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with a particular point or idea. A paragraph consists of one or more sentences. The start of a paragraph is indicated by beginning on a new line. Sometimes the first line is indented. At various times, the beginning of a paragraph has been indicated by the pilcrow: ¶. Components of Paragraphs All paragraphs have a topic sentence and supporting sentences, and some paragraphs also have a concluding sentence. The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph. It not only names the topic of the paragraph, but it also limits the topic to one specific area that can be discussed completely in the space of a single paragraph. The part of the topic sentence that announces the specific area to be discussed is called the controlling idea. Notice how the topic sentence of the model states both the topic and the controlling idea: Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. That is, they explain or prove the topic sentence by giving more information about it. Following are some of the supporting sentences that explain the topic sentence about gold. Gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. A Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was
Another characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. However. Qualities of Paragraphs 1. b. a.is the principle of composition by means of which important ideas are made to stand. Unity . The most recent use of gold is in astronauts' suits. paragraphs that are parts of a longer piece of writing usually do not need concluding sentences. Emphasis . The concluding sentence signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader with important points to remember: In conclusion. . be arranging the details in logical order to avoid thought gaps. Concluding sentences are customary for stand-alone paragraphs.made 25 centuries ago.is when a sentence follow one another in such a way that the writer`s ideas are expressed in a clear logical manner without sudden shifts or gaps of thought. by using transitional devices or signals to link the thought sequence from one idea to the next. gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility. 3. Coherence . 2.is when a paragraph contains one single main idea.
they will contain allnecessary components of action development: protagonist. only this time it seemed to be somewhat closer. He looked outside the window and saw a man going by the left side of the road.4. setting. The sun was dazzling his half-open eyes. Larry recognized Nick and waved hishand. if composed correctly.it guides the readers mind towards the point the writer wishes to make or directs the direct the reader towards the understanding of that point.the quality that gives the paragraph a specific direction. Example of a Narrative Paragraph Larry suddenly woke up from a deep sleep. Rhetorical acts of paragraph writing Narration Narration paragraphs are most distinctively used in fiction. obstacle. Order . he thought. sequential order andchronology. For a moment. . At this point. The door to his room was closed. Give 2 examples per quality and explain how the quality is achieved. As such.Then again he heard the sound. and hecouldn’t figure out what time it was. goal. consequently. On seeing Larry. There are many descriptive elements included into the body of a narration paragraph but. He quickly got dressed and was . the manapproached his garden’s fence and whistled. He slowly got out of his bed and approached the bench right next to the window. climax andresolution. he heard a tapping sound coming from the attic. Writing a narration paragraph requires. the house was immersed in some sort of reckless silence. the paragraph will feature much more action than depiction.
place. Nothing was found. He got to the second floor of his house and looked toward the attic. the protagonist is Larry who is introduced at thevery beginning of the story. Elements of a Narrative Paragraph Narrative paragraphs contain several regular elements: Protagonist – in the above paragraph. . but he again heard someone murmuring in the other part of the house. Narrative paragraphs don’t need to be chronological. now buzzing.about the get down to open the gate. Description In a description paragraph. Climax – Larry trying to check what was causing the sound. Larry decided to go to the attic and see what was causing this. Action can use flashbacks and retrospectionin order to move the story forward. you may describe where a place is located. Sometimes. He quickly opened its door and looked inside. sound. from concentrating ongetting dressed are repeating bizarre sounds coming from all parts of the house. you are writing about what a person. Obstacle – what stops Larry from coming down. or thing is like. He called out to Nick to help him get up. it is also clear that it’s a two-storey house with an attic. Setting – Larry’s house is the setting. and earlier on. From the paragraph. He was about to turnback and attend to his guest when he. Resolution – Larry falls from the stairs and calls out to Nick to help him get up. suddenly. Goal – the goal of the story is Nick visiting Larry. reader can learn about his bedroom (where he woke up). slipped on the stairs and fell.and a fenced garden.
Each category is expanded into major supporting sentences. she is my sister. which appears to be pulled back around this slender face. letters that spell out BISON. you see her pale white face and dark brown eyes. painted. As you observe more.Examples: Back in 1999 this fearless athlete posed in this football picture. nonetheless. In the center of the picture. In the far distance below the cloudless sky stands an off-white stadium. To the left above the freshly trimmed green grass that engulfs this player’s figure lays a football. Embedded in the center is large. Margaret Eva Hoyt. Up in front stands the competitor down on one knee. blue. the sport player is wearing a blue Bison jersey sporting the number 60. Elements of Definition Paragraph Definition paragraphs contain the following elements: Explanation of meaning – the fragment above explains why certain celestial objects are called “dwarf planets”. all the confidence she carries on her padded up shoulders. The definition sentence becomes the topic sentence. 2005~ Definition The definition paragraph is a definition sentence which has been expanded into a paragraph. Her stern look shows how proud she is. . Around these features you can not help but notice the bronzed hair. and minor supporting sentences are added. This unique woman is not only elegant and brave. Beneath the old stadium are rows of wornout bleachers which are completely empty. ~© Kayla Marie Anfinson. Account of the origin of things – the fragment briefly recounts the history of astronomical scrutiny relating to dwarf planets. cracked.
Very often in social studies class. and treatment. Definition paragraph should. in severe cases. an intravenous fluid. symptoms. Patients can be treated with an oral rehydration solution or. Example: Cholera is an intestinal infection that can be described according to its cause. you will be asked to explore causes and effects of certain events. as well as other celestial objects.Method – the fragment explains how astronomical observations influenced contemporary knowledge of the solar system. Example: Since living conditions in Europe were terrible. you need to explain how or why something happens. called Vibrio cholera. or feces. Citing verifiable sources – the fragment contain references to encyclopedia. Example: People moved to Canada from Europe during the nineteenth century because they had poor living conditions in Europe. is the causative agent of cholera. water. Cholera patients may exhibit different symptoms that can vary from mild to severe. generally. A bacterium. Oral or intravenous replacement of fluids and salts as well as specific antibiotics is a possible treatment for cholera. many people . and denotes specifically what tools were used in the process. and other authoritative sources. It can be spread through contaminated food. Explanation In an explanation paragraph. Some symptoms are watery diarrhea and loss of water and salts. there could be quotations from dictionaries. provide information on how not to confuse different ideas. the idea of dwarf planets is explained through comparisons with regular planets. Examples and comparisons – in the fragment cited above.
first. In the point by point. Then the conclusion puts what your compairing or contrasting together. Example: Halifax. then brushing is the cause and whitening is the effect. A cause-and-effect paragraph helps a reader understand why things happen: the weakening of the ozone layer. There are two ways to write a paragraph. Finally.moved to Canada. Example: On the other hand. they can Spring weather in Vancouver is similar to spring weather in . winter is much colder in Halifax. the war in Vietnam. First. talking about topic A. and so on. the block paragraph only discusses one topic and then finishes the paragraph with the other subject that is to be compared or contrasted with the first. human behavior. Comparison and Contrast The Comparison paragraph compares two subjects and discusses how they are alike and lists a few examples. an effect is what results when that thing happens. there is the point by point paragraph and there is the blocked paragraph. then talk about topic B. In the contrast paragraph. then right back to topic A. listing a few examples. again. or the hard sciences. the spike in teenage obesity. If you brush your teeth and your teeth get whiter. Cause and Effect A cause makes a thing happen. While cause-and-effect paragraphs may be indispensable to writers who explain politics. two subjects are discussed as how they are different. writing back and forth between the two subjects..
frustrating. where generations of kids have found the world of academics foreign. it may have nothing to do with how my parents raised me and everything to do with my genes. the teacher can teach with a minimum of disruption—classrooms with four or more problem students reach a critical mass. Because many of these students cannot read a menu or calculate two-digit addition problems. where TV sets blare all day.also be misleading. most gifted teacher can endure more than a couple of years of . While the teachers union and some politicos have charged that the high attrition rate is due to the salary gap between city teachers and their brethren in the suburbs. have family problems that make it hard for them to sit still for five hours a day. Only the most patient.1 million public school students. fifty percent of all public school teachers leave the profession within their first five years on the job. for example. If I happen to be an honest fellow with good study habits and the ability to make friends. and many of them. and fruitless. and the simplest lesson becomes a test of wills between teacher and student. And while classrooms can absorb one or two of these kids—that is. they find long hours in the classroom tortuous. The bad kids tip the good kids. especially those in poor neighborhoods. where no parent or older sibling has a college degree. and an excellent way to predict future trends Example: In New York City. There are approximately 1. a cause-and-effect paragraph can be a valuable tool for explaining outcomes and trends. Nevertheless. it may have nothing to do with the quality of teaching and everything to do with students the school has recruited. These students may come from homes with no books. the real problem is student behavior. If a school. has high reading scores.
liveliness. Writers often use illustration to develop a paragraph. Stuyvesant. doers of unnecessary errands. associates. and power to your writing. rearrange offices. The body should have approximately three vivid and exact examples that support the topic sentence. she flees for greener pastures —schools like Bronx Science. Illustration makes what we say more vivid and more exact. A topic sentence. becomes a form of slumming. They sharpen wellpointed pencils and go out to buy more blank paper. Many of these novices don’t know their subjects and don’t know how to control a room filled with difficult kids. chop wood. a story that illustrates the topic sentence. walk. drive. make unnecessary calls. The result is alarming: perhaps half of the city’s 1000 schools have green-horn teachers with only a few years experience. If she wants to keep teaching. Examples: "Even the most productive writers are expert dawdlers. Illustration To illustrate is to explain a general statement by means of more specific examples. the teaching profession. seekers of interruptions--trials to their wives or husbands. or something to do until you grow up—like the Peace Corps or the army. An illustration paragraph usually contains: 1. Many soon find non-teaching jobs. Detailed and well-chosen examples add interest. Midwood—or a school in Westchester. A single example may also be a Narrative. and themselves. at least the way it’s practiced in New York City. daydream. nap. 2. As a result. and try not 'consciously' to think about what they are going to write so they can think . 3.these daily battles. The examples should be put in order of importance and separated by a transitional expression. wander through libraries and bookstores.
The actions are put in a sequence. or cause and effect writing as both facilitate accurate exposition of the subject-matter. It can contain elements of comparison and contrast. It’s written in order to clarify or explain problems and phenomena." Process Analysis A process analysis paragraph describes how a process happens. This type of paragraphs are usually followed by illustration. through a series of actions. this kind of a paragraph is used as a component of other types of writing.subconsciously about it. tips on how to achieve effective paragraphing using each of the acts. give 2 sample effective paragraphs developed through each act and explain how they are achieved. provide concrete definition of each act. . as they help in understanding the process better Exemplification Often times. For the rhetorical acts. Writing exposition paragraphs requires strict focus on evidence and objective language.
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