Topic : Virus Semester: 1 Year :2010-2011

Name : Mayank Bhatia Roll no: 05 Class : F.Y.BMS
Div :A

Professer : Sign :


with a key striking an inked impression on paper for each printed character . but more frequently are purchased separately. usually to standard size sheets of paper. The dot-matrix printer was a popular low-cost personal computer printer. In general. Printers are sometimes sold with computers. and the laser printer . and cost. It's an impact printer that strikes the paper a line at a time. sophistication. Printers vary in size. The laser printer uses a laser beam reflected from a mirror to attract ink (called toner ) to selected paper areas as a sheet rolls over a drum. The bestknown non-impact printers are the inkjet printer. of which several makes of low-cost color printers are an example. Early impact printers worked something like an automatic typewriter. more expensive printers are used for higher-resolution color printing. speed. Personal computer printers can be distinguished as impact or non-impact printers. The inkjet sprays ink from an ink cartridge at very close range to the paper as it rolls by. It can also be defined as a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers the information to paper.Printer A printer is an output device that produces text and graphics on paper. Major types of printer .

Photo printers and portable printers usually use inkjet print method whereas multifunction printers may use inkjet or laser print method. such as photo printers. In the first . Computer printers are commonly divided into two general classes according to the way they produce images on paper: impact and nonimpact. Among these. Some printers are named because they are designed for specific functions. Dot matrix printer was popular in 70 s and 80 s but has been gradually replaced by inkjet printers for home use.Printers can be divided into two main groups. Due to the popularity of digital camera. However. laser printer. cash registers and point-of-sales terminals. Inkjet printers and laser printers are the most popular printer types for home and business use. The use of thermal printers is limited to ATM. Nonimpact printer produces text and graphics on paper without actually striking the paper. portable printers and all-in-one / multifunction printers. the demand for photo printers. impact printer and nonimpact printer. Some label printers and portable printers also use thermal printing. portable printers and multifunction printers has also increased substantially in recent years. only dot-matrix printer is impact printer and the others are non-impact printers. they are still being used to print multi-part forms and carbon copies for some businesses. Impact printer produces text and images when tiny wire pins on print head strike the ink ribbon by physically contacting the paper. laptop and SoHo office (small office / home office). The most popular ones are inkjet printer. Printers can also be categorized based on the print method or print technology. dotmatrix printer and thermal printer.

it struck an inked ribbon and transferred a single dot the size of the pinhead to the paper. . The mechanism consists either of print hammers shaped like characters or of a print head containing a row of pins that produce a pattern . As each pin was driven forward. in which a small number of pins were driven into a desired pattern by an electromagnetic printhead . hence the name dot matrix. Multiple dots combined into a matrix to form characters and graphics. Early printers often used a process known as impact printing. images are formed by the print mechanism making contact with the paper through an ink-coated ribbon.type.

. it is the most common type of printer used in direct marketing. and impact printers began declining in popularity. custom-sized pages and produce carbon copies. computers were not widely use by businesses or available for consumer use. Advantages Impact printers have some advantages. laser and inkjet printers became available. renewal notices. They are less expensive . The print quality is dependent upon the quality of the machine and ink ribbon used but is typically not as consistent as the quality achieved by ink-jet printers or laser printers. Impact printers are used to print cheshire labels. Later.e. one line at a time. direct-mail advertising letters and forms. History The first impact printer was put into use in 1953 by the Remington Rand computer-manufacturing company. not from top to bottom). Daisy-wheel and line printers were introduced in the 1970s. However. The type may be encased in a print chain or print drum. IBM created the first dotmatrix printer in 1957. They can print large. despite their limitations in the areas of features and speed. invoices. Xerox incorporated the "daisy-wheel" technology into typewriters. and so forth. At this time. because of the low equipment cost. An impact printer automatically feeds continuous forms through as it prints. it can print only across the page. in contrast to a laser printer that prints the entire page at once. Impact printing is slower than laser printing (2000 lines per minute versus two 8l/20 3 110 pages per second). thanks to the lower cost of printer ribbons. It also does not have as much flexibility with respect to type fonts and image orientation (i. By the 1980s. .Impact printer Computer-driven high-speed printer that operates like a typewriter in that it strikes a type character against paper with an inked ribbon in between. and are easier to maintain than their laser and inkjet counterparts.

Impact printer includes 3 types : 1) Dot Matrix 2) Daisy Wheel 3) Line Printer .

it is not customary to call them dot matrix printers. causing grit to adhere to it. As the ink is running out. on the page and prints by impact. it is generally due to ink invading the guide plate of the print head. Facing the ribbon and the paper is a small guide plate (often made of an artificial jewel such as sapphire or ruby pierced with holes to serve as guides for the pins. striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper. providing less and less accurate guidance to the printing wires. also called a "wire" or "pin". this grit slowly causes the channels in the guide plate to wear from circles into ovals or slots. Although nearly all inkjet. others have a few interleaved rows in order to improve dot density. and thus. Impact printers have one of the lowest printing costs per page. these printers can create carbon copies and carbonless copies. varied fonts and arbitrary graphics can be produced. Eventually. the printing becomes too unclear to read. and when running the printer as a generic text device generally prints one line of text at a time. These machines can be highly durable. can print on multi.Dot matrix printer A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer is a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth. thermal. The moving portion of the printer is called the print head. Each dot is produced by a tiny metal rod. like any impact printer. the printout gradually fades . or in an up and down motion. and laser printers print closely-spaced dots rather than continuous lines or characters. Advantage Dot matrix printers. However. even with tungsten blocks and titanium pawls. Most dot matrix printers have a single vertical line of dot-making equipment on their print heads. which is driven forward by the power of a tiny electromagnet or solenoid. unlike a typewriter or daisy wheel printer. When they do wear out. either directly or through small levers (pawls).part stationery or make carbon-copies. much like the print mechanism on a typewriter. Because the printing involves mechanical pressure. letters are drawn out of a dot matrix.

mailing labels). as with a Fire Alarm Control Panel's output. reliable workhorses ideal for use in situations where printed content is more important than quality. forming words on the page. this unique property allows the dot-matrix printer to be used in environments where printer duty can be rare. For text-only labels (e.g. and lower speeds compared to non-impact printers. The daisy wheel itself was . Its average speed is 10 to 75 characters per second. While they support fanfold paper with tractor holes well. which is relatively time-consuming. They are able to use continuous paper rather than requiring individual sheets. The wheels turn until the correct character lines up and strikes the ink on the printer ribbon. or a sheet feeder may be utilized which can have a lower paper feed reliability. It has upper/lower case letters and punctuation-symbol keys in a raised stamp form on plastic wheels. they are prone to paper jams when a print wire snags the leading edge of the label while printing at its very edge. When printing labels on release paper. They are good. making them useful for data logging. Disadvantages Impact printers create noise when the pins or typeface strike the ribbon to the paper. with no variance in fonts or graphic capability. a daisy wheel printer or band printer may offer better print quality and a lesser chance of damaging the paper. Daisy wheel printers were no exception. singlesheet paper may have to be wound in and aligned by hand. Sound dampening enclosures may have to be used in quiet environments. Early printers were often little more than electric typewriters connected to a computer.rather than suddenly stopping partway through a job.. including both the ribbon stored in the casing as well as the portion that is stretched in front of the print head. with limited color performance. limited quality. This legacy printer is very slow and loud. for instance. They can only print lower-resolution graphics. The ink ribbon also does not easily dry out. Daisy Wheel A daisy-wheel printer works like a manual typewriter.

Daisy wheel printers had the advantage of being able to produce letter-quality text (unlike dot matrix printers. Advantages They're very fast and also impact printers. Due to their design. Typical main-frame line printers (IBM) use a metal "band saw" character loop. To print. daisy wheel printers were slow. which created fuzzy. then you must use an impact printer. On the downside. A raised letter or character resided at the outer end of each strip. and were often incredibly loud. If your needs require multi-part forms. The band spins at several RPS and as each letter aligns with the column it's intended to . typically 132 columns. printing one line at a time. couldn't print graphics. As the drum rotates. The line printer is still found in some businesses due to its durability and ease of use. words are formed on the page. and solenoids for each character position. forcing the character through an inked ribbon and onto the paper. either dasiy wheel or dot matrix. low-quality characters).simply a metal or plastic disk sliced into thin strips toward the center. Line Printer A line printer uses a long drum imprinted with raised characters. sounding like a long string of firecrackers as they rat-atatted through documents. they require special paper with pre-punched holes on the sides that attach to the printer by raised grooves. Line printers have limited font availability and no graphic capability. the printer would spin the wheel to the correct character. and a hammer would strike it. The drum moves in a horizontal direction.

be. faster than most other technology. 10 lines per second is typical and the sound is quite high. Since each letter passes each column several times per second. the entire line of print can be struck at once. can print multi-part forms. cannot use other than standard widths {17"} typical. An office desk takes up the same or less space. something only impact printers can do. onto the paper. . loud. and is pretty specialized to the system being used. the solenoid. entire lines at once is impressive. necessitating heavy sound insulation. or hammer behind that column fires striking the letter through the ink ribbon. Watching one print 10 lines per second. No color other than black. are large. and something not available in the general retail system. Disadvantages: The standard "line printer" can only use pin feed paper. Summarizing: They're very fast. The speed is obvious.

while laser printers use a cylindrical drum that rolls electrically charged ink onto the paper. Types Types of non-impact printers include: 1) Ink-jet printers 2) Laser printers 3)Thermal printers. . Most modern printers. since they operated by striking an ink ribbon against the paper. Non-impact printers are generally much quieter than impact printers since they don't physically strike the page.Non impact printers Early printers. Function On an impact printer. inkjet printers spray tiny drops of ink onto the page. On a non-impact printer. Both of these methods are nonimpact and provide an efficient printing process that produces little sound. including inkjet and laser printers. For example. the print head comes in direct contact with the paper. non-impact printers are popular with both professionals and consumers. The low impact nature of inkjet and laser printers also means they are less likely to need maintenance or repairs than earlier impact printers Non-impact printers give both higher print quality and faster printing speed than impact printers. such as dot matrix and daisywheel printers were called impact printers. Because of this. don't include an ink ribbon and are considered to be non-impact printers. the type is formed without the print head coming into direct physical contact with the paper.

. Ink-jet printers offer a nice compromise between print quality and price. If speed and quality are more important than cost. dripped or electrostatically drawn onto the page. Considerations When choosing a non-impact printer. faster printing and the ability to create prints that contain sophisticated graphics. Laser printers are available in black and white or color (used for graphics). Technology Non-impact printers use either solid or liquid cartridge-based ink. take into consideration how you will be using it. Maintenance Non-impact printers typically require little maintenance beyond replacing the print or toner cartridges. you might need a laser printer. This ink is either sprayed.Benefits Non-impact printers offer better print quality. such as photographs.

Epson.87 range are reported for various printers.0) the higher the spatial resolution of the print. modulations in the 0. four manufacturers account for the majority of inkjet printer sales: Canon. Hewlett-Packard. Starting in the late 1970s inkjet printers that could reproduce digital images generated by computers were developed. mainly by Epson. In the worldwide consumer market. Technologies There are two main technologies in use in contemporary inkjet printers: continuous (CIJ) and Drop-on-Demand (DOD). and Lexmark .0 lines/mm range. Print quality A method to quantify the spatial resolution of printed inkjet images is described in Tunable Laser Applications. . This method consists in printing transmission gratings with the inkjet printer to be assessed and measuring the modulation of laser light in an N-Slit interferometer. The closer the measured modulation is to unity (~ 1.71-0. For gratings with spatial frequencies in the 0. Inkjet printers are the most common type of printer and range from small inexpensive consumer models to very large and expensive professional machines.Ink-jet Printer An inkjet printer is a type of computer printer that reproduces a digital image by propelling variably-sized droplets of liquid material (ink) onto a page. Hewlett-Packard and Canon.25-5. Drop-on-demand is further divided into thermal DOD and piezoelectric DOD. The concept of inkjet printing dates back to the 19th century and the technology was first developed in the early 1950s.

called internal or resident fonts. there also exist color laser printers that use four toners to print in full color. Because an entire page is transmitted to a drum before the toner is applied. Once the drum is charged. laser printers are sometimes called page printers. the toner is transferred to the paper through a combination of heat and pressure. The available resolutions range from 300 dpi at the low end to 1. The drum is then rolled through a reservoir of toner.400 dpi.Laser printers A type of printer that utilizes a laser beam to produce an image on a drum.200 dpi at the high end. Laser printers produce very high-quality print and are capable of printing an almost unlimited variety of fonts. which uses a single toner. By comparison.200 or 2. One of the chief characteristics of laser printers is their resolution -. they both operate like a real laser printer. In addition to the standard monochrome laser printer. There are two other types of page printers that fall under the category of laser printers even though they do not use lasers at all. This is also the way copy machines work. offset printing usually prints at 1. One uses an array of LEDs to expose the drum. .how many dots per inch (dpi) they lay down. however. Finally. Some laser printers achieve higher resolutions with special techniques known generally as resolution enhancement. Most laser printers come with a basic set of fonts. The light of the laser alters the electrical charge on the drum wherever it hits. which is picked up by the charged portions of the drum. tend to be about five to ten times as expensive as their monochrome siblings. and the other uses LCDs .

This is because the laser beam transfers the image to be replicated very precisely on to the paper. Rather than just print a section of a page as an inkjet printer does. This means that it is a lot freer and that it can practically serve more people at one time if they are all working together in a small office. Another benefit of using a laser printer is that it is more precise then other types of printers. This is because expensive ink cartridges can be used up very quickly. especially if you are printing in color. A laser can move very quickly so it can transfer information incredibly quickly to the paper.Advantages Laser printers are known for their speed. You can easily refill or replace the toner cartridges that are filled with a fine powder. This fine powder is much easier to clean up then ink that can be spilled everywhere as you attempt to fill the cartridge from an ink jet printer. This makes it much easier to print graphics mixed with text that are designed with a computer program. It doesn't cost as much to keep the machine running. which saves the spilling of any extra ink. a laser printer allows you to print an entire page at a time. In general laser printers can often hold more ink and can go longer without needing any kind of toner cartridge change or paper filling. In terms of cost. the use of toner in a laser printer is much cheaper than the ink cartridges that are used in inkjet printers over the long run. Another benefit of laser printers is that many of them are very modern and energy efficient. Yet another convenience when it comes to using laser printers is that they are less messy to deal with this. . but especially inkjet and impact style printers.

pressing onto a paper or plastic label. 6 inches or 8 inches wide. Special paper that is chemically treated is used by direct thermal printers. most have now standardised on these sizes. Although a number of manufacturers have made differing sizes in the past.Thermal printers. Between the print head and the label is sandwiched a very thin thermal transfer ribbon (or sometimes called "foil"). Usage of TT printers in industry includes: y y Barcode labels (as labels printed with thermal printer tend not to last long). The printers use a fixed with thermal print head. or for marking clothing labels (shirt size etc) Printing plastic labels for chemical containers (because the cheaper types of plastic would melt in a laser printer) Barcode printers typically come in fixed sizes of 4 inches. It contrasts with direct thermal printing where no ribbon is present in the process. Thermal printers consists of two types. which is a polyester film which has been coated on the label side with a wax. It was invented by SATO corporation around the late 1940s. at speeds of up to 12 inches per second Process Heat is the process that thermal printers use to create an image. over a driven rubber roller called a platen. The ribbon is spooled onto reels up to 625 meters (1965 feet) long and is driven through the printing mechanism in sync with the labels. wax-resin or pure resin "ink". A thermal transfer printer is a printer which prints on paper (or some other material) by melting a coating of ribbon so that it stays glued to the material on which the print is applied. The main application for these printers is to produce barcode labels for product and shipping identification. and when heat is applied . thermal transfer (also known as thermal wax) and direct thermal (also known as thermal autochrome).

Both designs utilize similar types of heating elements. and for the section that it is heated the paper changes color to form images or text. . Conversely. The paper is pulled across a heating element within the printer through the use of rollers. thermal transfer printers hold the ink on a ribbon in place of on the paper itself which is then transferred to the paper when it is the paper it changes colors.