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Business Administration An Analysis of the Relationship between Market Orientation and Business Performance in the Tire Industry Mariane

L. Galicia1 and Emmanuel J. Lopez2 First Rubber Manufacturing Co., Inc,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study aims to examine the link of market orientation and business performance in the context of Philippine tire industry. A structured questionnaire was prepared using a seven point Likert scale and distributed to the Owners and top management officers of companies specifically members of the Tire Manufacturing Association of the Philippines, and Tire Importation and Traders Association of the Philippines. The reliability of data was analyzed using Cronbachs Alpha. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to check the validity of measured variables in this study. LISREL (8.30) was used to test research hypothesis in this study. This study supports the positive effect of market orientation in business performance. Tire companies in the Philippines should continue their efforts in being more market oriented. This means however, that there is an extremely urgent need of adaptation and even changing the archaic in their companies, in order to be market driven. Inventory Management Practices of Selected Tertiary Private Hospitals in Metro Manila and the Impact on Efficiency and Profitability Jerrilee M. Laspinas1 and Enrico Torres2 US Embassy-Dept. of Veterans Affairs1 , The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This research is an evaluation of the practices in inventory management of pharmaceuticals in selected tertiary private hospitals in Metro Manila. The inventory management of pharmaceuticals is a special and important part of the operation of a successful hospital pharmacy. The Pharmacy Service is an essential facet of the total hospital care delivery system. The practice of pharmacy, like any other field of medicine or science, is dynamic and ever-changing. Among the many problems facing hospital pharmacy today, the challenge of maintaining the appropriate inventory investment and providing superior pharmaceutical services in a cost effective manner is perhaps the most critical. The inefficient use of capital in general, specifically in inventory management is the cause of many of the problems in hospital pharmacy. The utilization of capital in terms of better control of inventory activity through more efficient control techniques will support essential funding that will cater to new and traditional pharmaceutical services at a competitive price.

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A Comparative Analysis of the Performance Measures of Disabled and Non-Disabled Employees of Selected Food Service Establishments in Metro Manila Kathrine Camille A. Nagal1 and Conrado T. Montemayor2 Siena College, Quezon City1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are often regarded as unemployable mostly due to the negative connotation that any PWD presents himself as more of a liability than an asset and is usually dismissed as either less productive or unproductive as compared to the abled employees. This study focused on the deaf / hearing-impaired group of PWDs and aimed to prove that the negative branding towards PWD employability is nothing but a common misconception towards them. As this is essentially a pioneering research regarding the employability of the deaf vs. the hearing employees, the most basic methods of data gathering in research were employed. Paired data samples were gathered using a survey with a 5-point likert scale to evaluate the general work performances of the groups under study. Participatory observation was also used to confirm survey results, proving that PWDs are no different than abled persons, and in some cases, are even more productive that their abled counterparts. Sustainability Orientation of the Eye Bank Foundation of the Philippines: Comparative Return on Equity Before and After Full Autonomy Bernardita C. Navarro1 and Conrado T. Montemayor2 Eye Bank Foundation of the Philippines1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The Eye Bank provides sclera and corneal tissue locally and in the international community. The binding importance of profit in a not-for-profit enterprise is needed to maintain and improve its operation. The financial statement of the organization from 1994 to 2009 is reviewed. The study showed that the averages of the return on equity (ROE) before and after full autonomy are similar. Before the autonomy, the variance of the average is 0.03 while the variance after autonomy is 0.002. The variance of ROE before the autonomy is 1400% higher compared to the variance during the full autonomy period. A stable ROE gives a better predictability when expanding the social venture.

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The Integration of Value Creation Efficiency and Corporate Governance in Relation to Corporate Performance Fanny Soewignyo1 and Alvin P. Ang2 Universitas Klabat,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The main interest of this study is to discover the inter-relationship between value creation efficiency namely the value added intellectual coefficient, corporate governance and corporate performance, and to discover the determinant factors to improve corporate performance. In order to test the model empirically, secondary data were collected from Indonesia Stock Exchange and the websites of the listed financial sector. The hypotheses were tested using regression analysis and equation modeling. This dissertation seeks to contribute to the literature in the area of accounting, finance, management and intellectual capital by developing an integrated model of value added intellectual coefficient (VAICTM), corporate governance and the corporate performance. By building the model on the basis of received theories and empirical research in related fields, and by testing the model and hypotheses, the present study hopes to create a better understanding of value creation efficiency, corporate governance and corporate performance. The Ease of Doing Business: Assessing the Subic-Clark Experiences Aileen C. Maniti1 and Fernando L. Trinidad2 Subic-Clark Alliance for Development,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The Subic-Clark Freeport Zones are the home of 1,488 investors with more than 60 billion pesos of investment value. The Freeport Zone Authorities recognize the need to constantly upgrade policies ensuring an environment conducive for investment. It is, therefore, the goal of this study to assist the Freeport Zones in this effort by identifying and evaluating the Ease of Doing Business Policies of Subic-Clark to ascertain best practices that are influential in attracting investment inflow. The determinants of Ease of Doing Business are Business Entry, Employing Workers, and Tax/Customs Administration. To do this, it shall qualitatively and quantitatively compare the policies among Subic-Clark, the Philippines in general, ASEAN members, and World Banks 50 most competitive nations. The results of the qualitative analysis found that Subic-Clark Business Entry Policy is above the industry standard because the number of procedures required to register a business is only 5, compared to the industry average of 6.28 steps. New Zealand topped the rank with only 1 step required, Singapore has 3 steps, and the Philippines has 15 steps. In the quantitative analysis, initial results from the Stochastic Frontier Regression reveal that Tax/Customs Administration has the most significant influence in attracting investment inflow. Both the numbers of export and import documents are significant at 1%, this implies that a decrease in the number of required documents is an increase to investment inflow. Significant at 5%, the results further reveal that Employing Workers has considerable influence over investment inflow.

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Measuring Operational Efficiency of Multiple Brands under the Bistro Group of Restaurants using Data Envelopment Analysis and Balanced Scorecard Approach Abba Gladys O. Borgonos and Ma. Socorro P. Calara The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The restaurant business in the Philippines today has a great mix of old favorite brands to new fusion concept chains. Given the wide variety of food selection, it is evident how the Filipino taste has grown from a home-grown taste to a global palate. The Bistro Group of Restaurants alone, has introduced 7 brands since the 1990s where no brand is similar with another. They continue to enjoy growth through expansion of their product that is restaurant concepts. The purpose of this research study is to provide the Bistro Group, strategies and recommendations in operations improvement so that they can continue to grow into another decade. The study provides an analysis in the application of DEA (data envelopment analysis) in measuring efficient and inefficient business units among brands in the Bistro Group of Restaurants and balanced scorecard to provide for strategies in achieving maximum efficiency across all restaurant brands and branches. A SWOT analysis will be drawn from the balanced scorecard which will be used in making recommendations for management. Intra-industry Effects of Completed and Cancelled Cross Border Acquisitions in the Philippines: A Test of the Acquisition Probability Hypothesis Frederick Romero and Candy L. Chiu2 Thomson Reuters Incorporated1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study uses the Acquisition Probability Hypothesis to analyze the consequences of crossborder acquisitions on the cumulative daily abnormal returns of target firms and their rivals from 1990 through 2009. Accordingly, rival firms of initial acquisition targets receive abnormal returns because of the increased likelihood that they will be targets themselves. The descriptive research design is used. The sampling frame includes all completed and cancelled acquisitions coursed through the Philippine stock exchange. The statistical tools used include the t-test and the F-test. Significance is set at five per cent, two-tailed. The results show that the target firms rivals realized significantly negative abnormal returns following both the acquisition proposal and termination announcements. The results also indicate that, as the length of the time windows increases, the Cumulative Daily Abnormal Returns of the firms after the announcement date become less alike than their Cumulative Daily Abnormal Returns before the announcement date.

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Banks, Stock Market and Economic Growth: The South East Asian Case Francis Ian R. Quesada and Virgilio M. Tatlonghari The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT This study focuses mainly on the possible catalytic role of the stock markets and banking institutions in enhancing the growth potential of countries. The researcher shall limit the measurement of the banking variable to the growth of assets of the banking institution and the stock market variable to the growth of trade volumes of the market. The data used by the researcher cover only a selected number of countries in Southeast Asia, those that have existing stock markets and banking institutions for period 2003-2008. The regression analysis is used in order to see how the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variable unfolds. The Granger Causality Test will be used to test the following: whether the independent variables cause the dependent variable; whether the dependent variable causes the movement of the independent variables or both.The findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between the independent variables and that of Gross Domestic Product. Also, there is a two-way causality between the Stock Market and Gross Domestic Product. The Rationalization of Selected Government-Owned and Controlled Corporations in the Housing Sector: An Impact Assessment
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Marian Sarah M. Cachuela1 and Virgilio M. Tatlonghari2 Department of Budget and Management; 2The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT

Almost all government administrations, like business enterprises, invariably conduct review and assessment of its various organizational units and their operations and functions. During the incumbency of the Arroyo Administration, one such program geared towards streamlining the bureaucracy is the Rationalization Program (RP) which was implemented under Executive Order No. 366 in 2004. This covers practically the entire Executive Branch of the Philippine Government. In addition, the RP also included government-owned and controlled corporations (GOCCs). Although owned and managed by the government, GOCCs enjoy fiscal autonomy and operational flexibility. Notwithstanding the autonomy granted, many of the GOCCs continue to receive budgetary support from the government in the form of equity subsidies, and other forms. In just a few months after assuming the helm of government, the Aquino administration has disclosed the scandalous abuses by certain GOCCs of their financial and functional freedom as revealed in the perks and allowances that their officials and board members received despite the fact that they continue to receive government budgetary support. This brings to the fore the urgency of the RP even more. This study intends to find out whether or not the implementation of the RP in three (3) selected GOCCs under the housing sector, namely- the Home Development Mutual Fund, the Home Guaranty Corporation and the National Home Mortgage and Financial Corporation, has significantly affected their financial and operational performance. A descriptive-correlational approach will be adopted in this study. Data will be sourced from Annual Audited Reports,

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Corporate Operating Budgets, Yearly Reports from the GOCCs and other documents from Fiscal Years 2001 to 2010 of the concerned agencies to come up with relevant financial ratios and regression analysis for a comparative assessment. Evaluating the Performance Efficiency of Selected Private Cooperatives with Credit and Savings Functions in Metro Manila: A DEA Approach Michael M. Dalimot1 and Mary Caroline N. Castao2 UST Accounting Division1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Cooperatives became a means by which low and middle-income people could continue to accumulate economic advantages and their ultimate goal is to serve the needs of its members (Simmons and Birchall, 2008). Cooperatives form federations to provide advisory work relating to its member cooperatives. The performance efficiency of 44 cooperatives affiliated with the National Capital Region League of the Philippine Federation of Credit Cooperatives (NCRL-PFCCO) was measured by the input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis, Variable Returns to Scale (VRS), Radial model. The DEA program used was the Efficiency Measurement System (EMS). Period of study was 2005-2009. Initial results showed that 36% (16 out of 44) cooperatives were efficient during the five-year period of study, with three cooperatives: CANAWA, Wyeth and YKL Colors attaining this level of efficiency during the entire period of study. The input and output improvement of the inefficient cooperatives was considered. The over-all average efficiency of the cooperatives was 64%. A Comparative Assessment of the Operation and Performance of Foreign and Domestic Commercial Banks in the Philippines Lolimar M. Lozano1 and Virgilio M. Tatlonghari2 Eastwest Banking Corp.,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The internationalization of the banking sector has been spurred by the liberalization of financial markets worldwide. Developed and developing countries alike now increasingly allow banks to be foreign-owned and allow foreign entry on a national treatment basis (Claessens, et al. 2000). Hence, the descriptive-comparative method was used to compare the performances of foreign and domestic commercial banks in the Philippines, which primarily focuses on their return on equity and other vital corporate development indices. The historical performance level and comparison of the foreign and domestic commercial banks in the Philippines in terms of total asset, total capitalization, total liabilities, total deposits total loans and return on equity were done in the study. Finally, the study provided recommended suggestions to improve the operation and performance of the foreign and domestic commercial banks.

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Analysis of a Dual Income Tax System for the Philippines Mercedita L. Olan and Tomas S. Tiu The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The Philippine national government experienced large and unsustainable budget deficits in the recent years due to poor tax collection efforts. An appropriate question is whether the present comprehensive income tax system is still responsive to the current requirements of the economy or there is now a need for tax reform to improve the nations poor fiscal performance. This paper analyzes the features of the dual income tax system implemented since 1990s in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) where income from capital is taxed at a low rate and income from labor is taxed progressively. A review of the economic performance of these countries after the tax reforms is also made. There is a lively and persistent debate for developing countries to reduce taxation on capital income to encourage direct investments and in an effort to compete globally by broadening the tax base and lowering effective tax rates on income. This study intends to use multiple regression to benchmark the dual income tax rates with the present income tax rates.

Determinants of Auto Loan Portfolio in the Philippines from 2000 to 2009 Ma. Kristine L. Mabulac1 and Mary Caroline N. Castao2 BPI Family Savings Bank,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Consumer lending in the Philippines is still emerging as consumer loans accounted for only 10% of the total bank lending and less than 5% of the GDP. With this, there is a strong demand for consumer loans as created by the consumption-driven nature of the economy. To answer this demand, banks have recently turned on aggressively on retail lending, which now posts growth rates of more than 10% (Tan, 2008). An auto loan is a consumer loan taken in order to purchase an automobile, brand new or second-hand. Auto loans are secured, with cars serving as the collateral. This study aims to assess the significant determinants of the auto loan as a consumer loan portfolio in terms of its growth. The variables used in this study include the auto loan portfolio as reported by BSP as the dependent variable and automobile sales, interest rates, number of firms, household expenditure, employment data and OFW remittances as independent variables. Using the multiple linear regression and stochastic frontier regression, the study looked further into the effects of the contributing factors on the growth of the auto loan portfolio in the Philippines.

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A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of the Local Manpower Service Contractor in Metro Manila: A DEA and SFA Applications
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Giovanni H. Melgar1 and Mary Caroline N. Castano2 Wizard Manpower and Allied Services, Inc.; 2The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT

The Manpower Service Contracting industry is besieged with the problem of stiff competition, which may probably undermine the performance of these firms. And thus, there is a need to address this problem in order not to affect the generation of employment and the shortchanging of workers rights. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency and productivity performance of the Metro Manila contractors using the combined DEA and SFA approaches. The initial results indicate that medium and micro service contractors have better total factor productivity than the other two contractors due to technological progress rather than efficiency change. Their efficiency improvements emanate from pure efficiency change or managerial efficiency rather than scale efficiency change. The overall productivity performance of the industry improves during the test period because of technological progress and overall efficiency in the firms operations in terms of better management and good condition. Across the years, average productivity of the industry declines from 2005 2009. The year 2008 2009 showed a poor productivity performance because of decline in technology and disadvantageous condition of operation; however, the industry showed good management of inputs. In sum, the industry is performing well in terms of productivity and efficiency. Efficiency of Selected Handicrafts Exporters in Metro Manila using Data Envelopment Analysis Hernan I. Sarmiento Jr. and Mary Caroline N. Castao The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of selected handicrafts exporters in Metro Manila, Philippines based on the selected inputs and outputs as measured by technical efficiency. The relationship between a non-negative dependent variable and an independent variable (or vector) will also be considered. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA-VRS) Input-Oriented model was used in measuring the efficiency of the Decision Making Units or DMUs in the first stage. The inputs used in the study are: operating expenses, fixed assets, machineries, labor and the number of products while the study made use of Revenue as the output. The second stage on the other hand used the Tobit regression Analysis in determining the relationship among the variables as well as the over-all significance of the regression model, which in our study include Return on Assets (ROA), return on Equity (ROE), Return on Sales (ROS) and Quick Ratio (QR) as our independent variables. The study employed fifteen (15) SEC-registered companies that covers a period of five (5) years from 2004-2009.

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Performance Evaluation of Ayala Corporation Subsidiaries for 2004 2008: A DEA Approach Gari de Guzman1 and Mary Caroline N. Castao2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Conglomerates play a vital role in emerging markets by substituting the role of efficient markets of the advanced economies. Ayala Corporation is recognized as one of the largest and widely diversified conglomerates in the Philippines, one of the top emerging markets. The study investigated the financial and efficiency performance of the publicly-listed subsidiaries of Ayala Corporation, namely, Ayala Land Inc., Bank of the Philippine Islands, Globe Telecom, Inc., Integrated Microelectronics, Inc., and Manila Water Company, Inc. Traditional financial ratios were employed in determining the financial performance, while the input-oriented DEA BCC model was used to assess efficiency. Likewise, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the degree of relation of the DEA input and output variables. The influence of length in years and ownership percentage of Ayala and capital structure were explored using Tobit regression analysis. The significance of the difference of the financial performance indicators was assessed. The best performing subsidiary will serve as the benchmark for the Ayala subsidiaries. Effectiveness of Customer Service of Selected UCPB Branches J.Ainee N. Rosete1 and Nelson C. Bool2 Accenture, The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2
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ABSTRACT The study aims to assess customer service effectiveness of the selected UCBP Branches in Quezon City namely Lagro Branch, Commonwealth Branch, and Batasan Branch. Those branches were selected by the researcher because they are accessible for the survey and due to time constraint. Generally, bank customers interviewed are mostly 26-35 years old and have acquired a bachelor degree. Approximately half of the respondents are single and the other half are married, almost half are already holding an account for 6-10 years already while approximately 40% have had an account in UCPB for 1-5 years. Majority of the respondents have Savings account in UCPB, followed afar by time deposit, credit card and current accounts. For the branch personnels, all of them are college graduates, who are either single or married and coming from the younger group segments. The researcher used Spearmans Correlation Coefficient for the statistical treatment of the data.

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The Effects of Monetary Policy on Agricultural Commodity Prices in the Philippines Jenny Beb V. Feraer1 and Virgilio Tatlonghari2 Cavite State University,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Correctly identifying the effects of monetary policy innovations is necessary for good policy making.. The study focuses on the empirical effect of monetary policy as reflected by the behavior of monetary aggregate M2 and interest rate and producers prices on agricultural commodity prices in the Philippines. The study covered price of real agricultural commodity, for ten years from 1998 to 2007.Secondary data was used in the study. An economic model, as suggested by the Dornbusch overshooting model, was specified where agricultural commodity price (Py) was expressed as a function of one period lagged interest rate( Ir), monetary aggregate ( (Mt) and producers price index( PPI ).The empirical results of the study showed that interest rate, monetary aggregate and producers price index have significant effect on agricultural prices. Furthermore, it was found out that there is a relationship between real interest rate, monetary aggregates M2 and M3 and agricultural commodity prices. The Roles of Chosen Indicators in Determining the Probability of Money Transfer from Selected Domestic Migrant Workers in Metro Manila Crystal Lynne May P. Reyes and Emmanuel J. Lopez The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas Remittances usually refers to financial aid that migrant workers send back to their places of origin. Sending money has become an economic activity that suffice the need and help improve the lives of the sender's beneficiaries. The study revolves on the domestic scene particularly on the roles of the chosen indicators in the existence and probability of money transfers. Household composition, social consumption and income lead the determining factors. Interpretation and analysis of data were derived through the quantitative method employing the aid of survey questionnaires, interviews and the available records and documents. Survey was conducted for 150 respondents in selected money transfer outlets in NCR. Partial results of the study indicate that the chosen determinants significantly affect and increase the motive and probability of sending money to the migrants places of origin. Coco Biodiesel in the Philippines: An Analysis of its Threshold Price and Market Impacts to the Coconut Oil Industry Ferdinand Dax C. Lorena1 and Dante R. Garcia2 Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are the most important priorities of countries in the world today. In response, the Philippines enacted the Biofuels Act of 2006 and

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have launched the use of biodiesel, particularly coconut methyl ester (CME) derived from coconut oil (CO). This study analyzed the coco-biodiesel demand in the country with regards to its threshold price and market impacts to the CO industry using the formula by Tareen et al. (Biodiesel as Substitute for Petroleum Diesel in a Stochastic Environment, 1999) and a non-spatial, partialequilibrium econometric model. Initial results of the regression revealed that the export volume of CO, the domestic price of CO, crude CO and CME price showed significant effects on CME demand. Findings in this study will help business players in the coconut industry to rethink their market strategy and adjust to economic changes. The Savings and Investment Behavior of Overseas Filipino Workers Monina A. Pangilinan1 and Dante R. Garcia2 Commission on Audit,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The study aims to determine the financial preparedness of returning Overseas Filipino Workers for unpredictable events such as sudden illness and termination of employment as well as retirement and return migration. The inputs that were used were the financial literacy of the workers particularly their behavior regarding savings and investment and the presence of retirement and return migration planning. The demographic factors of the respondents were also considered. The study employed regression and correlation analysis. The findings show that there is high frequency of literacy in terms of saving, retirement and return migration planning but lower frequency in terms of productive investment. The findings further show that while the savings percentage rate in relation to their income is quite low, there is high perceived satisfaction on the part of the respondents. Lastly, there were very few respondents who expressed their readiness to retire and return to the Philippines. The Relationship between NFA Rice Price and Household Income and its Effects on Standard of Living of Card Holders in District I, Paranaque City Catherine C. Resurreccion and Dante R. Garcia1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 ABSTRACT In response to the peoples needs for access to low-priced rice, the NFA Rice Program has been established. The study intends to determine the affordability of NFA rice price thru the analysis of its relationship with household income, and its effects on standard of living. The research is descriptive using correlation regression analysis to survey questionnaires distributed to NFA family access card-holders. Pre-test showed cronbach alphas reliability of items at 97.3%. Initial results show that 79% afford the current NFA rice price. However, in considering opportunities for increase in income, 90% suggest that NFA rice be priced at not more than P 18.25 per kilo. 53% are contented with the services of the NFA rice program, while

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47% are not due to the quality of rice distributed by the agency. As the program contributes to a better standard of living, it then entails to an affordable price of NFA rice. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility to the Financial Performance of Selected Large-Sized Firms and/or Big Brands in the Philippines Herald Marson B. Tolentino1 and Rodulfo F. Besinga2 Department of Education,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Research and theoretical works in favor of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have left numerous business leaders unconvinced in implementing CSR programs and projects. Many companies are still in debate whether to pursue CSR-related activities. In the Philippines, CSR is relatively a new corporate strategy. Introduced in the mid 2000s, mostly foreign companies and multinationals are the only active proponents on CSR. Literature shows that all sorts of industries are now engaging in CSR programs in the country; however it is not sure if CSR programs do benefit corporate profits. This study seeks to determine if CSR is indeed significant to the private enterprises bottom-line. This will be determined through regression analysis of charitable expenses on profitability, liquidity and solvency. Twenty large-sized firms and/or big brands in the Philippines both multinational and local corporations will be used as basis in the study. Effects of Supply Chain Management in Operational Efficiency of Retail Clothing Industry in the Philippines Marie Nette Calidguid1 and Tomas Tiu2 Mla. Graphic Designed Lifesyle, Inc.,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study identifies the sources of operational efficiency of Supply Chain Management (SCM) through cost savings, better quality, on-time delivery and inventory accuracy of the selected major players in retail clothing industry in the Philippines. The main objective of this study is to attest the operational efficiency of those major players in retail clothing industry that adopts SCM, to determine the reasons of the operational inefficiency and the needed improvement of the input and output variables of these firms to make them operationally efficient so that owners, stockholders and partners shall have the basis on improving their SCM processes. The study used Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier as way to determine the efficiency of the firms under study. Survey, SCM-Key Performance Indicators (KPI), Control Chart was also conducted and incorporated in the study; the participants of this survey are the Purchasing Manager of the respondent firms to obtain a clearer understanding on the process of Supply Chain Management. Result from the survey SCM-KPI & Control Chart was also used to validate the result from the secondary data. Fish bone analysis and Pareto Analysis was also incorporated in the study to determine the reason/s of being efficient and inefficient as well the implications of these causes to the firms under study.

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The Integration of ISO 9001 Quality Certification and Corporate Culture in Business Performance of Selected Food and Beverage Manufacturing Companies
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Tonny I. Soewignyo1 and Nancy L. Eleria2 Universitas Klabat, 2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT

This dissertation study was to fill a significant gap in the research, more specifically to investigate the integration of ISO 9001 quality certification and corporate culture in business performance of manufacturing companies. Very little empirical research has examined in this study. Based on 71 valid questionnaire, an investigation was undertaken through variance and multiple regression analysis to examine the following: the relationship between corporate culture and ISO 9001, between corporate culture and business performance, and finally between ISO 9001 and business performance. The results of this study revealed that ISO 9001 quality certification practices was significantly affected by corporate culture practices. The benefit of practicing ISO 9001 quality certification and corporate culture significantly improved employee satisfaction, and finally contributed to customer satisfaction. There were significant difference in level of practices of ISO 9001, corporate culture, employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and asset turnover. The ISO 14001 Certification of Selected Semiconductor Companies in Laguna Ma. Concepcion G. Del Rosario and Nancy L. Eleria The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The proliferation of the semiconductor industry in the country is believed to possibly cause a significant environmental damage if not dealt with properly. The main objective of this paper is to devise a program that will help the industry to better manage the impact of its operations on the environment. A survey was conducted to top management, managers, supervisors and rank in file employees of the selected ten (10) ISO 14001-certified semiconductor companies that operate in Laguna. Using the Kruskal-Wallis test, the following associated variables: motivating factors, barriers, environmental performance and economic performance are considered in order to determine the effects and level of effectiveness of the ISO 14001 Certification. The results show that the most influential motivating factors are pressure from stakeholders, regulatory compliance and ecological responsibility. The study concluded that the ISO 14001 Certification yields better performance among the selected semiconductor companies.

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The Determinants of Access to Chinese Market of the Selected Filipino-Entrepreneurs In Electronics Industry of the Philippines: A Preliminary Assessment Chen Liu Wei1 and Ernesto R. Gonzales2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This research conducted a survey of the Filipino Electronics Industry in the Philippines to identify and validate the determinants of market access of Filipino Electronics Products to the Peoples Republic of China Market. This thesis study the facts beneath the phenomenal increase of Philippines gain in the conduct of their trade to China, in specific terms of market access. In literal terms, the Philippine Exports to China had already reached a phenomenal level of $80B annually (2007-present) which is double the foreign exchange earnings of the Filipino Overseas Contract Workers. The framework of this study defines market access (dependent variable Y) is function of Production Capacity (X1) and Price Efficiency (X2). The language proficiency was also integrated as a dummy variable of this correlation-regression matrix. A total of (30) thirty respondents were interviewed using the acceptable mode of (30) thirty small sample principle of monte carlo statistics. The findings of the study defined that price efficiency is the most critical factor of market access into the China Market of Electronics Product. The regression coefficients of the independent variables are namely: (.092) for Production Capacity and (0.74) for Price Efficiency. The total values of the R is 0.824. The Health and Ecological Menace from the Economics of Bt Corn Business in the Philippines
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Tamrat W. Shalebo1, 2 and Ernesto R. Gonzales2 Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; 2The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT

Genetically modified crops, like Bt corn, have become a real option in modern agriculture in various countries. They offer advantages for agricultural production, but they also raise concerns about their ecological and health impacts. This study assesses the economics of Bt corn business in the Philippines with particular focus on its threat to environment and health in the country. Regression analysis and cost benefit analysis methods are the major approaches of data analysis in this study. Initial results indicate that Bt corn is promising benefit to the farmers with increased yield and thereby increased income, economically. Further more, the research also found out that the threat to environment and health because of planting Bt corn is insignificant so far, but the potential to those threats still exists as seen from some of the indications of this study results and also from the experience of other countries who adopted Bt corn.

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An Assessment on the Performance of Finance and Accounting Outsourcing Vendors in the Philippines using DEA-Malmquist Approach Lorizel E. Villas1 and Enrico Torres2 IBM Business Services, Inc.,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 Finance and accounting outsourcing (FAO) is one of the fastest growing segments of business process outsourcing. This study aims to determine the financial performance and efficiency of the top FAO vendors in the country over the period of 2004-2009. The financial model was used to evaluate a vendors financial and operating performance while T-test was applied to determine if there are significant improvements in the variables yearly. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Malmquist model was established to evaluate total productivity growth (TFP), technological innovation and technical efficiency. There are two inputs (operating cost and capital) and three outputs (gross profit, total assets and total sales) variables identified for DEA-Malmquist Index.The results reveal that the annual growth on total productivity (TFP) was 3.02 which were mainly due to the technological change (TECHCH) of 3.88. Six out of the ten FAO vendors or 54% have been efficient over the test period. Management Engineering Performance Assessment and Sustainability of the STP of UST: Impact of Increased Population Ruben Jesus Asuncion, Jr.1 and Nancy L. Eleria2 College of Architecture, UST and The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The student population of the University of Santo Tomas (UST) had increased by 50% increase over the last 10 years resulting to an increase in the volume of wastewater. USTs Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) collects and treats this wastewater for reuse within the campus, with the excess being disposed into the citys sewer system. This paper aims to determine whether or not the increase in student population has adversely affected the STPs treatment capabilities on the basis of quality and quantity of both influent and effluent characteristics. This study utilizes qualitative and quantitative methods to measure treatment efficiencies, perceptions of students acceptability, and economic impact. The indicators for quality are changes in the influent and effluent levels of TSS, BOD, COD, nitrogen, phosphates and pH. The indicator for quantity is the difference in the volume of wastewater generated, estimated on a per capita basis, and the plants holding tank capacity.

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Strategic Practices of Buyer-Seller Negotiation Approach of Selected Food Processing Companies in the Philippines Oliva, Krizette Gay F.1 and Nancy L. Eleria2 Emerson Electric Asia Ltd-ROHQ1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT For companies to remain cost-competitive in the market, they must reduce the costs of their components and materials by sourcing from least-cost suppliers without suffering the quality of the requirements. The study intends to identify different practices used by the selected companies more specifically with their negotiation platform. Initial finding shows that at least ten (10) percent of the target respondents from the Food Processing companies are using the online reverse auction. The researcher created a survey questionnaire, which undergo Cronbach Analysis to test reliability meeting at least .7 alpha to define the reliability and interrelations of the tool. Pending results from this non-parametric data includes Kruskal-Wallis test (used to compare three or more independent groups of sampled data which uses the ranks of the data rather than their raw values to calculate the statistic), Kolmogorov-Smirnov (a test that tries to determine if two datasets differ significantly), Mode and Median. Optimization of Distribution Network of a Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Company Perlas, Mary Ann P1. and Dante R. Garcia.2 SC Johnson & Son, Inc.,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This research paper developed a mixed-integer linear programming model to determine the optimum design of a distribution network particularly the flow of product from manufacturing source to customers by minimizing the total distribution cost while satisfying customer demands within a set of constraints. The proposed model optimizes the total distribution cost by minimizing the transportation and in-transit inventory cost (as a function of delivery lead time) by selecting the best supply options: 1) thru main distribution center (DC); 2) thru a regional distribution center (RDC) and 3) direct shipment from plant. To validate the functionality and reliability of proposed model, actual data from a fast-moving consumer goods company using a main DC and an RDC in supplying product from a regional source to twenty-four (24) distributors within the country was used. Initial results show that 11 customers are best supplied directly by plant, 6 thru the main DC and the remaining customers thru the regional distribution center.

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Philippine Regional Economic Growth and Environmental Efficiency Villalobos, Emmalyn B.1 and Nancy L. Eleria2 Maxim Integrated Products - MESC1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT As Philippines moves towards continuous economic development, it is significant that environmental concerns brought by economic activities be assessed and addressed accordingly. The study aims to determine and assess Philippines regional economic growth and environmental efficiency of 13 selected regions using observed data from 2000 2008. Presence of Environmental Kuznets Curve positing an inverted U-shaped developmentenvironment relationship is tested utilizing environmental data on concentration of pollutants in ambient air, water, and estimates on solid waste disposed. Green-GDP, GDP, and pollutionoriented models are constructed to determine regional efficiencies using DEA. Initial finding shows NCR has the highest GDP per capita with an average of Php 34,574 and ranks 4th as region with highest TSP concentration. Meanwhile, Region IX has the highest average TSP concentration of 241 g/Ncm with GDP per capita of Php 9,801. Pending results from this study includes SFA to determine technical inefficiencies and effect of intervening variables.

Solid Waste Management Practices in the City of Navotas (Philippines) Prim, Joseph Benedict N.1 and Nancy L. Eleria2 Electrical Engineer,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The studys objective is to evaluate the 10-year Solid Waste Management Plan of Navotas City. The researcher identifies the practices on the implementation of the plan. The study used the different stakeholders as respondents, namely, households of the 14 barangays, occupants of profit-making establishments, and workforce of different scholastic institutions and commercial industries. Together with this respondents are the implementers of the solid waste management plan. A 4-Likert scale survey instrument was used in data gathering. This contains areas for evaluation which are related to: Performance Objectives, Monitoring and Evaluation and Corrective Actions. The data were analyzed using central tendencies and analysis of variance. Focused group discussion was done to verify and check on the responses form the distributed instrument. The main output of the study is a new program/plan designed to address the deficiencies of the existing solid waste management plan.

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Measuring Service Quality Of International Property Management Firms In Selected Condominiums In Metro Manila Edison C. Laurio and Nancy L. Eleria The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas The study focus on service quality of international property management firms in managing selected condominiums in Metro Manila. The study used a Descriptive Research Design with the use of a survey questionnaire to gather data. Likewise interview and observation were employed with the purpose of clarifying the information shared by the respondents. Initial results of the study conducted on selected condominiums in Metro Manila shows that generally the occupants are satisfied with the quality of service offered by these international property management firms and the common dissatisfaction of the tenants are slow response time to complains, poor security services, impolite management staff and non compliance of house rules and regulations/government regulations.

Psychology

Personality Profile and Psychological Well-being Dimensions of Teachers in Midlife Transition: Basis for a Personality Enhancement Program. Aleyamma Pullukatte and Geraldine E. Tria The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Midlife can be a springboard to a new and exciting era, fraught with challenging changes in all spheres of life. This research is comprised of two phases. Phase one - personality factors and psychological well-being dimensions of teachers in midlife transition, using the 16 PF questionnaire and Psychological Well-Being scale. Phase two - the development and implementation of a personality enhancement program. The research design is a descriptive one that utilized pre-test and post-test measures. The participants consisted of 200 teachers in midlife transition, were selected using purposive sampling method. The researcher used mean, frequency, percentage, standard deviation and t-test at 0.05 level of significance for the statistical analysis. The preliminary findings revealed that the respondents have average mean-score in all the factors of 16PF and in autonomy and high mean-score in five factors of PWB. These findings were used in the formulation of the personality enhancement program which is duly implemented.

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Enhancing Empathy Through Modular Instruction for Second Year Nursing Students Ma. Georgina H. Manzano1, Gabriel H. Uriarte2 UST College of Nursing,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Empathy in nurse-patient relationship is an essential component for promoting positive physical recovery and psycho-emotional wellbeing of the patient. The study used experimental method to determine whether educational intervention such as modular instruction designed to teach empathy can enhance the level of empathy of student nurses. Data were collected using Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Student Version) developed by Hojat, et. al (2004) and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) developed by Davis (1983). Reliability of the two instruments were established by analyzing the pretest and post test scores of the trial group using Pearson correlation reliability test. Statistical treatment revealed high reliability index for both instruments and significant difference between the pretest and post test mean scores of the trial group. These results predict promising result for the experimental group leading to conclusion that enhancing empathy is possible.

Work Values, Personality and Job Satisfaction of Professional Filipino Expatriates in Dubai, UAE Sharon Velasco1 and Marie Ann S. Vargas2 Dubai, UAE;1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate the relationships among work values, personality traits and job satisfaction of professional Filipino expatriates in Dubai, UAE. Result of this study provides awareness to academicians, human resources students and practitioners on the motivational levels and characteristics of a professionally satisfied OFW in Dubai. Additionally, foreign employers in Dubai and even the entire UAE and Gulf Countries will have better understanding of the Filipino workers that they hire, train and retain. The study used the Filipino Work Value Scale (Vicentita M. Cervera, 1987) to measure the OFWs work values, the Neo Five-Factor Inventory (Paul T. Costa & Robert R. McCrae) and Job Satisfaction Scale (Mecheline Zonia Manalastas, 1999, as revised by Francisco, 2009). The researcher intends to cover 500 respondents (250 male and 250 female respondents). The researcher provided the respondents an envelope containing three sets of the standardized tests. The researcher requested an audience from various Filipino community organizations where the envelopes were personally handed. In the same manner, the envelopes were handed

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to friends, colleagues and other referred contacts by individual visit to their offices. Regular phone calls and emails were done in making follow-up and collection of the questionnaires. The researcher intended to cover respondents from various industries, both private and public sector. Eventually, gathered questionnaires will be summarized, analyzed and corresponding recommendations and conclusions will be written. Psychodynamic Play and Art Therapy in Alleviating the Effects of Abuse on Physically and Sexually Abused Children Aimee N. Gonzaga and Marie Ann S. Vargas The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT One method for the treatment of trauma and other effects of child abuse on victims that is continuously being studied for effectiveness is through play and art therapy techniques. This study utilized this therapeutic technique on the psychodynamic approach where 9 subjects who are victims of physical and sexual abuse were given this therapeutic intervention through a series of eight individual play and art therapy sessions. Mixed method was used for an in depth analysis of the subjects in two phases namely the qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative method was employed through in-depth interviews and history-taking and quantitative experimental design of pre and post tests was conducted to measure the significant difference at .05 level of significance. The Construction and Psychometric Validation of Spiritual Life Assessment Scale (S.L.A.S.) Evelyn B. Gravador1 and Marie Ann S. Vargas2 Dr. Yangas Colleges, Inc.1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study is aimed to develop, validate, and standardize a psychological test that measures ones spiritual life state. The objective of the test is to determine the extent of potential and actual psychological state of the test taker in terms of human spiritual dimension as spiritually well and distressed. Hence, the test was called Spiritual Life Assessment Scale (S.L.A.S.). The respondents during the preliminary run of S.L.A.S. were 200 college students with age ranges from 16-17 years old, in a 4 year degree course, randomly selected from Manila and Bulacan area. The second run of the data randomly selected the 648 graduating college students from 13 colleges and universities in Bulacan Province. The preliminary form of S.L.A.S. were 180 items that trimmed down to 102 items after statistical treatment. The items with scores lower than .70 Cronbach Alpha were discarded. The 102 accepted items composed the final form of S.L.A.S. were administered to the selected graduating college students of 13 colleges and universities in Bulacan.

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Mental Ability, Adjustment, Motivation and Learning Styles of At-Risk Adolescents: Basis for a Learning Enhancement Guidance Intervention Program Karen Diane P. Guevarra1 and Eduardo C. Caligner2 San Sebastian College-Recoletos1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The goal of this research is to investigate the relationship between mental ability, adjustment, motivation and learning styles of high school students identified to be at-risk for failure in academic performance and school behavior. The research made use of descriptive-correlational method with 82 high school student-respondents chosen through the use of purposive sampling. The respondents at-risk for failure obtained 79 and below General Point Average (GPA) and conduct grade. Their age ranged from 13-16 years old with 76 males and 6 females. The instruments used include the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, Bell Adjustment Inventory, Cattell's School Motivation Analysis Test and Canfield Learning Styles Inventory. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation was the statistical procedure used to assess whether there is a relationship among the variables. Initial findings revealed that there is no significant correlation among the aforementioned variables. A Learning Enhancement Guidance Intervention Program will be developed based on the findings of the study.

Effects of Ambient Noise on the Working Memory of Police Recruits Michael Y. Go1 and Arnulfo V. Lopez2 PNP General Hospital,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Working memory is the temporary storage and manipulation of information while facing potentially distracting situations. This study employed a between subject design which investigated the effects of noise on working memory of NCRPO police recruits. 60 recruits consisting of 56 males and 4 females undergoing training at Camp Bagong Diwa were selected. Participants took the Culture Fair Intelligence Test to determine their IQ for matching procedures and random assignment. During pre-testing, the spatial addition and symbol span working memory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale 4 were administered to the participant. In the post-test phase, the WMS 4 working memory subtests were re-administered to the experimental group with exposure to ambient noise while the control group was re-tested in a no-noise condition. Data were analyzed utilizing frequency distribution, weighted mean, standard deviation and t-tests. Initial results revealed no significant difference in the pre- and post-test working memory among the two groups, thus suggesting that working memory remain stable in the presence of noise.

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The Effect of Therapeutic Humor on Resiliency Level of Juvenile Offenders Maria Heidi P. Pantig1 and Ma. Claudette A. Agnes1,2 College of Science, UST; The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT In an individuals life, being resilient in the face of adverse situation is important factor that can make the person adjust better to life. Resiliency is defined as the ability to continue to progress in positive development despite being bent, compressed, or stretched by factors in a risky environment. Being resilient in the face of difficulties could help juvenile offenders live a life far from transgression. In this study, a Therapeutic Humor (TH) program was created with the primary purpose of helping the juvenile offenders housed in Manila Youth Reception Center (MYRC) to acquire one of the most indispensable skills resilience. The study was conducted to 45 purposively selected adolescents, ages 15 to 18. True experimental method of research specifically, the Pretest Posttest Control Group design was utilized to determine the effectiveness of TH in enhancing the resiliency level of the participants. T-test was employed to determine potential significant differences on the scores of the two groups. Statistical analysis showed that, at the onset of the program, participants from both groups have parallel level of resiliency as measured by the three scales of the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). Furthermore, significant differences on the Sense of Mastery (p=.006) and Emotional Reactivity (p=.050) were observed between the posttest scores of the two groups. Findings also revealed significant differences on the pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group with a computed p-value of .000 for the Sense of Mastery Scale and .017 for the Emotional Reactivity Scale. Interpretations were gauged from p < 0.05 level of significance. Significant differences of scores on the Sense of Mastery and Emotional Reactivity are indicative of an improved level of resiliency and effectiveness of the TH program on these scales. Conversely, no significant differences were observed between and among the pretest and posttest scores of the two groups in the Sense of Relatedness Scale, indicating the resort of both groups to insincere dealings in social relationships to shield them from psychological distress from living in confinement. Motivational Operations influence in Establishing Verbal Behavior Repertoire and its Impact on Corpus Callosum of Verbal Apraxic Children with Autism Kristian Aleksei M. Ledda and Rosalito G. de Guzman The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Autism is neurogenic but behaviorally defined by triad of core deficits and excesses that underlies; deviant localization, cortical coupling failure, and lateralization disparity. While most local intervention for autism depends on conditioned stimulus instead of motivation. The unavailability of learned stimuli evokes problem behaviors, hinders spontaneous initiative, and neglect behavioral functions. This study integrates Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavioral Neuroscience perspective with the utility of multiple baselines across subjects design to monitor

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direct changes of Verbal Behavior in home-based setting. The contrived Motivational Operation leads to direct replication by repeated measures of baseline and treatment comparison with-in subjects. Three boys with autism and mild verbal apraxia were purposively selected. Behavioral scales and brain imaging apparatus serve as confirmatory measures. A slightly atypical than normal corpus callosum, with a variant of right hemispheric asymmetry was noted. Initial results reveal Motivational Operations value on preference and behavior-altering effects on spontaneous initiative to; Request, Imitate, Identify, Reciprocate a response, and Recognize Signs/Symbol. The purpose is to determine whether Motivational Operations influence on established verbal behavior repertoire impacts an index of adaptive neurological plasticity with the level of clinical significant effects to evoke verbal behavior or abate symptoms of autism.

Level of Stress, Teaching Performance and Perceived Degree of Effectiveness of Student Organization Faculty Advisers of Far Eastern University: Basis for a Proposed Teachers Academy Development Program Adrian E. Yrigan and Pricila B. Marzan The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Education today has come a long way from the very simplistic goals of reading, and writing arithmetic (Brown, 2006). Now, more than ever, educators are given extra tasks that go beyond the confines of the teaching-learning process inside the classrooms (Magolda, 2006). To the faculty member, these extra curricular tasks, an example of which is advising a student organization, could become a source of undue stress. Or depending on his appraisal, could become an avenue to bring out his coping skills and motivate him to excel even more as an educator. (Weiten, 2009). This study focuses on exploring the relationship between the teacher's exposure to multiple demands of his profession and his level of stress and/or productivity. The researcher identifies sources of multiple demands--teaching performance and perceived degree of advising effectiveness and correlates them with the perceived level of stress, (Lindholm and Szelenyi, 2009). The result of this study will be a basis for proposing programs for improving faculty productivity and for designing instruments to identify faculty members who are more-likely to become candidates for stress management interventions. Know Thyself Personality Scale: Its Construction, Validation and Standardization Amparo Roberta A. Espinosa1 and Marie Ann S. Vargas2 Aurora State College of Technology;1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT

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This study determined to construct, valid and standardize personality test to utilize as a tool for measuring and assessing an individual for better understanding of self. Nowadays, people are using more interactions and intervention from each other without inhibition for displaying what you are and how you behave the way you do, in short, expressing our self to others. Concerning and dealing with this situation, we necessitate us to know our self that lead to other people ones personality. The researcher followed the test construction procedure that consists three phases: first is item construction in which included the documentary analysis, development of a table of specification and item writing. Second phase consulted with experts for making good judgment about the table of specification. Lastly, the third phase is first and final run to establishment of norms and standardization. The items were composed of personality traits factors such as aggressiveness, creativity, emotional stability, intelligence, optimism, sociability, spirituality and trustworthiness. The primary respondents in this study were the students coming from the different courses such us Engineering, Information Technology, Education, Forestry, Agriculture and Management in Aurora College of Technology at Baler, Aurora.

Workaholism, Work Engagement, Job Performance and Demographic Variables of Selected Employees in a Leading Savings Bank of the Philippines: Basis for a Work Productivity Enhancement Program Rachelle Ann I. Cruz and Maria Vida G. Caparas The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT This study aims to focus on the interrelationship of workaholism, work engagement and socio demographic profile to that of job performance. The study also wants to find out the level of workaholism and work engagement and the relationship that exists between the two. Also, the study seeks to examine if there is any relationship between the respondents level of workaholism and work engagement when group according to their socio demographic profile. Lastly, the study also aims to find out if there is any relationship between the respondents level of workaholism, work engagement, socio demographic profile in relation to their job performance. The descriptive correlational method of research is utilizes to identify the relationship that exists between workaholism, work engagement and socio demographic profile. The participants utilizes the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART) to measure workaholism, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) to measure work engagement and the

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annual ratings of the participants are use to reflect their job performance. Results obtain from this study is use as basis for a work productivity enhancement program.

Employer Branding, Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Commitment as Determinants of Employee Engagement: Basis for Proposed Extended Model of Work Engagement Mary Grace U. Jimenez1 and Eugene Hontiveros2 Hewlett-Packard AP (HongKong) Limited,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Today's organizations are constantly undergoing substantial changes due to global market competition. Sensitive to this reality, the researcher felt the need to use other human resources strategies in attracting and retaining the best employees. With this goal in mind, this study aims to investigate employer branding, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and organizational commitment as determinants of employee engagement using quantitative research approach. Three hundred (300) respondents from a multinational business process outsourcing company were surveyed using instruments on employer branding, corporate social responsibility, organizational commitment and employee engagement following a descriptive correlational design. This paper also looked into the work engagement of the Filipinos. Test scores yielded results showing that employee engagement is significantly correlated to employer branding, corporate social responsibility and organizational commitment. The results of this study will also be used as basis for a proposed extended model of work engagement.

Evaluation of the Leadership Styles of Administrators in Holy Spirit Schools: Basis for a Leadership Program Development Mary Varghese, (Sr. Regina SSpS)1 and Mecheline Zonia I. Manalastas,2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Leadership is an essential ingredient for enhancement of the resource of an organization or a society to attain its desired goals Kurfi (2009). Principals, as school leaders, play a vital role in setting the direction for successful schools. The administrator of a school must embody the traits that define transformational leadership behavior, from being creative and responsive, to becoming agents of change. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the leadership styles of the administrators in Holy Spirit Schools in the Philippines as perceived by the administrators themselves and teachers. The researcher utilized the descriptive-correlational study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) of Bruce Avolio and Bernard Bass (2004) was administered. The subjects of the study include 10 school principals and 320 teachers. Mean, Standard deviation, t-test and product-moment coefficient of correlation were computed to analyze and interpret the data.

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Findings indicate that principals tended to exhibit transformational leadership behaviors, but needed improvement in the transformational areas of intellectual stimulation and idealized behavior, and in the transactional areas of contingent reward and management-by-exception.

Attitudes Toward Multiculturalism, Emotional Intelligence and Personality as Correlates of Intercultural Competence Among Employees in a Multinational Organization: Basis for a Proposed Diversity and Inclusion Program Gian Carlo M. Ledesma1 and Mecheline Zonia I. Manalastas2 Fluor Daniel, Inc. Philippines,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 Organizations have increasingly recognized the value that global exposures and connections contribute to the overall success of their business operations. Putting high consideration on this reality, organizations have started to focus on the importance of intercultural competence in the workplace. This paper intends to design an intervention program aimed at improving interaction in a workplace shaped by multiculturalism. Guided by this purpose, this paper, using a descriptive correlational design, examined the attitudes toward multiculturalism, emotional intelligence and personality as correlates of intercultural competence of 250 employees working in a multinational organization. Understanding further this phenomenon in the workplace, the study also utilized 5 focus group discussions to gain more insights on how employees view multiculturalism in the workplace. Recognizing the role that leaders play in ensuring success in the workplace, this study also made use of the phenomenological inquiry design to probe into the best practices and strategies of 5 project managers building upon their experiences as leaders well versed in handling multicultural teams. Results obtained from this mixed method approach will be used as bases for mapping a cultural intervention program which the researcher calls a Diversity and Inclusion Program. Relationship of Workspace Personalization, Work Motivation and Job Performance: Basis for Human Resources Enhancement Program Giselle Sarah T. Marquez1 and Mecheline Zonia I. Manalastas2 Red Ribbon Bakeshop, Inc.,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Workplace environment research has not been given much attention in the Philippines compared with the other areas in human resources. Recognizing the level and the relationship of workspace personalization, work motivation and job performance, this study intended to develop a workplace enhancement program in a corporate environment that will best fit to the needs and preferences of Filipino employees. Mixed method design was utilized in this research. It comprised of descriptive-correlational method using survey questionnaires to gather information from 42 office-based employees, coming from 5 companies belonging to Quick Service Restaurant industry, randomly selected through stratified random sampling. To further analyze the workspace personalization levels and styles of the employees, using purposive sampling, case study method was employed among 10 respondents.

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Frequency, percentage and distribution, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and Pearson product moment correlation were the statistical tools used in the study. The findings came up with a Workplace Improvement Program as its enhancement program. Organizational Culture, Climate, and Leadership: Towards the Creation of Organizational Development Model for DPPI Higher Education Institutions Golda Aira V. Crisostomo1 and Rosalia T. Caballero, Ph.D2 Colegio De San Juan De Letran,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The increasing turbulence of organizational context, the fast-changing advancement of technology and the proliferation of behavioral changes and strategies suggest that organizations must adapt to change and development to determine its effectiveness in areas like processes and systems. Organizational culture, climate and leadership are considered as key drivers of organizational quality performance. Five private higher education institutions were selected for the study. The data was taken by administering Denisons Organizational Culture Questionnaire and Leadership Development Survey as well as the institutions Organizational Climate survey to 450 respondents. A semi-configured interview was used as key informants of each HEIs. The initial result of the organizational diagnostic survey (ODS) revealed that purpose, structure and leadership are the major source of problems in organizational functioning. Findings of the study were used to create an OD model common to all the five selected higher education institutions.

HRM Green Human Resource Management Practices Among Selected ISO 14001 Certified Government Organizations in the Philippines: Basis for a Strategic Workplace Climate Change Mitigation Model Al O. Orolfo1 and Rosalia T. Caballero2 DENR-HRDS,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The challenge to become responsible partner in the quest for climate change mitigation and environmental management resulted to some organizations adopting Environmental Management Systems (EMS) practices with certification under the global standard of ISO 14001. The implementation of the systems involves the top management and the rest of employees. The collaboration highlights the new strategic role of human resource management practitioners in relation to the environmental goals and objectives of the organization.The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of influence of human resource management dimensions with the environmental management performance of the organization. The data gathered would highlight the variables that would help sustain the climate change mitigation at the workplace level. Descriptive, and multi-correlational design, using stratified random

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sampling technique, were used in this study. Developed questionnaires on Green Human Resource Management Practices and Environmental Performance were used to gather the data. Based on the study findings a strategic workplace climate change mitigation model will be developed adopting the expanded role of HRM dimensions in the achievement of environmental goals of the organization. An Analysis on Work-life Balance and Job Satisfaction of Store Managers in Chowking: Basis for a Proposed Work-life Program Vilma S. dela Cruz1 and George A. Lu2 MJB Food Products,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT As social and demographic trends command for adequate family time among employees, organizations are expecting greater flexibility on the part of the employees to compete in the marketplace. Work and family demands often compete for individuals time and attention. The researcher realized the opportunity of presenting the factors that affect work-life balance and job satisfaction of the store managers in Chowking. Simple random sampling technique and descriptive-correlational design were utilized. Statistical measures like mean, standard deviation, correlation and ANOVA were used. The respondents belong to the age group between 31-35 years old, predominantly married female and tenured employees. Overall, the respondents were found to be moderately satisfied with their jobs. However, work-related and personal factors, e.g. heavy workloads and circumstances at home were being experienced to a great extent. In addition, some demographic variableswere found to be related to work life balance and job satisfaction. Socio-Demographic and Foreign Assignment Profiles in Relation to Organizational Citizenship and Counterproductive Work Behaviors, and Administrative Policies Satisfaction: Basis for Organizational Development Interventions Christian Louie A. Belleza1 and George A. Lu2 Department of Foreign Affairs,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Organizational Citizenship (OCB) and Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWB) have greatly influenced our understanding and perception on work-related behaviors. This study aims to identify if OCB and CWB exist in the Department of Foreign Affairs and to determine their relationship with the Administrative Policy Satisfaction (ASP) considering the Socio-Demographic and Foreign Service Assignment Profiles of the regular employees of the DFA Home Office who were previously assigned to Foreign Service Posts. If so, the study can help develop an Organizational Development strategy for the DFA. The study will employ both descriptive and correlative methods of research, such as the mean, standard deviation, correlation, and regression. Items in the questionnaire were adopted from previous researchers and were modified for this study. The descriptive and statistical analysis

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will be followed by the interpretation of the findings.Initial findings of the study will be further elaborated during the final presentation.

Relationship of Risk Management Training Effectiveness and Individual and Organizational Performances in a Government Financial Institution Ma. Teresa C. Buidon1 and Alita R. Conde2 Land Bank of the Philippines,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Organizations are investing millions of pesos in training programs to help gain a competitive advantage. Training evaluation provides information to gauge training effectiveness and direction on how to enhance training programs. The study aimed to assess effectiveness of two risk management seminars conducted after six months and beyond in relation to individual and organizational performances in terms of employees level of awareness, skills and behavioral changes. The research employed descriptive-correlational method among 300 employees based at Head Office and selected branches in Luzon area using a non-purposive, systematic sampling technique. The survey was conducted using two sets of questionnaires prepared by the researcher. Initial findings revealed that respondents were predominantly female from the age group of 26-30, employed not more than 5 years, majority are single, with a bachelors degree, holding permanent non-officer job positions. Research results showed the significant relationship among training effectiveness, individual and organizational performances.

The Relationship of Organizational and Supervisory Support on the Organizational Commitment of Employees in a Commercial Bank Fegeline A. Egalla1 and Alita R. Conde2 Bank of the Philippine Islands,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Employees retention depends largely on their commitment to their organization and from the support they receive from them. Nowadays, Banking Industry is also improving their strategies to retain their best employees to maintain committed workforce. Further, this study focuses on identifying, measuring, and assessing the relationship of organizational commitment to perceived organizational support, perceived supervisory support and employees intention to leave the organization. The research made use of a Descriptive-Correlation Design among 150 full-time rank-and-file employees of a selected commercial bank. Purposive Sampling was utilized in the selection of respondents. Results of the study revealed that majority of the respondents were female, single, ages 20-29 years old, with less than five years of service. These employees were slightly committed to the

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organization. They also perceive that their organization and supervisors support them. Moreover, significant relationship exists between employees organizational commitment to perceived organizational and supervisory support, and intention to leave.

Guidance and Counseling Career Indecision, Goal Orientation, and Perceived Parenting Styles as Predictors of Academic Status of Sophomore College Students at the University of Santo Tomas Analene N. Atillo1 and Marie Ann S. Vargas2 University of Santo Tomas,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT A prominent university effectively trains students through rigorous academics, but it is a sad fact that as students progress in year level, their number per batch decreases. Nevertheless, it is the accountability of the school to promote an educational system that will assist all students toward academic, personal, social, and career success and not just eliminate perceived substandard students. This is a descriptive-correlational research that investigated the relationship of career indecision, goal orientation, and perceived parenting style to the academic status of sophomore college students in UST. Proportional random sampling was used to select the respondents from different colleges in the University. The profile of the students was grouped according to age, gender, and college affiliation. Also, the variables in this study were assessed based on the Career Decision Scale, the Personal Goal Orientation Scale of Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (PALS), and Parental Authority Questionnaire. The results of this study will be beneficial not only to the academic community but also to parents of college students. Outcome of this research allows program development fitted for todays college students. Father Involvement Factors as Predictors of Psychological Well Being and Career Interest Among Male High School Adolescents Marlon R. Buena1 and Eduardo Caligner2 Ateneo de Manila High School;1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Fathers have historically been missing from psychological and social sciences research. For the past 30 years, however, researchers have been paying increasing attention to fathers in the context of normative developmental functioning. The emerging literature expounds the importance of father involvement in the crucial period of choosing a career. This research study thus aims to understand the career interests among male adolescents in high school in relation to Father Involvement, and to investigate the specific factors in Father Involvement as predictors of psychological well-being and occupational interest among male adolescents. In order to determine the relationships among the variables, the tests administered were the Filipino Father Involvement Scale, the Psychological Wellbeing Scale, and the Career Interest

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Inventory. The results of this study therefore add to the scarcity of the application of attachment theory to father-and-son interaction by providing a deeper understanding regarding the influence of paternal figures on adolescence. The Effects of Goal-Directed Intervention on the Achievement Motivation and Academic Self-Esteem of High School Underachievers Irish R. Castillo and Lucila Bance University of the East-Caloocan,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the effects of Goal-Directed Intervention on the Achievement Motivation and Academic Self-Esteem of high school underachievers. A total of 30 participants were included in this study. However, only 14 participants from the Experimental Group finished the Goal-Directed Intervention and only 14 participants from the Control Group participated in the Guidance Activities. The findings of the study showed that: 1). The experimental and control group were not significantly different from each other; 2) There is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test of the experimental group except for cooperativeness and assertiveness; 3). There is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test of the Control Group; 4). There is no significant difference between the post-test of the experimental and control group except for achievement, competitiveness, goal-setting, relax and team player. From this summary of findings, it follows that the Goal-Directed Intervention is effective in improving the abovementioned variables of high school underachievers. Enhancing Academic Success (AS) Through the Conscientiousness Intervention Program (CIP): An Exploratory Study Claudine S. Chua and Marie Ann S. Vargas The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Factors influencing academic success have been studied for many years both local and abroad. Among the factors considered are IQ, gender, economic status, family dynamics etc. Specifically, this study investigates the effect of personality or attitude particularly the level of Conscientiousness on the academic performance of second year college students from the UST AMV-College of Accountancy. Using the Pre-test Post-test True Experimental Design, the selection of participants was done using the NEO PI-R personality test. Students who score low on Conscientiousness were selected to be randomly assigned into the experimental and control group. The experimental group will undergo Conscientiousness Intervention Program or the CIP; control group will experience the usual guidance program for Second year students. This will allow the researcher to determine the consequence of the CIP, whether it made them attain more success academically and improved level of Conscientiousness.

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Formators Leadership Style Behaviors and the Level of Vocational Motivation and Satisfaction for the Candidates to the Priesthood Gabriel Ngombedua Makundu and Lucila O. Bance The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT There is an observed and felt decline in motivation to embrace the pursuit of priestly vocation today. There are lesser young people entering the seminaries, a good number of those who enter leave in the middle of the formation, and some even leave after their ordination. This study investigated the probability of a link between this phenomenon and the leadership in the seminaries. Fourteen formators and one hundred twenty five formandees participated to the study. Using the descriptive correlation method, the study examined the relationship between demographic profiles and perceived leadership styles, and how the formandees perceptions of the formators leadership styles affect their vocation development in terms of satisfaction and motivation. Initial results showed no significant relationship between demographic profiles and perceptions of leadership style behaviors. No significant relationship was also found between formators leadership style behaviors and the level of formandees vocational motivation and satisfaction.

Coping Mechanisms of SVD Novices in Indonesia: A Basis for the Creation of a Counseling Program for a Healthy Coping Skill Fr. Stefanus Lio SVD and Rosalia T. Caballero The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT This study investigated how SVD novices in Indonesia are able to cope with their problems and lifes situations in the formation house. A descriptive co-relational and qualitative method was used. The respondents were 50 novices in Nenuk, Indonesia. Results revealed that novices are using problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping mechanism in dealing with their problems. It was shown that the demographic profile particularly during the initial novitiate year and length of stay were positively related to behavioral approach coping relying markedly on seeking guidance and support (r = .31, p < 0.05) and cognitive approach coping relying notably on acceptance or resignation (r = .28, p < 0.05). Moreover, respondents in the second year have higher degree of coping mechanism particularly relying on seeking guidance and support and acceptance or resignation than those in the first year.

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Resiliency and Personality Traits as Predictors of Subjective Well Being Among College Students of the University of Santo Tomas Diovie C. Navarra1 and Marie Ann S. Vargas2 University of Santo Tomas,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT In recent years, positive psychology has emerged as a significant field of study that focuses not on pathology and remediation but on human strengths and flourishing. This has paved the way for studies on subjective well being (SWB), directed on happiness and life satisfaction. Resiliency is another construct that emphasizes thriving in adversity. Thus, this study is intended to explore these variables among adolescents. The present study sought to examine the relationships of subjective well being (SWB), resiliency and personality traits profile of college students of the University of Santo Tomas. Using the Slovins formula, a sample population size of 768 randomly selected first and second year college students across the university were given a battery of psychometric tests namely the NEO PI-R, Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents and Subjective Well Being Scales for Filipinos as measures of traits, resiliency and subjective well being, respectively. The results of the study will be beneficial to the guidance counselors, faculty and administrators of the university in the understanding and promotion of human strengths among its students.

Thinking Styles and Emotional Intelligence as Correlates of Self-Efficacy Among Guidance Counselors
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Freddie A. Quinito1,2 and Lucila O. Bance2 St. Juliana of Cumae School; 2The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT

This paper investigated the interplay between cognitive and affective processes that impact ones counseling skills (Kusche & Greenberg, 2004) by exploring the relationship of both thinking styles and emotional intelligence to the respondents self-efficacy in counseling. The research subjects involved 114 licensed guidance counselors in Metro Manila. To determine the relationships among the variables, the tests administered were Thinking Style Inventory Scale-Revised, BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory, and the Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale. Results reveal that the highest achieved mean scores are in the areas of Executive (5.19/.843), Hierarchical (5.70/.674) and External (5.71/.815) thinking styles. The achieved F ratio of the thinking styles (5.056) and emotional intelligence (2.246) inferred that both factors predict the

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self-efficacy of the counselors. The researcher therefore supports the need for schools to have an evaluation of their counselors thinking styles, apart from their level of emotional intelligence, in order to ascertain effective counseling services. Intergroup Activity as a Technique in Facilitating Interior Design Course to Promote Emotional Intelligence in Adolescents Marilou T. Tan1 and Lucila O. Bance2 College of Fine Arts and Design; 1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Surveys show that most adolescents are overwhelmed by the demands and pressures in college as they pass through an environmental transition from high school. Educators can make constructive influences in their intra-inter-and-metapersonal development at this crucial time of their growth. When teachers put to heart the mission they are called for, that is, to develop competent, compassionate, committed, and morally upright students, they can be powerful facilitators in boosting students emotional intelligence. In this experiment, the researcher would like to find out whether the participants who got low scores in BarOn EQ Pre Test progressed in emotional intelligence after the intergroup activities were given by the facilitator in their classes. The results of the post test- will determine the effectiveness of the technique.

Development Studies/ Education Reinventing Escolta and Its Environs through Historic Preservation: Implications on Sustainable Tourism and Cultural Entrepreneurship Norma I. Alarcon1 and Jaime M. Jimenez2 College of Architecture, UST;1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Through social and cultural mapping, the study determined the stakeholders, the cultural environment, and the structural conditions of establishments in Escolta. The research revolved around the problematic as to how Escolta could be revitalized to promote the socio-economic and socio-cultural welfare of its localities. By emphasizing on the role of historic preservation in the reinvention of Escolta, the study also explored upon the implications of rejuvenating Escolta in terms of sustainable tourism and cultural entrepreneurship.

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The respondents of the study comprised of all the residents/businesses, concerned local government units/personnel, NGOs and representatives of the business sector within the Escolta environ. Through quantitative and qualitative techniques, the study reveals that the perceptions and outlooks of key stakeholders in the following aspects are very positivethe historical significance of Escolta; the need to revive the place; and the roles of tourism, government, business and NGO. They also strongly believe that Escolta could be revived by combining historic preservation, sustainable tourism and cultural entrepreneurship. Fortifying Social, Moral, and Civic Values through Participation in Traditional Sports and Games in the Tertiary Physical education Curriculum
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Almon R. Oquendo1 and Amelita C. Gaerlan2 Cavite State University, 2The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT

Physical Education and sports assume the shared responsibility in the development of social, moral and civic values; it is a suitable ground to promote a nationalist identity and develop an appreciation for Filipino culture and tradition.The study aims to determine the strengthening effect of participation in traditional games and sports on moral, social and civic values among students. The quasi-experimental design was used in the study wit sixty college sophomores as subjects. Rubric, questionnaire, unstructured interview and observation reports were used to determine the gains on the students values. Data gathered were subjected into analysis using percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test for uncorrelated means, and Gossets t-test for independent samples. Results showed that the subjects learn to think critically and values developed include leadership, sportsmanship, respect for others and unity, among others. The inclusion of traditional games and sports in the P.E. curriculum is a transformative tool in developing core moral, social and civic values of the youth. When Is Similar Different?: A Grounded Theory of the Filipino Professoriates Signature Pedagogy (SP) for Teacher Education
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Virgilio F. Fadera1,2 and Allan B. de Guzman2 Romblon State University, 2The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT

The purpose of this grounded theory research was to describe the Filipino professoriates signature pedagogy for teacher education, or specifically, the distinct and idiosyncratic teaching methods they use in teaching different courses under the teacher education program. Qualitative data gathering tools included videotaped classroom ethnography, semi-structured interviews and doodling exercises. Analysis of the data yielded a six-phase configuration of a teaching model called the ADHERE method in this research, referring to the six pedagogising phases of the twenty-four (24) participants collective pedagogy namely, activating, delivering, helming, enabling, reinforcing

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and evaluating. Each of these phases in turn consists of pedagogising moves. Activating phase includes stimulating and linking moves; delivering phase includes extracting and organizing, as well as transmitting moves; helming phase includes accommodating, overseeing and team-building moves; empowering phase includes scaffolding, conceptualizing, enabling and channeling moves; reinforcing phase includes concretizing, actualizing and affirming moves; and evaluation phase includes assessing moves. The emerged pedagogical model likewise revealed a purpose-, process-, and product-driven repertoire of teaching moves that traverse a wide array of behaviorist, cognitivist, and constructivist practices, disclosing the participants eclectic approach to pedagogy. A Structural Quation Modeling (SEM) on the impact of the Indonesian Government Teacher Certification on Teachers Pedagogical Knowledge, Self Efficacy Beliefs and Classroom Performance L. K. Marince Sitohang1,2 and Allan B. de Guzman1,2 1 Charitas School Jakarta, Indonesia, 2The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Across the globe, teacher certification has been identified as a positive way to advance teachers knowledge and skills (Darling-Hammond, Berry & Thoreson, 2001; Ross & Hutchings, 2003; OECD, 2005; Coskie & Place, 2008), and at the same time a challenge for teachers enthusiasm, perseverance and altruism. In 2005, the Indonesian Government issued the national teacher certification known as the Law for Teacher and Lecture No. 14/2005, which aims to improve teacher qualification, knowledge and professional skills. A total of 205 elementary, middle and high school teachers representing Charitas Schools in Indonesia, namely: Cilandak (Jakarta), Belitang (South of Sumatera) and Batam (Riau Islands) participated in this exploratory study that addresses the question: To what does certification impact teachers pedagogical knowledge, self efficacy-beliefs and classroom performance? With the use of the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as data analytic tool, regression estimates showed that teacher certification has no effect on the overall multivariate model. Using t-test for paired samples, the study further showed that teachers who had BS/4 years preparation proved to be more advanced than those who had only 2 to 3 years preparation.

An Assessment of Two Agri-tourism Model Day Farms in the Province of Cavite


Bouvier May Murla1 and Lysander Anthony A. Padilla2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1,2

ABSTRACT
Tourism is a business of sustaining the needs of the travelling client through the presence of attraction and hospitality service. Agriculture is a business of producing crops and vegetables to

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make substantial food for the people. Agri-tourism is a combination of two industries where farming land is considered as destination, and hospitality supports the business. The locations of the study are two privately owned Agri-tourism destinations in the province of Cavite namely The Gourmet Farm and Sonyas Garden. Tourists are visiting the farms for a unique natural experience especially the fresh vegetables served in the restaurant. The research found out more of activities and services that will entice the tourists. The business also benefited the local social systems primarily through local employment. A survey of workers as beneficiaries and their levels of satisfaction according to several measures were implemented. The questionnaire instrument was first pretested, and yielded very high reliability. In addition, key informant interviews were done to augment impact assessment. Lastly, Agri-tourism is helping the environment through continuous practice of organic farming. An Assessment on the Impacts of Farm-to-Market Road Projects in Pola, Oriental, Mindoro: The Infrastracture for Rural Productivity Enhancement Sector (INFRES) Study Reyna Carolyn Erica V. Quintos1 and Lysander Anthony A. Padilla1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 ABSTRACT Lack of farm-to-market roads has been the major obstacle why rural people fail to engage in economic activity. Roads connecting local networks are often missing or in poor condition. As a result, the socio-economic conditions of those people who live in rural areas continue to worsen. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the benefits of farm-to-market road projects being undertaken by the government (Department of Agriculture) under a particular government project in selected barangays in Pola, Oriental Mindoro. In determining the impacts of constructing farm-to-market roads, this study utilized both quantitative and qualitative data gathering and statistical analysis. Reduction in transport cost, travel time, waiting time, and other basic services were determined from household survey where cost of transport for passengers and cargo were included. Increase in income of the beneficiaries attributable to the subproject is determined through the household survey against the mean figures provided in the baseline study. Initial results were able to identify impacts of the farm-to-market road subproject in terms of increase in rural household income, reduce in transport cost, travel time and waiting time, and improve in access of farm-to-market and other basic services which showed a significant contribution to the socio-economic and agricultural standing of the beneficiary barangays. An Assessment of the Impact of the Aid in Reducing Poverty in the Philippines: The Case of the European Commission and its Impact on the Agricultural Sector Cherry Grace L. Maderazo1 and Jaime Jimenez1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 ABSTRACT

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Development aid and its effectiveness in terms of reducing poverty has been under scrutiny in the international community. This study aims to assess the impact of official development assistance (ODA) and its effectiveness in reducing poverty in the Philippines. The researcher proceeds with an investigation of the case of a European Commission (EC) funded agricultural program. Using Patrick Guillaumonts model for aid effectiveness channels, this paper evaluates the impact of ECs ODA to the Philippines in terms of its contribution to economic growth, public finance, and safety nets. In determining the effectiveness of aid on poverty reduction, the researcher obtained quantitative and qualitative data through collection of secondary statistical data, key informant interviews, focused group discussions, and household surveys. Initial findings show that in order to obtain aids maximum potential impact on poverty reduction, optimal allocation of aid to promote economic growth, direct targeting of the poor through propoor-public spending, and sustaining the growth through the provision of safety nets and direct transfers have to be undertaken. Qualitative and quantitative results mutually reinforced each other in showing correlation between volume of aid and changes in economic growth, pro-poor public spending and safety nets. Structural Equation Model of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors Affecting Business Students Mathematics Achievement Ronaldo A. Manalo1 and George A. Lu2 College of Commerce and Business Administration;1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas 2 ABSTRACT This study investigated the cognitive and non-cognitive factors affecting the mathematics achievement of 276 students of the UST College of Commerce and Business Administration for SY 2010 2011. A descriptive-correlational design was utilized in the study. Initial findings revealed that majority of the respondents are females, finished their secondary education in private sectarian schools, with high average IQ, with average grades in college algebra, mathematics of investment, mathematical analysis in business, and in the two English courses in the basic education curriculum. There is significant difference in the achievements when students are grouped according to high school attended and entry status. Furthermore, the structural equation model showed that both cognitive and non-cognitive factors have impact on their mathematics achievement. It is very important that in educational planning, a teacher must consider both the cognitive and non-cognitive factors in order to effectively improve the mathematics achievement of the learners.

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Biological Science Genetic Stock Structure of Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the Philippines Using Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Roselyn DC. Aguila1,3 and Mudjekeewis D. Santos1,2 Genetic Fingerprinting Laboratory, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute1, Department of Biology, Ateneo De Manila University2, The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas3 ABSTRACT Yellowfin tuna has been contributing 26% of the Philippines total marine production (BAS, 2007), bringing in efforts to conserve and sustain its stock. This study aims to establish a population structure of the economically valuable yellowfin tunas using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. Fifty yellowfin tuna samples were collected in four sampling sites (Zambales, Palawan, Samar and General Santos). Currently, the mtDNA control region of 70% of the target sample size, composed of all Samar and General Santos and 42/50 Zambales samples, has been successfully amplified and sequenced. Initial analysis of molecular variance has been conducted. Abundance and Distribution of the Green Alga Botryococcus braunii Ktzing (1849) in Paoay Lake, Ilocos Norte and Some Molecular Studies Marianne Kristine C. Arguel1 and Susana F. Baldia2,3 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas College of Science2 and Research Center for the Natural Sciences, University of Santo Tomas3 ABSTRACT Botryococcus braunii, a green colonial freshwater microalga which is recognized as a renewable source of energy has been found to inhabit Paoay Lake, Ilocos Norte. The growth and monthly abundance of B. braunii population in the lake in relation to the different physico-chemical parameters and other phytoplankton species were done from April 2009 to March 2010. Throughout the sampling period B. braunii populations were present in the four sampling sites. Changes in cell density were observed in which the highest recorded mean density was in August (2515 cells /mL) and the lowest was in May (83 cells/mL) Physico-chemical parameters and nutrients were still within the range for growth of the alga. Fluctuations of these nutrients may be caused by seasonal variation and the occurrence of typhoon in the region. Growth of B. braunii population is positively correlated with temperature, conductivity, depth, NO3-and phytoplankton count while it is negatively correlated with DO, pH, transparency and PO43-. There were 35 genera of phytoplankton that co-existed with B. braunii in the lake. Although Botryococcus braunii populations were present within the water column throughout the sampling

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period, the present environmental conditions did not allow the formation of blooms of this algal species. Distribution and Heavy Metal Biosorption Potential of Ramalina Species Collected from Southern Luzon, Philippines Rina Victoria C. Baluyot and Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Fruticose lichens are often monitored as indicator of air and heavy metal pollution. However, in the Philippines, only about 790 species of lichens were reported in spite of the countrys high species diversity. Thus, this research study assesses the distribution and biosorption capacity of Ramalina species collected from four provinces in Southern Luzon. Morphological and biochemical tests identified the specimens as Ramalina dendriscoides, R. exiguella, R. mynoclada, R. nervulosa, R. pacifica, R. subfraxinea, and R. tropica. Majority of the specimens collected were R. nervulosa (57) and R. pacifica (15). R. mynoclada was recorded only in Quezon. Assessment of biosorption potential with two Ramalina species, R. nervulosa and R. pacifica, showed absorption of heavy metals at 30 90 minutes contact time. Highest biosorption percentage was recorded with R. pacifica. Maximum absorption of heavy metals by the two Ramalina species ranged from 1 to 10 ppm. The Generic Status of Unresolved Endemic Species of Philippine Gardenia Ellis (Rubiaceae): Evidences from Morphology and Chloroplast DNA Sequence Data
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Jayson G. Chavez1,2 and Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro2 Malayan High School of Science, The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas 2 ABSTRACT

The Philippine species of the paleotropical Gardenia Ellis is a heterogeneous assemblage of different Rubiaceaous genera. Most of them were already transferred in other genera such as Ceriscoides Tirveng., Discospermum Dalzell, Fagerlindia Tirveng. and Sulitia Ridsdale. Three endemic Philippine Gardenia species (G. lagunensis Merr., G. merrillii Elmer and G. negrosensis Merr.) were left unresolved and exhibits disparate features against the current circumscription of the genus. In this study, sequences of rps16 intron and trn(T)L-F region of cpDNA of these enigmatic species were newly generated and analyzed to determine their genealogical affinities with more certitude. Separate rps16 and trn(T)L-F trees and combined tree support the placement of the three Gardenia species in the genus Rothmannia Thunberg. These molecular results corroborate with morphology by 3:3 nodal pattern of leaves, bilobed stigmas, two-locular ovaries, globular indehiscent fruits, and seeds that are embedded in a pulp forming a single mass. Therefore, we recognized three new combinations of the Philippine Rothmannia species. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of each species as well as key to all the Philippine Rothmannia species are provided.

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Diversity, Distribution and Antibacterial Activities of Fungal Leaf Endophytes Isolated from Mangroves Collected in Luzon Island, Philippines Carly Simon P. Ramirez and Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Fungal leaf endophytes are known prolific sources of biologically active secondary metabolites. However, fungal endophytes from Philippine mangroves still remain underexplored. Thus, this study aims to isolate, identify and assess the diversity of species of endophytic fungi from healthy mangrove leaves collected from 16 sites in Luzon Island, Philippines. Production of secondary metabolites in PDBS was also done using submerged batch fermentation and the crude extracts were screened for their antibacterial activities using paper disk diffusion assay. A total of 608 leaf endophytes belonging to 20 morphospecies were isolated from 19 mangrove species. Highest species diversity was recorded from Zambales and Avicennia marina. Some mangrove leaf endophytes were identified as belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Pestalotiopsis. Extraction of metabolites with ethylacetate resulted in 1.12-9.17% yield. Of the 17 isolates tested, four and eight were very active (>19 mm zone of inhibition) against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus, respectively.

Diversity and xylanase production of marine fungi isolated from decaying mangrove leaves collected from Luzon Island, Philippines Jeremy Martin O. Torres and Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Fungi, as aggressive degraders of woody substrata, are gaining attention as producers of industrially-viable enzymes. However, mangroves as sources of fungi are relatively underexplored as sources of fungal xylanases. Thus, this study aims to look at the diversity of fungi associated with decaying mangrove leaves and explore them as promising sources of industrially-viable xylanases. A total of 2,101 fungal strains belonging to 26 morphospecies were obtained from yellow and brown decaying leaves of six mangrove species collected in 16 sites in Luzon. Highest species diversity was recorded in Quezon and in Rhizophora apiculata. Some of the fungal strains were identified as belonging to the genera Cladosporium, Fusarium, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis and Phoma. Screening of 40 selected fungal isolates showed xylandegrading activities, i.e. more than 90% of the tested fungal strains. Furthermore, determination of enzyme activity of four fungal strains using DNS method showed a maximum activity of 144.42 U/ml.

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Phytoplankton Community Structure and Water Quality Assessment of Paoay Lake, Ilocos Norte Katrina Mae D.Villaroman1 and Susana F. Balida 1,2,3 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas,1 College of Science, 2 Research Center for Natural Sciences, University of Santo Tomas 3 ABSTRACT A study on the phytoplankton community structure of Paoay Lake, Ilocos Norte in relation to its different physico-chemical properties was conducted to provide basic information on the community present in the lake and to evaluate the lakes water quality. Samples were collected monthly from April 2009 to March 2010. A total of 39 genera were identified during the duration of the study. Of the total algal population recorded (1.93 x 106 cells/ml), the Cyanophyta group was the most dominant and they accounted for 94% of the total number species of algae observed during the period of the study. The relationship between the phytoplankton community and the physico-chemical parameters was identified using the Pearson-r correlation coefficient. Results indicated that Cyanophytes had significant inverse correlation between phytoplankton density and nitrates which can be attributed to the utilization of nitrate-nitrogen by the cyanobacterial population.

Microbiology Microtitre Plate-based Colorimetric Assay of Different Antibiotics against MRSA using Redox dyes as Indices of Bacterial Growth Ezzle Jay E. Guevarra1 and Delia C. Ontengco2 Clark Development Corporation-Health Services Office,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas,2 ABSTRACT Microplate colorimetric assay was utilized as a rapid sensitivity testing to assay microorganism in 96-well microtiter plate using growth indicator dyes. Clinical isolates such as: -hemolytic Streptococci, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (Methicillin-resistant and -sensitive) were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of: Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim, Clindamycin and o Daptomycin/Vancomycin in two-fold serial dilutions. The set-up was incubated at 35 C for 24 hrs and any of the five indicator dyes were added: Bromthymol blue, Bromophenol red, Methylene blue, Methyl red and Resazurin. Results indicate that three of the five redox dyes have potential as growth indicators for rapid antibacterial susceptibility testing by oxidizing the original color of dye to its corresponding reduced state depicting acceptable consistent MIC endpoints. Results suggest that Redox dyes can provide a simple, rapid, low technology and low cost diagnostic method for bacterial infections.

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Distribution, Metabolic Profiles and Antibacterial Activities of Different Usnea Species Collected from Five Provinces of Luzon, Philippines Krystle Angelique A. Santiago1 and Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz1,2 1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The fruticose lichen Usnea are producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. However, limited studies were done on Usnea in the Philippines, particularly on its biological activities. Thus, this study explores the taxonomy and antibacterial properties of different Usnea species collected from selected provinces of Luzon: Benguet, Cavite, Ifugao, Mountain Province and Nueva Vizcaya. Morphological and biochemical tests identified 21 species of Usnea from the study sites. Usnea cornuta, U. fragilescens and U. rubicunda were the most common species collected. Extraction of lichen acids with acetone resulted in 0.53-10.14% yield. Of the 41 lichen crude extracts tested using paper disk diffusion assay, six were active against S. aureus while 37 were active against B. subtilis. Detection of lichen acids using TLC showed an average of 4 metabolites per species. Commonly identified lichen acids were usnic acid, salazinic acid, norstictic acid and constictic acid. TLC bioautography showed that usnic acid is the bioactive metabolite.

Medical Technology Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Among Filipino Inmates of Manila City Jail Sheena S. Bonayog 1 Grace J. dela Calzada2 Medlab Analytik Dubai1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Globally, Hepatitis C Virus is an important chronic liver disease agent that has been transmitted to over 180 million people. Information on prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus is scare in Philippine prisons. This study aims to determine the seropositivity to Hepatitis C Virus of Filipino inmates in Manila City Jail. A total of 387 inmates who signed the informed consent and answered the questionnaire participated in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested for Hepatitis C Virus antibodies using ELISA method. Logistic regression analysis shows that among the age, gender, blood transfusion, tattoo, homosexuality, and bulitas, age (1 = 0.080, p=0.026) is the only variable that has a coefficient that is significantly different from zero. The positive coefficient indicates that older patients among inmates are most likely to be infected with Hepatitis C virus, as compared to younger patients. This merits for further investigation for larger population of inmates.

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Nasal and Hand Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among UST Medical Technology Interns AY 2010-2011: A Cross-sectional Study Mark Angelo V. Ngu and Delia C. Ontengco The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes nosocomial infectionand diseases not only limited to skin infection. Studies show that healthcare workers can transmit MRSA as anterior nares is the common site for colonization. This study is done to determine if Medical Technology interns are potential MRSA carriers. Demographic profiles and risk factors were asked in the questionnaires.Nasal and hand swabs were cultured in tryptic soy broth, then plated on chromIDMRSA. Positive green colonies were subjected to Slidex MRSA agglutinationto test for PBP2a. Confirmed MRSA specimens are verified as Staphylococcus aureus through gram stain, mannitol salt agar culture and tube coagulase test. Treatment or prophylactic options were assayedby Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Method. Out of 209 interns, 23 (11%) were found to be MRSA carriers, 8 (34.8%) of whomwere colonized in their hands, 12(52.2%) in the anterior nares, and 3 (13%) in both hands and anterior nares. Incidence of Bacterial Contamination of Platelet Units in Batangas, Philippines: Basis for the Implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices Oliver Shane R. Dumaoal1, 2 and Grace J. Dela Calzada2 Lyceum of the Philippines University - Batangas1, The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Platelet concentrates (PC) are the most susceptible to bacterial contamination with risks 10 to 1000 times higher than the combined risks of common transfusion transmitted infections. This study determined the incidence of bacterial contamination in platelet units from selected blood service facilities (BSFs) in Batangas, Philippines, identified the microorganisms in the contaminated units and assessed the working practices of the participating BSFs as compared to good manufacturing practices (GMPs). A total of 698 platelet units were analyzed from June to December 2010 using culture methods described by Cunha et al. (2008) while microorganisms were identified using standard morphologic and biochemical methods. Fourteen units (2.01%, 95% confidence interval) were found to be contaminated. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) was the predominant microorganism present (6/14, 42.86%) followed by Bacillus sp. (5/14, 35.71%), Staphylococcus aureus (2/14, 14.29%) and Escherichia coli (1/14, 7.14%). Evaluation of the working practices of the BSFs revealed compliance to a slight extent in all areas. The lowest compliance was noted in the implementation of quality management systems, monitoring of premises and in the monitoring of blood components. Lack of standardization in the disinfection of donor arms was likewise observed. It is recommended that the BSFs implement the GMP standards in the manufacture of platelet concentrates with due emphasis on the implementation of quality management systems, monitoring of premises,

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quality monitoring of blood products and standardization of decontamination protocols for blood donor arms. Pharmacy Agathis philippinensis: Analgesic & Anti-Inflammatory Property and Physico-chemical Characterization Grace Marie C. Alunan1 and Mafel C. Ysrael2 University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Pharmacy1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The leaves of Agathis philippinensis (Araucareaceae) commonly known as almaciga were collected from the province of Bicol. The crude methanolic extract obtained thru percolation method was greenish black with a varnish like odor with 11.08% percentage yield. Phytochemical test showed the presences of alkaloid, unsaturated sterol, condensed tannin and flavonoids in the extract. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory test will be performed using the acetic acid writhing test and carrageenan induced paw edema. Preliminary toxicological study will use the up and down method as stated in the OECD guidelines. Physicochemical test showed the following for crude drug: bulk density- 0.2484g/ml; specific gravity- 0.0375; loss on drying- 8.51%. The crude extract has specific gravity of 0.343; pH- 4.5 and is slightly soluble in water but soluble in alcohol. The photosensitivity, stability of the crude drug and crude extract under elevated temperature & humidity and drug excipient compatibility is currently being conducted. In vitro Screening of the Vasorelaxant Activity of Diospyros discolor (Ebenaceae) Leaf Extracts. Renz Kenneth G. Cadiang1, Marina Osi2 and Jovencio Apostol1 Faculty of Pharmacy University of Santo Tomas1, The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Diospyros discolor, or Mabolo, is an endemic Philippine tree. Its parts are used in traditional medicine for managing various ailments like heart problems and hypertension. This study will evaluate the leaf extract for vasorelaxant potential. Methanol extraction produced 33% crude extract. Three-fourth of the crude extract was partitioned using solvents with increasing polarity. Hexane fraction was a greenish black semi-solid, ethyl acetate was a greenish black powder while n-butanol was a brown powder. Vasorelaxant screening will be carried out using isolated Spague-Dawley rat thoracic aortic rings with endothelium connected to an Isometric transducer. It will be contracted with phenylephrine and relaxed with acetylcholine before it will be subjected to the same physiological tests with the extract and its partitions. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl

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ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor will be used to evaluate possible mechanism of action. Data will be treated to 2-way ANOVA at p<0.05. Comparative Antimicrobial Property of the Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica Linn., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream Anna Muriel Talavera Jacinto1 and Marina O.Osi2 University of Perpetual Help DALTA System,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Studies on Tamarind showed that it is rich in tannin and alkaloid which were responsible for antimicrobial property (Doughari et al. 2005). Thus the objective of the study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of the bark of trunk and stem of Tamarind. Powdered barks (225 g each) of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone as solvent. Trunk bark produced a yield of 2.6% extract and 2.1% for stem bark. Results showed that trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium mitissumi, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Trunk bark highest zone of inhibition to the above organisms are 16 mm, 20 mm and 15 mm while stem bark were 10 mm, 15 mm, and 11 mm respectively. Dermal sensitization test on rabbits using 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore can be formulated into an antibacterial cream. Hypoglycemic Profile and Genotoxicity Study of Crude Methanolic Leaf Extract of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Jay P. Jazul1 and Marina O. Osi2 University of Santo Tomas, Faculty of Pharmacy,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT For the purpose of preliminary screening of the hypoglycemic effect of Senna alata (L.) Roxb., methanolic crude extract was utilized for the extensive antihyperglycemic and genotoxicity study. The procedure was a basis for preliminary screening of the hypoglycemic activity of genus Senna and the establishment of genotoxicity assay. This study has a significant contribution on the medical profile of the plant as an important herbal medicine or food supplement. Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The extract was administered daily (100, 400 and 800 mg/kg, orally). Glibenclamide was used as a standard drug (40 mg/kg). FBS was measured at 7th, 14th and 21st day. In genotoxicity study (micronucleus test), four groups of ICR-strain mice were used (control, 800 mg/kg, 1600 mg/kg, Mitomycin 2 mg/kg). ANOVA at p<0.05 followed by Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) were utilized as statistical tools. The plant extract gained a percentage yield of 48.45%.

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Effects of Ficus odorata (Moraceae) and Tabernaemontana pandacaqui (Apocynaceae) Extracts on Blood Glucose Levels of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice Maria Suzette S. Silva1 and Aristea V. Bayquen 2 Our Lady of Fatima University,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is a chronic progressive disease that has profound consequences for individuals, families, and society. This condition can be managed by proper diet and exercise and treated with insulin and other hypoglycemic agents. Alternative treatments have also been considered and it has caused an increase in the number of investigations on plants possessing hypoglycemic activity. Several investigations on various plants have been conducted including plants belonging to Apocynaceae and Moraceae Family. In this study, Ficus odorata (Moraceae) and Tabernaemontana pandacaqui (Apocynaceae) which are considered endemic in the Philippines were considered. Lyophilized aqueous extracts were prepared and orally tested at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight to overnight fasted Alloxan induced diabetic Balb/c mice. Plasma glucose was analyzed after the treatment of the animals and blood glucose levels were quantitatively determined relative to the standard glucose using Enzymatic Colorimetric Method.

Architecture Towards the Application of Green Roof in a Master Planned Community (Its Benefits on the Upscale Development of Bonifacio Global City) Helen M. Miranda and Ma. Concepcion V. Roxas The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Green roofs gained popularity over the last years because of its environmental, social and visual benefits in cities around the world. These benefits will be reviewed and examined on its application to the master planned community of Bonifacio Global City, Taguig.. Using the Greenway planning method adopted from Singapore, the research requires a green matrix to connect spaces, making green roofs more accessible to public. Application policies and guidelines will then be developed. This research also aims to provide a model of green roof use for other urban areas in the Philippines. This is to achieve its collective benefits, through a nationwide application.

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Architectural Interventions: Its Effect on the Plan and Character of the Basilica del Santo Nino Church Fr. Nelson Zerda, OSA and Norma I. Alarcon The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The Basilica del Santo Nino church in Cebu the church that houses the almost 500 year old image of Sr. Santo Nino and the center of Filipino Augustinians, has been subjected to a number of architectural interventions. A major one was made in 1964 in preparation for the Fourth Centennial Celebration of Philippine Christianization. Barely a year after Vatican II, the changes were observed to be drastic and quite substantial as it is seen in the removal and transfer of some vital parts of the church structure including some extensions of the main transept. In the absence of expert conservators and technology, some interventions were found to be unfavorable to the church architecture and character. This paper aims to look into the effect of modern architectural interventions in the Architecture of the Basilica del Santo Nino in terms of plan and character. It will try to answer the question what constitute a functional intervention as far as the Basilica del Santo Nino church building is concerned.

Fine Arts

Explorations of Materials Using a Metal Age Representation of Reality Andrea G. Peralejo and Benedicto B. Ducat College of Fine Arts and Design,1 The Graduate School2, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The Maitum anthropomorphic secondary burial jars were discovered in 1991 in the province of South Cotabato. These jars could be dated as far back as 5th Century B.C.E. during the Philippines prehistoric Metal Age. These vessels are unique to the Philippines for their composition is said to resemble the remains that are contained in each. This research aims to achieve two things. It aims to give a new interpretation through the theories of art in the contemporary period, during the Metal Age in the Philippines through the anthropomorphic secondary burial jars found in Ayub cave in Maitum. Furthermore, this research will explore on the representations of the Maitum burial jars using the sculpture technology of molded resin, compressed wood with a foundation of used tarpaulin banners in combination with video art installations to create interactive video art sculpture pieces inspired by the Maitum Anthropomorphic Burial Jars.

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Physical Therapy Level of Knowledge on Vestibular Rehabilitation of Physical Therapy Professionals in Metro Manila: A Descriptive Correlational Study Marian Grace A. Gabor and Janine Margarita R. Dizon The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Vestibular rehabilitation therapy is an exercise-based treatment program geared towards improving the quality of life of patients who have vestibular disorders. Trained physical therapists administer this treatment upon diagnosis and referral of a physician. The use of vestibular rehabilitation in America has been well-documented and immensely integrated into their rehabilitation practices as well as in neighboring Asian countries. This study aims to describe the knowledge-based competency of physical therapy professionals within Metro Manila by using an adapted examinationvalidated by an expert panelthat will test their background of anatomy-physiology of the vestibular system; medical foundation; and assessment and treatment. This study will also correlate the number of years of practice, postgraduate courses attended and continuing education, trainings and exposures to their level of knowledge on vestibular rehabilitation.

Eversion-to-Inversion ROM Ratio: Its Correlation to Lateral Collateral Sprain among UAAP Volleyball Players Christian Rey D. Rimando1 and Consuelo G. Suarez2 College of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Santo Tomas1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related musculoskeletal injury. Extensive researches on sports have already reported that eversion-to-inversion strength ratio and ankle range of motion are associated to history of ankle sprain though most of the focus has been on ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. To date, no study exists that determine the relationship of eversion-to-inversion ROM ratio (E/I ROM ratio) with history of ankle sprain among athletes. The aim of the study is to determine the correlation of history of ankle sprain to E/I ROM ratio among volleyball players. Volleyball players with or without history of ankle sprains will be included in the study. Participants who had recent ankle sprain ( 3 months) or had bilateral ankle sprain will be excluded from the study. Pearson correlation test will be used to determine the relationship between history of ankle sprain and E/I ROM ratio.

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English

The Discourse Organization and Linguistic Features of Homilies: An Intercultural Rhetoric Approach Ma. Melvyn P. Alamis and Marilu R. Madrunio Faculty of Engineering, UST; The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas The study is an attempt to analyze and describe the discourse organization of homily as a genre. It is also intended to examine homilies delivered by Filipino and Indian priests that represent varied types of Englishes in the Outer Circle. It analyzes, in particular, the organizational moves of their homilies as well as other linguistic features that can help them persuade the listeners, taking into account the culture and the socio-cultural background of the speakers. The data were obtained from the two sets of homilies of the clergy namely, the Filipino and Indian priests. This paper uses textual and statistical analyses to arrive at the identification and comparison of the organizational moves and linguistic features in the homilies. This study is important in its use of intercultural rhetoric approach and in its analysis of the two types of Englishes in their respective contexts. Morphological Features of the Western and Eastern Marinduque Tagalog Susan B. Pineda1 and Marilu R. Madrunio2 Marinduque State College,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2

ABSTRACT
The Tagalog spoken on the island province of Marinduque is investigated in terms of its morphological structure taken from speeches of four groups of speakers in Eastern and Western Marinduque. One of the objectives of the study is to identify the language preferences of the native speakers in three domains and discover the factors that operate to influence their language use. The main purpose is to identify the affixation in the oral language samples focused on verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Factors that influence the native speakers in choosing one language over the other are educational attainment, situational domains and local language areas. Data were collected through triangulation method using the criteria of form, meaning and distribution. Results of the study revealed 38 items of verbal, adjective and adverbial affixes. Differences in the use of affixes were found on the domains of interaction and on the local language areas.

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Communication

Social Networking Websites as Platforms for Negotiating Cultural Identities among Foreign Students of UST-Manila Arikotla Vidya Sagar and Jermaiah M.Opiniano The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Social networking websites are online communication tools that allow users to connect and share public and semi-public profiles. Due to their versatility today these online tools have become virtual hotspot hangouts among the youth. Given their emergence, how do these social networking websites allow foreigners studying or living in an overseas land to negotiate their cultural origins and identities-both to fellow foreigners and to locals in their host country? For this purpose the researcher used qualitative and quantitative research methods. Some three focused group discussions were done, as well as a one-shot random survey method which was done to some 213 undergraduate foreign students of UST. Preliminary data reveal that undergraduate foreign students are heavy users of social networking websites. Most of respondents have more than two accounts on these sites, with facebook being the most popular account. They use them to uploading videos to imbedding drawings or pictures. The materials the respondents upload seem to be carefully chosen to reflect their cultural heritage with the social networking accounts being used to spread respondents national and cultural wealth to colleagues who are also college students. Respondents also write popular sayings or verses from currently popular songs that bear living testimony to their cultures.

Philippine Mens Magazines and Their Readers: A Medium and Audience Study Using Uses and Gratifications Approach Jeff Franco and Kane Errol Choa Universal McCann , The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2
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ABSTRACT This study gathered reasons of Filipino men for reading Philippine mens magazines and interpreted how and where they use it using focus group discussions and in depth interviews. With content analysis, it also outlined key themes and elements of the magazines. Results further reinforced what media in general do - providing information and entertainment, which are the dominant reasons why readers read the magazines. Majority of the magazines dedicate their content to sex and fashion. These two themes were also the top topics that readers look

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for in the magazines. The study found out that readers utilize the information from magazines in dealing with relationships and improving ones personal appearance.

Creative Writing

Transcoding: The Practice of Fluid Sociology Frederick I. Rey and Ophelia A. Dimalanta The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Heavily influenced by sociological orientations that settled on loose grounds (postmodernism and creative sociologies), Fluid Sociology is an attempt to create a different way of perceiving existing sociological orders of theories and methods. The intended radical break and scholastic separation generated by academic bestiality, celebrate its triumph in the new expression called transcoding. Aided by the imaginative concealment of facts behind the graceful dance of words and images, the craftsman is bestowed with immeasurable freedom to locate his own vehicle of expression and creative genius. By stretching reality through creative nonfiction, linguistic madness offers an alternative logic for discovery. This research attempts to re-present published sociological data aided by the techniques of creative nonfiction. The first presentation is a memoir and the second is the five biographies of street children engaged in substance abuse.

Prelude to an Exhibit and Other Poems Amadeo M. Mendoza and Rebecca T. Anonuevo The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT This writer grew up during the Martial Law years, in a society where the strong pounced on the weak,and the dictatorship terrorized the masses. This writer remembers vividly being nearly thrown to jail, gun pointed at his face, a truckload of soldiers in Potsdam Street, Cubao. Traumatized by the scene, he jailed himself at home, ironically in the company of a soldier father who served the regime. He found solace in his mothers caring presence, folk music, and reading poems. How can the suppression of freedom be converted into another kind of freedom that strengthens the human spirit? This MA Creative Writing thesis looks back at that period that has become the

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genesis in this part memoir, part poetry work something of a prelude to this 55-poem collection, where he speaks not only of freedom lost, but freedom regained through poetry and the act of writing. Chemistry

Carbon Multi-Walled Nanotubes (MWNTs) Poly (N-vinyl Carbazole) (PVK) Nanocomposites: Precursor Conjugated Polymer Network (CPN) Nanocomposite Films Karina Milagros Cui1,2, Christina A. Binag2, and Rigoberto C. Advincula 1,2 Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Houston, Houston, TX 772404-5003 USA 2 Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT In this work, the preparation of poly (N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or PVK/CNTs nanocomposites was carried out by an electrochemical approach. Solutions of the CNTs or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with the PVK were prepared using mixed solvents aided by sonication which resulted in exfoliation and deaggregation of the MWNTs into the PVK polymer matrix. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out from spin-coated films of this homogeneous dispersion which resulted in the formation of a conjugated polymer network (CPN) nanocomposite film, i.e. anodic electro-polymerization or crosslinking of the carbazole units. The spectroscopic, electrochemical, and interfacial charge-transfer behaviour of the nanocomposites films were also analyzed using CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Raman and FT-IR-ATR spectroscopy were used to prove the wrapping of MWNTs outer surfaces by the PVK polymer. Discrimination of Philippine Coffee Beans Using an Electronic Nose System Based on Polymer-Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Sharlene R. Cabanilla1 and Fortunato B. Sevilla III2 ITDI-DOST , The Graduate School1,2 and College of Science2, University of Santo Tomas
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ABSTRACT Coffee is the most popular beverage worldwide, enjoyed primarily because of its aroma and flavor. Aroma is commonly used as the basis of coffee quality and its evaluation is usually carried out by an expert sensory panel. Coffee aroma can also be assessed by means of an electronic nose (EN). The EN generates an electrical signal in the presence of the substance causing the aroma. This study aimed to apply a self-assembled EN system for the discrimination of the different coffee varieties in the Philippines. Samples of the four varieties of coffee (i.e. Arabica, Robusta, Excelsa and Liberica) were obtained from several regions within the country. The EN system that was employed, was based on six piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) coated with sensing elements of different polarities [polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylchloride (PVC),

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polymethylacrylate (PVC/PMAA), Silica (PVC/Silica), Fluorosil (PVC/Fluor), and Cat-Ex (PVC/CatEx)]. The following parameters involved in the measurement were optimized: mass/fineness of sample, sensing elements, flowrate of carrier gas, sample holder and incubation time. Distinct radar plot quality profiles were obtained for each variety. Chemometric analysis of the responses from the EN was carried out using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The developed group of sensors was then able to categorize the different coffee varieties. Isolation and Identification of constituents from the Antitubercular DCM fraction from the leaf extract of Premna odorata Blanco Stephen Lirio1 and Alicia M. Aguinaldo1,2 The Graduate School , Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Santo Tomas2
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ABSTRACT The dichloromethane sub-extract (PoMD) obtained from the leaf extract of the Philippine medicinal plant Premna odorata Blanco was found to be active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv exhibiting 99% inhibition at 128 g/mL and 64 g/mL concentrations. The PoMD extract was subjected to VLC and gave 20 pooled fractions which were bioassayed using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA). The fractions PoMD.4,5,7,8,9 and 15 were found to be active, having a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 53.87, 119.71, 117.12, 113.12, 82.80 and108.91 g/mL, respectively. PoMD.8 was subjected to VLC and gave 7 pooled fractions. PoMD.8.2 and PoMD.8.4 were further purified by column chromatography to obtain PoMD.8.2.1 and PoMD.8.4.1 as white flakes. Both isolates were characterized by spectroscopic methods: 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, COSY, and GC-MS. Purification of the other active fractions is ongoing. Theology Uses and Gratifications of the Religious Website: A Case Study of the Website of the Congregation of the Caritas Sisters of Jesus in South Korea Kim Soo Jin1 and Anthony G. Roman2 Caritas Sisters of Jesus (SCG),1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The Internet is a major part of peoples daily life nowadays where one can check information not only on mundane, but also on religious and spiritual matters. However, the religious websites show a tendency rarely to open the gate for two-way communication with users and their religious concerns, expectations and satisfaction. The main objective in assessing the website of the Congregation of the Caritas Sisters of Jesus in South Korea, based on Uses and Gratifications, attempts to identify the needs of religious surfers, concerning matters of faith, such as counselling about lifes problems, spirituality, information or news about religious topics and so forth. The expectancy-value of religious surfers, that the media is determined by the

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beliefs of the users and their evaluation of it, will enable the Church and the Religious Orders to fulfill their missionary and pastoral mandate in this huge and new world of communications network. Journalism Ethics in Pastoral Communication Perspective: The Case of the Philippine Press Christian V. Esguerra and Fr. Franz Josef Eilers,S.V.D. The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT This thesis studies journalism ethics under the prism of pastoral communication, particularly in the context of the Philippine press. Through this study, the author identifies the deep connection between secular press ethics and Christian ethics. The thesis covers actual cases that raised serious ethical questions among print journalists within the past 10 years. The study is qualitative in nature, making extensive use of library research, interviews, and actual experiences by the author, who has been a newsman for a decade now. The thesis confronts the idea that Christian ethics is best left to religion, while secular ethics best serves journalism in general. On the contrary, journalism ethics can be seen with greater clarity under the perspective of pastoral communication. With proper guidance, journalists can become more effective communicatorsgrounded on the cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude, and with deep respect for human dignity. As pastoral communicators, they see communication not merely as a human enterprise, but as essential and contributing to life and the dignity of humans in the spirit of a deeper understanding of communication as giving.

The Impact of Internet and Cellular Phone on the Spiritual Formation Of Religious Sisters in the Diocese of Malolos Sr.Elisa D. Fausto,OP and Fr. Franz Josef Eilers,S.V.D. The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Today, Modern Technology particularly Internet and Cellular Phone has a great impact in the lives of the people; communication is rapidly transmitted from one place to another, from person to person. This is a powerful tool that can be used to enhance relationship, for the growth of the person and community but it can be used also to abuse, manipulate and even destroy the lives of the people. Thus, even Religious Sisters use internet and cellular as a much needed means for communication, unaware however, at times of the impact of this modern technology on their lifestyle. This study tries to find out the reality of this development that could generate and develop an awareness of new perspectives in the use of internet cellular phones for effectivity in their ministries. Results of this study will provide insights concerning the impact of modern technology in the life and mission of the Religious Sisters in the Diocese of Malolos. To the respondent Religious Congregations, the study is significant because of the objective data and information which should be of help in their formation processes. To the Diocese of Malolos, the findings of the

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study should be a good source of information to the Commission on Media for follow through programs to the sisters in the field of Pastoral Communication. The method of this study is descriptive and qualitative. The study aims to investigate the actual use, impact and possibilities of Internet and Cellular Phone in the Spiritual Formation as well as Ministry of the Religious Sisters in the Diocese of Malolos. The respondents of this research are the two hundred-five (205) members of the thirteen (13) Religious Congregations in the Diocese of Malolos. The researcher prepared and distributed survey questionnaires to the respondents and conducted interviews with selected Superiors and group discussions with involved sisters in the different stages of formation to validate the survey. The Complementary Values of the Social World of Jesus and of the Buddhist World of Sri Lanka: A Social-Scientific Inquiry George Danister Tissera1 and Fr.Virgilio A. Ojoy, OP2 Basilica College, Colombo,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT In cultural anthropology, a mid-range model serves to explain segments of behaviour rather than the whole cultural picture. Thus Malina uses mid-range models to test and validate the human social behaviours of the first century C.E. Palestine. Proper evaluation of the models is extremely important to understand the New Testament cultural world. This study focuses on the complementary values of the social world of Jesus and of the Buddhist world of Sri Lanka. This research identifies the sources of texts, and value performance namely: honour and hiri-ottappa. Pieris cross reading method is used for assessing the complementarity of both values. Honour has two aspects-ascribed and acquired. Ascribed honour refers to inherited or bestowed worth, while acquired honour operates always at the expense of another, thus implies challengeriposte game. Shame and fear means moral shame and moral fear thus implies a total moral consciousness. Both ultimately lead humanity beyond human liberation. Philosophy Emerging Ethical Concerns in Nanotechnology: An Ethical Evaluation Marciana Agnes G. Ponsaran and Fr. Norberto M. Castillo, O.P. The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Touted as the next revolution and second renaissance, nanotechnology has raised great expectations from people across the globe and has become the centerpiece of the political and economic agenda of the first world and developing countries. While it has raised hopes for a better and brighter future, it has likewise stirred a lot of controversies. The role of ethics in technology development cannot be underestimated. It lies at the core of mans activity in pursuit of his chosen ends. The study introduces nanotechnology and nanomedicine as a fertile ground for ethical evaluation. Three alternative routes were chosen first, by looking into the contemporary debates in nanoethics; second, by drawing from Aristotles ethical treatises, and; third, by invoking the precautionary principle as articulated by

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Hans Jonas and the World Commission on Scientific Knowledge and Technology. The study shows that nanotechnology has far-reaching societal and ethical implications and the potential of reshaping all facets of human life. Nanoethics enlarges the scope of ethical inquiry and disentangles the complex ethical issues arising from the application of nanotechnology. Aristotles ethics holds a promise of shaping an ethical landscape for nanotechnology by drawing attention to moral virtues in relation to human flourishing (eudaimonia). The precautionary principle guides our decisions in the face of risks and uncertainties posed by emerging technologies. Gabriel Marcel: Availability to Others as a Vocation Mark Anthony N. Lataza and Florentino H. Hornedo Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT While it is true that many philosophers have tried to capsulate the answer to the anthropological question what is man or what is the meaning of mans existence, it is also true that it appears that answers to this open a thousand and one stances. However, this paper hopes to provide yet another answer rooted in the thought of Gabriel Marcel rendering meaning to what man is, anchored on the Other rather than on ones solipsistic isolation. The researcher unravels that alienation as in Solipse can never be regarded as authentic existence. Authentic existence can only be realized when the I is in love for and in friendship with the Other. This paper also underscores the value of man as it is rooted on how one relates, communicates and become available to Others as vocation. In the end, the importance of human-God relationship that leads to better human-human relationship is highlighted. Gabriel Marcel on the Family vis--vis The Roman Catholic Teachings on Family: An Analysis Fr. Ronnie B. Rodriguez and Florentino H. Hornedo Missionaries of Our Lady of La Salette, The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT This paper is a comparative analysis of Marcels and the Roman Catholics Teachings on Family. Marcels discussions on the family start with the idea that the human person is a mystery, an incarnate and a relational being. Marcel defines the family as a communion of persons. The Roman Catholic looks at the human person as the image of God, open and relational, free and responsible being. As a human person, he/she is defined through interpersonal relations. The family is the primary place of humanization for the person and society and cradle of life and love. Both Marcel and the Roman Catholic Church adhere that the family is the principal place of interpersonal relationships and the foundation of life of human persons.

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History Diosdado Macapagals Presidency in Conducting Foreign Policy: Views from Newspaper Commentaries (1962-1965) Tyrone Jann Nepomuceno and Augusto V. De Viana The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Foreign Policy, designed for preserving national interest and stature in the international community, truly influences peoples lives and shape a countrys history. This study unveils the views of people detached from government and diplomatic service, on foreign policys implementation by a particular presidency. The commentaries dealing with Diosdado Macapagals presidency were chosen, written as people experience its implementation of foreign policy. Commentaries from leading newspapers from 1962 to 1965 were scrutinized through Hermeneutical Phenomenology as framework and historical with contextual analysis as method. Commentaries covered supported the Sabah claim for national integritys sake and MAPHILINDOs establishment for regional security and Malayan unity. While on RP-US relations, commentaries illustrated diplomatic strain due to the War Damage Bills initial rejection and Philippine restriction on US tobacco leaf importation. Finally, Macapagals plan of assisting South Vietnam against communist domination was highlighted, proven by the issues immensity during the 1965 presidential campaign. Law

A Critical Assessment of the Anti-Torture Act of 2009 Irmina H. Bautista1 and Rev. Fernand J. Tanguay,O.P. and Dean Froilan M. Bacungan2 Office of the Ombudsman for Luzon,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Torture has been the humanitys option for clinging to power and in suppressing the truth. Every act of torture is an international crime. It is generally accepted that the right against torture belongs to the category of non-derogable rights. The prohibition against torture is contained in a wide variety of human rights and humanitarian law treaties, and has become part of customary international law. Indeed, it is now established as a norm of jus cogens. The Philippines is a signatory to almost all human rights and International Humanitarian Law related treaties which prohibit the practice of torture. The 1987 Constitution contains provisions that provide the legal climate that permit the enactment of legislative, administrative and judicial measures that would prevent acts of torture. Nevertheless, despite international and domestic legal safeguards, torture in the Philippines continues to be a wide spread practice. It is the reason why the Anti-Torture Act of 2009 was enacted. This study aims to determine whether this law on torture has complied with the mandates of the UN Convention Against

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Torture and the 1987 Constitution provisions on torture, and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment. The Role of the Supreme Court in the Philippine Criminal Justice System: An Analysis with Comparative International Perspectives Eliza B. Yu1 and Froilan M. Bacungan2 Supreme Court of the Philippines,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT In our country, the five (5) pillars of criminal justice system, namely, the police, prosecution, court, correction and community, are important in the dispensation of justice. However, the research materials showed the glaring disparity between the beautiful words and the ugly reality of the criminal justice system in our country. If criminal justice systems around the world are like apples, why is ours considered as rotten? Is this rottenness unique in our country? What about the criminal justice system of foreign countries like United States of America representing the West and China representing the East? Do they share similar rottenness with our country? If likened to an apple grower, how can our Supreme Court produce the top apple as the ideal symbol of our criminal justice system? This is the inquiry to be answered in the end of this study. This study focuses primarily on the role of the Supreme Court as an indispensable pillar in our criminal justice system in comparison to the United States of America and China. There is a comparative study of the procedural laws involving the 2000 Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure of our country in relation to the 2010 Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure of the United States of America and 1996 Criminal Procedure Law of China. Analysis of research data is not free from human fallibility. There are other factors that may affect in this study which were not given much attention thus future research on this subject matter is highly enjoined. This study utilizes the documentary and content analysis technique as the primary research methodology. This study concludes, among others, that our country has an adversarial proceedings in criminal justice system thus litigations are expensive and protracted that hamper access to justice by the poor. This study recommends, among others, for the promulgation of the Rules on Petty Crimes Court by our Supreme Courts Committee on the Revision of Rules of Court. Analytical Study of the Rules on Hearsay Evidence Adrian A. Arpon1 and Bennie A. dela Cruz2 1Senate of the Philippines, 2The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The Rules of Court explicitly provide that the testimony of a witness should be based on personal knowledge. However, it is worth noting that not all out-of-court statements should be dismissed as inadmissible simply on account of being as such for there are established exceptions to said exclusionary rule. Despite the inadmissible character of hearsay evidence, the same may still be received by the court in the absence of a timely objection by the opposing counsel. Its probative value, however, is an entirely different matter and the same is not trenchant as the Supreme Court has apparently been vacillating on this.

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Using the descriptive method of research, this study shall analyze decisions of the Supreme Court and disquisitions of distinguished authors of law on the subject matter, thus, presenting an exhaustive discussion on what constitutes hearsay, the reason for its exclusion and the exceptions, and its evidentiary weight when admitted. A Critical Analysis of the Exercise of Executive Privilege During the Arroyo Administration Harold C. Huliganga1 and Regalado E. Maambong2 Court of Appeals,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Executive privilege refers to the right of the President and high-level executive officials to withhold information from Congress, the courts and the public. The instant research is undertaken to promote a better understanding of executive privilege and to specifically analyze the cogency and validity of the precedents, arguments and tests applied by the Supreme Court in deciding the executive privilege cases involving the Arroyo administration. The research utilized the historical, descriptive, critical and analytical approaches. Through the historical approach, the researcher traced the origin of executive privilege and described its evolution over time. The researcher then examined and analyzed the correlation of executive privilege to other important democratic and legal concepts such as the doctrine of presidential immunity, the principle of separation of powers, the power of congressional oversight and the constitutional right to information. A great deal of the research focused on an in-depth study and analysis of jurisprudence, legislation, government records, scholarly journals and books dealing with or relevant to the concept of executive privilege. The research affirms that executive privilege is a necessary and indispensable attribute of the Presidency. However, its exercise is not absolute and cannot be an instrument to cover-up wrongdoing in the executive. The executive privilege cases involving the Arroyo administration indicates the mind of a Court that is biased to secrecy rather than transparency. A Comparative Analysis of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence in the Shari'a and Regular Courts in the Philippines Maria Delia T. Vergara1 and Alicia G. Decano2 Court Attorney IV, Office of Justice Japar B. Dimaampao, Court of Appeals;1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study sets afoot on a historical journey way back to the pre-colonial era, in an effort to document early stages of normative conflict besetting the Philippines. The paper then shifts its focus on how the political turmoil in the southern tip of the archipelago evolved. Ignited by an imperturbable quest for socio-cultural identity and the preservation of Islamic beliefs and traditions, the ensuing battle in Mindanao lodged by our Filipino Muslim brothers and sisters is the forefront of legal pluralism. It paved the way for the codification of a set of laws that, later on, embodied their ideals and aspirations. As it stands now, Presidential Decree No. 1083, known elsewise as the Code of Muslim Personal Laws, is the vade-mecum encapsulating their rights and obligations. While P.D. 1083 applies only to Filipino Muslims in general, disputes

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may crop up implicating Muslims with non-Muslims, which may thus pose a legal conundrum on the courts. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the mechanisms by which such conflicts, particularly those of procedure and evidence between P.D. 1083 and the Rules of Court, may be resolved, which may include: dialectical discourse, margins of appreciation, jurisdictional redundancy, and limited autonomy regimes. Political Science A Macro-Causal Analysis of Public Investment Policies in Marikina and Muntinlupa in the Post-EDSA Revolution Bryan Joseph G. Ortiz1 and Lysander A. Padilla2 UST Graduate School,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study will address the question of how the local states of Marikina and Muntinlupa were able to pursue transformative goal or reshape social goal concerning the delivery of public goods. Causal patterns on the dynamics of local states that are amenable to the realization of such goal shall be traced using Comparative Historical Analysis. Results indicate that institutional arrangements through local state-led initiatives or mediation after the 1986 democratic transition are conducive to the attainment of such goal. Results, thereby, initially validate Rueschemeyer and Evans theoretical framework on the states efficacy to pursue economic and societal transformation. Public Administration Millennium Development Goals: Knowledge, Implementation and Community Participation in Batangas City, the Basis for the Development of a Model for Efficient Attainment
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Francisca R. Arellano1,2 and Marilyn D. Yap2 STI College of Nursing; 2 The Graduate School University of Santo Tomas

Improving the health status has been at top priorities of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). MDGs represent time-bound and measurable goals and targets for combating poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women. In response to the Philippine Development Plan seeking to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, the local government of Batangas City adopted the national policies and programs. However, programs involving the community are limited only to considering them as beneficiaries of these programs and not partners in its attainment. In development process like the attainment of the MDGs which ultimately aims to improve the health of the people, the people or communities participation is important. Thus, the purpose of this study is to present a different approach on how the MDGs, especially goals to reduce child mortality, improve maternal health and combat HIV and other diseases be achieved through community participation. To achieve the objectives, the study used both quantitative and qualitative research methods using survey questionnaires, observation and interviews with the community members and barangay health workers of the different Rural Health Units in Batangas City. The results of the study will primarily benefit the City Health Office of Batangas and policy makers to

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have a new and different perspective on how to frame policies and programs aimed at achieving the MDGs. Medical Physics Radiofrequency Radiation Occupational Exposure Levels from Industrial Heaters in Selected Wood Laminating Factories in Metro Manila Ana Jamille E. Advincula1 and Agnette P. Peralta2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas,1 Bureau Health Devices and Technology, Department of Health2 ABSTRACT Radiofrequency (RF) heaters and sealers present the most common source of exposure to excessive RF fields. Absorption of high levels of RF energy may result to adverse health effects. This quantitative study aims to measure RF occupational exposure level of workers in selected sites in Metro Manila , and evaluate or asses it relative to the recommended exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non- ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and Bureau of Health Devices and Technology (BHDT) of the Department of Health (DOH) in the country. The study may address possible measures to reduce worker exposure to acceptable levels and minimize the occurrence of various biological effects, and provide appropriate guidelines to protect dedicated workers of the said devices. Evaluation of Image Quality of Diagnostic B-mode Ultrasound Equipment in Selected National Capital Region (NCR) Hospitals Irvine Michael B. Alba1 and Marlon Raul Z. Tecson2 College of Science, UST,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT A periodic quality assurance of medical ultrasound equipment ensures that the system is operating consistently at the expected level of performance. Moreover it increases the reliability of the image information. Good image quality will assist in enabling physician to give correct diagnosis which is vital and ethical. However, the regulations on ultrasound quality assurance are still being developed in the Philippines. The objective of this research is to implement image quality control protocols in selected National Capital Region (NCR) Hospital based on American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) standards. A CIRS Model 042 Phantom General Urethane Ultrasound Phantom will be used for the tests with speed of sound of 1430 m/s. If test results exceed the acceptable limit, corrective action should be taken by a service engineer.

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Patient Doses from Intravenous Urography Examinations of the Urinary Tract in Selected Hospitals in Metro Manila Junlie Marie R. Angeles1 and Bayani San Juan2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Intravenous Urography plays an important role in evaluating any abnormalities of the urinary tract and commonly performed radiological examinations in urology. The main purpose of this study is to measure the radiation dose of the patients undergoing IVU procedure in selected hospitals in Metro Manila and compare it to the established internationally accepted guidelines of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Dose-area product (DAP) will be determined using a DAP meter attached to the diaphragm housing of the x-ray tube machine. The data from each exposure will be attained through projection, tube current value, incident radiation such as the dose-area product, and the total number of films taken from the whole examination. The total radiation dose, nevertheless, is dependent not only in the number and size of the film that will be acquired but also on the physical structure of the patient. Response of ZnO-Al Junction to X-ray: Potential X-ray Sensor in Digitizing Image Production in Film-Screen Based X-ray Machine Joybel G. Bugna1 and Bayani C. San Juan2 University of the Philippines Los Baos1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study primarily aims to characterize the response of zinc oxide-aluminum (ZnO-Al) junction to x-ray. ZnO was deposited onto aluminum substrate via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) using 700V potential for duration of 20 minutes at laboratory temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the deposited ZnO will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The carrier concentration of the fabricated junctions will be quantified by Hall-effect measurement and the I-V characteristics will be determined as well. The junctions will be irradiated with x-ray from tubes with 60kVp, 80kVp and 100kVp. Response to radiation will be measured in terms of current generated at the junctions. Current in the junctions produced from different deposition voltage will be compared. Evolution of response of each junction when irradiated with x-ray from varying tube potential will be illustrated. Volume Effects of Ionization Chambers on Absorbed Dose Characterization Arguioso, Angela Vichelle1 and Liliian V. Rodriguez2 PCHRD-DOST1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT External beam radiotherapy is a complex modality used in cancer treatment. Its main purpose is to kill the cancer cells and spare the normal tissues. Thus, it requires accurate and precise

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measurements using dosimeters. Ionization chamber is the most clinically used dosimeter. It comes in various forms and volumes depending on its application. This study shall investigate the volume effects of different ionization chambers in absorbed dose characterization. The dosimetry system used in this study is mainly composed of four ionization chambers with different sensitive volumes,farmer type chamber (FC65) and three compact chambers (CC01.CC04 and CC13), wellhofer water phantom and omnipro accept 7.0 software. Three measurements shall be performed in the study namely penumbra measurement, output factor measurement and absorbed dose measurement. Penumbra obtained shall be compared and analyzed. Statistical method shall be used in analysis of output factors and absorbed dose measurements. Simulation of the Dose Distribution by 6-MV Elekta Linac Using Geant4 Monte Carlo: A Dosimetric Comparison with XiO TPS Dose Calculation Algorithms Andelson L. Berondo1 and Lilian V. Rodriguez1, 2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center 2 ABSTRACT Accurate information of dose distribution in oncological radiotherapy treatments is an outstanding problem that requires sophisticated computing technologies to optimize the clinical results. Nowadays, Monte Carlo methods are generally regarded as the most accurate tools for radiotherapy dose calculations. In this study, a Geant4 simulation toolkit based from Monte Carlo algorithm is developed. The main purpose is to investigate on the potential future applications of the toolkit in radiotherapy clinical settings. The dose distribution generated by 6-MV Elekta Linac (linear accelerator) is simulated. Firstly, the head components of Linac are modeled based from the manufacturers specifications. After which, randomized 6-MeV electrons are bombarded to produce dose distributions inside the numerical water phantom, (i) with inhomogeneity and (ii) full water. For validation, the result is compared to the data obtained in the experiment and commercial XiO TPS (treatment planning system). The set-up and parameters implemented in the three distinct processes are identical, considering the photon energy (6-MV), source to surface distance (100 cm), water phantom dimension (30 x 30 cm2), collimator field sizes (5 x 5 cm2, 10 x 10 cm2) and depth of dose measurement (0 30 cm). Monte Carlo simulation is expected to have insignificant difference compared to the actual experiment, but more accurate than XiO TPS dose calculation algorithms on predicting dose distributions inside the water phantom, with and without inhomogeneity. Adult Patient Doses from Chest X-ray Examinations using Computed Radiography versus Conventional Radiography Von Anthony G. Torio1 and Agnette P. Peralta2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The research study entitled, Adult Patient Doses from Chest X-ray Examinations using Computed Radiography versus Conventional radiography generally aims to investigate doses

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received by patients undergoing chest x-ray examinations compared to conventional radiography. The study is conducted at East Avenue Medical Center in Quezon City. The values obtained from the study were compared with existing studies as well as with international standards. The results of the investigation were generally compared with the results of the 2001 NEXT Survey reflecting the following survey median (a) Clinical kVp of 110; (b) Exposure time of 12 ms; (c) HVL at Clinical kVp of 4.2; and (d) a Skin-entrance air Kerma of 0.11 mGy. In addition comparison between conventional and computed radiography patient doses were as well compared. Based from the results of the study, recommendations were made for regulation purposes and other appropriate actions. Determination of Pediatric Patient Dose in Conventional Chest X-ray Procedures in Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital Raquel T. Balisi1 and Bayani C. San Juan2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD) for pediatric patients zero to one year old undergoing conventional chest x-ray examinations in Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital. The dose or the ESD for each patient will be determined by x-ray tube outputs. This study will be using the Unfors XI detector to determine the exposure parameters or the x-ray tube outputs. There will be 30 patients involved for the study. The result may be used as guide data for the radiation protection optimization of the hospital. It may also be used for further related studies and also be used as the local reference/ guidance level or diagnostic reference level for the pediatric patients and reference for related future study for radiation protection of the patients specially the pediatrics. Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) levels from 50kW Amplitude Modulation (AM) Radio Station Transmitter Antennas in the National Capital Region (NCR), Republic of the Philippines Ellie Floyd A. Barte 1 and Arnold I. Eleazar1, 2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1,Department of Health, Bureau of Heath Devices and Technology2 ABSTRACT In this study, the researcher will measure the Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) exposure levels from six (6) AM radio station transmitter antennas with effective radiated power (ERP) of 50kW, in the National Capital Region, Philippines using the NARDA SRM-3000 Selective Radiation Meter of the Department of Health (DOH) - Bureau of Heath Devices and Technology (BHDT). To determine the actual exposure levels, both the electric and magnetic field strengths will be measured. The results will be compared with the allowed permissible limits of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the DOH- BHDT.

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Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Measurement in Residential Houses Nearby Transformer in Brgy. Siena, Quezon City De Guzman, Joyce Ann T.1 Arnold I. Eleazar 2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 Bureau of Health Devices and Technology2 ABSTRACT In our country, there are no data available on exposure levels of the people to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field from distribution transformers. This study aims to determine the ELF magnetic field levels from 60 Hz transformers located at most three (3) meters away from houses in Brgy. Siena, Quezon City. Magnetic fields were measured over a 24-hour period using the Holaday Model-3604 Power Frequency Field Strength Measurement System. The areas of the veranda, bedroom and comfort room were divided into half a meter by half a meter (0.5m x 0.5m) grids. Measurements were done at grid points. The highest mean exposure recorded was 47 mG at the veranda parallel to the transformer. Graphs were generated to determine the magnetic field levels in each location. The measured and calculated magnetic fields are far below the allowable reference levels for public exposure set by DOH-BHDT based on the ICNIRP standards. Determination of Entrance Surface Dose for Conventional X-Ray Examination of the Hands and Feet of Patients in Philippine Orthopedic Center Elaine S. Cortez and Bayani C. San Juan2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) of the patients undergoing radiographic examination of the hands and feet in Philippine Orthopedic Center. The ESD will be derived from the x-ray output parameters obtained through calculations by the use of a UNFORS Xi detector. A total of 30 randomly chosen patients having hand and foot x-ray examination from injuries like traffic accidents and fall injuries, congenital vascular malformation and tumor are included in this study. The result will be compared to the suggested investigation levels (SILs) for initial and review survey published by the British Institute of Radiology. The results may be used as a guide for optimization in every radiographic examination of the hands and feet in the country. This can also serve as a reference in a future study concerning the entrance dose during x-ray examination in extremities. Occupational Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Level from Radar Devices in Selected Airport in Mindanao Divina Gracia T. Joseph1 and Agnette P. Peralta2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 ABSTRACT Occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) has been a concern to operators of

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radar facilities around the world due to possible adverse effects on health. This research aimed to measure radiofrequency radiation levels from radar systems which workers might be exposed to and to determine whether recorded RFR levels comply with the reference levels of the Philippines which is specified by the Bureau of Health Devices and Technology (BHDT) of the Department of Health (DOH). A descriptive study was conducted in radar systems, operating from 3 kHz to 3 GHz frequency range, utilized by selected airports in Mindanao. The measurement of the electric field, magnetic field and power density was performed following the Industry Canada measurement protocol using the Narda Selective Radiation Meter (SRM3000).

Comparison of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIw) and Dose-Length Product (DLP) of Pediatric Patients with the Reference Dose Values in Routine Head Computed Tomography Examinations Ma. Rosanna E. Cisneros1and Bayani C. San Juan2 Technological University of the Philippines - Manila,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Foreign studies showed that children are overexposed to radiation in CT examinations. This study aims to compare the weighted CTDIw (CT Dose Index) and DLP (Dose-Length Product) of Filipino pediatric patients with the proposed reference dose values (RDV) in routine head CT examinations.CTDIw and DLP values were gathered using three procedures: (i) measured using the 10-cm phantom and ionization chamber; (ii) recorded from the CT scanner display console; and (iii) calculated using CT Expo program. Actual recorded parameters of pediatric patients were used in all these methods. Results show that CTDIw of 5-year old and 10-year old groups from three methods meet the proposed RDVs while 1-year old group significantly exceeded the reference dose value of 40 mGy. For DLP, all groups have consistently exceeded RDV, probably because of the large irradiation volume length L. This studysuggeststhat parameters used in Filipino pediatric patients cause an overexposure in routine head CT examinations.Evaluation on the technique done in pediatric patients is recommended. Evaluation of Patient Doses from Selected Radiographic Procedures in Baguio City Roujahn M. Durante1 and Eulinia M. Valdezco2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1,2 ABSTRACT Diagnostic x-rays largely contribute to the radiation exposure of the population from man made sources of radiation. In effect, it might induce tumors to large number of patients. This study aims to provide and evaluate a baseline data on patient dose in Baguio City. Patient dose data can help optimize diagnostic examination procedures within an x-ray department. The x-ray exposure factors together with the patients height and weight were collected in three hospitals in Baguio City. The most common radiographic examinations among the hospitals were Chest(PA and AP), Lumbosacral vertebrae(LSV; AP and Lat) and Cervical (AP and Lat).The exposure factor for Chest PA ranged from 56-93kVp with discrete values of mAs (4,5,6 and

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8).Chest AP was only common to one hospital with 75-90kVp range with an mAs of 4.The LSV AP,LSV Lat, and Cervical AP varied from 62-90kVp and 20-36mAs,63-95kVp and 32-60mAs, 58-80kVp and 4-12mAs,respectively.For Cervical Lat, it has a 63-90kVp range with mAs values of 10,12, and 24.

Occupational Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Levels from Radar Devices in Selected Airports in the Visayas Realyn Joy L. Uy1 and Agnette P. Peralta2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1,2 ABSTRACT In recent years, the biological effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure have been a major public concern. This study aims to determine if the exposure levels from airport radar devices are within the allowed ICNIRP-based BHDT, DOH (Bureau of Health Devices and Technology, Department of Health) reference levels for radio frequencies. The airports selected for this research are located in the Visayas. Measurements were done inside the airports in areas where the radar workers are usually located. Leakage radiation, near field and far field measurements were determined. The measurements were conducted using the Narda Selective Radiation Meter (SRM-3000) for two international airports in Aklan and Cebu City. Radiofrequency (RFR) Levels from Selected Cell Sites over the Service Band of GSM 900, 1800, 3G 850 and 3G 2100 in Rural Areas in Bulacan, Philippines Renz Carlo Pineda1 and Agnette P. Peralta1,2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1,2 ABSTRACT The study will determine the radio frequency radiation (RFR) levels from selected cell sites of network companies over the service band of GSM 900, 1800, 3G 850 and 3G 2100 in Bulacan, in the Republic of the Philippines. Measurement of power density levels will be made using NARDA SRM-3000 of the Bureau of Health Devices and Technology (BHDT). The results will be compared to the reference levels for the members of the general public set by BHDT based on the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Results will indicate that the RFR exposure levels of the selected cell sites in the country abide by the reference levels of exposure for the general public implemented by the BHDT.

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Patient Radiation Doses from Fluoroscopy-guided Orthopaedic Procedures Jake Ryan B. Oliganga1 and Eulinia M. Valdezco1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas 1 ABSTRACT Fluoroscopy is routinely used for intra-operative imaging for orthopaedic procedures. This has made most procedures minimally invasive. However, the exposure of patients to radiation and its associated risks is an existing concern. This study aims to quantify the doses that patients receive during fluoroscopy-guided orthopaedic procedures, assess risks associated with the doses. This study would help establish local diagnostic reference levels. During each fluoroscopic screening in each procedure, the Dose-are product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time are recorded. To assess the deterministic and stochastic risks, skin dose and effective dose are estimated from the DAP values using conversion factors. The data gathered will help in the establishment of local diagnostic reference levels (DRL) for different radiological procedures done in the country. Pediatric Patient Dose Levels from Common Diagnostic X-ray Examinations in Selected Hospitals in Laguna Province Fjorda Kim R. Rubian1 and Bayani C. San Juan2 DOST CALABARZON Regional Metrology Laboratory1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Pediatric patients are more susceptible to the harmful effects ionizing radiation compared to adults. Setting the reference pediatric doses for children exposed to common x-ray procedures is hence important for patient dose reduction. Entrance surface dose was estimated from pediatric patients (0-15 years old) undergoing common diagnostic radiologic examinations from selected hospitals in the province of Laguna. Machine exposure parameters such as kVp and mAs and patient thickness were used in the estimation. Radiation Doses for Barium Enema Procedures in Selected Hospitals in Metro Manila Karen Ruth P. Gorio and Bayani C. San Juan The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT A study on patient doses for barium enema procedures was carried out in two hospitals in Metro Manila. Dose-area product (DAP) were collected and recorded to compare the diagnostic reference levels in other countries with the values measured in this study. Doses from patients

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with ages 16 - 85 years old, weighing 45 75 kg were taken in effectively limiting the study in setting a potential diagnostic reference level (DRL). The use of ionization chamber was mounted at the diaphragm of the fluoroscopy equipment so that DAP values is readily measured with the DAP meter. In 2005, 24 Gy cm2 DAP value for barium enema was set as a DRL in the UK. This recommended value in UK was the basis of comparison with the values measured in this study. Recommendations were enumerated for better practice and for the future investigators to fill the missing steps in this research process. Evaluation of Acoustic Output Levels of Physiotherapy Ultrasound Equipment in Hospitals in the National Capital Region (NCR) Alfons Jayson O. Pelgone1 and Marlon Raul Z. Tecson2 College of Science, UST,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The biological effects produced by ultrasound used in therapy are dependent on the acoustic outputs of the equipment and the duration of the treatment. A sufficient number of literatures exist arguing that the inaccuracy of ultrasound physiotherapy equipment affects its efficiency for treatment. This will evaluate the status of the ultrasound utilized in physiotherapy and specifically their acoustic output utilizing the Ohmic Instruments DT 1 AV Power Meter (a radiation force balance) and then comparing the actual and the indicated acoustic output levels to the 20% as stipulated by the IEC standards (IEC 60601 2 5 Ed. 3.0). Experimental data agree and support the regular calibration and maintenance of the ultrasound equipment utilized in physiotherapy. In ensuring the quality of treatment and safety of physiotherapy patients, the acoustic output levels must be maintained at the appropriate levels where the goals of physiotherapy are achieved and the potential risks are minimized. Power Levels of the Declared Classes of Laser Pointers Meriska Monica F. Paglinawan1 and Augusto A. Morales Jr.2 Philippine Organization of Medical Physics1, The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas 2 ABSTRACT Laser devices classification serves as an adequate warning of its capacity to cause harm. Due to the numerous cases of mislabeling of laser pointers, verification of the safety levels of these devices is important for users protection and safety. This work uses the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard in verifying the classification of different laser pointers. The standard provides for Accessible Emission Limits to distinguish the power output of such laser which can be measured by a power meter. Out of 35 samples, 17% do not have labels, 74% are labeled as Class III-A and 9% are classified as Class III. Most samples exceeded the limit of 5mW for Class IIIA but Class III samples submit to the limit of 500 mW. Therefore, many of the local distributers do not comply with the international standard and most laser pointers circulating in the country poses medium to high risk to naked eyes.

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Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) Exposure Levels from Selected Television Broadcast Transmitters in Metro Manila, Philippines Annie Lorraine B. Joyas1 and Arnold I. Eleazar2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas,1Bureau of Health Devices and Technology, Department of Health2 ABSTRACT In this study, Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) exposure levels emitted by television broadcast transmitters and its potential health hazards to the public will be evaluated. Measurements of RFR levels will be recorded from twelve TV broadcast transmitters with a minimum effective radiated power (ERP) of 50 kW in Metro Manila, Philippines using NARDA Selective Radiation Meter (SRM)-3000ofthe Department of Health-Bureau of Health Devices and Technology (DOH-BHDT). Analysis of results will determine whether the radiation exposure levels from these TV broadcast transmitters adhere to the safety limits adopted by DOH-BHDT from the guidelines set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Estimation of Occupational Radiation Dose Levels at the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory of the Philippine Heart Center Maria Kristina S. Maao,1 Augusto A. Morales, Jr.,2 and Delfin V. Encarnation III3 Diagnostic Radiology Imaging Medical Physics, Philippine Heart Center,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas,2 Education and Training Division, Philippine Heart Center3 ABSTRACT We measured the radiation dose to 15 operators in two cardiac catheterization laboratories at the Philippine Heart Center. One laboratory contains single plane fluoroscopy system, Philips Allura Xper FD20 (Room 3) and the other laboratory, a biplane Philips Allura Xper FD10/10 (Room 5). Dose-area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time are obtained for coronary angiography (CA), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and CA/PCI (double set-up) procedures. Data for mean DAP are: Room 3 52.065.81 mGycm2, CA and Room 5 62,181.4 mGycm2, CA; 68,472.5 mGycm2, PCI; and 107,297.15 mGycm2, CA/PCI. Mean fluoroscopy time: Room 3 4 min & 58 s, CA and Room 5 3 min & 14 s, CA; 15 & 22 s, PCI; and 20 min & 3 s, PCI. Effective dose is calculated using Niklasons method and normalized to mean DAP, producing E/DAP index. Mean effective dose values are between 6.94 Sv to 16.19 Sv and E/DAP values are between 0.0101 mSv/mGycm2 and 0.1509 mSv/mGycm2.

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Evaluation of Tongue-and-Groove Effect on Elekta Multi-leaf Collimator Ramota, Charles Martel1 and Lilian V. Rodriguez2 FMEI1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT In radiation therapy, multi-leaf collimators (MLC) are now becoming a standard part of a linear accelerator. However, as with other technology, the MLC also has its disadvantages. Due to the design of the individual leaf sides, the tongue-and-groove effect becomes apparent for some beam configuration such as the abutment of fields where the beam edges are defined by the sides of the leaves. This work measures and evaluates the tongue-and-groove effect by irradiating Kodak X-OMAT films in different MLC and field abutment configurations. An Elekta Precise linac in Philippine Oncology Center Corporation along with PTW VeriSoft software is used to evaluate the tongue-and-groove effect.

Evaluation of Elekta PreciseTM Multileaf Collimator (MLC) for Photon Field Matching SIA, Christia May1 and Lilian V. Rodriguez2 PCHRD-DOST1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study investigates the performance of Elekta MLCiTM multi-leaf collimator (MLC) for photon field matching. The evaluation will be done with the use of film dosimetry coupled with PTW VeriSoftTM film analysis software and also with the use of XIOTM treatment planning system (TPS) for planning purposes. Three types of measurement will be performed, namely, Field split into two abutted fields; Field split into two abutted fields with intentional gap-overlap; and Field split into two abutted fields with intrafraction junction feathering. The effect of the leaf pair gap-overlap and the intrafraction junction feathering to the dosimetry at the match line will be analyzed. Statistical measurements such as measure of center and variation will be used. Moreover, standard T-test will be conducted. The resemblance of the matched fields of MLCabutted fields and independent jaws-abutted fields will be observed. A correlation of their measured data will be done. Entrance Surface Dose, Organ Dose, and Effective Dose Estimation in Adult Patients of Common Diagnostic X-ray procedures from Selected Hospitals in Metro Manila, Philippines Zerrudo, Juzzel Ian 1 and Bayani C. San Juan2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 Bureau of Health Devices and Technology, Department of Health2 ABSTRACT Doses received by adult patients who undergone routine radiographic x-ray examinations were calculated and the risk of the procedure was estimated using the mean effective dose. Exposure settings (kVp, mAs, SSD, and image field size) and patient data (weight, age, and height) were

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collected for each patient. Entrance skin dose was estimated based on the machine exposure settings and patient anthropomorphic data. Mean entrance skin dose was calculated and the doses of radiosensitive organs and the effective dose were estimated using the Monte Carlo based computer program PCXMC version 1.5. Radio Frequency Radiation Levels from FM radio station in Metro Manila
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Jan Michael B. Serdia1 and Arnold I. Eleazar2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to measure the Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) levels emitted by the FM radio stations in Metro Manila. RFR is a non ionizing radiation that affects the human body based on its electromagnetic field and magnetic field strength or power density. In this case the frequency of the RF being transmitted, power of the transmitting station and the actual power radiated from the antenna, the length of exposure of a person to the RF signal at a given distance from the antenna and other antennas near the area are factors being considered for health hazards. Allowable reference levels for frequencies are set by ICNIRP as guidelines for FM radio stations. The level of RFR being exposed to people should be justified as to have least disadvantages to human health. Thermal effects should be as much as possible be avoided for this is the only proven effect of RFR. Estimation of the Effective Dose in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Chest and Abdominal CT in Selected Hospitals in Metro Manila Dona May O. Taguba1 and Eulinia M. Valdezco2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1,2 ABSTRACT Pediatric patients have higher risk of cancer than adult patients when exposed to Computed Tomography (CT) radiation. The results of this study will contribute to the establishment of national diagnostic reference level for CT doses that will be used for the radiation protection of patients. Required data were gathered from the machines of two hospitals in Metro, Manila during chest and abdominal CT examination of pediatric patients whose ages are between 0-15 years old. The scanning parameters of the CT scanning machines such as kVp, mA and scanning time were recorded. The age of the patients was also noted. One of the hospitals uses Hitachi Pronto Xe 1500. The recorded scanning parameters were consistent among the 17 patients. These are 120 kVp, 125 mA with a scanning time of 1 second. The CTDIw displayed on the machine is 23.4 mGy. Based on international guidelines, such as European Commission (EC) Guidelines, the displayed CTDIw is within the EC reference dose level.

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Nursing/ Hospital Administration Effects of Humor and Laughter on Labor Pain and Physiological Responses Rolisa N. Almario1 and Lily F. Famadico2 College of Nursing, University of Santo Tomas1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Humor and laughter beget a mirth or internal good feeling, which can offer repletion of mental and physical benefits: a reduction in stress, anxiety and depression; improve quality of life and immune functioning and an increase in pain tolerance. This study purports to determine the effects of humor and laughter on labor pain intensity and physiological responses of the mother and the fetus, during the active phase of labor process . A quasi-experimental design was utilized in this study. The study was conducted in a tertiary level hospital within the City of Manila. The control group received the usual care to a woman in the active phase of labor, whereas the experimental group received an additional intervention in a form of a humorous show. Effects of humor and laughter on labor pain and physiological responses were assessed before, during and after the intervention. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences on pain intensity and physiological responses, within the experimental group, while t-test examined the differences between the experimental and control group. A pilot study was done which revealed the reliability coefficient of the tool based on Cronbachs Alpha and these were 0.90 for the 1st part and 0.91 for the 2nd part. This study aims to lessen the pain women experienced during the labor process and to maintain a stable maternal vital signs and fetal heart tone. Lived Experiences of Elderly Family Members in Home Care Institutions Leovi D. Pasiliao- Rosario and Crestita B. Tan The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The Filipinos family is close knit. Children live with their parents long after they marry and have children. However, despite this characteristic of most Filipino families, quite a number of care homes facilities have emerged. Much have been said and studied concerning the perception of the Filipinos on sending their elderly loved ones to nursing homes. Yet, so little have been researched on what the elderly themselves perceive on having to stay in these institutions. This study aims to understand the lived experiences of the elderly in nursing care homes. To fully understand the nature of living in nursing homes, qualitative research design specifically phenomenology was used by the researcher. A focus group discussions guided by questionnaire developed by the researcher, will be held in study site. Before the said focus group discussion, the researcher has already been in the institution for some time to observe and be familiar with the elderlies. The study will be conducted in Kanlungan ni Maria, a non government owned institution run by a catholic congregation.

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The lived experiences of the elderly will be based on their daily activities, the perceived benefits of staying in the care home facilities and their preparedness and acceptance to stay in a care home facilityThe participants of the study are limited to elderly men and women who are 60 years old and above who are permanent resident of the said institution. The participants are also chosen with the recommendation of the institutions staff for a more valuable flow of the discussion. From the total population of the institution, 6 were chosen to participate in the focus group discussion. Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Program on the Stress and Depression among Nursing Students Juli-ann L. Alonso1 and Nenita Y. Davadilla2 San Juan de Dios Education Foundation Inc. (College)1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Stress and depression among adolescent often goes untreated with adverse effect on their academic success and healthy development. The prompt screening can facilitate early identification and timely referral to prevent further harm among adolescence. The researcher makes use of quasi-experimental methods. The pre-test and post test control method evaluated the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Program in comparison with the conventional program among 40 senior nursing students. Purposive sampling method was used to identify the participants of the study. Cognitive Behavioral program is a problem orientated treatment that seeks to identify and change maladaptive beliefs, attitudes and behaviors that contribute to emotional distress.The Stress Inventory (SI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used as research instruments. Initial findings revealed that participants perceived stress and depression as part of the student life that needs support group to enhance their self-image. Attaining Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain in Pregnancy Using the Pregnancy Wellness Nutritional Guide Kathryn Kaye A. Carpio1 and Crestita B. Tan2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Nutrition is one of the many factors that influence the outcome of pregnancy and is often associated with the amount of weight gain the woman acquires during pregnancy. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) had developed guidelines on the amount of weight gain a pregnant woman should have during pregnancy based on her pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), which if followed, results to healthy fetal and maternal outcomes. These guidelines are to be achieved through nutrition and lifestyle counseling. In line with this, this study aims to (1) develop a tool (Pregnancy Wellness Nutritional Guide) that will assist nurses to comprehensively utilize the nursing process in managing the nutritional status of the normal pregnant woman and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of the tool in terms of the attainment of appropriate gestational weight gain of the normal pregnant woman throughout the set monitoring period of 4 weeks.

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An Olfaction Experiment on Infant Related Odors and Its Effect on the Current Mood States of Selected Post Partum Mothers Cecille Garcia Altamira1 and Crestita B. Tan2 Makati Medical Center,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Postpartum mood changes are an occurring phenomenon in postpartum mothers; If not in check, can lead to serious conditions for both mother and child. In the animal kingdom, the use of olfaction has been related to maternal-infant bond, and in changing the moods of the mother towards their offspring. Although there is a limited study about this condition in humans, the existence of such can be a great area for exploration. This research employed a true experimental Pretest-Posttest control group design in exploring the possible effect of infant related odors on the mood level of selected postpartum mothers. The researcher utilized T test for dependent and independent samples in analyzing the changes that will occur in the conduction of the experiment. Findings shows that there is a significant effect seen within the experimental group (t=7.364), (P = <0.001) and when compared to the control group (t=5.819) (P = <0.001). The Effects of Rehabilitation Exercises on the Self-Esteem and Functional Abilities of Post Stroke Patients Kathryn Lizbeth L. Siongco and Marilyn D. Yap Mother Teresas Home That Cares, Inc.1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This Experimental Pre-Post Test Group Design determined the difference in the level of selfesteem and functional abilities before and after utilization of the researcher-developed Exercise Protocol for Post-Stroke Patients. The study composed of 30 respondents randomly assigned to the control and experimental group. A State Self-Esteem Scale and the Modified Barthel Index were used to determine the level of self-esteem including current thoughts and functional abilities respectively. T-test using a p-value approach revealed that there is a significant difference in the level of selfesteem and functional abilities of the experimental group who performed the exercise protocol compared to the control group who did not undergo any rehabilitation treatment for six weeks. Although minimal to moderate help is required, there is a valuable improvement in the performance of activities of daily living. Acquiring knowledge that they contain the capacity to recover despite their present disability increases their level of self- esteem.

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Teaching Spirituality to Nursing Students: A Creative Approach Angelo Abar Bunagan and Ma. Irma C. Bustamante Congregation of The Marian Fathers of The Immaculate Conception; The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The nature of nursing profession as both an art and a science requires methods of teaching students that will enhance this understanding. Thus, a philosophy of holistic care should underpin education of nursing students and these concepts should be put across to the students in meaningful ways. The study aims to develop an understanding of student's views on the meaning of nursing by examining creative work they produced. Exploration through open-ended questionnaires was also made of the effectiveness and value of the activity as a teaching method. Convenience sampling was used. Initial findings suggest that nursing students view spirituality as religious systems of beliefs and values and as life meaning, purpose, and connection with others. Their creative art suggest that they associate nursing with providing safety; patient advocacy; a joyful experience; as means of expressing interconnectedness, hope, and love; professional and personal growth and development; caring for humanity along wellness and illness continuum; and a lifelong learning experience. Further analysis is currently being done by the researcher.

Stress and Coping Patterns of Parents with a Child Diagnosed with Hemophilia Ma. Elizabeth N. Jurado1 and Crestita B. Tan2 University of Santo Tomas College of Nursing1,The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder in which a deficiency in the level of clotting factor activity in the blood may lead to spontaneous hemorrhages in body parts. A parents ability to cope with this chronic illness is an important factor in the adaptation to this disease condition. The purpose of the study is to determine the stressors and coping patterns of parents with a hemophilic child. This study utilizes the descriptive correlational method and purposive sampling was used for the respondents. A researcher- made self-assessment questionnaire was used which was content validated by experts in maternal and child nursing and psychology. A pilot study was done which revealed the reliability coefficient of the tool based on Cronbachs Alpha and these are 0.958 for the 2nd part and 0.841 for the 3rd part. This study aims to deliver a more familycentered care which is a critical component in pediatric hospitalization.

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Breastfeeding: Fact or Fallacy among First Time and Old Time Fathers Marie Ann Grace A. Arceo and Crestita B. Tan The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Although fathers are regarded as the most significant person for mothers and breastfeeding is hyped up worldwide, there is paucity in research on the role of fathers as breastfeeding advocates. This study aims to investigate the father's perception on breastfeeding, the support they give their spouse if she decides to breastfeed and how previous experience with their first born child affects the father's decision-making and actions on the feeding choice of their next baby. Five first time and five old time fathers were purposively selected and studied phenomenographicaly. Data were gathered through robotfoto and semi-structured in depth interview. Transcribed field texts were analyzed via a repertory grid. Themes emerged were validated by member checking procedure. On the whole, this study yielded an interesting concept called A Father's Window of Fate to a Successful Breastfeeding Experience. Said concept describes the first time and old time fathers' breastfeeding knowledge as faint and failsafe, and their spousal support as having favor and fain respectively. A full grasp of fathers appreciation of breastfeeding through the model identified is hoped to improve the current healthcare delivery system to highlight the fathers participation in breastfeeding success. So Near Yet So Far: A Mixed Method Investigation of Filipino Preschool Childrens Death Conceptualization Joanne Grace B. Libut and Ma. Irma C. Bustamante The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT While it is true that there has been a steadily increasing interest in the development of death concepts among children, little is known about the development of concepts of death of preschool children in the Philippines. This study purports to describe the common ideas of preschool about death, ascertain the beginning age at which children appear to develop the concept of death and establish the relationship of age, cognitive development, and sociocultural factors with the formation of death concept. Twenty (20) Filipino preschool children were systematically selected for this study. Utilizing the mixed-method design, a three-part research instrument consisting of a robotfoto, photo elicitation interview and adopted questionnaire was utilized. Field texts were reduced via a repertory grid. Two (2) views emerged from the analysis, namely: Elemental view (corporeal, cause, consign) and Sentimental view (sadness, surprise, sympathy, scare). The reliability of the tool was measured using Chronbachs alpha with a value of 0.76. ANOVA was used to measure the significant difference of age and death concept formation. The findings of this study hoped to advance the medical professions understanding of child development in the aspect of a childs death concept.

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Y.O.U. H.O.P.E., A Psychoeducational Therapy Program and Its Effects on the Depression among Adolescents with a Parent with Mental Illness Almira G. Garcia and Alita R.Conde and Nenita Y. Davadilla The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The objective of the research is to determine the effects of a psycho-educational therapy (Y.O.U. H.O.P.E. -Yielding mental illness; Opening up; Using appropriate coping skills; Having problem solving strategies; Optimizing health services; Planning ahead; and Expressing emotions) on the depression levels among adolescent children of parents with mental illness. This is a Quasi-experimental study using the Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design. The selection of the participants was done through the Purposive sampling technique. A Filipino translated version of the Beck Depression Inventory II was used to determine and measure the depression levels among participants. The findings of the study based from the experiment will be presented during the pre-oral presentation. Music Therapy as Adjunct Treatment in Decreasing Anesthesia Recovery Period among Post-Surgical Patient at the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) Taha Jejin M. Nonog 1 and Crestita B. Tan2 Far Eastern University-Manila,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Music therapy is a process based intervention combining the art of music and the interpersonal interaction of therapy as verified by science. Music therapy can reduce psycho-physiologic stress, pain, anxiety, and isolation while undergoing a major surgical procedure. This study would like to determine the effect of music therapy in decreasing anesthesia recovery period among post surgical patient at the post anesthesia care unit of Tondo Medical Center. It utilized Pre-test and Post test design for selected post surgical patients. The statistical measures used were percentages, mean, standard deviation and t-test for the pre-test/post-test design. Initial findings showed that there were significant differences in the physiologic responses after the intervention. Differences between the control and experimental groups were significantly noted. There were significant differences in the experimental group rather than the control group. Music therapy interventions would be an effective alternative adjunct treatment during the anesthesia recovery period.

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Characterizing Filipino Nursing Students Service Orientation and Value Priorities April Joy M. Gascon1,2, Allan B. de Guzman1,2 and Lily Famadico1, 2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 University of Santo Tomas College of Nursing 2 ABSTRACT This study characterized the contemporary Filipino nursing students in a comprehensive university in the Philippines according to service orientation, value priorities and described the relationship between students demographic variables, service-orientation and value-priorities. Two hundred thirty two responded to the invitation to answer the computer generated survey. Nine service styles emerged from a factor analysis of the service orientation responses illustrating students as Abstract, Concrete, Sentimental, Noble, Supportive, Preferential, Concern, Spiritual and Apostolic Givers. Results for service orientation indicate that students would help mindful of the gains and learning for every service encounter. Frequency distribution of the students answers in the service vignettes revealed practicality in rendering service that students are self oriented and others oriented depending on the service situation. Positive correlations were observed for gender and value priorities (r=0.142); gender and service orientation (r=0.113); service orientation and academic status (r=0.099); academic status and place where they grew (r=0.047) while service orientation and value priorities (r=0.016) have moderate negative correlation. It is remarkable to note that service orientation and place where they grew (r=0.171) and choice to join nursing and their value priorities (r=0.032) have weak relationships. Students consideration and recognition of service ideals cannot be associated with their keenness to serve beyond what is expected without gain. The Effect of Using a Review of System Assessment Guide on the Nursing Students Self-reported Competence, Self-reported Confidence and Directly-observed Competence Pe Benito, Genecar1, Escolar-Chua, Rowena2 and Marie Ann S. Vargas3 College of Nursing, University of Santo Tomas,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2,3 ABSTRACT Assessment is an essential skill performed by all nurses in clinical practice. Review of system is a vital skill emphasized at every level of nursing and is an essential element of education and a key aspect of the student experience. Current trends in nursing schools in the Philippine setting showed little evidence establishing the effect of an assessment guide on the nursing students assessment competence. The central objective of this study is to determine the effect of using a review of system of nursing students, the study primarily utilized true experimental pre-test and post-test design. The respondents included junior and senior nursing students. Researcher made tools were used in the study namely: Written Competence Evaluation Questionnaire and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination Examiner marker sheet. Reliability and validity testing of said tools were established prior to actual study.

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The Effects of Labor Support in Labor Pain by Senior Nursing Students to Full-Term Primiparous Adolescent Mothers Diana A. Anenias2 and Lily F. Famadico 1, 2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 College of Nursing, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT While most of the current research literature related to womens perceptions of a satisfying childbirth experience focuses only on pain-relief methods during labor, there is paucity on how continuous support affects full-term adolescent mothers labor and delivery. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effects of labor support by senior nursing students to full term primiparous adolescent mothers on labor and delivery. Thirty (30) full-term primiparous adolescent mothers aged 15 to 20 years old were systematically selected for this study. This study utilized true experimental pretest posttest research design. The experimental group (n = 15) were attended by senior nursing student who provided labor support while the control group (n = 15) received usual nursing care. The difference in labor pain was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale for Pain and Comfort while Apgar score and duration of labor were reviewed from the subjects medical record. Data were treated using independent t-test. It was the belief of the researcher that the study findings would help healthcare providers understand the needs of laboring women and, in turn, improve care, support, and appropriate interventions for expectant and laboring mothers. Enhancing the Provision of Safe and Quality Intraoperative Nursing Care to Patients of Junior Nursing Students Through Multimedia Orientation of Sterile Technique Rowena S. Manzarate2 and Lily F. Famadico1,2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 University of Santo Tomas College of Nursing2 ABSTRACT The nature and quality of undergraduate education is the key to the future of the nursing profession. This study characterized the undergraduate education of nursing students in perioperative setting in an institution of higher learning in the Philippines. This study prepared the nursing student in enhancing the provision of safe and quality intraoperative nursing care of junior nursing students on their entry level of perioperative nursing to function effectively in current practice arena. The nursing component of teaching-learning activities and evaluation methods underwent constant revision, updating and change, hence this study utilized multimedia as an instructional method in the preparation of the junior nursing students related learning experience in perioperative nursing, particularly in the intraoperative setting. The study utilized true experimental pretest posttest research design. Respondents were chosen through random sampling technique. Thirty junior nursing students responded to the invitation to use the multimedia orientation for perioperative nursing. Surgical Aseptic techniques in gowning, gloving and basic surgical instrumentation was included in the multimedia orientation. Return demonstration of the skills on surgical aseptic techniques were facilitated after the six-hour mutimedia orientation. Data were treated using paired t-test.

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The Effects of Immediate and Delayed Initial Lukewarm Water Bathing and Room Temperature to the Vital Signs and Oxygen Saturation of Newborns in a Secondary Government Hospital in Manila Lisette T. Navarro2 and Lily F. Famadico1,2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas1 University of Santo Tomas College of Nursing2 ABSTRACT Scientific evidence in favor of bathing newborns is limited but there are few reports on the impact of immediate and delayed initial lukewarm water bath on the prevalence of hypothermia in newborns. Consequences of hypothermia may be devastating and may increase both morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, bathing routines should be reconsidered and investigated. Health professionals have a responsibility to be aware of and to ensure that the thermoregulatory needs of the newborn are upheld in order to provide them with the best start possible. This study aims to determine the effects of room temperature, immediate and delayed initial lukewarm water bathing in the vital signs and oxygen saturation of newborns. Experimental design and Purposive nonprobability sampling were utilized in this study. Forty newborns were selected. Twenty from which were assigned in the control group and the other half in the experimental group. Subjects from the control group were bathed within an hour after delivery and subjects from the experimental group were bathed six hours after delivery. Data were collected for a period of one month and treated using the Independent and Dependent tTest. Adequacy of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Introduction in the Curriculum of Selected Nursing Schools in Manila Rex Cezar P. Enriquez1 and Marilyn D. Yap2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT The study aims to 1) assess the introduction of IMCI in the nursing curriculum; 2) explore the extent of introduction in the lecture and related learning experiences of the selected nursing schools; 3) describe the feedback of administrators, faculty, and students to the introduction of the IMCI strategy in the nursing curriculum. The students were randomly chosen by block sectioning, while the faculty and administrators were all taken to be respondents in the study. Data collection was with the use of a questionnaire and by interviewing the respondents. After collection, all the data were then subjected to statistical analysis and interpretation.

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The Effects of Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Quality of Life Among Elderly in Indonesia Nursing Home Sr Anitha Sampe, JMJ and Marilyn D.Yap The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Quality of life (QoL) is defined as the perception of the individuals about position in life in the context of the culture and value systems where they live relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns. In the context of this study, an equal number of measures have been developed to identify the QoL of patients suffering from a particular disease, that is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). RA is a chronic inflamatory disabling disease with significant impact on the QoL of the elderly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Rheumatoid Arthritis and as it impinges on the Quality of Life of the Elderly. The researcher used the descriptive correlational research design to identify the respondents demographic profile, their extent of affliction, their level of quality of life and identification of the relationship between Quality of Life and Rheumatoid Arthritis. A total sample of 125 respondents from three nursing homes was taken in the study. The researcher utilized a three part questionnaires; namely the socio demographic profile, the Sort Form 36 (SF-36) and the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2 (AIMS 2). The result of this study shows that there is significant relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Quality of Life in Elderly (r=.315 ; p=,000). Efficiency of Using PDA Phones Among Resident Physicians Performance in the Clinical Assessment and Management of Care for Patients: Basis for Strengthening Evidence-Based Training Anne Lorraine B. Villeta and Marilyn D. Yap The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT The use of Personal Digital Assistants as well as its drawbacks and benefits are known for its practical role in the health care industry. This is a descriptive-correlational study investigating the profiles of the respondents and utilized a 4-point Likert-Scale questionnaire to measure the efficiency of PDA phones in terms of assessment, handling and storage of patient data, facility of use and ease in accessing Medical data, and functionality of using the PDA phone in the management of individual patient care. Respondents include 31 resident physicians, majority are ages 31 t0 35 (51.61%), mostly male (58.06%) ,married (58.06%), average duration of stay in the hospital ranges from 1 to 5 years (90.32%) and majority of them are assigned in the medical ward (32.25%). Frequently used PDA applications are drug reference and personal organizer (mean=2.79). Common problems encountered: non-integrated EMRs (mean=2.77), maintenance (mean=2.74), and organizational barriers (mean=2.71). There is a moderate agreement on the level of efficiency of using PDA in the identified aspects of care (mean= 2.95). In the comparison of the efficiency of using PDA from their usual work setting there is a moderate agreement in dealing with patient data, standard medical guidelines and clinical

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decision support tools (mean=2.76). This study will contribute to literature regarding management of patient care and a study with wider geographic area of coverage is suggested. Physicians Satisfaction in Rendering Health Care to HMO- Compared to Non-HMO Covered Patients in Region I Darius R. Parinas1 and Fr. Jerry R. Manlangit, O.P.2 Urdaneta Sacred Heart Hospital,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT One of several factors influencing physicians job satisfaction is caring for patients with HMO managed care. This is a descriptive-comparative study done to compare satisfaction of physicians of Region I in rendering health care to HMO and non-HMO-covered patients in terms of: quality of physician-patient relationship, freedom to implement clinical management, compensation and burden of work done; using a questionnaire for demographic data and 5point Likerts Scale to measure level of satisfaction. Included are 51 respondents with mean of 15 years practice, 63% have annual income of P250,000 to P1,000,000, majority in surgical field (61%). Paired T-test is used to determine significant differences on response to HMO and NonHMO questions. Ratings pertaining to Non-HMO questions are consistently significantly higher than HMO questions. Quality of physician-patient relationship has the overall highest satisfaction level for both groups (mean: HMO=3.461, Non-HMO=4.101) at p<0.05, and Compensation the least. Pearson correlation coefficient rxyvalue of 0.7625 showed that a good direct relationshipfor levels of satisfaction exists for both groups. T-test and Anova test are used to determine if there are significant differences in level of satisfaction when respondents are grouped into Sex, Civil Status, and Income Class. Regardless of Sex and Civil Status, there was no significant variation in the levels of satisfaction noted. Income may influence level of satisfaction and mostly seen for Non-HMOs. This study will contribute to existing literatures regarding physicians satisfaction with HMO and a study with wider geographic area of coverage recommended. This study may also serve as reference for hospital administrators and physicians in considering accreditation with HMO companies.

Patient Safety Awareness and Practices in the Emergency Room of Selected Hospitals in Region V and NCR: Towards Development of Standard Patient Safety Practices Susannah Ong-Salvador1 and Marilyn D. Yap2 University of Santo Tomas Hospital1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Improving patient safety especially in the emergency room requires the highest level of commitment and action by all members of the health care team. This is viewed in the rationale that improvements in the patient safety practices in the emergency room will result to increase quality of care delivered and hospice customer satisfaction. This is a descriptive-correlation study done to investigate on the patient safety practices in the emergency room of selected locales in Region 5 and NCR and how it is being implemented by the health workers inside the emergency room of such institutions in terms of the 11 patient safety indicators identified in the study; using a questionnaire for demographic data and 4-point Likerts Scale to measure the

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patient safety awareness and practices in the emergency room of the selected locales. Included are 55 respondents from NCR (30-UST hospital and 25- Gat Andres Hospital), and 98 respondents from Region V Daet Camarines Norte (63- Camarines Norte Provincial Hospital and 35- Leon D. Hernandez Memorial Hospital). This study will contribute to literature regarding patient safety awareness and practices inside the emergency room and a study with wider geographic area of coverage is suggested.

Performance Appraisal Management System in Santo Antonius Hospital Pontianak West Kalimantan Indonesia Rosalia Sri Nurhayati and Fr. Jerry R. Manlangit,OP Santo Antonius Hospital; The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas ABSTRACT Performance appraisal is a common practice in every organization. It is program provides necessary information in which the employee can learn more about the duties and responsibilities of his job. The main objective of this study is to find out how it was done toward the development of the organization and its employees in Santo Antonius Hospital. Descriptive and inferential methods and stratified random sampling was implemented. Data were obtained through questionnaires and unstructured interview. The results have been interpreted through Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Test for independent samples. It shows that there is significant difference of perception on the performance appraisal management system in terms of method and criteria used. However, there is no significant difference perception in terms of the objective and result/feedback system. When is Similar Different? Phenomenologizing Schoolers Personal Encounter of Nursing Students Communication, Appearance and Attitude Ethelyn G. Maglanque1 and Lily F. Famadico2 University of Santo Tomas, College of Nursing1, The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Although there are a lot of individual studies on schoolers and nursing students, very little attention is given about the views of schoolers toward nursing students and none has been conducted in a community setting. Eight school-age children were purposively selected to be involved in this descriptive phenomenological study in an adopted community. A three-part instrument specifically robotfoto, semi-structured interview and doodling was used in gathering data. Field texts were phenomenologically reduced via a repertory grid. Analyses of the sharings and feelings of the respondents helped surface The 3 Ws which are the Wall (appearance), the Will (communication) and the Whole (attitude). Six interesting subthemes were also identified namely: teaching, creativity, valuing, obstructing, dreaming and linking. A full grasp of the study is hoped to improve the provision of holistic care to children.

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Mental Health Conditions and Agitated Behavioral Patterns of the Older Person Roaldo Leo B. Surban1 and Nenita Y. Davadilla . The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses Association of the Philippines.Inc. ABSTRACT Through proper assessment and understanding of the older persons mental health conditions and agitated behaviors, caregivers could have a basic understanding and knowledge on what interventions and services are most effective. The purpose of this study was to examine the current mental health conditions of the older person in terms of affective status, and cognitive status, and examine the older person different agitated behaviors. The study design is a descriptive-correlational research. Participants (n=77) were older persons from two different nursing home facilities: Hospicio De San Jose and Tahanan ni Maria in Cavite. Three instruments were used in this study; two instruments were used to assess the mental health conditions, namely the Geriatric Depression Scale Tagalog version, and Mini Mental State Exam Tagalog Version, and Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory for the agitated behavioral patterns of the older persons. Initial findings suggest that majority of the respondents unfortunately possess mental health related problems and agitated behaviors that limit their ability to live a fuller life. With the lack of important cognitive and emotional related interventions, they are unable to improve their present mental health conditions.

GO-SMART: Effects on the Knowledge, Self Care Behavior and Biophysical Outcome Variables Among Patients with Heart Failure Roland L. Zara and Alita R.Conde Our Lady of Fatima University,1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of the GO SMART Program, a supportive educative intervention consisting of General overview, Symptom recognition, Medication adherence, Restriction of fluid, and Trimming salt intake administered to the experimental group using a pre-test/post-test design. Nineteen heart failure patients were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Standardized scales such as Heart Failure Knowledge Scale, Self-Care Behavior scale and Biophysical outcome measures were utilized. Results showed no differences existed between the control and experimental groups during the pretest but differences were evident during the post-test. Knowledge and biophysical outcome measures were improved in the experimental group except on self-care behavior.

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Effectiveness of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Program in Reducing VentilatorAssociated Pneumonia (VAP) in Adult Intensive Care Units in a Tertiary Hospital in Metro Manila Lina Vince Cruz-De Castro1 and Ma. Irma C. Bustamante2 University of Santo Tomas Hospital, 1 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas2 ABSTRACT Critically-ill patients hooked on ventilator have a significant risk of developing VAP, in which the mortality is high. Thus, the researcher wanted to test whether a program to prevent and reduce VAP would be effective. The researcher utilized a pre and post study design. Pre-study level of compliance among healthcare workers in terms of hand hygiene, head of bed elevation, oral care and breathing circuit management as well as VAP incident of patients on ventilator were compared with the post study levels after the initiation of a VAP Program. Using Microsoft excel and Stata Special Edition 10, the study revealed a significant increased in the compliance rate among healthcare workers (hand hygiene: pre 35.6%, post 66.3%; head of bed elevation: pre 88.3%, post 96.8%, oral care: pre 61.9%, post 90.4%; breathing circuit management: pre 66.7%, post 93.8 %)after the implementation of the VAP Program resulting to a significantly lower VAP incident rate among ventilated patients (n=300) in the post-intervention than in the pre-intervention stage (2.6 versus 22.2 VAP per 1000 ventilator days). Hence, implementation of the VAP Program in the adult intensive care units was associated with significant decline in the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incident rate.

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