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Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

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Motivation
Rubber materials are found in many components. Some of these are illustrated on the following slide. Rubber applications include tires, gaskets, and bushings, among others.
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The vast number of applications that use rubber materials necessitates a good understanding of the modeling techniques used to analyze rubber components.

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Motivation

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Tires

Medical Devices

Seals
keypad spring

Packaging Electronics, consumer products Bushings, mounts, etc.


Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Day 1
Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lecture 3
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Rubber Physics Introduction to Rubber Elasticity Models Mechanical Testing Defining Rubber Elasticity Models in Abaqus

Workshop 1 Lecture 4

Lecture 5
Workshop 2

Modeling Issues and Tips

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Day 2
Lecture 6 Lecture 7 Workshop 3
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Viscoelastic Material Behavior Time-Domain Viscoelasticity Frequency-Domain Viscoelasticity

Lecture 8 Workshop 4

Lecture 9
Lecture 10

Permanent Set in Solid Elastomers


Anisotropic Hyperelasticity

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Additional Material
Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3
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Finite Deformations Rubber Elasticity Models: Mathematical Forms Linear Viscoelasticity Theory Harmonic Viscoelasticity Theory Suggested Reading

Appendix 4 Appendix 5

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Legal Notices
The Abaqus Software described in this documentation is available only under license from Dassault Systmes and its subsidiary and may be used or reproduced only in accordance with the terms of such license. This documentation and the software described in this documentation are subject to change without prior notice.
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Dassault Systmes and its subsidiaries shall not be responsible for the consequences of any errors or omissions that may appear in this documentation. No part of this documentation may be reproduced or distributed in any form without prior written permission of Dassault Systmes or its subsidiary. Dassault Systmes, 2011. Printed in the United States of America Abaqus, the 3DS logo, SIMULIA and CATIA are trademarks or registered trademarks of Dassault Systmes or its subsidiaries in the US and/or other countries. Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of their respective owners. For additional information concerning trademarks, copyrights, and licenses, see the Legal Notices in the Abaqus 6.11 Release Notes and the notices at: http://www.simulia.com/products/products_legal.html.

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Revision Status
Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Workshop 1 Workshop 2 Workshop 3 Workshop 4 Workshop Answers 1 Workshop Answers 2 Workshop Answers 3 Workshop Answers 4 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11

Lecture 5
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5/11
5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11 5/11

Updated for 6.11


Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11 Updated for 6.11

Lecture 6 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Rubber Physics
Lecture 1
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L1.2

Overview
Solid Rubber Molecular Structure Material Processing
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Rubber Foam Physical Description Cellular Structure Typical StressStrain Response Poissons Effect

Glass Transition Temperature Nearly Incompressible Behavior

Typical StressStrain Response


Hysteresis and Damping Damage Anisotropy Thermoplastic Elastomers Physical Description

Advantages and Disadvantages

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Introduction to Rubber Elasticity Models


Lecture 2
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L2.2

Overview
Introduction Models for Solid Rubber Elasticity Mullins Effect
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Model for Foam Rubber Elasticity

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Mechanical Testing
Lecture 3
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L3.2

Overview
Modes of Deformation Uniaxial Tension Planar Tension
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Uniaxial Compression Equibiaxial Tension

Confined Compression (for volumetric response)


Loading History Testing at Temperature Test Specimens Test Data Guidelines Testing for Time-Dependent Properties

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Defining Rubber Elasticity Models in Abaqus


Lecture 4
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L4.2

Overview
Curve-Fitting for Solid Rubber Elasticity Material Stability Curve-fitting in Abaqus/CAE
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Choosing a Hyperelastic Model Defining Hyperelastic Models

Mullins Effect
Hyperfoam Model UHYPER

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Modeling Issues and Tips


Lecture 5
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L5.2

Overview
Contact Element Selection
Overview First-Order or Second-Order?
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Output Variables Using Abaqus/Explicit for Rubber Analyses Special Features Example: Column Shifter Boot Example: Weather Seal

Full or Reduced Integration? Regular or Hybrid?

Incompatible Modes
Modified Elements Complex Geometry

Meshing Considerations Constraints and Reinforcements Instability


Material Instability Structural Instability Surface Wrinkling and Folding

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Viscoelastic Material Behavior


Lecture 6
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L6.2

Overview
Introduction Effects of Viscoelasticity Creep
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Stress Relaxation Damping and Hysteresis

Linear Viscoelasticity
Nonlinear Viscoelasticity Temperature Dependence

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Time-Domain Viscoelasticity
Lecture 7
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L7.2

Overview
Classical Linear Viscoelasticity Prony Series Representation Finite-Strain Viscoelasticity
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Relaxation and Creep Test Data Prony Series Data

Automatic Material Evaluation


Time-Temperature Correspondence Reduced Time Input Data WLF Example Usage Hints Hysteresis in Elastomers

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Frequency-Domain Viscoelasticity
Lecture 8
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L8.2

Overview
Frequency-Domain Response Storage and Loss Moduli Classical Isotropic Linear Viscoelasticity
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Isotropic Finite-Strain Viscoelasticity Procedures

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Permanent Set in Solid Elastomers


Lecture 9
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L9.2

Overview
Motivation Defining Permanent Set Example
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Summary

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Anisotropic Hyperelasticity
Lecture 10
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L10.2

Overview
Motivation Models Available in Abaqus Examples
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Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Finite Deformations
Appendix 1
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A1.2

Overview
Motions and Displacements Extension of a Material Line Element The Deformation Gradient Tensor
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Finite Deformations and Strain Tensors Decomposition of a Deformation

Principal Stretches and Principal Axes of Deformation


Strain Invariants Summary

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Rubber Elasticity Models: Mathematical Forms


Appendix 2
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A2.2

Overview
Energy Functions for Solid Rubbers (Isotropic) Polynomial Model Mooney-Rivlin Model
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Reduced Polynomial Model Neo-Hookean Model

Yeoh Model
Ogden Model Marlow Model Arruda-Boyce Model Van der Waals Model Foam Rubber Model Mullins Effect

Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Linear Viscoelasticity Theory


Appendix 3
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A3.2

Overview
Classical Linear Viscoelasticity

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Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Harmonic Viscoelasticity Theory


Appendix 4
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A4.2

Overview
Classical Linear Viscoelasticity Harmonic Excitation

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Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus

Suggested Reading
Appendix 5
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A5.2

Overview
Suggested Reading

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Modeling Rubber and Viscoelasticity with Abaqus