Political Ideology: Encountering Liberalism, Conservatism, Socialism, and Their Predecessors

We see political reality through a veil of theories, presuppositions and assumptions (we may add other terms that parallel such as: paradigms, perspectives) . In other word, we need a mental window to define and understand what we mean as the reality, including political reality. We can trace down those assumptions and group them in category of tradition – popularly known as Political Ideologies. Each of tradition have their own argument about the nature of ideology, about the role in political life.

Marx argue that ideology is mystification or false consciousness functions to prevent the oppressed class to recognized their own exploitation. an emancipation form of consciousness from the oppressed classes to challenge the one from the oppressor. but can be a field of struggle. Other derivations of Marxist thinkers. marxists tend to differentiate ideology from scientific explanation of the reality happens in classes basedexploitative society. To point out the power of ideology used by the ruling class. . such as Lenin and Gramsci see that ideology not necessarily a dominant consciousness from the ruling class.

Liberalism endorse principles of freedom of rationalization which open for free debate. Conservatism endorse the role of pragmatism. and history . tradition.Liberalism view ideology as a means of social control to force compliance and subordination. opposition and criticism Conservatism does not believe on free capacity of human mind because it tends to be sets of ideas that distort political reality.

belief that human reason and by critical enquiry that uncovered the rational structure of the world . individuals should enjoy the maximum possible liberty consistent with a like liberty for all Reason. Freedom. belief in the supreme importance of human individual as opposed to any social group or collective body.Individualism. .

natural harmony arises from situation where all belief tested in free market of ideas Consent. Constitutionalism. establishment of written political contract that prevent the still potential abuse of power by government – though still believe on its role to provide order and stability .Toleration. belief that legitamcy of authority comes from contractual and free will ”from below”.

Classical Liberalism Nightwatchman state and Laissez-faire capitalism Modern Liberalism Big government to impose economic management and social regulation. regulated capitalism. .

Tradition Pragmatism Human Imperfection Organicism Hierarchy Authority Property .

The New Right Post war phenomenon. faith is placed in self-help. Private is good. . individual responsibility and entrepreneurialism. free economy with strong state Neoliberalism Nanny state. concern with permisiveness and multicultural an multireligious societies. Neoconservatism Restoration of authority and family values. public is bad. freedom of choice in the marketplace.

Community Fraternity Social Equality Need Social Class Common ownersip .

Marxism Elements of Marxism: Historical Materialism Dialectical Change Alienation Class Struggle Surplus Value Proletarian revolution Communism .

with obsession on justice .Orthodox Communism Stalinism Modern Marxism New Left Social Democracy Compromise of capitalism.

Assumptions and Belief will always be the basis to understand reality. . The importance of ideology in reality of Politics. The fact of the still continum social political reality reflect the existence. emergence. and struggle of ideologies.

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