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Dramaturgy is the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. Dramaturgy is a distinct practice separate from play writing and directing, although a single individual may perform any combination of the three. Some dramatists combine writing and dramaturgy when creating a drama. Others work with a specialist, called a dramaturg, to adapt a work for the stage. Dramaturgy may also be defined, more broadly, as shaping a story into a form that may be acted. Dramaturgy gives the work or the performance a structure.
History of dramaturgy
The term "dramaturgy" was created by the German dramatist Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. From 17671770 he wrote and published a series of criticisms entitled the Hamburg Dramaturgy (Hamburgische Dramaturgie). These works analyzed, criticized and theorized the German theatre, and make Lessing the father of modern Dramaturgy. Another important work to the Western theatre tradition work is the Poetics by Aristotle (written around 335 BC). In this work Aristotle analyses tragedy. He considers Oedipus Rex (c. 429 BC) as the quintessential dramatic work. He analyses the relations between character, action, and speech. He gives examples of what he considers to be good plots and examines the reactions the plays provoke in the audience. Many of his "rules" are often associated with "Aristotelian drama", where deus ex machina is a weakness and where the action is structured economically. Many key concepts of drama, such as anagnorisis and catharsis, are discussed in the Poetics. In the last century Aristotle's analysis has formed the basis for numerous TV and film-writing guides. The Poetics is the earliest surviving Western work of dramatic theory. Probably the earliest non-Western dramaturgic work is the Indian Sanskrit "Natayasatra" ('The Art of Theatre') written about 100 AD which describes the elements, forms and narrative elements of the major ten types of ancient Indian dance dramas.
Practice of Dramaturgy
Dramaturgy is a comprehensive exploration of the context in which the play resides. The dramaturg is the resident expert on the physical, social, political, and economic milieus in which the action takes place, the psychological underpinnings of the characters, the various metaphorical expressions in the play of thematic concerns; as well as on the technical consideration of the play as a piece of writing: structure, rhythm, flow, even individual word choices. Institutional dramaturgs may participate in many phases of play production including casting of the play, offering inhouse criticism of productions-in-progress, and informing the director, the cast and the audience about a play s past history and its current importance. In America, this type of dramaturgy is sometimes known as Production Dramaturgy. Institutional or Production dramaturgs may make files of materials about a play's history or social context, prepare program notes, lead post-production discussions, write study guides for schools and groups. These actions can assist a director in integrating
therefore a facilitator of the process. for 15% of the royalties of Angels in America go to the author's dramaturg. Dramaturgy can also be referred to dance and performing arts in general. Jonathan Larson's dramaturg on the musical Rent. Bojana Cvejic. In 2006. Andre Lepecki is present throughout the entire rehearsal process and offers feedback to Meg Stuart outside the studio. Although she made her claim only after the show became a big hit. The aim is to impart a comprehensive knowledge of theatre and dramatic literature knowledge necessary to the dramaturg. strengthening and developing moments of material.F. DRAMATURGY & DRAMATIC CRITICISM CATHERINE SHEEHY. such as the case of Larson and Thomson. and the teacher.F. Copyright Since dramaturgy is defined in a general way and the function of a dramaturg may vary from production to production. Lynn Thomson. the dramaturg of Xavier Le Roy. licensed or otherwise transferred her rights.A. and historical research into a production before it opens. claimed that she was a co-author of the work and that she never assigned. to teach theatre as practitioners. sees herself as someone that creates conditions for the work. critics. Some example are: Heidi Gilpin. there was debate based on the question of the extent to which a dramaturg owns a production. mathematical or scientific--into an understanding that offers a common ground that facilitate INTERACTION between her and world-famous choreographer Forsythe. the case is not without precedent. On June 19. and in related positions. the writer and editor.  The case was ultimately settled out of court with Thomson receiving an undisclosed sum after she threatened to remove her material from the production. to work in theatre publishing as critics and editors as well as in other capacities. She asked that the court declare her a co-author of Rent and grant her 16% of the author's share of the royalties.) Students in the Dramaturgy and Dramatic Criticism department receive intensive training to prepare for careers in three areas: to work in theatres as dramaturgs.textual and acting criticism. At the core of the training are seminars in literature. artistic producers. and history offered by the department s faculty. the US copyright issues have very vague borders.A. Hildegard De Vuyst is the first SPECTATOR. CHAIR (M. 1998 the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed the original court's ruling that Thompson was not entitled to be credited with co-authorship of Rent and that she was not entitled to royalties. These may be supplemented by courses taught elsewhere in the University if approved by students advisers. literary managers. playing the part of the witness in the creative process. theory and criticism. . and D. and scholars. who translates ideas--linguistic. performance theory.
A. a student is eligible to register to remain in residence for the proposal year to apply to the Doctor of Fine Arts (D. preproduction and rehearsal work on issues of design.Regarding the latter. and full productions by School of Drama directors. Qualified students also have the opportunity to work in various capacities for Theater.A. and as production dramaturgs. Yale School of Drama hopes to remain at the forefront in helping new organizational models to be discovered and explored.F. students are assigned to work on many varied productions. These courses are designed to improve skills in thinking and writing. which are taught by various members of the faculty. workshops.F. translation and adaptation. In recognition of the fact that in recent years dramaturgs have not only assumed the leadership of theatres under such titles as artistic director and producer but have also founded theatres themselves. Upon acceptance of the proposal by the D. Thus students are trained both as institutional dramaturgs. Students also assist in Yale Repertory Theatre s literary office with script evaluation and communication with writers and agents. the student is expected to complete the dissertation within two years. and professional presentations of classical and contemporary works at Yale Rep itself.A. and are an essential component in the faculty s evaluation of students progress from term to term. and performance. Dissertation proposal guidelines are available through the department. program and study guide notes and preparation. Yale School of Drama has been a pioneer in this country in introducing and establishing the dramaturg as an essential presence in the creation of theatre and as a key member of a theatre s staff. and related work in conjunction with the marketing and media departments. a leading international journal of contemporary criticism and plays published by Yale School of Drama/Yale Repertory Theatre and Duke University Press. through which the art of theatre will continue to flourish. the conducting of audience discussions. degree and graduation from Yale School of Drama. and which students must take in each of their six terms. students are encouraged to take select courses offered by the Theater Management department. By fostering this interchange. collaborating on the formulation of artistic policy and its communication and implementation. participation in educational outreach programs. operating within the rehearsal process. every effort is made to give qualified students teaching experience within the University. Of particular importance in the program are the criticism workshops. . committee.F.) program. Among the areas in which students participate are text preparation and oversight. Under the supervision of the resident dramaturg of Yale Repertory Theatre. direction. Upon completion of the Dramaturgy and Dramatic Criticism program requirements for an M. contextual research. Historically. including those of new scripts by School of Drama playwrights.
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