrial effluents use of pesticides. Human disturbance of natural habitat is the largest single cause pf loss of biological diversity. and are replaced by others as part of evolutionary change. Rhinoceros . the elimination of species.for ivory tusk. removal of medicinal plants) Production of hybrid seeds requires wild plants as raw material.for horns. The American passenger pigeon was the world's most abundant bird. Elephant . Star turtle . vast population.58 Threats to biodiversity: Due to Habitat loss Deforestation activities (cutting trees for timber. farmers prefer hybrid reeds.for hides. Eg. Sea Horse. Some forest birds reproduce only in deep forest or habitat far from human settlement. Woodlands and grasslands are converted now use about 10% of the world's land surface for crop production and about twice the amount for pasture and grasslands. A large island for example. could have catastrophic effects.sold to foreign market. illegal trade and smuggling activities most of our valuable fauna are under threat organised crime has moved into illegal wild life smuggling because of huge profit Eg. Removal of forest-cover for road laying and also due to soil erosion Illegal trade of wild life Population explosion. Poaching of wild life Due to poaching. (Extinction. Deer .) Hunting: Over harvesting is responsible for depletion or extinction of many species. can support more individuals of given species and therefore less likely to suffer extinction due to genetic problems and natural catastrophes. Fragmentation Habitat fragmentation reduces the biodiversity because many animals like bears and large cats require large territories to subsist. Commercial products: In spite of this .

hides. gardens and laboratories The crucial issue for conservation is to identify those species which are more at risk of extinction. Methods: long term captive breeding 1. reproductive technology (i) embryo transfer technology (ii) cloning Biodiversity and National Environmental law: .situ conservation: It involves maintenance and breeding of endangered plant and animal species under partially or wholly controlled conditions in zoos. Nature or biosphere reserves (Eg) Nilgiri Bio reserve 2. Conservation of biodiversity In general biodiversity is generally disturbed by human activities. vegetables and fruits to maintain traditional crop varieties. in place where the species normally occurs The strategy involves establishing small or large protected areas. horns and folk medicines also affect the biodiversity in an abrupt manner. national parks and sanctuaries (Eg) Mudumalai.59 Smuggling of fuels. In-situ or on-site conversion 2. is essential to protect our bio diversity by two ways. animal translocation and re introductions 4. vedanthangal 3. called protected areas Today in world. shortage term propagation and release 3. 2. it In-situ conservation: Conservation of species in its natural habitat. Ex-situ conservation To solve the problems. 1. there are 9800 protected areas and 1500 national parks Methods: 1. seed bank 5. Ex. on farm and home garden conservation for plants.

The habitat protection laws: This includes species protection laws and habitat protection laws which indirectly protect and conserve the biological diversity and its components. Give examples. environmental problems cane be resolved only by extensive co operation among nations. for the protection of wild animals and birds and for all other matters connected there of or ancillary and incidental there to.Forest Ecosystem b. this act is enacted to protect biosphere. Define Ecology? Define Eco-System with an example? What are the structural components of an Ecosystem? Differentiate between Food Chain and Food Web? What are Ecological Pyramids.Desert Ecosystem . 7. to protect biological diversity in particular and environmental protection in general. Indian law for conservation of biodiversity: The wild species of the group and other related species constitute a rich gene pool in India. 3. UNIT-II PART-A 1. to protect wild animals and birds which are in the verge of extinction 2. 2. 8. The government of India has enacted laws for the conservation of biological diversity. 3.60 All environmental problems are regional in nature but their effects are Hence global. Explain their importance? What is the significance of Ecological pyramids? Discuss about the prime characteristics of a. Laws serve to achieve global objective of environmental protection.Grassland Ecosystem c. What are Biochemical cycles. 4. The wild life (protection) Act 1972: Enacted 1. 5. 6. Biosphere Reserve and the wild life (protection) Act 1972: Biosphere reserves are complementary to the existing network of national parks and sanctuaries.

Bring few methods to conserve biodiversity. 7. What are trophic levels? Explain the flow of energy and minerals in ecosystem. What are hotspots of biodiversity? 11. 14. 2. What are the threats faced by biodiversity. Explain biosphere. Differentiate between biodiversity and ecosystem biodiversity. 17. What are the solutions for the threats. Explain the two models of energy flow in an ecosystem. pyramids with respect to pond ecosystem. 8.5. 4. 13. 12.Aquatic Ecosystem 9. 20. Explain In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. Bring out the classification of aquatic ecosystem.61 d. 5. Explain threatened species.(or) What are the measures recommended for conservation of biodiversity. 6. Explain Carbon and Nitrogen cycles. Discuss the value of biodiversity. 10. characteristics and biodiversity of Forest ecosystem. 3. Explain the structure and functional features of Aquatic ecosystem. 18. . What is ecosystem diversity. What are endangered species? Give examples. PART-B 1. Bring out the Bio-geographical classification of India. Explain the Sulphur and Phosphorus cycles. 15. What is biodiversity and its significance. Explain the necessity to conserve biodiversity. 16. Explain the components. 19. Explain ecological.

mist and odour in the atmosphere which causes damage to plants. NO. smoke.Causes. forest fires. Cyclone and Landslides. Indoor Air Pollutants: These are primary air pollutants Important indoor air pollutant is radon gas.g. Tracer of O SOURCES: 3. (ii)Man-made: Thermal power plants.Floods.disaster Management:. Argon <1%. Effects and Control Measures of:.Pollution Case Studies . O 2 .: NO/No 2 Moist HNO 3/NO 3 etc.Causes.78%. . Effects and Control Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes .: CO.A. biological decay. (i) National Source: Volcanic eruption. Earthquake. E. forest fires . SO 2 etc.(A) Air Pollution (B) Water Pollution (C) Soil Pollution (D) Marine Pollution (E) Noise Pollution (F) Thermal Pollution (G) Nuclear Hazards .Role of an Individual in Prevention of Pollution . Pollutants: Radon gas in emitted by the building materials like bricks. concrete. E. NH 3.21%. CO 2. He. animals and human beings.62 UNIT III ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Definition .g. fuel burning. tiles which are derived from soil containing radium. 0637%.Solid Waste Management:. Automobile emission. secondary pollutions Primary Pollutants:Pollutants emitted directly into the atmospheres in harmful form. UNIT-III ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is defined as the presence of one (or) more contaminants like dust. radioactive materials. agricultural activities. CLASSIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS Primary pollutions. Secondary Pollutants: Some of primary pollutnts react with one another (or) with basic Components of air to form new polluants. Composition of air: N. Sources of I.

63 Burning fuel in the kitchens, cigarette smoke liberates pollutants Common Air pollutants sources and their effects CO - formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels. 2C + O2 ------------> 2CO like CO, SO 2.

Human Sources - Cigarette smoking, burning fossil fuels. 77% Co comes from motor vehicle exhaust. Health Effect- Reacts with hemoglobin and reduces the ability of to carry O 2 to body cells and tissues, which causes headaches and anemia. NO 2 - It gives photochemical Moisture ------> HNO3 smog. In atmosphere it reacts with moisture to form HNO3. No 2 +

Human sources: Fossil fuel burning in motor vehicles and power industrial plants. Effect Health, Lung irritation and damage Environment effect: HNO 3 corrode metals and eat away stone on buildings, statues, NO 2 damages fabrics. SO 2- Formed mostly by the combustion of sulphur containing fossil fuels like coal and oil. It is converted to H
2SO 4

in the atmosphere. It is major component of acid deposition.

Human Source- Coal burning in power plants and industrial process. Health effects- Breathing problems. Environment effect - Reduce visibility, H 2So
4

damages trees, soil and aquatic life.

Suspended particulate Matter (SPM) -It includes varieties of particles and droplets. Human Sources - Burning coal in power and industrial plants. in vehicle, agriculture, unpaved roads construction. Health Effect - Nose and throat irritation, lung damage, asthma, reproductive problems and cancer. Environment effect - Reduce visibility, acid deposition & H 2SO O -3H
4

Burning diesel and other fuels

droplets damage trees.

ighly reactive irritating gas in the troposphere. It is major component of photo chemical smog.

Human Source- Chemical reactions with volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. Environment effect - Moderates the climate.

64 Photochemical smog: Any chemical reaction activated by light is called photochemical reaction. Photochemical smog is a mixture of more than 100 primary and secondary pollutants formed under the influence of sunlight. Its formation begins inside automobile engines and the boilers in coal burning

power and industrial plants. Health Effect - Breathing problems, cough, ENT irritation, heart diseases etc., Environment effect - Smog can reduce visibility. 7 Lead - Solid toxic metal and its components emitted into the atmosphere as a particulate matters. Human Source- Paint, lead manufacture, storage batteries, leaded petrol. Health Effect - Mental retardness (in children) digestive and other health problems. Some lead containing chemicals causes cancer in test animals. Environment effect - Can harm wild life. Controlling air Pollution Controlling at the sources: 1. 2.
3.

Use only unleaded petrol Use fuels that have low sulphurs and ash containing.
Plant trees along busy streets because they remove particulates and CO and absorb noise

4. 5.

Industries and waste disposal should be outside the city area. Use catalytic converters to control the emission of CO and hydrocarbon.

Control Measures in industries: 1. 2.
3. 4.

Emission rates should be restricted to permissible levels in all industries. Air pollution control equipment should be incorporated in plant layout
Monitering of the atmosphere for the pollutants should be carried out continuously to know the emission levels. Scrubber, cyclone separator, bag house filter and electrostatic precipitators must be used in manufacturing

process to retain harmful materials that must be disposed of safely.

5.

The disposal of the collected air pollutants are equally important for controlling air pollution.

65

WATER POLLUTION

The alternation in physical, chemical & biological characteristics of water which causes harmful effects on humans and aquatic life. The major pollutants are sewage, effluents, bacteria. Infections Agents: Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, parasitic worms Human Source- Human and animal works Health Effect - Variety of diseases. Oxygen demanding wastes: Organic wastes, such as animal manure & Plant debris that are decomposed by aerobic bacteria. Human Source- Sewage, animal feedlots, paper mills, food processing facilities. Health Effect - Depletion of dissolved O 2 in water. This causes death of aquatic life. Inorganic Chemical water soluble chemicals like acids. Compounds of toxic metals like Lead, arsenic and selenium. Salts like NaCl in sea water and fluorides found in some soils Human Source- Industrial effluents, street wash, household waste. Health Effect - Causes skin caner & neck damage. Damage nervous system, liver & Kidney.harm fish and other aquatic life Organic Chemical Plastics, pesticides, detergents

radon. Health Effect . 6.I 131 . All domestic and municipal effluents be drained to water bodies only after treatment 2. miningand processing of thorium. causes some cancers Plant Nutrients. Bacteria are killed by passing chlorine gas into water bodies. Only standard quality pesticides Should be used. Hence the temperature of water increases. silt Human Source. birth defects and certain cancers. (NO (PO 4-3 ) and NH+ ions 4 4 -3 ) phosphates Human Source.Water solublecompoundscontaining Nitrates. Health Effect .Land Erosion Health Effect . household waste.60 Fe Nuclear power plants.Industrial effluents.Sewage. bacteria and other harmful substances. Health Effect . .Water cooling of electric power plants and some types of industrial plants.Radio isotopes of I Human Source.Damages nervous system. trees and forests control pollution and they act as natural air conditions. 4.Clouds water and reduces photosynthesis. uranium and thorium Co . Disturbs aquatic food web carry Pesticides. 55 2.Drinking water with high levels of nitrate lowers the O 2 carrying capacity of Blood and kills urban children and infants Sediment . Thermal Pollution Excessive heat Human Source. Radio active materials . Controlling of water pollution: 1. Plants. Use of pesticides in agriculture should be limited. The rise in temperature decreases the dissolved O 2 and affects the aquatic organisms.66 Human Source. Chemicals like potassium permanganate should be sprayed regularly to protect water from micro organisms. 3.Genetic mutation. runs off of agriculture.Soil. Radio active substances can be removed by Ion-exchange method. urban fertilizer. manure. 5.

Inorganic wastes can be treated chemically. Highly qualified and experienced persons should be consulted from time to time for effective control of water pollution. . 10.67 7. 9.The chemicals retards the growth of plants and retard reproduction process. 8. Acids and bases are removed by neutralization Sewage is treated by biochemical oxidation.

The human and animal wastes. bacteria are important Biological agents for soil pollution.68 SOIL POLLUTION Contaminations of the soil by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effects on living beings. The land with fungicides insecticides causes diseases to human beings. . Toxic organic compounds and phenol destroy the fertility of the soil. (iii) Radio active pollutants: Atomic reactor. DDT reduces the activity of sex hormones of male and female.Fungi. BHC. garbage. Common chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides are DDT. (iv) Pesticides: Pesticides pollute the soil. dyeing and other industries are responsible for soil pollution. There are of two types (i) chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide (2) Organic phosphorous pesticides. protozoa. Cement. steel. (i) Industrial wastes: Industries are the major causes for soil pollution Textiles. waste water generates heavy soil pollution. oil. (ii) Biological agents . nuclear radio active devices releases radio active pollutants. Effects on living beings This may be due to the following factors. These pollutants enter the land and accumulate there by causing soil pollution. Organo phosphorous insecticides are synthetic chemicals like Malathion and parathion. paper.

pesticides. Preserve and protect top fertile soil. 7Recycling and reuse of waster . The nitrate causes cancer. Treat the sewage before land disposal Rotate the crop pattern to allow the soil replenish the nutrients.People should be trained regarding the sanitary habits. Compounds containing As. S. Fluorides affect plant development Water logging and salinity increase the dissolved salt content in the soil. Polymer. Plastics & other water: These materials appear as garbage. Organic wastes enter the soil pores and decompose. Cr. . soil erosion containing inorganic chemicals are causing soil pollution. metals. Nitrates etc.69 Fertilizers: These discharge N.The wastes such as paper.. manure debris. Apart from these Today huge farm wastes. 2. control soil erosion by tree plantation. weedicides are added to increase the crop field. 5. Agricultural practices: Modern agriculture practices pollute the soil to a large extent. Fertilizers may be applied only after estimating the soil and crop measures. Effect of soil pollution 1.Proper hygienic condition. plastic. Production of natural fertilizers Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides should be avoided. Some plants are very sensitive to soil PH and salinity. They pollute the atmospheres. Na. K. 4. 3. 6. Thus land becomes unfit for irrigation. Ni. Control of soil pollution 1. quantities of fertilizers. 4. Hg. Bio pesticides should be used instead of toxic chemical pesticides. Solid wastes and their quantities increase day by day. 3. glasses should be recycled and used. Pathogenic bacteria spread infection. 2. land and also water badly. Zn and Fe are toxic to life. into the soil.

2.70 Noise Pollution It may be defined as unwanted sound which gets dumped In to the atmosphere without regarding to it' adverse effects. Causes: Industrial noise Most affonding noise sources are compressors. grinding mills. . Both loudness and annoyance increase with increasing sound levels. They affect users as well as the neighbors. pain in heart. Domestic noise Transistors radio. washing machines. and airports Effects of noise pollution 1. TV. Annoyance A noise is said be annoying if the exposed individual or groups of individuals reduce the noise avoid or leave the noisy area if possible. other musical instruments. Traffic noise Continuous movement of vehicles causes traffic noise. railwaylinks. It affects not only those who are moving but also those who live near the roads. Air conditioners. generators power looms. Physiological effects Headache increase in the rate of heart beat. emotional disturbances. These are used in many industrial processes and installed partially in closed and open sheds. furnaces. hearing loss.

Oiling: Proper oiling will reduce the noise from the machine. Huge quantity of plastic dumped in to the sea. Recently it has been reported that the blood also thickened by excessive noise 4. Impulsive noise also causes psychological and pathological disorders. Rivers on the way to sea carry huge amount of sewage garbage agricultural discharge pesticide heavy metals. 4. Planting of trees: Planting of trees like neem. Control measures: Source Control 1. Dumping the wastes: Dumping of untreated wastes and sewages in the oceans by coastal towns. . Transmission path intervention: Containing the source inside a sound insulating enclosure. Selection of machinery: Careful selection of machine tools and equipments to be used may help to lower the noise levels in machine shop. hazards to the human health hindrances to the fishery and impairment of quality use of sea water. Modification of source such as acoustic treatment to machine surface designed changes limiting the operational timings. 5. 5. construction of noise barrier or provision of sound absorbing material along the path. 2. Ultrasonic sound can affect digestive respiratory cardiovascular system and semi circular canals of internal ear. It causes muscle to contract leading to nervous breakedown. 3. 6. coconut etc near schools hospitals reduce the noise to the extent of 8 to 10 db. cities and industries. tamarind.tension etc.71 3. Marine Pollution The discharge of waste substances in to the sea resulting in harm to the living resources. Sources: 1.

Oil: This is discharged in to the sea as crude oil and as separate fraction. fish etc. Toxics: Toxic waste is the most harmful form of marine pollution. Oil pollution causes damage to marine animals and plants including algae bird.72 Effects: Many marine birds ingest plastic that causes gastrointestinal disorders. Oil and it's fractions are used in houses automobiles and industries. Radio active materials enter the ocean from nuclear weapon testing. ropes helium balloons Effects of marine pollution: 1. 3. 4. Once toxic wastes affects an organism it quickly passes along the food chain and as sea food which cause various problems. Heavy metals and organic pollutants damages birds by thinning of egg shells and tissue damage of egg. Marine Debris: Garbage like plastic bags. 2. 5. All aquatic animals depend either directly of indirectly on planktons the basis of trophic cahin. This causes devastation of marine environment. 2. . Effects: Oil spills inhibit photosynthesis and the growth of planktons.

Control of marine pollution: Nature and world conservation union suggest the principles 1. 5. Methods of removal of oil Physical methods. Sources of thermal pollution 1. Recreation beaches should be maintained to meet hygienic and aesthetic standard.73 3. a) b) skimming the oil off the surface with suction device Floating oil can be absorbed using absorbing materials like ploy urethane foam. animals and the aquatic system. Oil spilling in the sea causes abnormal low body temperature in birds resulting in hypothermia. Coastal waste are periodically analyzed for detecting pollution level 3. 2. The industrial unit on the coastal lines should be equipped with pollution control instrument. emulsification and using chemical additives are used to coagulated the oil Protective method: 1. Chopped straw and saw dust also used to absorbed oil from the sea water. c) Chemical methods like dispersion . Hydrocarbon and benzpyrene accumulate in food chain and consumption of fish by man may cause cancer. paper and pulp release heat . 4. THERMAL POLLUTION Pollution due to heat which changes the physical and chemical properties of the water that affects man. Soil erosion in the coastal land should be arrested be suitable techniques 4. During Exxon Valdez accident 150 rare species of bald eagles are affected by ingested oil. Urbon growth near the coast should be regulated. Oil films are able to retard the rate of oxygen uptake by water. Municipal and industrial waste should be treated before disposing in to sea 2. Industrial waste water Industries generating electricity like coal powered and nuclear power plants need huge amount of cooling water for removing heat. Industries like textile.

reduction in dissolved 0 2 as the temperature of water increases Increase in toxicity Increase in temperature increases the toxicity of the poison present in water Ex. This decreases the dissolved oxygen and killing the aquatic life. The discharged water will have higher temperature of 6 to 9Û C. Effects of thermal pollution 1. a rise of 10Û C doubles the toxic effect of KCN. Coal fired power plants These constitute the major sources of thermal pollution. 2. A leakage of radiation from nuclear power plant raises the temperature water bodies. than the receiving water. Their condenser coil are cooled with water froe near by lake from river are discharged hot water back in to the stream. Nuclear power plant Nuclear explosion. Thus fish may lack right food at right time. nuclear experiments discharged large amount of heat with toxic radio nuclides in to receiving water sources. Domestic sewages The domestic which contains high BOD.74 in water to lesser extent. Interference with reproduction: type and . Change in temperature alters the seasonal variation in abundance of lower organisms. 4. 5. This increases the temperature by 15ÛC. 3. COD and low dissolved oxygen when discharged in to rivers and others water with out treatment raises the temperature of water bodies. Change in water properties Rise in temperature changes physical and chemical properties of water Food shortage for fishes. A rise of 80Û C triples toxic effects of orthoxylene causing massive death of fish. Hydro electric power An electric power industry with cooling arrangements also causes thermal pollution in receiving water bodies.

Water is fan cool air is possible over sprayed through nozzles as fine droplets. Cooling towers are used to spread the recovered waste heat to eliminate the problems of thermal pollution. migration and reproduction depend upon optimum temperature. Thus warm water wedge acts like cooling points. With the help of these hot pipes thereby cooling water. Direct mortality: The increase in the temperature exhausts the micro organisms and shortens their life span. Heat is evaporated through dissipation in this method. Types of cooling towers: Wet cooling Towers: Hot water coming from the reactor is allowed to spray over baffles . hatching. heat from the fine droplets gets dissipated to the atmosphere. Dry cooling tower: Hot water is allowed to flow in long spiral pipes. Change in temperature affects the above process. Artificial lakes: The heated effluents from the thermal power industries are discharged in to the artificial lakes at one end while cool water is transferred back from the other end.Cool air with high velocity is passed from the sides which takes away the heat and cools water. Control of Thermal pollution: Cooling towers: Cooling towers transfers some of the heat from hot water to the surrounding atmosphere by the process of evaporation. Spray Points: The water from the condenser is allowed to pass in to the ponds through sprayers.75 In fishes the activities like nest building. Above a particular temperature a fish dye due to the failure in respiratory and nervous system. . Cooling Points: Heated effluents on the surface of water in cooling points maximize dissipation of heat to the atmosphere and minimize water area and volume.

4. Control Measures: 1Nuclear devices should never be exploded in air.Disruption of central nervous system . In nuclear and chemical industries the use of radio isotopes may be carried under a jet of soil or water instead of powder or gaseous form. 5. Soil rocks. Urban children are vulnerable to brain damage or mental retardation if radiation occurs in early pregnancy. 2 . nuclear accidents. 6. Nuclear medicines and radiation therapy should be applied when absolutely necessary with minimum dose. air radioactive Rd 222 also contain one or more radioactive substances. DNA. chromosomes such as fragmentation mitochondria etc. If necessary they may be explode under ground. 3. In nuclear mines wet drilling may be employed along with underground drainage. 2. Man made resources: Nuclear power plants X-rays. Sources: Natural source: The important natural source is space which emits cosmic rays.Damage to cell membranes. 5.76 RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION Radioactive pollution is the physical pollution of air water and soil by radioactive materials.loss of sight. nuclear bombs. cross linkings within and between two affected molecules. Effects: 1. thorium and preparation of radioactive isotopes. malignance and ulcerisation in intestinal tract. Damages to enzymes. 4. Internal bleeding and blood vessel damage may show up as red spots on the skin. . RNA through ionization. Death or shortening of life span due to radiation changes in chacteristics due to mutation. inactivation of bone marrow activity resulting in blood cancer. Mining and refining of plutonium. Leakage of radioactive elements from reactors and labs processing or using them should be totally checked. 3.

g. SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES The main source of industrial waste is chemical industries.Commercial waste like packing materials cans.77 6. polythene bags etc . Sources of urban and industrial wastes Sources of urban waste: domestic waste like food waste.g. polythene bags etc Construction wastes like concrete.Biomedical waste like Anatomical waste. bottles. glass bottles. Minimum number of nuclear installations should be commissioned. Urban solid wastes that cannot be degraded by microorganisms are called non biodegradable wastes. thermal power plants produce fly ash in large quantities Chemical industries produce toxic and hazardous materials. 2. In nuclear reactors closed cycled coolant system with gaseous coolants may be used to prevent extraneous activation of products. Non biodegradable waste. infectious waste etc Classification of urban waste: 1. E. 3. 1. . vegetables. Nuclear power plants generate radioactive wastes 2. Types of solid waste Urban waste and industrial waste. wood. metal and mineral processing industries. waste paper. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Management of solid waste is very important to minimize adverse effect of solid waste. Tea leaves. food. Biodegradable wastes . E. 7. debris etc .urban solid waste materials that can be degraded by micro organisms are called biodegradable waste. dried leaves etc.

Ex. Preparation of cellulose insulations from paper. Toxic substances name percolate into the ground and contaminates the ground water. 3. Reuse of waste materials: discarded refillable containers can be reused. STEPS INVOLVED IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Reduce. reuse and recycle: if the usage of raw materials is reduced the generation of waste also gets reduced. 2. other industries produce packing materials acid. This produces foul smell and breeds various types of insects which spoil land well. rubber. dioxins and poly chlorinated biphenyls which are harmful to human beings. 4. Old aluminium cans glass bottles are melted into new cans and bottles. Burning of some industrial waste or domestic waste produces furan. scrap metals.78 4. glass wood etc EFFECT OF SOLID WASTE 1. Recycling is the reprocessing of discarded materials into new useful products. Waste generation during manufacture of rubber bands is reduced by making rubber bands from discarded cycle tubes. Preparation of fuel pallets from kitchen wastes. Industrial waste containing toxic metals and hazardous waste affect soil characteristics. Recycling of materials.Biodegradable materials in the disposed municipal waste undergo decomposition. alkalis. plastic. .

.79 METHODS OF DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES Land Fill: Solid wastes are placed in sanitary land fill system in alternate layers of 80cm thick refuse covered with selected earth fill of 20cm thickness. roads and small buildings. After 2 or 3 years solid waste volume shrinks by 25-30% and the land is used for parks.

Insecticides and pesticides are to be applied at regular intervals. 3.150tons per hour. 2. Bad odour. Diadvantages: Large area needed. garbage. Needs skilled persons. Capital and operational cost is high. The heat produced in the incinerator during burning is used as steam power for generation of electricity through turbines. Segregation is not required. 3. and dead organisms and non combustible matter such as glass. Advantages: 1. dust and ash causes air pollution. High transportation cost. This method involves spreading the solid waste on the ground. Natural resources are returned to soil and reclyed . The combustible substances such as rubbish. The left out ashes and clinkers from the incinerator may be about 10-20 % which is disposed by land fill or some other methods.Hygienic point of it is safest. Disadvantages: 1. The non combustible can be left out for recycling and reuse. Advantages: 1 Simple and economical.Converts low lying.80 Waste disposal is dumping in sanitary land fill which is employed in Indian cities. . Formations of smoke. Requires little space 2 . marshy waste land into usefull areas. The wet solid waste is dried in pre heaters and then taken into large incinerating furnaces called destructors which incinerate 100. flies. The temperature maintained is about 700 Û C and increase to 1000Û C when electricity is to be generated. metals are separated before feeding into incinerator. Sources of mosquito. Compacting it and then covering it with soil at suitable intervals. Incinerated plants of 300 tons per day capacity generate 3 MW of power. Causes fire hazard due to methane formation in wet weather INCINERATION In this method the municipal solid wastes are burnt in a furnace called incinerator.

Number of industrial solid wastes can also be treated by this method. The temperature of the compost increases by 75ÛC and finally the refuse is converted to a brown coloured powder known as humus and is used in agricultural fields. Remove NOx from motor vehicular exhausts. The compost contain N.5 meters and is finally covered about 20 cms and left for decomposition. recycled and environmentally safe products. Within two to three days biological action starts . Case studies related to pollution: rd Bhopal gas tragedy: In Bhopal M.P on 3 December 1984 world's worst industrial accident occurred. Use of eco friendly products.P and other minerals. Compost able waste is dumped in underground trenches in layer of 1.The organic matter decomposed by actionomycetes and lot of heat is liberated. Individual participation: Planting more trees. Use CFC free refrigerators. Advantages: Recycling occurs. Reduce deforestation. Use water energy and other resources efficiently. Increase use of renewable resources. In occurred at Union Carbide India Ltd this manufactures carbonate pesticides using methyl iso cyanate.81 COMPOSTING: In this method bulk organic waste is converted in to manure by biological action. Act locally Each individual change his life style in such a way has to reduce environment pollution. . Role of an individual in the prevention of pollution: A small effort made by each individual at his own place will have pronounced effect at the global level. Microorganism like actinomycetes is added for active decomposition. Purchase recyclable. It is aptly said Think globally.

Causes: . earth quakes. The SO 2 from Mathura refineries combine with Oxygen along with moisture in the atmosphere forms H 2SO corrodes clean white marble. FLOODS Defined as a situation when the river over flows is banks and the water spreads in the surrounding areas and submerging them. Taj . Cyclones. etc Man made disaster: Accidents. The burning the oil produced pollutants like CO 2 and SO plants ineffective. The floating oil covered nearly 80 Km long and 25 Km wide area. High concentration of MIC removes Oxygen from the lungs and causes death. During the war nearly 700 oil wells of Kuwait fired and the oil spills into the sea. fire accidents. 2 in the Atmosphere. Types: 1. The chemical and hazardous industries and the refinery at Mathura are major sources of damage to Tajmahal. respiratory. 1000 become blind. Effects in Bhopal: MIC spread over 40square Km in area. Effects: 1 million birds were killed due to oils slick. landslides. Natural disaster 2. 5000 people are killed and 65000 people suffered from disorders in eye.Trapezium Case Tajmahal is the king emperor among world wonders. 4 called Acid Rain. Natural disaster: Floods. pollutions. Lower concentration of MIC affects lungs.82 Effects of MIC. It usually occurs in rainy season. Eyes and causes irritation in the skin. gastrointestinal. Man made disaster. This Gulf War (Marine Pollution) The Gulf war between USA and Iraq took place from Jan16th to Feb26th 1991. The oil slick in the sea made the desalination DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster is a sudden calamity which brings misfortune and miseries to humanity. 2. 1. bomb blasts.

Forecast. 4. clothes. medicines etc. rotating anti. EFFECTS: Damage to human life. 25. 2. and communication could be heavy. roads.clock wise in the northern hemi sphere and clock wise in southern hemisphere . 75. By the construction of protective works. .000 died from subsequent diseases and starvation. 3.500 km in diameter. In 1974 when flooding extended over nearly one half of the country and stagnated for more than a month. In India cyclones occur during October-December or April-May. Valuable house hold items. should be shifted to safe places. Nearly 1200dead in the floods and 2. 3. Heavy intense rain fall 2. In India cyclone originates from Bay of Bengal are more in number and intensity. CYCLONE An atmospheric closed circulation. 5. animals and materials like food. Case study: Bangladesh . Powerful swirling storm that measures from 300.1974 Every year large areas are submerged during monsoon season. warning and advice should be provided through media to educate aware people about steps to be taken on the event of mishap. transport. Urbanization Control: 1. Cyclone is an area of low pressure in the centre and high pressure outside. over saturated soil when the ground cannot hold any more water. A total of 36 million people suffered hardship and losses due disaster. Melting of accumulated snow.83 1. The wind in the centre of cyclone blows in the speed of 120km/hr. Relatively less south-west Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. About 4. Melting of snow combine with rains. 4. crops. Elderly people and children should be evacuated to safer place on emergency.000houses were damaged.

Nearly 14 of 30 districts of Orissa went in severe damage. Measure of Earth quake-Richter scale: Magnitude of earthquake is a measure of amount of energy released in the earthquake. which reveal the The effect of cyclone is minimized by planting more trees on the coastal belts. 500 local schools have been damaged.11.great Primary effect of earth quake: Shaking . 7-7.9-damaging. 4-4. Less than 4-insignificant. 15 million people were affected and 90-95% of crop yield was also affected. Management: Meteorological Departments forecast by satellite images the weather conditions strength and intensity of the storm. EARTHQUAKE Sudden vibration caused on the earth surface due to sudden release of tremendous amount of energy stored in the rocks under the earth crust is called earthquake. Epicenter is the point on the surface directly above the focus. wind breaks etc.9-minor.Two cyclone in Orissa occurred in 18 th and 29 th of October 1999. Radar systems is used to detect cyclone and cyclone warning. Case study: Cyclone in Orissa 1999.In the central area in Orissa a powerful cyclone storm hit with the wind velocity of 260km/hr. 5-5. Above 8.84 Cyclone slows down developmental activities of the area. constructional dams. A focus of an earthquake is the point of initial movement. Earthquake is recorded by seismograph.9-major.9-destructive. 6-6.

Earth quake generated water wave called Tsunami and also called tidal waves that travel as fast as 950km/hr. dams.This affects people bridges. People should come out of their homes and stay in the open till the tremors subside. After the earth quake relief camp by the Government or other social groups should be conducted for the affected people. People already out of home should stay away from the building electric poles.Inspect and repair all drainage system. Land slides: A landslide is a sudden collapse of large mass of hill side. Types: Shallow disrupted land slide and decoherent landslide.85 Some times a permanent vertical or horizontal displacement of the ground . pipe lines. Secondary effects: Rocks slides. Gravity-gravity works more effectively on steeper slopes Weather: Most slides occur during or after heavy rains. 2. 3. trees and any tall objects that have chances of falling down. flood caused by the subsidence of land. Causes of erosion of the soil. Case Study: . Prevention: Revegitate the area to prevent the surface erosion . Collect runoff from roofs and improved areas and convey water from the steep slopes in a well designed pipe system. Precautionary measures: 1. coastal areas are severely damaged . lubricating the material layer or making slope top steep. Effects: Flow deposit blocks the road and diverts the passage. Factors causing landslides: Caused by rain forces increasing top material weight.

86
th

Landslide In UP 20

August 1998. August 1998 had a land slide. At least 180 people
th

Malpa Village Pithoragrah district of UP on 18

including 60 kailash Manasorovar pilgrims and 8 Indo-Tibet border Police personnel were killed. The state government has announced a grant of 237,905 dollars for relief and rescue operation.

Tsunami
It is a Japanese word which means harbour wave. Tsu means harbour and nami stands for wave.

Tsunami is large waves of water generated when the sea flow is deformed by seismic activity, vertically displacing the overlying water in the ocean. Phenomenon: Tsunami is not a singular wave but a series of waves like a ordinary waves one can see on a beach. Ordinary eaves have the wavelength of 100 mts. Tsunami have a wavelength of 500 kms and there could be as much as a hairs gap between eaves. The speed of Tsunami waves across deep sea is 1000 km/hr.The energy lost by tsunami waves is inversely proportional to the wavelength. Tsunami was extremely fast moving and high volume of water. The waves are several hundreds of kms of waves and traveling 1000 km/hr.

Effects: Tsunami attacks mostly the coastal lines damaging property and life. Kills lot of human being and livestock also spread lot of waterborne disease. Management: Earthquake under the sea are monitored by sensors on the floor of sea. The sensors send information of floating buoys on the surface whenever they detect the change in the pressure of the sea. The information is relied to satellite which passes it to the earth station. All member nations waning system are warned of the approaching danger .Finally the country make the people alert to make all necessary precautions. Case study: Tsunami in India:

87
th

Tsunami was formed on 26

December 2004 in Bay of Bengal and in the Indian Ocean. The tidal

waves occurred due to massive earthquake under the ocean floor of Indonesian coast. The magnitude of earthquake is 8.9 on Richter scale and striked northern Sumithra and Indonesia at 6.25a.m.Tsunami travels at a speed of jet engine (700-800 km/hr) and hit Tamilnadu and Srilanka coast about 2-3 hrs after the earthquake.Nagapatinam was worst hitted by Tsunami in India. About 6000 people were dead and huge property loss. UNIT-III PART-A 1. Define Pollution. 2. What are the types of pollutants. 3. What are the types of Air pollutants. 4. How will you control air pollution. 5. Give the major water pollutants with example. 6. Mention the diseases caused by nitrates. 7. Define BOD and COD. 8. Define soil pollution. 9. What are the sources of soil pollution. 10. What are the sources effects of marine pollution. 11. What are the control methods of thermal pollution. 12. Give the sources of radio activity. 13. Classify solid wastes. 14. What are the sources of urban and industrial wastes. 15. Why do earth quake occur. 16. What are the various types of natural disasters. 17. What are the roles of a citizen in reducing pollution. 18. What is composting. 19. What is incinerators. 20. Explain disaster management briefly. PART- B 1.Mention the sources and effects of various air pollutants. 2. Describe the method of control of air pollution. 3.Briefly describe the sources effects and control of noise pollution. 4. Enumerate with example the major sources of surface and ground water pollution. 5. Wrtie short notes on a) Minimata disease b) blue baby syndrome c) itai-itai disease. 6. Explain the method of sewage water treatment. 7. What are the major sources of soil pollution? 8. What are the measures to be taken to prevent soil pollution?

88 9. Explain in detail the Solid waste management techniques. 10. Write notes on (i) Floods (ii) Landslides (iii) Cyclones. 11. Explain any two case studies on Nuclear pollution. 12. What are the sources, effects & control measures of Marine pollution? 13. Explain the various types of Radio-active radiations. 14. Explain the causes,effects & control measures of Water pollution. 15.What are the effects of improper municipal solid waste management? State the measures recommended for proper management of the solid waste. 16.Explain the methods of disposal of municipal solid waste.

Water conservation. Case Studies Environmental Ethics:. Hence developmental activities are to be taken with more care about the environment and its protection. For that he uses the available resources.Urban Problems Related To energy . Watershed Management Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People. Global Warming. Sustainable development: Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. Ozone Layer Depletion.Consumerism and Waste Products .Environment Production Act . The Earth has limited supply of resources and renewable resources. He depends on his environment for basic things. These are to be managed in a scientific manner for availing the generations to come.Wildlife Protection Act .Issues and Possible Solutions . Rain Water Harvesting. Its Problems and Concerns.Wasteland Reclamation .Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act . Economic development Community development Environmental protection .Forest Conservation Act Issues Involved in enforcement of Environmental Legislation . Nuclear Accidents and Holocaust. Important components of Sustainable development: 1. 3.Public Awareness. It brings benefits to all not only to the present generation but also for future generations. Acid Rain.Climate Change. Case Studies .89 UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT From Unsustainable To Sustainable Development . UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND ENVIRONMENT Introduction: From Unsustainable to Sustainable Development Man is part of the nature and he is bound to obey the laws of nature. 2. More developmental activities are adopted in order to increase the quality of life.Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act .

90 True sustainable development aims at optimum use of natural resources with high degree of reusability. ecofriendly. Aspects of sustainable development: Intergenerational equity-it states stat we should hand over a safe.resource efficient and culturally suitable should be adopted. Intergenerational equity: A technological development of rich countries should support the economic growth of poor countries and help in narrowing the wealth gap and lead to sustainability. 2. less resources and produces minimum waste.Reduce . 3. It uses local labour. . Devloping appropriate technology-technology which is locally adoptable. least generation of toxic by-products and maximum productivity. It reduces waste generation and pollution.Reuse and Recycle (3Rapproach) -Optimum use of natural resources using it again and again instead of throwing it on wasteland or water and recycling the material in to further products. healthy and resourceful environment to future generation. Approaches for sustainable development: 1. Providing environmental education and awareness-Thinking and attitude of people towards earth and environment should be changed by providing environmental awareness and education. minimum wastage.

communication. Production capacity must be increased.Urban growth is so fast and is difficult to accommodate all commercial industrial residential and educational facilities within the limited area. 2. health. 5. washing machines. Residential and commercial lightings. medical facilities and employment. By population control we can make sustainable development. Urban problems related to energy: Urbanisation -movement of human population from rural. Urban sprawl: The phenomenon of spreading of the cities in to sub-urban or rural areas is called urban sprawl. 4.This is because urban people have high standard of life and their life style demand more energy. Public transportation should be used instead of motor cycles and cars. 3. 3. Energy consumption must be minimized in all aspects. trade transportation. 2. WATER CONSERVATION .91 4. 4. Examples for energy demands: 1. 6. Energy demanding activities: Urban people consume lot of energy and materials in comparison with rural people. Solution for urban energy problems: 1.It is very important to consume the natural resources in such a way that the consumption should not exceed the regeneration capacity. Non-renewable resources should be conserved by recycling and reusing. Using of solar energy and wind energy.C. employment etc. Control and prevention of pollution technologies need more energy. areas to urban areas for want of better education. A. Usage of fans fridge. Industries using large proportion of energy. Causes: Cities are the main centers of economic growth. Consumption of renewable resources.

the water forms hydrosphere. The process of saving water for future utilization is called conservation of water. can be used for washing cars. bath rooms etc. 1. Preventing of wastage of water Closing the taps when not in use and repairing any leakage from pipes . liquid or solid. Better life style requires more fresh water. Need for water conservation. Decreasing run off losses Run off . The water available on the earth may occur in all three stages as gas. Strategies of water conservation Reducing evaporation losses Evaporation of water in humid regions can be reduced by placing horizontal Barriers of asphalt below the soil surface. Reuse of water Treated waste water can be reused for irrigation. 2. Agriculture and Industrial activities require more fresh water. As the population increases the requirement of water is also more . Irrigation in early morning (or) later evening reduces evaporation losses. Growing hybrid crop varieties also conserve water. on most of the soils can be reduced by using contour cultivation (or) Terrace farming. gardening. As a liquid. About 75% of the Earth's surface is covered by the hydrosphere. 3. Reducing irrigation losses Sprinkling and irrigation conserves water by 30.40%. Avoid discharge of sewage disposal into natural water resources should be avoided .92 The original source of water is precipitation from the atmosphere. Water from washings. Temperature is the main factor in deciding the state of water.

Rainwater harvesting . Water harvesting means to understand the value of rain. In present times. Therefore. well-built roads. Rain is the first form of water that we know in the hydrological cycle. hence is a primary source of water for us. In the process. water harvesting is the activity of direct collection of rainwater. we depend entirely on such secondary sources of water. With the decrease in natural forest cover. it is forgotten that rain is the ultimate source that feeds all these secondary sources and remain ignorant of its value. The rainwater collected can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into the groundwater. lakes and groundwater are all secondary sources of water. In the present age. urban floods and overloading of sewage treatment plants Reduce seawater ingress in coastal areas. And taking measures to keep that water clean by not allowing polluting activities to take place in the catchment. increase in concrete . It is a technique of collecting and storing rain water for use in non-monsoon periods. Rivers. concrete houses. water harvesting can be undertaken through a variety of ways Capturing runoff from rooftops Capturing runoff from local catchments Capturing seasonal floodwaters from local streams Conserving water through watershed management These techniques can serve the following the following purposes: Provide drinking water Provide irrigation water Increase groundwater recharge Reduce stormwater discharges.93 Methods of water conservation Rain water Harvesting and Watershed management It means capturing rain where it falls or capturing the run off in your own village or town. and to make optimum use of the rainwater at the place where it falls. footpaths and well -concreted courtyards have left few open grounds. In general.

2. Roof top method: collecting rain water from roof of the building and storing in the ground. The pit base is filled with stones and sand which serves as a 3. Sand filter. The rain water from roofs. play grounds is diverted into the surface tank or recharge pits. 2. rain water is collected at the roof top or in an open well and then carried down for immediate use or it is directed into the aquifer. To raise the water table by recharging the ground water. very little open ground is left for water to soak in and thereby increase the ground water table. For the purpose. road surfaces. Rain water harvesting techniques There are two main techniques for rain water harvesting: 1. . It is the low cost and effective technique for urban houses and buildings. artificial recharging of the ground water is extremely essential. So. It is done through rain water harvesting.94 jungles and the decrease in exposed earth. Storage of rain water on the surface for future use Recharge of ground water Recharge of ground water is a recent concept and the structures used for the purpose are: Pits Trenches Dug wells Hand pumps Recharge shaft Lateral shafts with bore wells Spreading technique Objectives of rain water harvesting. To reduce the ground water contamination from intrusion of saline water Concept of rain water harvesting Rain water harvesting involves collecting water that falls on roof of house during Rain and conveying water through pvc or Al pipe to a near by covered storage tank. To minimize water crises and water conflicts To reduce rain water run off and soil erosion. Method of rain water harvesting 1.

Scarcity of water is reduced Rainwater harvesting systems channel rainwater that falls on to a roof into storage via a system of gutters and pipes. deforestation . They must be strong enough. reservoir (or) other body of surface water.95 Advantages: Rise in ground water level. lake. Storage tanks should be covered to prevent mosquito breeding and to reduce evaporation losses. Rainwater harvesting systems require regular maintenance and cleaning to keep the system hygienic. Overgrazing . Factors affecting watershed : 1. contamination and algal growth. The first flush of rainwater after a dry season should be allowed to run to waste as it will be contaminated with dust. construction activities affect and degrade watershed. . and large enough to carry peak flows. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT Water shed ( or ) drainage basin: It is defined as land area from which water drains Under the influence of gravity into stream. Roof gutters should have sufficient incline to avoid standing water. Minimising the soil erosion and flood Hazards. mining . Watershed management of rain fall and resultant run off is called watershed management. bird droppings etc.

RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION Based on the resettlement schemes proposed by each affected village and present policies. Earthern dam or stone embankment must be constructed to check run off water.People should be motivated for maintaining water harvesting structures implemented by the government. Afforestation and agro-forestry help to prevent soil erosion and retention of moisture In watershed areas Reducing soil erosion : Terracing .96 2. Watershed management techniques Trenches (pits) were dug at equal intervals to improve ground water storage. Livestock population should be reduced in surrounding villages of water shed. . contour cropping minimse soil erosion and run off on the slopes of water sheds/ Scientific mining and quarrying minimse the destructive effect of mining in water shed areas Public participation is essential for water shed manasement. To raise the ground water level. Need or objectives of watershed management 1. To generate huge employment opportunities in backward rain fed areas to ensure security for livelihood. the Resettlement Plan of Lauding Expressway Project was prepared by PPTA consulting team and the staff from NPAEC under GPCD assisted by design institute and Local County and township governments. 4. Droughty climate also affects the water shed. laws and regulations of different levels of governments and the resettlement requirements of ADB. drought and landslides. 2. Farm pond can be built to improve water storage capacity of the catchment's area Maintenance of watershed Water harvesting: Proper storage of water in water shed can be used in dry season In low rainfall areas. To minimize the risks of floods. To protect the soil from erosion by run off. 3.

Resettlement Task In 2005. the rural population of project impact area is mainly engaged in agricultural actives.352 persons will need house relocation. school. the target of Resettlement and rehabilitation is set as follows: (1) The resettle's grain production level will be self-sufficient after resettlement. (2) The income per capita shall be recovered to the standard before resettlement. At present. Resettlement Guideline and Principle Resettlement Guideline . (3) The affected public infrastructures. natural environment and traffic condition etc. According to the actual production and living standard among affected villages. the affected labor force will be re-employed. with most of their income coming from planting.97 Target and Task Resettlement Target The overall objective of resettlement and rehabilitation is to ensure that the affected production base will be restored. shall be improved after resettlement. in which 520 households and 2. and the approved economic and social development plans for the relevant counties. and income and livelihood of affected people will be improved or at least restored to their previous levels before resettlement. economic trees. hospitals. social welfare level. there were 2. and animal husbandry.149 persons to be resettled or rehabilitated.829 households with 13.

(4) The re-construction standard and scale shall be based with the principle of recovery to the original standard and original scale. the resettlement and rehabilitation strategy will first to reestablish the physical production bases for the affected persons. and supplemented by developing various other income generation opportunities in the project areas. Based on consultation of local Affected peoples. Resettlement Principle Under such policy. Considering the local conditions. a Practical and feasible resettlement plan should be developed to restore or improve their Economic production and create basic conditions for long-term development. (2) The resettlement shall be combined with the local development. raising standard and future plan shall be solved independently by local government and relevant department. the cost for enlarging the scale. In other words. which will provide a long-term development potential by fully utilizing local land resources. and adopted compensation standards and subsidies. build water conservancy facility. resource utilization and Economic growth as well as environment protection. (5) Making overall plans and taking all factors into consideration. Planting will be the focus of economic Rehabilitation strategy by developing new farmland and improving the remaining farmland in the Affected villages. (3) The resettlement plan should be based on the principle Convenient for living . develop new farmland. the economic rehabilitation will be based on developing replaced farming Resources within their own townships and villages.98 The basic resettlement policy of Lauding Expressway Project is to respect the wishes of affected People and maintain their current production and living traditions. (6) Fully utilize local natural resource. collective and individual. correctly handling the relations between the state. a number of resettlement and rehabilitation principles have been developed for the Project. Combining the local development. Beneficial to the production and . (1) The resettlement plan will be based on detailed inventory for land acquisition and houses Demolition.

For most relocated households. which will be beneficial for them to restore or improve their production and income level after resettlement. The second approach is for those who live near towns. the demolished houses will be dismantled after the new houses built. (7) Resettlement Plan will include measures to improve basic livelihood and assist relocation and rehabilitation for those vulnerable persons and extremely poor individuals affected by the Project. they will be provided cash compensated based on replacement value and to purchase replacement housing in the urban areas. and combined with the actual condition of affected area. Resettlement Carrying Capacity Analysis Natural Condition and Land Resource . (2) In order to reduce the impacts on the production and livelihood among resettle's. living and social relationship can be maintained. Overall Scheme of Resettlement Since the construction of Lauding Expressway Project will only acquire limited land acquisition and demolition along the road alignment line.99 improve land quality. and strengthen agricultural strength and make the resettler' living standard reach or exceed the original level step by step. the basic rehabilitation scheme was determined as follows: (1) Project affected persons will be resettled within their original villages and village groups. A series of consultation meetings were held among affected villages and townships. For those who lose some farmland. and all salvage materials will belong to them. the land-based rehabilitation will be adopted with a combination of developing new farmland. (3) The rural relocated households will be resettled in their original villages. so that their way of production. redistributing remaining farmland and receiving their share of resettlement subsidy among affected village groups. it will not have significant negative impacts on production and livelihood for most affected villages. their rehabilitation will be carried out by local government in order to promote small town development and save farmland. they will choose to rebuild their houses by themselves. According to the resettle's opinion and suggestion. The reconstruction of houses will adopt two approaches. 64 (4) For small number of urban relocated households in Kongdong District.

all affected villagers will be resettled within their existing villages in the resettlement plan. their impacts of farmland loss could be mitigated after providing adequate compensation and necessary land readjustment.100 Since the project affected population will be resettled in their original villages. and obtained basic demographic profiles and agricultural production conditions among these villages. in order to avoid changing such custom. Among 93 affected villages. an analysis of the natural conditions and resources for carrying capacity was conducted. On the contrary. Most affected people in rural areas will still remain in agricultural sector. and maintaining same farming distance. Baofeng. the amount of compensation received will allow them to more actively engage in various non-farm activities and open up new opportunities. during the construction of the Luo doing Expressway. with relatively large per capita of land holding (over 60 percent of them having more than 2 mu of farmland) andrelative small percent of land reduction. Basic Characteristics of Resettlement and Rehabilitation Since most affected people have formed their unique production tradition and social networks through many generations. They include Wangping. such amount of land loss will not result in any significant change of their livelihood. the affected people will be given priority to be employed as low skill labors in the construction site in order to meet the needs of the . According to local farmers. Through improving irrigation and farming conditions. In addition. restructuring planting pattern. the resettlement planning team has identified detailed resettlement impacts within each village. it is hoped that their agricultural income could be maintained or even improved even with loss of limited farmland. and Wulipu Villagein Chengguan Town of Jingyuan County. only four villages with per capita farmland below 1 mu. Through collecting local social and economic data for all affected villages. Since the amount of land loss in these villages are relativelysmall and since all these villages are located in the suburbs of county towns with relatively well developed non-farm activities. the land acquisition will not cause serious impacts among these villages. which was completed during detailed social economic survey among affected project areas. and conducting social economic survey for 32 key affected villages. and Nantai villages in Liuhu Township of Kongdong District. For those villages with remaining land holding more than 1 mu after land acquisition. confirmed their remaining land resources and possibilities for farmland readjustment.

with improvement of transportation condition. the total farmland reserve is rich in the area and is considered as great potential for developing animal husbandry and tourist activities. which could also bring cash income for most affected people. In addition. However. They live relatively concentrated in the same village groups. After completion of the Project. all affected persons will be relocated or rehabilitated within their same communities. and have some special traditions in terms of religion. Hui people have lived together with Han nationality peacefully for a long time and their relationship is 65 harmonious. trade and transportation. with 4 of them having more than 10 percent of minority population. In future. in terms of economic rehabilitation. 11 of them contain Hui nationalities. festival.101 employment and daily consumption. and housing styles. According to local conditions. Basic Infrastructure Conditions for Production and Living (1) Traffic Condition (2) Water Supply Condition (3) Electric Power Supply Condition (4) Medical & Education Condition (5) Fuel Supply Economic Development Potential of the Affected Area The rural economy in the project area mainly relies on planting except for migrant labors. the resource advantage of local areas should be fully utilized. The general economic condition is relatively low. sideline activities. In order to avoid any disruption of their customs and social network not increase distance to farm their field. The Project will also provide agricultural technical training and non-farm skill training. Resettlement and Rehabilitation Plan Production Rehabilitation Plan . the resettlement plan will encourage the affected people and local officials to develop various in-farm activities and increase their income. forestry. among 93 affected villages. various income generation opportunities should be developed by increasing input of science and improving production technical level of the masses in order to promote overall development of agriculture. the expressway will increase trade and promote regional development. as well as industrial. Therefore.

102 During the impact survey and the resettlement planning, consultation meetings have been held by the resettlement planning team of GPCD and PPTA consultants in the relevant counties, townships, administrative villages, and villager groups. The participants included officials from different levels of local government, village leaders and representatives of affected persons. Based on these consultations, indicative resettlement and rehabilitation approaches have been identified for project affected villages. Case study : Sardar sarover dam River Narmada flows through M.P, Maharastra and Gujarat and merges in Arabian sea. Sardar sarover dam is situated in Narmada valley. As a result of construction of dam 593 villages consisting of 10 lakh people were made homeless 45000 hectares of forest and 2 lakh hectares of cultivated land submerged in Maharastra. Now the Gujarat government has planned to incrase the height of the dam From 100 to 110.64 meters. This became the a controversial issue as there is no proper Rehabilitation scheme for the allotted people. Narmada Bacho Andolan was initiated against the construction of dam and Is lead by Smt Maedha patkar , who is constantly working for the affected ousted tribal

Tehri Dam project : This dam is being constructed across Bhagirathi and Bhilanganga close to Gashwal town of Tehri .This would submerge 100 villages, Including Tehri , 85000 families will have to be relocated. Pong dam : It was constructed on Beas river in H .P .and Punjab.The water

Is used to irrigate in Rajastan. 30000 families were uprooted due to PONG DAM. Only 16000 families were rehabilitated.

Environmental Ethics It refers to issues ,principles and guidelines related to human interactions with their Environment. (OR)

Ethics is a branch of philosophy. It deals with morals and values. An ethic is a principle or value that we use to decide whether an action is good or bad. Ethics differs from country to country.

103 Functions of Environment: 1It moderates climate conditions of the soil. 2 A healthy economy depends on healthy environment. 3It is the life supporting medium for all organisms. 4It provides food , air , water and other important natural resources to the human beings water

Environmental problems : Deforestation activities , population growth and urbanization Pollution due to effluents and smoke from industries, Scarcity. Solution to environmental problems: Reduce the waste matter and energy resources. Recycle and reuse as many of our waste product And resources as possible. Avoid over exploitation of natural resources.

Minimse soil degradation. Protect the biodiversity of the earth. Reduce population and increase the economic growth our country. Ethical guidelines on environmental protection: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The earth is the habitat of all living species and not of human beings alone. Natural resources and energies are depleting fast. We must protect them. Involve yourself in the care of the earth and experience nature. Respect nature, you are a part of it. Think of the global cause and act for local protection Keep yourself informed about ecological changes and developments. Observe austerity, reserve scarce resources for the future and the future generations. We must be cooperative, honest, affectionate and polite to society and nature.

CLIMATE: It is the average weather of an area. It is the general weather condition, seasonal variations of the region. The average of such conditions for a long period is called climate. Causes of climate changes: 1.Prsence of green house gases in the atmosphere Increases the global temperature. 2.Depletion of ozone layer increases the global temperature.

104 Effects of climate change : 1. Small climate changes disturbs agriculture which leads To migration of animals and human. 2.Climate change may upset hydrological cycle which results in floods and droughts in different parts of the world. 3. Global pattern of winds and oceans currents also gets disturbed by climate change.

Green house effect : Green house gases are CO 2, Methane .Nitrous oxide NO 2, CFC and act as serious SO 2 pollutants causing global warming.Progrssive warming up of a gas surface due to blanketing effect of man made Among these CO 2 is the most important green house gas.O
3

CO2 atmosphere.

GLOBAL WARMING: Green house gases in the atmosphere are transparent to light gases allow sunlight to penetrate the atmosphere and sunlight is radiated back as IR which is absorbed by gases.As a result the earth surface and lower atmosphere are absorbed by the earth surface.This but absorb IR radiation. These

becomes warm.This is called global warming.

Many plants and animal species will have a problem of adapting. . 3.105 EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: 1. Global rainfall pattern will change .sea level increases as result of melting and thermal expansion of ocean. Raising temperature will increase domestic water demand. There would be increase in water-borne diseases. 4. High CO2 level in the atmosphere have a long term negative effect on crop production and forest growth. As the earth becomes warmer the floods and drought becomes more frequent. Many will be at the risk of extinction.Drought and floods will become more common. 5. 2. more towering verities will thrive.

Stablize population growth. The thermal power plants industried and vehicles release NO2 and SO2 in to the atmosphere due to the burning of coal and oil. 6.The pH of the rain is further lowered. Shifting from coal to natural gas. CO2 emission can be cut by reducing the use of fossil fuel. Formation: Acid rain means the presence of excessive acids in the rain water.H2SO4. 2. Plant more trees. SOx +H2O H2SO4 NOy +H2O HNO3 .Because presence of SO2 and NO2 gases as pollutants in the atmosphere. ACID RAIN: Normal rain water is always slightly acidic ( pH 5-5. Removal atmospheric CO2 by utilizing photo synthetic algae. 3. 5.This type of precipitation of water is called acid rain.6) because of Co2 present in the atmosphere gets dissolved in it. Remove efficiently CO2 from smoke stocks.106 MEASURES TO CHECK GLOBAL WARMING: 1. 4.These acids descends on to the earth as acid rain through rain water.These gases reacts with water vapour in the atmosphere and from acids like HNO3.

The dead materials are not rapidly decomposed.carrot . Acid rain causes corrosion of metals.spinach.It cause premature death from heart and lung disorder like asthma.bridges and fences.deer flies occurs largely which causes number of complications in ponds rivers and lakes. Activity of bacteria and other microscopic animals is reduced in acidic water. On building: At present Taj mMahal in Agra is suffering due to SO2 and H2SO4 fumes from Madura refinery. .statues .P are locked up in dead matter. bronchitis. Terestrial and lake Ecosystem. Acid rain retards the growth of crops like beans potatoe .Acid rain corrodes houses.107 EFFECTS: Effect on human being: Human nervous system respiratory system and digestive system are affected by acid rain.black flies. monuments . Reduce the rate of photosynthesis and growth in terrestrial vegetation.mosquitoes . Acid rain rduces fish population .Hence the nutrients like N.

HCFC . Liming of lakes nad soils should be done to correct the adverse effect of acid rain. Causes of O 3 layer depletion : Refrigerators . It is a chain reaction. results in 2% increase in UV rays reaching the earth surface .B radiation. CFCs releases chlorine which breakes O Cl + O 3 ----------. OZONE LAYER DEPLETION Ozone gas is present in the atmosphere. Formation of O 3 : It is formed in the atmosphere by photochemical reaction ------------) O * + O * 2 O 2 + hv The atomic oxygen reacts with molecular O to form O 3 O * + O 2 + M ----------) O 3 + M Where M = third body like nitrogen. BFC. In thermal points low sulphur content coal should be used.) Cl O + O 2 (g) to O2 Cl O + O * -----------) Cl + O 2 Each chlorine atom is capable of breaking several O 1% loss of O 3 3 molecules . It is highly concentrated at the stratosphere Between10to 50 Km above the sea level and is called as ozone layer. . Importance: O 3 protects us from damaging UV radiation of the sun. Now a 3 days certain parts of O layer is becoming thinner and O 3 holes are formed. Ozone depletion chemicals CFC . Because of this more UV -B radiation reaches the earths surface . It causes skin cancer and eye disease in human beings.causes damages to the outer cell of plants and animals. air conditioners .108 Control of acid rain: Emmision of No2 and SO2 from industries from power plants should be reduced by using pollution control equipments. aerosol sprays and cleaning solvents 3 release CFC s into the atmosphere. Some times atmospheric sulfur dioxide Is converted in to H 2 S O 4 which increases the rate of O 3 layer depletion. UV -B radiation affects DNA molecules.It filters UV.

Increases the rate of non melanin skin cancer in fair colored people.3. Use of methyl bromide .Decrease in phytoplankton results in More amount of CO 2 in atmosphere. Nuclear fission and Nuclear fussion are used to prepare nuclear energy. Ozone 3 Depleting chemicals can causes global warming. phytoplankton consumes large amounts of CO 2 . Replacing CFC s by other maerials which are less damage NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS AND HOLOCAUST Energy released²during a nuclear reaction is called nuclear energy.which is a crop fumigant should be controlled . 2. of O Control measures : Manufacturing and using depleting chemicals should be stopped. . Effects on aquatic system : 1.Prolonged expose to UV rays leads to actinia Katatities ( slow blindness) and cataracts.UV rays affects phytoplankton . larval crabs. This contributes to global warming.109 Effects ozone layer depletion: Effects on human beings 1. During nuclear accidents large amount of energy and radioactive products are released into the atmosphere.3.UV rays causes skin cancer.2. fish .

3. the global temperature. plastics . This reduces evaporation of water . Exposure to very high dose of radiation (10000rds ) kills organisms by damaging the tissues of heart and brain.110 Types of nuclear accidents :Nuclear the atmosphere. Black soot absorb all UV radiation There fore cooling will result. Nuclear power plant accidents: Nuclear power plants located inseimic vulnerable area may cause TestNuclear explosions -release radioactive particles and radioactive rays into nuclear accidents which releases radation . Exposer to high radation (400. . and will not allow the radiation to reach the earth . Improper disposal of radioactive wastes: Drums with radioactive wastes. Nuclear bombardment will cause combustion of wood . 4. stored underground rust and leak radioactive wastes into water .Crop productivity will be reduced warmingfaminescausing will occur . Radiation affects DNA in cells. Trucks carrying radioactive wastes (or) fuels in accidents. This is called Nuclear winter.Exposure to low dose of radiation (100to 250 rds ) people suffer from fatigue. The major accident at a nuclear power plant is a core melt down.and loss of hair. land and air.500 rds ) affect bone marrow . natural resistance fail of blood clot. Nuclear Holocaust : -Destruction of Biodiversity by nuclear equipments and nuclear bombs is called nuclear holocaust.In stratosphere there won t be significant moisture ofto nuclear out the black Lower Due to nuclear explosion a process opposite to global rain Effects winter 1. Large quantity of soot will be carried out into the atmosphere .blood cells .2. And human sufferings. Effects of nuclear holocaust. Accidents during transport . 2. forests etc. soot. Effects of nuclear radiation 1. vomiting . Nuclear winter.

Cultivable waste land.Ex Degraded forest land . Types of waste land: 1.111 Examples of nuclear holocaust: Nuclear war in Japan. At Chernobyl. Radioactive Strontium liberated in the explosion replaced calcium in the bones . hilly slopes. th On April 28 Ukrain .Large scale bone deformities Occurred in the people of these cities. saline lands . Gullied water logged . Waste land is unproductive. 20% of the geographical area of India is waste land. This explosion emitted forceful neutrons and gamma radiation. Uncultivable waste land: Barren rocky areas. 1986 the world worst nuclear power accident occurred at Chenobyl in This disaster was caused mainly due to poor reactor design and human error.Uncultivable waste land .2. The land which is not in use is called waste land . Cultivable waste land: These are cultivable but not cultivated for more than 5 years. When the operators lost the control of water cooled graphite moderated reactor during low power tests At Chernobyl in Ukraine the nuclear reactor exploded. marsh lands . . unfit for cultivation Grazing etc. About 100000 people were Killed and the cities were badly destroyed. sandy deserts. Impact : Chernobyl accident killed more than 80000 people and 35 million people have suffered ill because of The accident. Nearly 135000people have to be evacuated at around Chernobyl. Nuclear holocaust in Japan In 1945 two nuclear bombs were dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan . Hiroshima and Nagasaki are examples of holocaust during Second World War. WASTE LAND RECLAMATION Waste land. Case study : Chernobyl Nuclear disaster.

Objects of waste land reclamation: 1. 4. deforestation. salinity etc. Industrial and sewage wastes. flooding and land slides. To avoid over exploitation of natural resources. Leaching: Leaching is a process of removal of salt from the salt affected soil by applying excess amount of water. Application of gypsum: Soil sodality can be reduced with gypsum. Social Forestry programme: These programmes involve strip plantation on road . Due to soil erosion. degraded Forest land etc.canal sides. water logging.112 Causes of waste land formation: 1. Mining activities destroy the forest and cultivable land.5to 1. Irrigation practices: High frequency irrigation with controlled amount of water helps to maintain better availability of water in the land . To prevent soil erosion. Methods waste land reclamation: Drainage: soil reclamation. 2. This is for water logged . 4.Over exploitation of natural resources. To improve the physical structure and quality of the soil.0cm Water is required to remove 90% of soluble salts.3. In continuous leaching 0. Leaching is done by dividing the field into small plots. To conserve the biological resources and natural ecosystem. Application of green manure and bio fertilisers improves saline soil. Ca of gypsum replaces sodium from the exchangeable sites. Excess water is removed by artificial drainage. 3. 2. This converts clay back into calcium clay.

4. 1. Ingredients of the products. Scrap. The right to use incentives to promote their products TRADITIONAL BUYERS RIGHTS 1. The right to introduce any product. Sources of wastes are agriculture. calculator etc . The right to change any price. Right to expect the product to perform as claimed. industrial and municipal wastes. Example for waste products. Active consumerism improves human health and happiness and also it saves resources. 2. E. plastic. Manufacturing date and expiry date . 2.Whether the product has been manufactured against an established law of nature or involved in right variation. garbage. construction and factory wastes.waste : Electronic equipments like computer. IMPORTANT INFORMATION TO BE KNOWN TO BUYERS 1. 2. TRADITIONAL FAVOURABLE RIGHTS OF SELLERS 1. Objectives of consumerism. It is related to both increase In population size as well as increase in our demand due to change in life style.113 COSUMERISM AND WASTE PRODUCTS The consumption of resources by the people is called consumerism. 3. If needs increases The consumerism of resources also increases. Right to expect a product to be safe. mining. mobile phones. 2.It force the manufacturer to reuse and recycle the product after usage. food waste. It improves the right and powers of buyers. The right to buy or not to buy. printers. glass.It involves making manufacturer liable for the entire life cycle of a product 3. It includes paper.

The states are empowered to restrain any person from discharging a pollutant (or) sewage or) effluent into any water body with out the consent of the board. cadmium in chips and cathode ray tube . This act provides for maintaining and restoring the sources of water.In LDC's the . E-wastes contains more than 1000 chemicals which are toxic and causes environmental Pollution.1974. Plastics are non-degradable and their combustion produces many toxic gases. discharge of pollutant Toxic pollutant. The amendment act of 1988 requires permission to set up an industry Which may discharge effluent? 1. ENVVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AND LAWS Water ( prevention and control of pollution ) Act.114 After usage thrown as waste. This situation occurs in less developed countries (LDC's). Factors affecting consumerism and generation of wastes: People over population -Over population cause degradation of sources. Effects of waste: Waste from industries and explosives are dangerous to human life. Consumption is more and waste generation is more. percaptia consumption f resources and waste generation are less. Environment is also degraded. Features of water act. All these cause cancer and other respiratory problems if inhaled for long long periods. due to luxurious life style per captia consumption of resources is very high. 3. poverty and premature deaths. This act aims to protect the water from all kind of pollution and to preserve the quality of water in all aquifers. The act is not clear about the definition of pollutant. 2. The act further provides for the establishment of central board and state boards For prevention of water pollution. Dumped wastes degrade soil and make it unfit for irrigation. In computers lead is present in monitors. Consumption Over population: It occurs when there are less people than the available Resources . It also provide For preventing and controlling water pollution. 4. pvc in cables.

This act empowers the state board to order closure of any industrial unit or stoppage of water supply or stoppage of electricity. The reserved forests shall not be diverted or dereserved wit out the permission Of central govt. to begin to make any new discharge of sewage. To use any new or altered outlet For the discharge of sewage. The central board co-ordinates and settle the disputes between state boards. water or any other service to the polluting unit. 3. FOREST (COSERVATON) ACT 1980 This act is enacted in 1980. The central board provides technical assistance and guidance to state boards. 2. It aims to arrest deforestation. 3. 4. 7. With out the consent of the central board operation of an industrial unit is prohibited in heavily polluted area.115 State pollution control board The consent of this board is needed 1. This act covers all types of Forests including reserved forests. Violation of law is punishable with imprisonment for three months or fine of Rs 10000 or both. protected forests and any forest land. The division of forest land for non -forest uses is punishable. 8.afforestation.Forest departments are departments are forbidden to assign any forest land by way of lease or to any private person or NG body for re. To establish any industry Or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition which likely discharge Or trade effluent into a stream or well or river or on land. 2. For re-afforstation clearance of any forest land is forbidden. AIR PREVENTION ACT 1981 (PREVENTION AND CONTOL OF POLLUTION) This act was enacted in the conference held at Stock Holm. 2. This act stops illegal activities with in forest area. . 5. Important features: 1. Features of amendment act of 1988 . Act also empowers the state board to order closure or stoppage of supply of Electricity.1. The state boards are empowered to lay down the standards for emission of air pollutants from industries or other resources. 6. The state boards are to examine the manufacturing processes and control equipment for for the prescribed standards. 2. This act applies to all pollution industries.The central board may lay down the standards for quality of air. IMPORTANT Features of the act : 1. The forest land may not be used nonforest purposes. 2. The direction of central board is mandatory on state boards. 3. It envisages the establishments Of central and State control boards to monitor air quality and pollution control.

and 1991. decision makers. If violation continues an additional fine of Rs5000 per day may be imposed for entire period of Violation of rules. 1986. politicians and administrators. To focus on current environment problems and situations. I t also prohibits the collection of non timber forest. 4. exhibitions. Important Features1The act covers the rights and non. formulates procedures and safe guards for handling of hazard substances. ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT 1986 This act empowers the central govt. Ivory etc. India has 350 species of mammals.to inspect the sight or the plant or machinery for preventing pollution and to collect samples of air . This act was amended in 1983. soil.rights of forest dwellers. water. firs. Wild life is declining due to human action. local environment and technological development. PUBLIC AWARENESS In order to conserve our environment each and every one must be aware about our environment problems And objectives of various environmental policies at natural and local level. to fix the standards for quality of air. Objectives of public awareness: 1. feathers. 2 To organize meetings. Wild life population monitored regularly and management strategies formulated to protect them. Important features: 1. 3. 4.has the authority to close or prohibit or regulate any industry or its operation if The violation of provisions of the act occurs. . and noise. 2 The govt. this act empowers the govt. water.116 WILD LIFE ACT 1972. Some of them are listed as endangered species in wild life protection act. Violation of the act is punishable with imprisonment for 5 years or fine of one lakh or both. 3. 4. tree plantation programmes. 5 The act empowers the officer of the central govt. 3. To train our planners. soil and other materials from any factory or its premises for testing. group discussion on development. This act is aimed to protect and preserve all animals and plants that are not Domesticated. have decimated the population of many species. 1200 species of birds and about 20000 Known species of insects. It allows restricted grazing in sanctuaries but prohibits in national parks. 2. Wild life products like skins. The central govt. The rights of forest dwellers recognized by forest policy of 1988 are taken away by Amended wild life act of 1991. To create awareness among rural and city people about ecological Imbalance. to lay down procedures and safe guards for The prevention of accidents which cause pollution and remedial measures if accidents occur.

Voluntary organizations like NCC. Bring out the reactions taking place at stratosphere. Public leaders cine actors and popular social reformers can make an appeal to the public about the urgency of environmental protection. 7. 20.117 5. street plays.This films may be released with tax free to attract the public. 6. Environmental education must be imparted to the students in schools and colleges. To eliminate poverty by providing employment that over comes the basic environmental issues. 10.Attreactive prizes should be awarded for the best effort. What are the effects of global warming? 12. What are the objectives (or) principles of watershed management? 9. 2. Mention the objectives of Environment Protection Act. 19. METHODS TO CREATE ENVIRONMNTAL AWARENESS 1. Define Rain Water Harvesting. What are the effects of Ozone-Layer depletion? 16. Differentiate between Re-habilitation & Re-settlement of people. 6. UNIT . What are the objectives of rain water harvesting? 7. NSS.IV PART . Media like TV Radio and cable net work can educate the people on environmental issues through Cartoons. 4. 8. Special audio visual and slide shows should be arranged in public places. Mention few practices to reduce global warming. 2. Name few Green-House gases. 4. What is water Shed? 8. 11. Enlist the objectives of Air-Pollution Act. . Write a note on 3R principle. 13. Compare Consumerism & Waste generation. 5. and ROTRACT Club should be effectively utilized for creating environmental awareness. Write a note on Earth Summit . Bring out the important aspects of sustainable development. 18. Enlist the factors affecting the sustainable society.A 1. 3. Cinema about environmental education should be prepared and screened in theatres compulsorily . 14.1992. Arranging competitions like story and essay writing painting competition on environmental issues for student as well as public. Explain acid-rain and its effects. documentaries. All the news papers and magazines must publish the environment related problems. 17. Write a note on agro-forestry. Define Sustainable development. 3. 15. 5.

Write a note on CPCB & SPCB. 14. Define population explosion. Describe about Water Act . 15. 30. Explain the necessity of Environmental Legislation. PART . Write short notes on a) environmental ethics b) waste land reclamation. Air Act Water Act. Discuss briefly of the Indian environmental Acts. State the important provisions in Environment protection Act . 7.118 21. Bring out the activities of NGO's on environmental protection. Indicate some methods to create environmental awareness among public. Write a note on crop rotation. . Write in detail about global warming. 13. Define environmental ethics. 1980 and its amendment -1992. Discuss the water shed management practices. Explain the mechanism of Ozone layer depletion. 28. 9. 2. What is nuclear holocaust? How can it occur? 24. How does a climate change occur? 31. 12. 27. 5. 4. 25.1974. Discuss about the Forest Act. 10. Discuss the agenda for sustainable development.B 1. Explain the Wild-Life protection Act. Discuss in detail about the water conservation methods. 6. Describe the important waste land reclamation practices. Discuss the modern techniques of rain water harvesting. 22. Mention any two control measures on acid rain. What is acid deposition ? 33. 11. 26. How can we achieve the goal of sustainable development? 29. 32. Describe environmental ethics in detail. Write briefly on community participation in environment management programmes. 23. 3. Discuss the articles 48-A & 51-A of Indian Constitutional provision for Environmental protection. 8.

Birth Rate = Number of births x 100 Emigration:. 2. a given year.Human Rights .Value Education . River.000 people in a population in Growth rate = Change of population x 100 O.Number of individuals of the population per unit area ® per unit-volume.P.P. Variation Among Nations .Number of deaths per 1000 people in a population in a year Immigration:. Parameters effecting population:1. Hill Slopes.Number of live births per 1. x Number of year . x Number of years Infant Mortality = New born of babies died Number of babies born x Number of year x 100 Birthrate (OR) Nationality:. etc Field Study of Local Polluted Site .Case Studies.Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural UNIT. given Death Rate (OR) Mortality:.environment and Human Health .Women and Child Welfare .Population Explosion .Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health .V Human population and the Environment Population:. Field Study of Simple Ecosystems .Group of individuals belonging to the same species which live in a given time. O.Pond.119 UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT Population Growth.HIV /AIDS . Field Study of Local Area to Document Environmental assets River/Forest/Grassland/Hill/ Mountain.It denotes the arrival of individuals from neighboring population.It denotes the disposal of individuals from the original population to new areas. area at given Population density:.Family Welfare Programme .

2. People believe that it is because of God's grace.140. decreases the famine related deaths and infant mortality. 3. In 1980 the global population was about 1 billion people.female ratio has been upset in many countries including China girls and boys is 100 . Infant Mentality:- It is Percentage of infant died out of those born in one year. 3 etc. This differs widely in developing and developed countries. 10 2 10 . The TFR varies from 2 in developed to 4.Population growth occurs exponentially live 10. In china the ratio of . It reaches 10 billion by 2050 as per the world Bank calculation. In 1975 it reached 4 billion with in 45 years. Total fertility rates (TFR): Average number of children delivered by a woman in her life time.Results from the difference between the rate of birth and death. This ratio should be fairly balance in the society. The poverty and illiteracy lead controlled growth of population.G. 5. Male . Characteristics of P. Now the population in 6 billion. Child Marriages People's superstitions. calculated as follows:Td = 70 / r When r = annual growth rate If a ration has 2 % annual growth its population will double in 35 years.:Exponential growth:. 10 . clean water and air. 4. Demographic transition: India.1.120 Population Growth :.Time required for the population to double its size at a constant annual rate.7 in developing countries.. Availability of antibiotics. Causes:. Due to decrease in death rate and increase in birth rate. immunization increased food production. In 1930 it reached 2 billion. This rate is decreased in the last 50 years. 4 Which shows the dramatic increase in global population in the past 160 years. Doubling Time:.

A) have 80% population while developed countries have only 20%. Ethiopia. Europe and N. Canada etc. Variation of pollution based on Age structure Age structure of population can be classified into 3 classes. In India. is redacted to economic development.121 P. Kenya is the fastest population growing countries in the world. Australia population than 1%. Less developed countries (Africa. Hence population growth in stable.. S. 1. Pre. Its share is 1/3 of the world population. But is less developed countries the population increases by more than 1% / year. Sweden. Canada. When 20 million are residing. 3. Algerian Reproductive population is more in companion to pre reproductive population and post productive population. Variation of population among Nation: At present the worlds population has crossed 6 billions. Urn shaped variation of populations Eg: In Germany. UK.G. Bell shaped variation of population: Eg: In France. Bangladesh. Asia.productive population (0 . Italy.H. Pyramid shaped Variation of population (increase) Eg. USA. Hence the population increases.44 years) Post reproductive population (Above 45 years) increases by less Variation of population is now explained based on the above three classes. The birth rate and death rate full due to improved living conditions. China & India's populate on was above 1000 million in 2000 years. This pheromones in called demographic transition. In most developed countries like USA. . 2. This results in low population growth. pre reproductive population and reproductive population is more (OR) less equal.14 years) Reproductive population (15 . accoents for 14% of world population.

The doubling time varies from country to country. Name of the country Doubling time India. Population explosion leads to environmental degradation. In Increase of life expectancy is another important reason for population explosion. But now it is 61 years. Invention modern medical facilities. which 2. Eg:1956. Turkey Nigeria Pakistan USA UK France Population growth is highter in less developed countries. In the next 10 years. Doubling time: The number of years needed for a population to double in size. The number of people in reproductive age group less than before resulting in decrease of population. leads to population explosion. Illiteracy is one of the reasons for the population wxplosion. 3. reduces the death rate and increases birth rate. Population Explosion: The enormous increase in population due to low death rate and high birth rate is called as population expansion. 28 years 27 21 87 231 117 Cause of population explosion: 1. . Effect of population explosion (OR) environmental and social impacts of growing population Poverty: 1. the average life expectancy of the human beings was 40 years.122 Japan pre productive age group population in smaller than the reproductive age group population.

The main reason for the growing unemployment in growing population. grass lands are under threat. due to over exploitation of natural resources is reduces. 2. Increase in population will increases diseases. 7. Family planning Programme . family welfare children and women's right. Remedy: Fertility rate should be reduced by birth control programme. economic in equity and command wars. indicating zero population growth. water and noise.123 2. land. Developed countries: The stabilization ratio of developed countries is 1. Educating vast population is a very big task. Population explosion is the main cause for pollution of air. a shortage of resources for the futune generation. 6. Forests. Population Slow down the population explosion by reducing fertility. 5. 8. 4. 9. 3. Scancity of fuel is also due to population explosion. Population explosion causes over exploitation of natural resources. It is a policy of growth covering human health. Disposal of plastics and wastages is another problem of over population. stabilization Ratio The ratio is derived by dividing crude birth rate by crude death rate. of India as a voluntary programme. Objectives: 1. Pressure on the environment. Hence there will be Family welfare programme Family welfare programme was implemented by Govt. Stabilization in developing countries is possible only through family welfare programmes. Developing countries: The ratio of developing countries is rearing 3 which in expected to lower down by 2025.

2. chemical pills In 1970 Indian govt. Encourages late marriages and late child bearing. minimum age of marriage for men from 18 to 21 and for 4. FP In 1981 census report showed there is no drop in population. 6. Objectives: 1. More than 100 contraceptive method are on trial. 7. 4. 3. legally raized the women 15 to 18 years. Enables to improve woman's health education. 3. In 1952 India started family planning programme. In 1978 govt. Fertility control methods Traditional methods It includes taboos and folts medicine. It also reduced the number of legal and illegal abortions per year and decreased the risk of death from pregnancies. Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 / 1000 infants.124 If provides educational and clinical services that help couple to choose how many children to have and when to have them. Modern methods It includes birth control techniques like mechanical barriers. deaths marriage and pregnancies. Family planning programme provides information on birth spacing birth control and health care for pregnant woman and infants. Encourages breast feeding. 5. Constrain the spnead & Aids / HIV. surgical methods. Hence funding for programme has been increased. employment. . forced FP campain all the over country. Prevent and control of communical diseases. 2. and physical barriers to implantation. Family planning programme in India 1. Achieve 100% registration of births.

1. chemical Important Hazards and their health effects refer . 5. Human Rights Human rights are the fundamental rights possessed by human beings nationality. 2. Eat food always in hot condition.B. 4. Avoid plastic containers and Al vessels. biological. Human right to freedom Human right to property Human right to freedom of religion. sex & language. body's condition by nutritional. 6. Under the Indian constitution the following fundamental rights have been guaranteed to human beings. 4. 7. 3. 2. . Disease:Harmful changes in the (or) psychological factors are called diseases. Cut short and clean your nails systematic. Human right to constitutional remedies irrespective caste. Drinking chemically treated and filtered water. 3. Human right to culture and education. Do physical exercise to have proper blood circulation.125 Environment & human Health Healthy person:. Always wash your hand before eating. is to ensure happiness to all the citizen with equal rights. Biological Hazards and their health effects Refers T. Preventive measures: 1. Wash the vegetables and fruits a with clean water before cooking. 5.bort Chemical Hazards and their health effects refer T. The aim of Govt.B.Physically fit person with out suffering any disease is called a healthy person.

Freedom of choosing the religion according to his (views) wish. 2. Muslims have their own rights to conserve the culture. All human beings have the right to get food. language and to established educational institutions of their own choice. Article -15 Prohibits discrimination on the ground of race. 3. Freedom to form unions (or) associations. 4. educational and political rights. sex (or) place of birth. 8. 6. 8. cultural. 7. All citizens are equal before the law. religion caste. Human rights to freedom Every citizen has the freedom to express his view freely. 9. sex (or) place of birth. There is no discrimination on grounds of religion. Human right to food and environmental Human right to health 1. Indian Constitution Indian constitution provides for civil.equality before law. 5. safe drinking water and healthy environment. Human right to Equality Human right to against exploitation. Freedom to slant any profession.126 6. caste. Citizen can assemble at any place to express their views. 7. Every citizen has the right to fight against exploitation. The minority communities like christens. Every human being has the right to earn property. All religions are equal before the law. social. . All the citizen has equal rights both in culture and education. Article 14 .

It is an instrument used to analyse our behavior and provide proper direction to our youth.22 . . forming association and union.prohibits exploitation of labour children. Article 19 Provides for freedom of speech and expression. generous and tolerant. Improve integral growth of human being. Format Education:. All people will read write. Value based environmental education The provides knowledge about the principle of ecology. 2. to be helpful loving. Article . Value Education:. something he does not know how to behave with his environment. practice and propagate a religion of one's choice.20 Protection from connection except in accordance with the law of the land.24 .(In this all leaning process are self related).127 Article 16 Provides equal opportunity for all citizens in regarding to employment. It creates sense of duty to care for natural resources and to mange them in sustainable key. Eg:. Article .lays down the rights of a person in custody. Value education Education is nothing but learning through which knowledge about a particular thing can be acquired with the help of our knowledge and expedience we can identify our value to understand ourselves and our relationship with other and their environment. Article . Article . Objectives: 1.grantees freedom to profess.25 . will get good jobs and take with any problem with the help of formal education. Qualified and well settled in life. Types of Education: 1. It teacher the youth the distinction between right & wrong.If a person is highly. fundamental of environment and biodiversity.

To know about various living and non living organism and their interaction with the environment. To increase awareness about our national history. 5. 4. the earth are interconnected and inter-linked with special bonds of harmony. law.Discover in 1983. economics. love. tolerance. Nature and natural pheromone on 2. 5. commitments. joy. constitutional Cultural values: These values various with respect to time and place. parents & teachers are the main key to shape and individual values. . Hepatitis . These are concerned with rights & wrong. water are interlinked.128 2. 3. Almost all states & African countries were affecters HIV. 13% of world's population live is Africa. source of the virus is not beer identified spread through African monkey. rights.spread by small pox vaccine programme of Africa. good & bad true & false and behavior of human beings. Aids / HIV . relationship. Universal values (or) social values: These values tells about the importance of the human conditions. World scenario 90% from developing countries. I t is reflected in individual goods. 4. Spiritual values These promote Global values: Human civilization is a part of the planet. air and To create altitudes and improvement towards sustainable life style. cultural heritage.B Viral vaccine legmy and new York. It is reflected in language. 3. national integration. philosophyand the result of individual personality and experience These are personal principles etc. truth etc. Types of values: 1. Through vaccine programme . If this harmony disturbed any where leads to catastrophic results due to ecological imbalance. These are reflected in life. Individual values: education. To understand (about the our) natural environment in which how land.

667 cases are found in Tamil Nadu. Gravity. Now remote sensing is used to denote identification of earth feathers by detecting the characteristic electro magnetic radiation. computer compatible magnetic taps and digital storage medium. weather. rocket and satellite. 3. The information received by the sensor is suitably manipulated and transported back to earth. Collection of ground truth and other information. fertilizer input. Transmission or recording of the sensor output. Till sept. Origin of electro magnetic energy. 5. encroachment etc. 6. Data analysis and interpretation. Smog:.www and geographical information provides up to date information on various aspects of environment. Transmission of reflected or emitted energy to the remote sensor an a suitable platform through intervening atmosphere.129 nd India ranks 2 in the world with 5 million affects people. Other important parts are a platform. Interaction of energy with the earth surface. . 7. Forests: Remote sensing provides information clearly on the type.Mixture of smoke from coal combustion and fog in suspended droplets form photochemical smog cause irritation to eyes and lungs (ii) many damage plants (iii) Irritation to nose & throat (iv) asthma Role of IT in Environment IT plays a vital role in the field of environment education. That is reflected by the earth. Remote sensing It refers to any method which can be used to gather information about an object without coming in contact with it. Remote sensing can provide valuable information for land and water management. processing. 4. an aircraft. 2003 24. wood volume and biomass. The internet facilities. magnetic. storage and dissemination of information. UP. 2. forest fire. Functions 1. We require optimal management of land and water resources along with high yielding variety seeds. Applications 1 Agriculture: In India agriculture provides livelihood of 70% of population and contributes to about 35% of net nation product. Scenario in India: Large number of infected people are in Maharastra & Tamil Nadu followed by Delhi. Remote sensing covers various disciplines from laboratory testing to astronomies. IT means collection. a balloon. information through satellites. 2. Components of a remote sensing system The system consists of a sensor to collect radiation. Transmission of energy from the source to the surface of the earth and its interaction with the intervening atmosphere. electro magnetic forces could be used for remote sensing. density and extent of forest cover. Karnataka & Goa. The data's are reformed and processed on the ground to produce photographs.

Www . 3. minerals. Fluorosis. grass lands superimposed layered form in computer using soft ware. WWW: More current data is available on www on line learning centre. wet land. Soil type. Database is also available for diseases likes HIV | AIDS. remote sensing. 2. 3. Environmental Information System : It functions in 25 centres all over the country. forest land. Multimedia Digital content manager (DCM) in the form of CD ROMS.mhhe. crop land.130 3. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) It is a technique of superimposing various thematic maps using digital data on large Number of inter related aspects. biodiversity. water quality monitoring etc. Land cover: Spatial information on land is required at different scales depends upon use remote sensing data is converted to map. The spatial resolution plays a role on the scale of mapping. Applications: Different thematic maps having digital information on water resources. GIS can be used to check unplanned growth and related environmental problems. degraded lands can be made on GIS base. DATABASE It is the collection of inter related data on various objects. Helps in discovering reserves of oil. 4. Malaria. They generate net work of database in areas like pollution control. In the computer the information of database is arranged in a systematic manner.com \ environmental science. One of the most simple applications is inventorying surface water body. Unknown parameters can be stimulated by computer techniques EIA(Environmental Impact Assessment) problems can be analyzed Inventories of emission sources are compiled and maintained are on a . reservoir sedimentation. Application of computers in the field of Environment & human health: 1. Applications: I The ministry of environment and forest. and desertification. flood monitoring. Interpretation of polluted zones. Water resources: Remote sensing data has been used in many application related to surface water body mapping. SATELLITE DATA: It helps in providing correct and reliable information forest cover Provides information of monsoon. They are compiling database on various biotic components. National Management Information System (NMIS) : They compile database on R & D Projects along with information about research scientists and personnel involved. ground water targeting. ozone layer depletion Smog etc.

Define Zero Population growth. What are the two important views of population growth? 14.B 1. 4. 8. 2. They are also useful to access the loss of biodiversity/hot spots etc. Discuss the salient features of Draft declaration of Human Rights on environment. 7. Write short notes on population dynamics. total fertility rates? 12. What is meant by population explosion? Discuss the Indian Scenario.V PART -A 1. 5. UNIT . What is the role of primary health care against AIDS? 9. Explain the population characteristics & variations among nations. . statistical analysis and the status of environmental pollutions can be high lighted 5. What is meant by population stabilization? Discuss the family welfare and family planning in Indian context. What are the factors affecting population size? 3. 5. Define the term population explosion. Remote sensing-Graphical Interface System are useful for coral reef mapping and ocean resources. What are the objectives of Family Planning Programmes? 7. Discuss the influence of environmental parameters and pollution on human health. Mention the types of health hazards with examples. What is doubling time. 6. Comprehensive administrative system can be developed by using computer network techniques. What is GIS? 16. What kinds of problems are created due to Urbanisation? 6. What is meant by value education? 15. Mention the applications of remote sensing on water resources. 6. What are the objectives & elements of Value-education? How can the same be achieved? Briefly discuss HIV/AIDS. 8. justice & sustainability. 11. Net-work analysis. What is Universal declaration of Human rights? What is its importance in achieving the goals of equity. 3. State how environment & human health are related? PART . 2. Define (i) Toxins (ii) Carcinogens (iii) Tetrogenic (iv) Neurotoxins. mode of its spread and its effect on environment.131 4. 17. 4. 13. What do you mean by remote sensing? 10. What is meant by population stabilization.

Write briefly on the effect of increasing affluence on environment. 12. *********************** . 16. Discuss various issues & measures for Women & Child Welfare at International & National level. 13. Write a note on AIDS in developing countries.132 9. Write briefly on implementation of family planning programme. Explain the role of Information Technology in environment & Human health. What is the role of NMIS. ENVIS & GIS in dissemination of environmental information and environmental management? 11. Discuss the environmental and social impacts of growing population. 10. 15. Discuss the factors influencing the family size. 14.

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