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Housing Finance and Regulation
Co-ordinators: Jens Lunde, Stefan Kofner and Christine Whitehead
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I
C O N F E R E N C E
WS - 01
Hedging housing risk in Denmark using house price indices
Marc LUND ANDERSEN
Knowledge Centre for Housing Economics, Copenhagen, Denmark email@example.com Different solutions to reduce home equity risk have been presented in academic articles. Nevertheless homeowners still does not have opportunities to hedge housing risk. It seems to be generally agreed that a sustainable solution must involve integration of house price indices linked to a potential product. Regardless of design, such products would not be able to eliminate all home equity risk. The reason is the heterogenic characteristics of homes. These characteristics cause an idiosyncratic component in price changes for a single house compared to the related house price indices. In this paper a unique set of data is used to analyze the idiosyncratic component and the potential efficiency using products based on house price indices to hedge home equity risk. 52,656 repeated sales in Copenhagen from 1993-2009 is used to construct a Repeat Sales Index. The results indicate that homeowners would still have a great deal of risk to carry despite hedging themselves with such kind of index based products.
House price volatility and taxation
Delft University of Technology, OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, The Netherlands, and College Design and Social Context, RMIT University, AHURI firstname.lastname@example.org
Delft University of Technology, OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, the Netherlands and Centre for Comparative Housing Research, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom email@example.com The central question in this paper is: What impact might taxation have on the volatility of house prices? Measures of house price volatility for Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, UK and USA will be compared. The principal forms of housing taxation will be summarised. A series of tentative propositions about the potential impacts on price volatility of the different forms of housing taxation will then be compared. This discussion will be set in the context of the overall principles and purposes of housing taxation. The scope of the taxation measures considered will include taxes on income, property values, land values, capital gains and transactions. An agenda for further research to investigate the interaction between taxation and other factors contributing to housing market volatility will be set out.
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I
C O N F E R E N C E
WS - 01
Distributional impact of subsidies related to housing in Flanders
Catholic university of Leuven, Research Institute for Work and Society (HIVA), Belgium firstname.lastname@example.org The goal of this study is to analyze the distributional effects of the subsidy systems related to housing in Flanders, the north region of Belgium. It is explored which income groups benefit the most. Concerning owner-occupiers these subsidies are the mortgage interest deduction, the reduced VAT rate for renovation, the reduced transaction costs for the purchase of modest dwellings and the lower property tax for modest dwellings. With regard to tenants the below-market rent of social housing, the housing allowance and the systems of social loans are the subsidies at stake. The distributive impact is measured by means of the ‘user cost’ concept. Within this perspective a dwelling is regarded as an investment good that generates housing services that can be consumed. The user cost is the price households pay for these services. In order to calculate the level of subsidies the actual user cost is compared with a benchmark. In this study the benchmark is the situation in which no subsidies are granted, given the existing tax system. Regarding owner-occupied housing, all fiscal arrangements that deviate from the general tax system, lower the costs and are aimed at specific target groups, are regarded as subsidies. The subsidy for social tenants is the difference between the actual – subsidized - rent and the market rent. Data are drawn from the Flemish Housing Survey of 2005 and administrative data. The results show that the fiscal advantages are mainly received by the 40% highest income groups. The deductions on property tax and transaction costs are to a lesser extent directed at higher incomes, since they include a condition of modest housing. The subsidy of social rent is for 70% directed at the lowest income quintile. With regard to housing allowances this share reaches 95%.
Repossession and Recession: Housing in hard times
Beverly A SEARLE
University of St Andrews, United Kingdom email@example.com This paper draws attention to an aspect of current legal practice related to mortgage debt and the repossession of homes. In particular it questions the traditional privileging within the judicial system of creditors over occupiers. It does this within the context of the aftermath of the 2007 Great Financial Crisis, the cause of which lay within the heart of the housing financial (creditor) sector. The paper draws attention to the need to embrace the wider social policy context when dealing with the aftermath of this recession. The circumstances associated with repossession are heightened during periods of economic decline; owneroccupiers are at increasing risk of losing their home where economic conditions put pressure on household budgets, options for re-mortgaging are constrained and welfare safety nets are in decline. This is compounded where social policy positions owner-occupation as the preferred tenure and an asset base for welfare. This paper argues that whilst the psychological and social consequences of repossession may have longer term scaring effects on households, the difficult financial circumstances that lead to repossession are in many cases a temporary setback and may be a natural part of the life-cycle as younger owners establish themselves, their careers and families. This finding may provide a potential solution in the more flexible management of mortgage terms and re-payment criteria.
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C O N F E R E N C E
WS . Following a number of reforms it may today best be characterised as an indirect. all rental flats are subject to rent control. The results (from preliminary estimations of panel-data regression models) indicate that several RHS variables mentioned are significantly explaining the demolition measures. To promote construction of new multifamily rental housing under a rent control system that. the subsidy program supported new construction everywhere. are binding. The welfare-loss of demolitions appears to be quite substantial. will form the basis for a journal article to be published early next year. including municipalities that later were to experience population decreases. Comparing responses to the financial crisis Kathleen SCANLON. The Government has (surprisingly enough) supported supply-reducing measures and even financially subsidised demolition of usable housing. and somewhat ‘soft’. We make use of a panel of annual data for the time period 1990-2009 with some 290 municipalities as cross-section identifiers. Sweden bo. Jens LUNDE Christine WHITEHEAD London School of Economics and CBS. these subsidies have been phased out. initially introduced during the Second World War. Still. Sweden Bo SÖDERBERG Institute for Housing and Urban Research. United Kingdom This paper reviews the evidence from questionnaires provided from ENHR members across Europe and other industrialised countries on how countries have been responding to the financial crisis and the effect that it has had on the mortgage and housing markets. In almost all cases these vacancies are in council housing. Instead of lowering price (which from an economic point of view may appear the most reasonable action) the main ambition in many municipalities have been to reduce supply. We hope that a revised version. taking account of comments at the conference. Uppsala University. The preliminary results were presented at the ENHR/EMF workshop in Brussels in April. Since the early 1990’s. however.01 Government-subsidised demolition of real property as a response to vacancies in the Swedish rental housing market Sven-Olov DAUNFELDT Ratio Institute.se The Swedish multi-family rental housing market has been subject to a prolonged rent control regime. and quite uniquely. Sweden Niklas RUDHOLM Economics Department. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Dalarna University. When still running. Stockholm. at least in growing cities. Over the last two decades depopulation. price control instrument. The supply-reduction generally has little long-run effect on the vacancy rates.uu. We investigate to what extent demolition could be explained by housing market indicators and demographic variables as well as local political and general economic conditions.soderberg@ibf. Government investment subsidies have been used widely. in combination with the previous subsidy-stimulated construction. In this paper we study this quite unique and odd housing policy instrument. This paper presents updated and extended analysis as well as building on earlier surveys at different stages of the economic cycle. has caused high vacancy rates in several less attractive rental housing markets.
ethnicity. Milano .no Municipalities redistribute funds from the Norwegian State Housing Bank for home purchasing.WS . In this paper we will examine the housing situation for those whose application were rejected.no Torunn KVINGE Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (NIBR). About 30 percent of the applications for a loan are not approved. two years after the decision was made. Generally the home ownership rate was rising with income and equity. Department for Housing and Environmental Planning Research torunn. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . and contrast the situation to those who were acknowledged. but falling with age. This experience has afterwards then inspired the national housing plan which contains a specific policy called Integrated System of funds (SIF). Department for Housing and Environmental Planning Research rolf. Since 2001 with a modification of the Constitution.barlindhaug@nibr. public financial contribution has been reduced profoundly and Regions had to find an alternative way to keep producing social housing. The analysis is based on a rich data set. The benefits for the household are linked to the access of credit without the need of down payment. which has been able to attract within few years funding for 80 million of Euro. most of them because the applicant is not supposed to be capable of paying the loan back. and being highest among young couples living outside the biggest towns.it The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of Ethical Social Fund as an instrument to face the public financial shortage. Our analysis draws from the progressive State separation from the housing issues and the consequential need of involving private channels in order to continue financing social housing. This new financial mean provides a robust structure to define and manage public and private interests and enables to produce new affordable housing. The loan is given at interest rates equivalent to the average interest rate in the financial market.Italy veronica. income and equity all seem to be important. Within these changes social housing financing became more and more entrusted to Regions. Age. those who receive these loans must have an income high enough to allow for mortgage payments. This evolution evolved in a diversified regional model. The scheme is targeted at disadvantaged in the housing market.it Veronica MEROTTA EUPOLIS Lombardia. generally oriented toward a form of financial co-participation between public and private actors. We find that the home ownership rate among those who were not granted a state loan –because of lacking ability for mortgage payment–was 47 percent in 2008.plebani@irer. household type. Ethical Social Fund. The specific case we are going to deepen in the paper is a local Fund active in Lombardy. In the last decade. location. We mainly focus on the home ownership rate and the factors which influences the probability of being a home owner after two years.kvinge@nibr.Italy fabrizio.01 Housing career after the rejection of a state supported first time buyers’ loan Rolf BARLINDHAUG Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (NIBR). a plenty of responsibility moved from central level to local governance. Nevertheless.merotta@irer. consisting of the complete application data from 2006 and a number of register information about the applicants for the years 2005 to 2008. A way to finance Social Housing Fabrizio PLEBANI EUPOLIS Lombardia. and without having to pay an extra risk premium. Milano .
when the global financial crisis hit. The action lines provided include the establishment of a local real estate investment trusts system. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . which can multiply the State appropriated resources and guarantee to investors a minimum ethical return through an appropriate residential and functional mix. This paper utilizes the most recent data in Shanghai to examine this relationship. China’s home mortgage business has experienced tremendous growth and currently it is the primary funding resource for urban residents’ home purchases. United Kingdom mark. In this paper the impact of mortgage loans on the evolution of real estate markets will be studied through both documental review and statistical analysis.ac. Scotland. How the development of home mortgage business is related to the boom in China’s real estate market has not received much empirical examination. Social and functional mix as the constitutive element or the essential condition to satisfy the housing demand? Paolo MELIS Dipartimento di Architettura.uk Since the end of the welfare-oriented urban home distribution system in the late 1990s. For that reason. Real estate investment trusts and social housing. In this direction the examination of the first initiatives in progress at national and regional level can allow to focus on the public entity’s role in setting out the rules of the private sector involvement and in the promotion of local actions that can achieve a real social mixité. and how the availability of mortgage credit played a significant role in the quick recovery of the Shanghai real estate market in 2009.com The recession stage in progress records in the last years a renewed involvement of European states toward special programs to increase the social housing stock.stephens@glasgow. University of Glasgow. and not just the requirement for the financial sustainability of the interventions? The condition for a wider success of new forms of social housing construction lies in the ability of local communities (local governments. But how does the functional and housing mix may be the main address of integrated forms of territorial government. Particular attention will be paid to how the market functioned during 2008 to 2009. in Italy in 2008 has launched a national housing plan targeted at the housing stock increase whose main interest’s elements reside in the promotion of public and private capital partnership’s forms and in the sensitivity to the range of population which is unable to meet their housing demand on the open market and at the same exceeds the maximum thresholds to access to subsidized housing. businessmen and social partners) to interpret the critical issues and opportunities of the region and develop proposals in which the provision of specific start-up and management forms is able to ensure an effective response to housing demand.WS .01 The Shanghai housing and mortgage markets Jie CHEN Mark STEPHENS Urban Studies. Università degli Studi di Cagliari ingpmelis@gmail.
is a more powerful concept. 2. As some data about the mortgage market easily available in the developed countries are still missing in the Czech Republic (for example LTV ratios.Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Based on aggregated yearly time series data of Flanders (Belgium).ac. The ‘systemic‘ risks tested in the paper are se follows: 1. Socio-economics of Housing Department. the behavior of Czech mortgage lenders in the period of housing market ‘boom’.sunega@soc. The ratio price-to-purchasing power for housing is more stable than the price-to-income ratio. while the interest rate elasticity as derived from the imposed functional form of purchasing power for housing is much higher than generally found in literature. significant increase in the share of low-income households in the owner-occupied housing in the period of housing market ‘boom’ and it’s sustainability.Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.cas. the volatility of house prices in the Czech Republic in comparison to other countries and 3.be Erik BUYST Center for economic studies . etc. Belgium Frank. Belgium Erik. Preliminary results show.be Real income and the real interest rate have been widely considered as two important price determinants for housing.kuleuven. whether among Czech homeowners repaying mortgages significantly increased the share of low-income households and whether significantly increased the share of homeowners in arrears with their mortgage payments in the period 2005-2009 was tested with the use of the Survey of Income and Living Conditions data of the Czech Statistical Office.WS .Czech Republic petr.cas. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.kuleuven.lux@soc. we conducted the questionnaire survey among main Czech mortgage lenders. Czech Republic martin. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .Vastmans@econ. This approach yields stronger results than a model where real income and real interest rate are used separately as explanatory variables for real house prices. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. We find that the purchasing power for housing. which is based on the net present value of future income flows. It is intuitive and realistic in nature for first time buyers who need substantial mortgage-financing. The thesis. we analyze the difference between nominal house prices and house price estimations based on the purchasing power for housing. The purchasing power for housing and the underestimated role of interest rates as a house price determinant Frank VASTMANS Center for economic studies . Socio-economics of Housing Department.01 ‘Systemic’ risks of owner-occupied housing in the Czech Republic Petr SUNEGA Institute of Sociology.ac.cz We focused on the assessment of selected ‘systemic ‘ risks of owner-occupied housing in the Czech Republic in comparison with other countries. With the use of OECD house price data was also tested the volatility of residential property prices in the Czech Republic and other developed countries. for which no estimate of future house price appreciations or inflation rates is needed. that the ‘systemic’ risks of owner-occupied housing in the Czech Republic mentioned above are in general low. although the results of the survey confirmed to some extent inclination to ‘risky behavior’ among Czech mortgage lenders. Prague.).Buyst@econ. Prague.cz Martin LUX Institute of Sociology.
U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .e. has maintained a special circuit of housing finance together with strong government involvement in the operation of the mortgage market. A range of examples are taken from countries where private renting continues to decline and others where it is expanding. It looks at how the scale and attributes of private renting have changed in response to regulatory initiatives. the terms and conditions under which mortgages are made available as well as patterns of house prices and supply. This has helped to explain why both the mortgage and housing markets have been heavily affected by the crisis of 2007/8 . Is regulation the reason why private renting is more common in some countries than others? Sanna MARKKANEN University of Cambridge. Of relevance to potential expansion is the role that regulation may play in determining the potential size and attributes of the private rented sector – especially as in some countries there is pressure to increase regulation while in others the objective is further to deregulate. on the other hand.01 The financial crisis and housing market stability: lessons from disparate systems Bernard VORMS ANIL –Paris .France Christine WHITEHEAD London School of Economics. Drawing on a range of analyses from the two countries as well as broader international experience. United Kingdom c. There have been few signs of financial tensions among mortgagors although house prices did rise quite rapidly in the early years of the century and government has seen the need to support the housing system. such as worsening access to owner-occupation and the decline in importance of social rented sector – as well as to more fundamental issues such as demographic changes.uk with Sarah MONK and Christine WHITEHEAD There is currently renewed interest in the role of the private rented sector across many European countries.ac. The evidence suggests that there is no direct and easily predicted relationship between regulatory change and the role of private renting and that the impacts of change depend crucially on the interface between regulatory change and more fundamental issues of profitability and consumer choice.whitehead@lse. It has also put continuing emphasis on social housing as a source of housing for mainstream households. United Kingdom sm725@cam. the authors will analyse the major attributes of the two systems and their robustness in response to the financial crisis and the resultant recession and then look at more fundamental issues around the costs and benefits of more flexible financial markets as compared to more regulated systems involving significant government support.especially with respect to sources of mortgage funds. In the UK much of the commentary around the crisis has emphasised the risks associated with specific aspects of the mortgage market.ac. France.WS .m. In France on the other hand there has been more discussion around the extent to which social housing helps to support housing market stability as well as the need for government subsidised intermediate housing. labour market flexibility and regulatory and fiscal environments. This is in part linked to recent developments. The paper examines the level and type of regulation observed in different countries in relation to the scale of private rental provision. This paper explores the context-dependent nature and impact of regulatory change across a variety of European countries.uk The UK housing finance market has been particularly integrated into the global financial system as a result of both deregulation and policy pressures to expand owner-occupation.
WORKSHOP — 02 — Housing Economics Co-ordinators: Michael Ball and Edwin Deutsch 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
The general policy trend has moved away from ample state subsidies and state regulations of housing markets. as increasing costs for housing has led to decreasing rates of fertility. Most European countries today face declining birth-rates.su. and to show how and why housing policy can have effect on fertility rates.bjorklund@humangeo. there are temporal as well as spatial variations between countries. Analyzing the connections between housing policy and fertility may therefore be highly relevant in order to better understand the effects of housing policies on society. which to some extent may be explained by differences in duration of stay and economic resources (endowment effect).no Immigrants overall have lower homeownership rates than natives in Norway as in most other countries. towards free market solutions for housing and housing construction. Using data from the 2005 Survey of Living Conditions carried out among the ten largest immigrant groups in Norway. We will estimate how quantitatively important the cultural effect is and whether it varies by country of origin. there is considerable diversity among different groups of immigrants in terms of their housing firstname.lastname@example.org Exploring the immigrant-native homeownership gap in Norway: The role of cultural attachment Kristin AARLAND Norwegian Social Research (NOVA).WS . In this paper we aim to provide additional insight into the complex process that determines housing outcomes for immigrant groups by exploring the role of cultural attachment to the host and native country. Since WWII housing policy has changed considerably in European states. However. but at European level these analyses are challenging. Stockholm University. We expect to find that closer attachment to the host country will translate into better housing outcomes and that strong attachment to country of origin will imply poorer housing outcomes in the adopted country. however. including visits. civic participation in host society and maintenance of ties to country of origin. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Norway kristin. One result of the changing policy trends is higher general costs for housing at household level. Sweden annika. the consequences for population development and family dynamics. At present. by discussing essential variables and indicators to include in such a data base. Housing Policy and Family Dynamics in Europe 1945-2010 Annika BJÖRKLUND Department of Human Geography. since there is a lack of data infrastructure and data base required for this research approach. These differences offer a possibility to identify effects of housing market conditions on family dynamics. This paper therefore suggests how a European data base on housing policy and housing market could be designed.se The aim of this paper is to discuss the connections between housing policy and family dynamics. In spite of similar trends in housing policies between European countries. Based on empirical research in Sweden it has been shown that there are significant links between housing costs and family dynamics. such studies may be carried out at national level. we focus on three measures of cultural attachment: language skills. remittances and the pursuit of a dual home strategy. Oslo. return plans. in particular. sharply decreasing general housing subsidies and a shift instead towards appointed subsidies to low-income areas and low-income households.
housing allowance. separately. In particular. Segregation in council housing is lower than in other rental housing. some nine million observations per year. we estimate average income for the three tenure form segments.se We study whether there is segregation in the Swedish multi-family rental housing market despite a sustained rent control regime initially introduced during the Second World War. We further find a tenure choice pattern that varies over municipalities as well as over the time period under study. Uppsala University. For each municipality and for each year of the time-period under study. the segregation is less pronounced in rental housing than in the co-operative market. The analysis draws on seminal work by Glaeser and Luttmer (2003). There are certain difficulties involved in measuring the degree of segregation in a market where. Segregation has increased in both rental housing segments over the time period under study.e. For each year of the time-period under study.uu. co-operatives.se Mats WILHELMSSON We study tenure choice in the Swedish housing market over the time-period 1990-2008.kth.e. as in Sweden. i.wilhelmsson@abe. The probit models are based on the standard theoretical work by Henderson and Ioannides (1983). and for a selection of municipalities. The municipalities were chosen to represent a number of stylized demographic patterns. Sweden Ilian DREA PERSSON Bo SÖDERBERG Institute for Housing and Urban Research.e. rental council housing and rental housing in other multi-family income properties. students and unemployed young citizens. We use the degree of income segregation in the non-regulated market for cooperative housing as a bench-mark. i. We consider parishes useful as delimitations of local sub-markets within municipalities.02 Tenure choice in the Swedish housing market Institute for Housing and Urban Research. We make use of a particularly rich database that includes all inhabitants in Sweden. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .soderberg@ibf. Uppsala University. The explanatory vector includes variables such as permanent income. Rent control and segregation in the Swedish housing market Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University. We make use of a particularly rich database that includes all inhabitants in Sweden. educational background. family size. rent control embraces all rental housing units.WS . We find strong evidence for income segregation in attractive housing markets. we include a series of explanatory variables that specifically facilitate the interpretation of what determines the tenure choice of pensioners. Within each local sub-market we recognise three different segments of multi-family housing. we are interested in analysing whether there is an overrepresentation of people with high income in rental flats in attractive local sub-markets. The results (from preliminary estimations) indicate that the RHS variables mentioned are generally significantly explaining the local annual variation in tenure choice. demographic and social characteristics. including larger cities with an influx of migrants and rural areas with decreasing population. in each geographical sub-market. Sweden Cecilia ENSTRÖM ÖST Bo SÖDERBERG Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Sweden bo. some nine million observations per year. i. However. The analysis is applied to the Swedish housing market over the time-period 1990-2008. Sweden Institute for Housing and Urban Research. In particular. we are concerned with capturing the varying level of foreign immigration among municipalities. Uppsala University. Uppsala University. Sweden mats. we estimate separate probit models where the probability to chose a certain tenure form is dependent on a series of individual economic. Under the null of no income segregation in rental housing there should be no correlation between the distributions of average income in the co-operative market on the one hand and the two respective rental markets on the other hand. ethnic origin and sex. In particular.
g. and geographic characteristics. Israel dromanov@cbs. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics and Tel Aviv University. And the variance decomposition level of unit price variance to turnover ratio is increasing quickly in metropolis market than it in whole country market. More information of turnover ratio helps to explain the unit price variance.e. whereas those who live in the most expensive dwellings more typically understate the value of their homes by up to 20 percent in the top decile of dwelling prices.02 The relationship between turnover ratio and price in Taiwan’s real estate market Nanya Institute of Technology. on average. The U. This information.000 observations from annual samples of Israel’s Household Expenditure Survey over a twelve-year period (1997–2008) merged with the national sample of housing sale transactions during the same period.WS . and they are affected by their previous period. i. empirical research on housing markets and. The valuations of inexpensive and costly dwellings are biased in different directions: estimates reported by people who occupy dwellings in the first (lowest) eight deciles of the price distribution are upward-biased. R. can be appropriately used to describe the condition of transactions in a certain area. Third.tw The paper examined the stationary of turnover ratio and the lead-lag relation of turnover ratio and housing price. we first conduct the unit root test to see if the turnover ratio is stationary. the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Most of these studies have not identified any systematic association between the bias of self-reported dwelling value estimates and observable owner and dwelling characteristics. lindachou@nanya. and investigate the lead-lag relationship between prices and turnover ratio with ECM model and Granger causality test to determine whether higher prices boost the higher turnover ratio or the higher turnover ratio result in higher prices. the turnover ratio is stationary after 1st difference. Zhongli.il Dmitri ROMANOV Larisa FLEISHMAN Aviad TUR-SINAI Central Bureau of Statistics and Hebrew University. on average. the percentage that the housing flows account for the housing stock during some period of time. the degree of accuracy of these valuations is of undisputed importance for empirical research.O.. not to increase without boundaries. and neighborhood socio-economic. allows us to investigate the self-reported valuation bias within a comprehensive conceptual framework that is novel for research on this topic. Previous studies show that. Turnover ratio. The two variables have long-term balanced relations. the log unit price of the whole country market led the turnover ratio one quarter. Mei-Ling CHOU Self-Reported Dwelling Valuations—How Accurate Are They? Central Bureau of Statistics. parsed by census tract. the impulse response functions of the whole country market and metropolis market are differently.edu. owners tend to overestimate the value of their dwellings by 5% relative to market valuation. and the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions. with the bias ranging from -2% to 16%. Decennial Census of Housing and several major surveys. environmental.gov. combined with a rich set of owner. Taiwan. We analyze the variation of the bias over the distribution of dwelling sale prices. include a question relating to self-reported dwelling value. the Survey of Consumer Finances. There are three results in the paper. to the extent of more than 50 percent in the lowest decile of the distribution. the American Housing Survey. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . In this article. 27% higher than the mean market prices of houses in the corresponding census tracts. as estimates of individuals’ and households’ most valuable assets. the more frequent transactions there are. We also find that the self-reported valuation bias is systematically associated with owner's traits as well as with dwelling and neighborhood characteristics. Thus. e.. Israel Owners’ valuations of dwelling prices are central in construction of housing price indices. Second. dwelling. usually serve as a key explanatory variable in micro-economic analysis.S. using a unique data set of more than 22.C. and it led the turnover ratio two quarter in metropolis (Taipei) market. Our findings indicate that self-reported estimates of dwelling values are. The more the turnover. First.
As a result. but it consequently reduces housing investment along with the housing investment function. Coventry in England and Breda in the Netherlands.u-toyama. that there is a case where a policy event of a gift tax reduction may encourage intergenerational transfers. Hitotsubashi University. which has possibly led to increased competitive pressure on both landlord groups. supported by empirical results. The theory then suggests.nl Governments in many countries have required social housing providers to operate more market-orientated and engage in commercial activities.lennartz@tudelft. Empirical results.02 Rivalry between social and private landlords: Exploring landlords’ perceptions of competitors and landlords’ competitive strategies in two local housing markets Christian LENNARTZ OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. public authorities in some countries have tried to strengthen the role of the private rental sector in the provision of housing for low income households and homeless people. Japan iwata@eco. Japan This paper models an interdependence of parental gifts and children’s housing investments. Japan Takako IDEE Faculty of Economics. As part of a wider research project. The Netherlands c. the once clear demarcation between the activities of social and private landlords appears to be shifting. reflecting children feel burden to provide informal care.jp Norifumi YUKUTAKE Housing Research and Advancement Foundation of Japan & Institute of Economic Research.WS . the influence of the structure of the local rental market on these perceptions. Delft University of Technology. Seikei University. this study explores landlords’ perceptions of providers in the other rental sector.ac. considering an informal care issue behind these decisions making. which use a sample who acquires a house in Japan. Conversely. investments and Strategic Interaction between Inter Vivos Gifts and Housing Acquisition Shinichiro IWATA Faculty of Economics. University of Toyama. and private landlords in two local housing markets. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . indicate that the housing investments function is negatively related to gifts. and the impact of increased competitive pressures on landlords’ decisions on rent setting. letting agents. this paper aims to shed light on the behavioral aspects of competition between social and private landlords. Drawing on data from thirty in-depth qualitative interviews with housing association managers.
we have investigated whether or not housing allowances actually help people to stay in their homes. Economics and Management. Edinburgh. Housing Mobility and Tenure Choice with varying constraints and rationing: a model for English regions built from micro household transition data Institute for Housing. Labour and housing market effects are fed in using linked sub-regional data. rents and housing allowances will also pose extra challenges for the model. France Specific assistance is devoted to housing on the ground of negative externalities associated with unsustainable and unsafe housing. the gain provided by the program of housing allowances in terms of sustainable housing (measured with the Average Treatment Effect) is computed. recipients are not better protected than non recipients from unsustainable housing. In other words. Urban & Real Estate Research. The conclusion of this paper is therefore that housing allowances are not sufficiently flexible to counter balance the inherent disadvantage of recipients.fr Stéphane VIGEANT Lille Catholic University. Current policy changes affecting social renting supply. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Models calibrated in this way are then combined in an overall simulation model for the English regions with embodied demographic structural changes to trace the impact of economic and policy scenarios on future tenure structures and unmet housing needs. the events (especially family events or job loss) and finally the level of education. Because the total effect of housing allowances can be decomposed into a price and an income effect.flambard@icl-lille. As a matter of fact. even before the effects of tighter mortgage lending regulation can be fully factored in. United Kingdom g. Selection bias has been taken into account. tenants are self-selected (by opposition to home owners). Last. housing financial difficulties are not mechanically reduced. United Kingdom Michael WHITE This paper describes an approach to modelling households’ mobility and tenure choice decisions in an hierarchical fashion using micro household panel data on housing and household transitions.bramley@hw. Economics and Management. Heriot-Watt University. Similarly. especially for households that cumulate risk factors. Using the French Housing Survey of 2002.02 Do housing allowances help people stay in their homes ? Véronique FLAMBARD Lille Catholic University. There is a potential for housing overconsumption and there is a possibility that most of the allowance is spent on other goods and services. Besides it is well documented that housing allowances can be captured at least partially by landlords. and therefore recipients are not selected randomly in the population. while recognising the theorical importance of ‘expected mobility’ for tenure choice given transaction costs. housing allowances are meanstested. This approach is argued to be appropriate to a system characterised by a rationed supply of social housing and spatially variable market conditions. but not least. The analysis of marginal effects shows that the most important variables are the selection effect for being a recipient (capturing unobservable factors and behaviour). While the model appears to work well its results suggest a pessimistic outlook for home-ownership in England. Nottingham Trent University. School of the Built Environment.WS .ac. No reduction in threat of forced move or in difficulty paying the rent is guaranteed. therefore recipients only benefit partially from the housing subsidies. France veronique. even when all observed factors are controlled for.uk) Glen BRAMLEY Real Estate Economics.
School of Social and Political Sciences. Chen. House prices have steadily increased in this country since the beginning of the nineties. United Kingdom This paper considers the implications of social and residential segregation for house price index calculation. Scotland. since spatial disaggregation yields significant gains in hedonic prediction accuracy.uk Nema DEAN University of Glasgow. A hedonic pricing model is used to disentangle the relative effects of property characteristics. 2003. Accessibility to the capital seems to play a major role in the definition of housing submarkets in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. two statistical clustering methods. 2009). several approaches are tested to analyse market segmentation and define housing submarkets: two predefined geographical delineations. the price relatives of those two commodities must be constant. 2007.02 House prices. The model is used to derive predictions of real estate price gradients. Cantoni & Hoesli. Differdange.Pryce@glasgow. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . United Kingdom Gwilym. price movements will be fragmented across space. accessibility and housing market segmentation in Luxembourg: Evidence from a hedonic pricing model Julien LICHERON CEPS/INSTEAD.licheron@ceps. Bourassa.lu This paper seeks to estimate the role of distance and accessibility in spatial disparities of real estate prices in the GrandDuchy of Luxembourg. Poudyal & Roberts. Scotland. The greater the segregation of society. a small country with a dominant centre. This has important impacts on how we compute house price indices. Rather than all house prices for a country or region moving in unison. The results highlight the importance of an investigation at a sub-market level. Cho. while real estate prices are much lower in the north and the west of the country. Then. If not. socio-economic factors. Hicks' composite commodity theorem says that for two commodities to be included in the same price index. neighbourhood effects and accessibility on flats’ asking prices. This paper utilises the Composite Commodity Theorem to define the areas at which house price indices are produced as a way of minimising the discrepancies across index methodologies. Luxembourg julien. Out-of-sample predictions allow for a comparison of the prediction accuracy in the alternative housing segmentation approaches (as in Goodman & Thibodeau. but significant disparities are observed: the capital is one of the most expensive cities in Europe. the more pronounced the segmentation of housing markets is likely to be. different index methods will produce different results. Social Segregation and the Computation of House Price Indices: An Application of the Composite Commodity Theorem to the Definition of Housing Market Areas Gwilym PRYCE University of Glasgow. and a method relying on spatial autocorrelations of the residuals from the hedonic estimates.WS .ac.
The current system includes rent regulation. the paper firstly discusses this problem. Based on the Danish SPAR house price index. House price indices.no Within the model of a mono-centric town it is shown that the share of dwellings that are apartments depends positively on the town’s population. University of Southern Denmark. but supply subsidies are dominant. while the relationship is reversed for detached dwellings. housing allowances and supply subsidy. and on share of single person households. The empirical results confirm the predictions from the theoretical model. Taking housing affordability criteria into account we show that there is room for significant welfare gains following more efficient allocation of housing subsidies. University of Agder. Some settlements deviate substantially from the general pattern. The structure of housing in urban settlements Theis THEISEN Department of Economics and Business Administration.Theisen@uia. Amsterdam School of Real Estate.nl Johan CONIJN The rental sector is strongly subsidized in the Netherlands. Quality correction and the long term trend Department of Business and Economics. there may a good reason for subsidizing housing.dk Morten SKAK It is generally accepted that indices of price developments for a good should be cleaned for changes of the good’s quality. In this paper we will compare the current system of housing subsidies in the rented market with an alternative with only demand subsidy. Since the supply subsidy is granted to all renters in the same way and in virtually the same amounts there should be room for improvement in terms of welfare gains. We argue that examination of such deviations may be useful in urban planning. however. Kristiansand. Housing subsidies are economically often not efficient. As a result of rent regulation the actual rent level is on average much lower than the market rent level. But cleaning of house price indices for quality changes is complicated because the data needed for proper cleaning is hard to get. Norway Theis. Denmark email@example.com Allocative efficiency of different housing subsidy systems University of Amsterdam. When society thinks of housing as a merit good. The Netherlands Frans SCHILDER University of Amsterdam. subsidies drive households away from market equilibrium. The general result in literature regarding subsidizing housing is that demand subsidies are to be preferred above supply subsidies. and secondly the factors behind the long term trend of this house price index in real terms. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Rosen (1985) and Poterba (1992).sdu. The Netherlands j. and also because it is unclear what proper cleaning is. Data for Norwegian urban settlements are used for estimating a system of dwelling share equations. There are demand subsidies in form of housing allowances.g.conijn@asre. For each system we will estimate the welfare loss following the methodology presented in e. or in cases of market failures.WS . Amsterdam School of Real Estate. the proposed system includes market rents and only demand subsidy depending on the income level of the household.
Our results also find Dink family is the most likely to make home improvement.02 The Roles of Folk Custom and Taboo on Home Improvement Decisions Wen-Chieh WU Department of Public Finance. the size of prior housing wealth does seem to influence the value of the property purchased. However. Housing affordability constrains the propensity to move at older ages. Henley Business School. On the other hand. University of Reading. the single family is willing to spend the largest amount of home improvement expenditures once it decides to do it. National Chengchi University. whereas single family is the least likely to make home improvement. However. Equity withdrawal and moves to specialist retirement accommodation: the case of Britain School of Real Estate and Planning. Taiwan jackwu@nccu. We find that the likelihood of a homeowner making home improvement significantly rises at the time that is defined to be capable of bringing good fortune by folk custom. Taipei. the incentive of a homeowner making home improvement is significantly reduced at the time that is considered as taboo.WS . The results correspond to the argument that a simple ‘life cycle’ view of housing wealth does not hold. as many purchasers utilise non-housing wealth or have low equity release. we test whether folk custom and taboo have impacts on the home improvement decision of homeowner. households with dependent children and elderly would spend relatively less money on home improvements. Using a group of Taiwanese homeowners as the study samples.tw In this investigation. on the other hand. This paper utilises a unique data set of recent British movers into owner occupied retirement housing to explore the determinants influencing choice of this housing option.edu. United Kingdom Michael BALL There is a growing literature highlighting low equity withdrawal by elderly homeowners. which may contribute to the low mobility of older people. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . our empirical results provide the evidences that both folk custom and taboo indeed play certain roles on the decisions of home improvement. However.
ac. Regional Productivity and Socio-Economic Networks Edwin Deutsch Research Group EOS. and families in particular. The paper relies on empirical evidence drawn from Austrian regional NUTS3-data on manufacturing and commercial productivity. However as this paper outlines this method fails to provide an adequate understanding of the nuances of housing affordability and its impact on market dynamics. later expanded in the "New Economic Geography". have been increasingly excluded from the home purchase market or pushed to the fringes of Metropolitan Melbourne. Swinburne University of Technology. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .WS . the hypothesis is tested with spatial econometric methods. Australia. in Melbourne’s case the market is creating a long term and potential non solvable problem of urban form which will undermine Melbourne’s long held status as one of the half dozen most liveable cities in the world. Austria edwin. tend to push cities in the direction of social dispersion and polarisation.02 The slow burn of declining housing affordability and spatial polarisation Institute for Social Research. Vienna. Hawthorn. that productivity and growth positively depend on the degree of diversity of productive activities and market interactions. The Austrian system of social renting is designed to supply housing for a local work force. Instead the latter is simply deemed to result from the local demand of the work force. The present paper aims at demonstrating that housing supply plays a crucial role when it adapts to the local characteristics of the work force. without appropriate interventions. It will be shown that labour productivity positively depends on internal economies (the firm sizes) and external economies (the availability of networks in a sufficiently diversified market environment). relatively little attention is paid to the interplay with the regional housing structure. Australia tburke@swin. as a case study this paper examines how the housing market has created a slow burn process of social and spatial polarisation and highlights how polarisation is not just in terms of income but also of household type and building form. Quite interestingly it can be shown that the share of social renting is positively correlated with the degree of productive diversity. While we might talk about the desirability of social mix (however defined) housing market dynamics.edu. Applying the residual income model of affordability to unit record sales of all residential property transactions in Melbourne we demonstrate how households with incomes less than the 40 percent decile.au Terry BURKE Michael STONE Liss RALSTON This paper uses a residual income method of affordability measurement to get a better understanding of the growing polarisation of Australian cities. One may conclude that Austrian social renting gives support to regional productivity.deutsch@tuwien. Given that result the paper then turns to issue of housing structures.at Although the spatial organisation of productive activities is discussed in a vast body of literature. conditional upon the structure of markets and the institutional framework of housing. with a commitment to preserve social cohesion by sheltering an adequate mix of households. In the present paper. University of Technology. Using Melbourne. A residual income model of affordability not only provide a better measure of affordability but also a better understanding of how housing markets work. In Australia the traditional method of measuring affordability is a ratio method of 30 percent of income committed to housing costs. The starting point is the hypothesis put forward by Jane Jacobs. and on the shares of social renting.
WORKSHOP — 03 — Housing Markets Dynamics Co-ordinators: Richard Turkington and Peter Boelhouwer 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
Istanbul. The Netherlands a. most of the people are the ones. Turkey banu. The Ruhr area cities now are something of a tourist attraction. Housing Production and Building Management Department. restoration works for historic buildings. However. who have ‘upper economic status and education’ began to settle in the area and this caused a revival in housing market. A different social group. In this paper. in which they lived and worked.com Fusun CIZMECI Yildiz Technical University. the inhabitants have two choices: they will either be settled in periphery to the ‘mass housing’ totally unfamiliar to their life style. while strengthening the urban economy. like big shopping centres.nl Due to the demise of traditional industry large industrial estates. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the social mixité reflect to the urban space and if we can see in urban aspect the zoning of the social segregation focused on the case of Fener and Balat districts. The aim of the programme is to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants of Balat and Fener.com Fener and Balat districts are located on the historic peninsula of Istanbul. the increased role of heritage as a way to help revitalising the housing market of shrinking of cities will be explored. these attempts have not always been succesful. Once a living area of Greeks. Unfortunately. In the past 5 years. Facades of terraced houses were kept. Reflection of Social Mixité in Urban Spaces: Fener and Balat Districts in Istanbul Banu CELEBIOGLU Yildiz Technical University. Armenians and Jews. demonstrate many problems of decay and dereliction. Faculty of Architecture. who have low incomes. Less well known is the fact that the refurbishment and new building of 30 garden cities was also part of the IBA. Turkey fusuncizmeci@yahoo. Occupiers of those buildings are obliged to repair them to live in. Istanbul. In that condition. while at the same time keeping many of the buildings standing and involving the local communities.WS . the Fener and Balat districts are presently inhabited by a mostly Muslim population that immigrated from other cities and rural areas. often at central locations. In the recent past. Buildings and environment of Balat and Fener. are ignored. Faculty of Architecture.03 Heritage and its role in revitalising the housing market André MULDER Department of Real Estate & Housing. this historic area took attention like other historic quarters in Istanbul with the influence of the rehabilitation programme.mulder@tudelft. Delft University of Technology. Architectural Restoration and Conservation Department. Municipalities have reacted by trying to attract new users who would need a lot of space. something that no-one could have predicted during the age of smoke and dust. Faculty of Architecture. which are indicated to them by government or they will repair their own houses in city center with the financial support of the government. Rehabilitation programme of those districts is the first work in Istanbul after it has been declared as a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1985. that a great part consists of traditional dwellings. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . local people may feel alienated if all remnants of the past.celebioglu@gmail. some attempts were made to re-use buildings in a way more connected to the history of the area. but behind them new homes with uncommon layouts were created: an attempt to reconciliate the traditions of a working class estate with ‘new urban living’ (including alternative household formations) to the area. different social and architectural needs and thereby problems of different social status living together. Chimney Pot Park in the English city of Salford (Greater Manchester) also built on local traditions. The IBA Emscher Park (in the German Ruhr area) experimented in the 1990s with a less intensive use of industrial estates. become available for re-use. Also.
these areas retake the old practices of overcrowding and exclusion in old houses that are sub-rented and in consequence ruined. within this context. United Kingdom farenasv@uc. which are associated to royal state business along the different overcrowded urban areas in Santiago of Chile. School of Social and Political Sciences. School of Social and Political Sciences. Communications. or space and the development of new focus. Federico ARENAS University of Glasgow.‘precariopolis’.and by popular housings with reduced spaces . residential expansion and real state business in Santiago of Chile: From the new downtown to the expanded borders Rodrigo HIDALGO Institute of Geography. United Kingdom asalazab@uc. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . look for observing deeper the morphological changes at metropolitan scale.cl These last years are witnesses of a significant change in the Latin American metropolis.03 Metropolitan growth.cl.40 m2 .to the border zones. Alejandro SALAZAR University of Glasgow. Scotland. by its side contain two ways of housing market that show social inequalities within the Chilean society. The expansion of residences is reviewed inside the overcrowded areas the same that in border zones.cl Pablo OSSES University of Glasgow.in wide areas . School of Social and Political Sciences.cl. Scotland. thus the production of housing is the core point in these changes. Santiago. The peripheral areas. United Kingdom posses@uc. The downtown have experienced these last years an intensive higher density in residential areas. which in some cases produces a significant process of gentrification. represented by gated properties for middle and high classes – ‘privatopolis’. Chile hidalgo@geo. Otherwise these last interventions are closely related to the new strategies of financial assets addressed to real state business which aim is the fast return of investment. Scotland. move the supply of good and services -that in the past were exclusively in central areas .puc. and adding the fact of immigrants from neighbour countries as Perú. enhancing different results and classification related to the social and morphological space produced. which is represented mainly by important aspects as changes in the way of social segregation.WS . which among other factors. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. While this occurs.
as well as their perception of the impact of this tunnel.meijers@tudelft. and ownership levels have fallen particularly among younger households. The social rented sector has been subject to policy-induced decline and has become more of a safety net. Tackling housing market volatility in the UK Urban Studies. the provision of better safety nets. having expanded following deregulation and houses a range of household types. which includes the rather strong changes in accessibility and centrality the opening and routing of the tunnel has caused. relatively limited attention has been paid to housing market effects of new infrastructure development. Since it was opened in 2003. Recent evidence suggests that the impact of transport infrastructure development is highly localized. Finally. This paper summarises its findings. we consider whether such effects turn out differently for the centre and the periphery. The UK housing market has also been characterised by persistent price instability that affects home-owners most directly. However. in particular since it replaced ferries that provided connections at locations quite distant from the tunnel route. However. Delft University of Technology.c. It covers a wide range of issues including: the importance of housing supply.j.stephens@glasgow. United Kingdom mark. For several reasons this case is of wider interest. Empirical evidence is presented for a case in the Netherlands: the construction of the 6km long tunnel underneath the Westerschelde estuary-mouth. railways and canals were built. we present results from a large survey held among residents in those areas.m. we consider the effects on the type of households living in those areas. but offers little security.ac.uk Mark STEPHENS Over the course of the last century the UK housing system has become centred on owner firstname.lastname@example.org. Also.WS . The private rented sector has taken some of the strain. In addition.03 Connecting the periphery: housing market effects of the new Westerscheldetunnel OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. The Netherlands m. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . but also impacts on private tenants. measures to tackle short-term volatility.nl Joris HOEKSTRA Evert MEIJERS OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. and the development of alternatives to home ownership. We explore whether those areas that became better accessible witnessed a stronger rise in value of housing property than those areas that became relatively less well accessible. The Netherlands j. This paper provides an exploratory spatial data analysis of local accessibility impacts on the housing market. Scotland.nl Marjolein SPAANS The complex relationship between transport infrastructure and spatial economic development has been debated ever since the first roads.hoekstra@tudelft. Delft University of Technology. the location in a border and river delta region limits external effects. which questioned their housing market behaviour. The Netherlands e. it links the central part of the province of Zeeland in the Southwest of the Netherlands with the more peripheral part of Zeeland called Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. this model of home ownership has been stretched beyond its limits as more people have become priced out of the market. Against this background the Housing Market Taskforce was established by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation to propose a series of long-term policy options to create a socially sustainable housing market by addressing the root causes of instability and better protect those at risk. Delft University of Technology.nl OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. Also. University of Glasgow.
the central level draws up the rules of the game. The two first policy acts are stories of bureaucratic improvements in which the two government levels work hand-in-hand.no Norway has more than 20 year of experience in developing policies for market housing supply. The paper shows that the state is by far clearer when it comes to perceive public failures than market failures. Spain Undoubtedly. the local authorities are taking the lead: The paper closes by describing the fumbling pursuit of the local authorities in developing policies which can overcome externalities and problems in the land market. On the other. in particular. better understanding of tenure choices. the peculiar evolution of the Spanish housing markets in the recent past is object of a diverse set of analysis and researches. Aas. Local Level Policies for Market Housing: A Four Act Policy Evolvement Story Berit NORDAHL Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning. Norwegian University of Life Science. Without any prior assumption. University of Barcelona. Theoretically.WS . the availability of extensive data is limited or not up to date. when focusing on the relationship between household characteristics in terms of structure. The state played an active role in urging the local authorises to improve their own performances toward the market. This policy evolves as interplay between central and local level: the local level is the executing body. a basic question such as who lives . factor analysis would allow us to set the minimum dimensions with the maximum informative power to explain the structural relationship between households and dwellings and precisely provide better insight on tenure choice of Catalan households.what typology of household or which nationality . University of Barcelona. Spain mpareja@ub. This paper analyzes the role of the local level in improving market based housing supply. a first edition of new source was published in 2009 with data obtained in 2007: the ‘Demographic Survey’. these results will be confronted to the current housing market situation and the existing housing policy strategies to facilitate housing access to certain groups.nordahl@umb. the purpose of this paper is two-fold: on the one hand. the increase in knowledge on the functioning of the housing market will allow the development of more accurate policy tools and less waste of public resources. income or dimension and the occupancy of certain dwellings according to size. Thus. Based on this source of information.03 Understanding the relationship between households and dwellings in Catalonia: a tool for better policy design Montserrat PAREJA-EASTAWAY Department of Economic Theory. But when it comes to perceiving market failures. The first two acts in the play addresses public failures and the two last acts address market failures.in rented housing is hardly answerable. it aims to use the possibilities of the explanatory power of multivariate analysis to unfold the underlying dimensions behind the allocation of households to dwellings and. Among the objectives of this survey. It applies a state-market perspective and describes the policy evolvement as a four act play: It starts by drawing a distinction between policies aiming at correcting public failures and policies aiming at correcting market failures. In Catalonia. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . However.edu Montse SIMÓ Department of Economic Theory. Norway berit. quality or tenure. it provides an update on the relationship between the main structural demographic variables and housing. the state is more reluctant. For instance.
03 Housing system reform: expert opinions and political reality in The Netherlands OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. Faculty of the Built Environment. Simon PINNEGAR U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Australia.au Bill RANDOLPH Ilan VISEL City Futures Research Centre. Kensington. Australia. the applicability of using area profiling techniques to describe changing urban housing market dynamics is assessed. b. the paper poses the following question: how applicable is it to utilise the profile of place as a means to both perform and contextualise housing sub-market analysis? To construct and analyse different contexts. Using a database of Development Applications submitted to 30 local councils across the Sydney metropolitan area in the last 5 years. Delft University. the paper presents an analysis of over 6. including demographic questions about the household as well as questions about the motives to undertake KDR. coalition politics in the Netherlands are apparently more important to explain housing policies. through a process popularly known as ‘knock-down rebuild’ (KDR). Australia. Knockdown-rebuild in Sydney: Suburban housing renewal as an example of contemporary residential choice and neighbourhood change City Futures Research Centre.priemus@tudelft. We can conclude that the effectiveness and influence of partly academic research and advice on the political decision making process was quite modest in the last couple of years. Kensington. Delft University. a socio-economic profiling exercise was undertaken. This paper addresses this issue in the context of the Sydney housing market. University of New South Wales.nl Peter BOELHOUWER Hugo PRIEMUS OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. Four distinct locational typologies (or ‘KDR sub-markets’) were identified and spatial identifiers attributed to the survey returns. Kensington. using data from the 2006 Australian Census as well as property price data.WS . The analysis focuses on whether. To this end. In doing so. We conclude that the suggestion of several advisory bodies to start a serious reform of the housing system in the Netherlands was due to coalition considerations almost fully neglected by the new government. and how.boelhouwer@tudelft. Faculty of the Built Environment. We discuss the validity of this approach in this paper as well as reporting survey findings outlining the demand drivers for this form of urban renewal contextualised against these typologies. Although there is a common understanding among experts and interest organisations in the Netherlands that the current housing systems needs radical changes. The Netherlands h. A recent phenomena in Australian cities is the renewal of lower density residential suburbs. University of New South Wales. the spatial context in which KDR is undertaken varies from place to place.edu.randolph@unsw. A survey was sent to the whole sample. University of New South Wales. City Futures Research Centre. the details of which are provided in this paper. Faculty of the Built Environment.nl This paper describes analyse to what extent a more or less collective feeling of urgency to reform the Dutch housing market is addressed in the political arena. KDR typically involves the demolition of older single detached dwellings by owner-occupiers or developers and their and replacement with larger dwellings or semi-detached houses. often originally built in the inter-war or post-war decades to 1970. There is a considerable wealth of research addressing questions of household mobility and residential change in urban neighbourhoods. it sheds some light on the effectiveness and influence of partly academic research and recommendations on the political decision making process.j. By doing that.000 applications for KDR that were identified and mapped. The Netherlands p.
886 dwellings were produced only by Housing Administration of Turkey. This brings up the question what consequences demographic decline can possibly have for the housing markets in Germany? Demographic development is often said to be the Achilles heel of housing demand. And thus in this paper. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Turkey pelincp@gmail. Another major policy change of JDP was introduction of mortgage law in 2007. Risks of vacancies will be especially high for some market segments like apartment houses. Federal Institute for Research on Building. the new government initiated ‘housing mobilization’ in which in approximately two years the aim was to begin construction on 150. inflation rate. effects of these changes in the Turkish housing system is analyzed. These policy changes are noteworthy however there are significant aspects to be criticised. none of which were built through public investments.bund.000 housing units. According to current population forecast by 2025 Germany's population will have declined from 81. several paramters are used from Turkish Statistical Institue and Housing Administration like dwellings produced. Bonn. Ever since 482.de In the scope of the booming economy and a still favorable financing environment investment in the German housing market is currently experiencing a minor renaissance. and in nine years – by 2011 – 500. Yet the law is argued to be a compilation of several related articles rather than offering a housing finance system which would solve affordability problem. Between 2010 and 2025 almost 85% of the existing 440 districts in Germany will experience a decline in population. this law affected the pace of home ownership rates..com In 2002. During their first period of government (2002– 2007). and especially in East Germany and the old industrial areas in West Germany. The Justice and Development Party won the elections in Turkey. In doing so.000 units had been produced annually. Turkey previously had experienced larger amounts of housing construction: In a three-year period (1993–1995) over 500. dwelling costs.9 million. Mersin University Faculty of Architecture. High demand is only expected for some core markets like Munich.03 Housing development and policy change: What changed in Turkey in the last decade? Gulsun Pelin SARIOGLU ERDOGDU Department of City and Regional Planning.scharmanski@bbr. insofar as declining population leads to significant negative price effects and vice versa? Based on a forecast for the period up to 2025. Germany andre.WS . Second analog to the demographic change the demand for new buildings will be declining. The number of districts with a declining population continues to increase. Decline is no longer a singular problem in the Eastern part of Germany. it was not possible to get credits for longer periods. Berlin and Frankfurt am Main. This target was criticized on the grounds that rather than answering the housing need. Is there a significant price effect. First the uneven development across Germany poses large risks in the regions that are losing population and households. Being already a home-owner society. main concern of the new government was mostly on multiplier effects of housing and its most probable refurbushing impacts on macro economics. excluding private developers. which differ fundamentally from region to region.000 new dwellings in total all over the country. composition of new stock (building size and household matching) and the effect of mortageg law on home ownerhsip rate. Due to high inflation figures the country was experiencing. Demographic change and the German housing market André SCHARMANSKI Urban Affairs and Spatial Development. the paper draws conclusions on the impact of demographic change on the long-term housing demand potential and the rental price reactions. Finally the paper seeks to determine how demographic factors have contributed to past changes in real housing prices as well as their possible impact over the next coming decades. However investors should take seriously the demographic risks.5 million to just under 77.
Spain galacano@um. patterns of housing demand with taking into account the current context of crisis and uncertainty surrounding the housing markets and societal evolution itself. the analysis of consolidated demand housing trends that have come to constrain several urban dynamics in structuring social and urban fabric of Lisbon metropolis (such as the tendency shown by many studies to a residential mobility characterized by geographic continuity). interpreting them in light of both the current constraints of the real estate market.9% in 2009. In Spain. we see that the housing market reflects a social divide: the crisis has not affected everyone equally. such as 4 and 5 have increased their share of the total houses built. In times of crisis. with particular emphasis in the first place.pinto@iscte. The average increase was change in Spain from 22. Faculty of Economics. In some regions. Although on a first analysis it would seem that there is not any changes in the typology of houses built (block of flats / detached houses). Secondly. it is intended to account for emerging trends in demand (such as the increasing demand for rental) and the profiles associated with them. Portugal teresa. stage of life course and location of current residence. On this subject. tenure and price) and the particular characteristics of individuals who want change their residential situation: socio-economic group. age.es Housing market shows great sensitivity to recent changes in the economic field.pt From the results of a questionnaire to the potential demand for housing in an area of Lisbon.WS . Socially unsustainable development of the Spanish houses typology in crisis times Gala CANO FUENTES Sociology and Social Policy Department. house type. join the real state of the housing market with public policy development. University of Murcia. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . we intend to explore in this communication. Therefore. can we speak of a duality in the house built? This paper shows a comparative analysis between the different administrative regions of Spain in order to establish resemblances or differences between them.03 Patterns of housing demand under uncertainty: a case study in Lisbon Teresa COSTA PINTO ISCTE. Lisbon University Institute. Inside the market housing. These data will be used as a pretext for a reflection on the characteristics of the current demand for housing in Lisbon. this increase was accompanied by the growth of blocks of flats but only until 2007. the sociological profiles of potential buyers / tenants are presented. where the bubble of the housing market has reached record highs. At the same time. or of cultural and social changes driving new attitudes and housing values. there was a change in the average size of homes: the average area of detached houses increased while the size of the block of flats had a weak reduction. in a deeper study can be found that the number of new endorsements of detached houses construction is the only one still growing since 2005. your may find that both houses of 0 and 1 plant.8% of total guarantees for family homes in 2005 to 60. exploring the relationship of certain residential options (in terms of location. it becoming a significant variable in analyzing the social consequences that the crisis has had on the population. it is necessary more than ever. social consequences of the difference in the typology of houses tendered could be the beginning of a future unsustainable social developing.
There has been much research on the impact of tenure mix policies.03 How much tenure mix is there in England. some widely used in the study of inequality and of ethnic segregation. The paper develops and applies several definitions of tenure mix. and discussion of whether housing tenure mix is of independent value. These measures are applied to data from the 1981. some of the fundamental evidence needed in these discussions has been missing: after decades of tenure mix policy we do not know how much tenure mix there is – or was. and a proxy indicator of social mix. These include the number and proportion of neighbourhoods where no one tenure group is dominant. United Kingdom r. or beyond one standard deviation from the mean. and how successful and how complete it is as a tool or proxy. However. and as a tool to achieve social mix through housing and renewal policy. via Gini coefficients.ac. Then the paper answers the following fundamental questions: 1) How many ‘mixed tenure’ neighbourhoods are there in England and how evenly spread are the tenures? How does the pattern vary across the country and where are the most and least mixed tenure areas found? How does tenure mix compare to other measures of social mix? 2) How has the number of mixed tenure neighbourhoods and the spread of different tenure groups changed over the past three decades? 3) Have housing and neighbourhood policies had any effect on tenure mix overall? U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . and indices of segregation.tunstall@lse. London School of Economics. how has this changed over the last three decades and what are the implications for policy? Rebecca TUNSTALL Department of Social Policy. 1991 and 2001 censuses of population in England. as well as the evenness of spread of tenures between neighbourhoods.uk Mixed (or more mixed) housing tenure within neighbourhoods has been pursued in many countries and for many decades as a policy goal in itself. dissimilarity and isolation.WS .
WORKSHOP — 04 — Growing discrepancies between sustainability and affordability in the metropolitan housing markets in the period of public finance crisis Co-ordinators: Iván Tosics and Glen Bramley 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
as well as differences in their respective central city’s role and in the type of outskirts. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Elena MARTINEZ Foreign Migration.WS . Spain fgil@ub. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. both in periphery and in city centre with some clear gentrification process.3% or 1. Spain has about fifteen large metropolitan areas with more than half a million inhabitants.es Facultad de Sociología. 2) to distinguish stages in them (urban cores decrease. In other words.4% in Barcelona and Madrid to 5. The paper seeks: 1) to provide an overview of recent population changes in Spanish metropolitan areas. University of Barcelona. the percentage of foreigners in their central cities ranges from 17. they have been unevenly distributed throughout the territory. in absolute terms. At the same time different housing practices among immigrants produced different patterns in urban settlements. and the impact of the economic crisis).7% in Seville and Cadiz.2%. Urban Growth and Suburbanisation Dynamics in Large Spanish Metropolitan Areas Human Geography Department. concentrating in specific provinces which specialise on tourist. and in large urban areas. education and wages. Moreover.3% in 2000 to today’s 12. Spain Marta DOMINGUEZ Jesus LEAL Facultad de Sociología.edu Jordi BAYONA-i-CARRASCO Fernando GIL-ALONSO Human Geography Department. Spain has been the European country with largest international migration inflows. Spain jordibayona@ub. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.ucm. According to 2010 data. Spain Economic changes in greatest Spanish cities influenced in a deep social and economic restructuring with a considerable increase of the upper and middle class and a greater social and economic inequality in terms of occupations.5% and 17. During the last decade. services or intensive agriculture jobs. But at the same time it changed the spatial inequalities pattern with a decrease in segregation for most of social categories combined with other spatial ways of differentiating social groups like housing exclusion and increasing overcrowding. It is on this second issue that the paper will be focusing. new growth due to international immigration.edu This paper analyses the impact of international migration on the evolution and population’s composition of the Spanish largest urban areas. new suburbanisation by foreigners. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .04 Increasing social mixing and socioeconomic inequalities: the influence of liberal housing policies in Spanish greatest cities Facultad de Sociología. 3) to look for urban development timing differences between metropolitan areas. University of Barcelona. and finally. The proportion of foreign residents has therefore increased from a trifling 2. Spain jleal@cps. more than five million new inhabitants have been added to the population. focusing on foreigners’ participation in suburbanization dynamics. 4) to analyze mobility residential dynamics. taking differences in foreigners and Spaniards choice of location of residence into account. related also to deep changes in local housing markets. In these changes it is to notice the spatial expansion of the upper class.
Here. The Netherlands r.desjardins@univ-paris1. We used national.nl Reinout KLEINHANS About twelve years ago.p. The right-wing government and the left-wing regional leader agree with the fact there is an urgent need to build more. cooperating or not. In both cities. we focus on the main instruments of urban restructuring. Around 30 000 housings are built each year since 2000 in Ile-de-France.e. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . management and planning. Although there has been ample research into social implications of urban restructuring. this issue has hardly been studied. The region wants 60 000 to be built per year. non-restructuring neighbourhoods. Our research questions are twofold: 1.WS . but thanks to a quite stringent check of the respect of ‘social mix’ quotas by the state agencies. The results show that although substantial changes can be seen due to restructuring. which had a very large social housing stock at the beginning of the restructuring.e. Urban planning and housing programming are transferred from municipality to this new inter-municipal body. Three case studies have been analyzed to characterize these effects in terms of observations. France xavier.dol@tudelft. However. Dutch urban housing policy shifted from ‘traditional’ urban renewal to urban restructuring and creating more socially diverse neighbourhoods. many reforms were designed to deal with this problem and to promote inter-municipality cooperation. More than 1300 municipalities are responsible for the building permits and for the local planning. Our paper will present the result of a research project on the effects of such a governance change. Continuing restructuring may lead to insufficient social rented stock for low-income households.j. i. So. The Hague and Rotterdam.04 Does Scale Matter? Evolution of Housing Policies Governance in Greater Paris Region Urban planning.kleinhans@tudelft. The only field on which the inter-municipality has a significative effect is social mix. are confronted with the quite impossible challenge to promote a more compact and denser development while most of national building subsidies are consumer-oriented. concentration of social rented housing remains high in most restructuring neighbourhoods. What are the causes of such a shortage? For many observers. local authorities. the municipality made regional agreements to secure sufficient affordable housing. the so-called target group of social housing. Anticipating on this situation.nl Kees DOL OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. To what extent have urban restructuring areas witnessed a drastic change in (the concentration of) the social rented housing stock as opposed to other residential areas? 2. i. demolition of social housing and new construction of more expensive rental and owner-occupied housing.fr The Paris metropolitan area suffers from a lack of housings. mostly in the periphery. in The Hague the market for social rental housing has become quite tight as a result of restructuring. regional. Each of them does what their voters want: to preserve the value of their home and. restructuring has not resulted in concentrations of social rented housing in other. segregation and social mix. To what extent does the decreasing supply of social rented housing match the changes in (quantitative) demand by the target group? Our research involves two of the largest cities in the Netherlands. municipal and housing association statistics to describe changes in the housing stock and the target group of social housing since 2000. the municipalities are responsible for such a restrictive residential development. Rotterdam. The motives run parallel to the long-lasting academic and policy discussion on concentration. still has sufficient affordable housing for lower income households. Xavier DESJARDINS Going too far in the battle against concentration? On the balance between supply and demand of social housing in The Netherlands c. University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. The main result of this research is that the scalar change has few impacts. This institution is a little bit more far from local pressures and could be a little bit more careful to metropolitan challenges. Indeed. not because of a volunteer policy of the municipalities. Delft University of Technology. to maintain the ‘low-density’ of their neighbourhood.
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. Additionally.siltaloppi@tkk. social environment. observations were used to determine the local services in the selected residential areas. Finland. Glen BRAMLEY U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . A financial bonus will incentivize local authorities to agree to additional house-building. Especially. It will also utilise a new sub-regional economic market model to explore the affordability implications of different patterns of local decision-making on housing land supply. demographics. +358 50 568 0031 School of Engineering. but service features – although recognized as important – have received less attention. Secondary data was investigated from business registers. while basic services such as grocery stores or hair dresser’s seem to be less affected. local services and other features of residential areas – e. physical surroundings support lively service business by offering facilities for service business. more research is needed to validate the findings statistically as well as to explore the mechanisms behind the development of local services.g. Due to a qualitative and descriptive approach.through a case study in two residential areas in Helsinki. Aalto University. the roles of local services in the mix as well as their relationship to other neighborhood dimensions are of interest when developing multi-functional residential areas. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. Finland jaakko. municipal zoning officials. School of the Built Environment. First. local business environments have an effect on people’s mobility. This study suggests five major factors that influence local services. Second. tel. the social environment relates to services through issues of communality and safety. Finally. Finland arto.04 Local service business in residential areas – the perspective of service provider School of Engineering.puhto@tkk. Additionally.uk After half a decade of strong ‘top down’ policy and planning to promote housing supply and affordability in England.fi. so it may be regarded as a large-scale social-economic (and environmental) experiment. This paper will comment on early impressions of the way the new system may develop. It is quite unclear a priori how this system will work. Fourth. Both quantitative and qualitative data was utilized in the research: 19 interviews were conducted with local service entrepreneurs.WS . Edinburgh. sub-regional markets and affordability outcomes: early views of a large scale policy experiment Institute for Housing. and of sub-regional collaboration. Finland Prior housing studies have examined the mixité of residential areas mostly by their social and physical features. and physical surroundings . Aalto University.fi Arto HUUSKONEN Jukka PUHTO jukka. Localised planning.fi Jaakko SILTALOPPI School of Engineering. location within the city in terms of connections to and attainability of other service venues affect the ways in which people move from the area to consume services. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering. Aalto University. and local non-profit associations to find out their perceptions of local services. Decisions are to be devolved to local level. The effect of these factors on local services is most evident in the presence or absence of leisure and creative services that portray individual lifestyles. with no more government targets and the dismantling of regional planning.ac. United Kingdom g.huuskonen@tkk. we have from 2010 an abrupt change of policy. Urban and Real Estate Research. the socio-economic status of the residents affects service consumption. Heriot-Watt University. drawing on research engagement with local planning authorities in one of the more pressured areas of southern England.bramley@hw. These comments will cover issues of information and measurement of planning decisions and policies. This paper aims to explore the relationships between private.
both in case of households and enterprises will be accounted for. In particular. However. and patterns of.it Although Milan is the wealthiest Italian city.com In my paper presented at the ENHR Istanbul Conference (SUB-CENTRES OR EDGE CITIES? . However the outcomes of this measure are quite scant so far. The recent and ongoing qualitative and quantitative analyses – namely. and housing benefits have been reduced due to the current phase of fiscal austerity. two trends can be observed related to hardship. a partnership where the public actor provides building areas free of charge for private developers to build housing which is partly to be rented below the market price. A polarized scenario has always existed. Property values remain at high levels. it shows significant problems related to the access to housing. University of Milano Bicocca. This directly affects the housing affordability of a growing proportion of families.unimib. distinguishing global and local trends in the transformation of the edges of cities and the transition from a monocentric to a polycentric urban fabric within a large metropolis area of Eastern Central Europe.600 interviewees in the settlements of the area – enables us to accomplish now a more in-depth scrutiny of the processes and to give a more thorough and detailed description. The results will be placed and analysed within the theoretical framework presented in Istanbul. as well as the different approaches and actions taken by institutional actors and the rationale behind are being mapped and will presented at the conference. in the last decades public housing stock has progressively decreased. The financial crisis occurring in the last two years is likely to reinforce these trends. residents and a survey of 1. visiting and consuming but not for living. University of Milano Bicocca. The Milan housing system is characterized on the one hand by the presence of housing exclusion and housing deprivation and on the other hand by a vast proportion of well-housed population. the causes thereof. Public sector could respond by increasing the affordable rent sector (supply side).like inadequate dwellings or overcrowding . leading in the worst cases to evictions and repossessions. Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Micro-tendencies in. Italy silvia. as developers prefer to invest in more profitable high quality housing.04 Sub-Centres or Edge-Cities 2 – An In-Depth Analysis of a Fast Changing Region Patterns of suburban socio-economic transformation in South-Western Budapest Agglomeration Centre for Socio-Spatial Development Studies.socio-spatial and economic transformation of South-Western Budapest agglomeration) I analysed the socio-economic developments of one of the fastest changing Budapest agglomeration area from rather a larger scale point of view. movements. KOCSIS How Milan housing market is responding to the financial crisis? Traces of innovative housing policies operating in an old institutional framework Dipartimento di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale. Policy response to the affordability issue relies mostly on a measure called ‘housing sociale’.mugnano@unimib. Italy p. during the last decades housing deprivation has considerably changed. The future of the Milanese housing scenario is on the verge of falling and the risk is that the city will turn into a place that only attracts population for working.WS . interviews with local stakeholders. while some new forms of hardship (especially related to affordability and security of tenure) have increased.have decreased.it Silvia MUGNANO Pietro PALVARINI Dipartimento di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale. On the contrary. The traditional forms . while the credit crunch makes it harder the mortgage-financed homeownership and the rent sector is constantly shrinking.palvarini@campus. János B. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . and improving housing allowances for low income renters (demand side). Hungary kocsisjb@gmail.
U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . housing schemes aiming at affordability usually create socio-spatial segregation. planning policies and financial regulations in six European countries (UK. private housing market change in the 70s. socially mixed neighbourhoods are rarely fulfilling strong criteria of sustainability. Thus to achieve a positive combination of these three aspects requires strong interventions from the side of the public sector in each municipality. The residential relocation (RR) incurred in this new context has not been sufficiently explored. unlike initiatives of the past dealing with monotenure neighbourhoods. involve demolition and rebuilding of mixed tenure neighbourhoods or a change of tenure mix ratio. Thus the comparative analysis illustrates the variety of public sector approaches across Europe. planning policy and financial regulations Iván TOSICS Metropolitan Research Institute. the affordability of housing and the social mix of different social groups. Germany. Towards balanced metropolitan housing markets: the role of government.04 Residential relocation: the forgotten nemesis of mixed tenure neighbourhood restructuring . London. Taking broader urban areas (e. United Kingdom rosenfeldornas@yahoo. mainly. The residential relocation research (in the Western Europe and the North America) is still more often than not framed in a gentrification framework developed for analysis monotenure. Poland. Based on the in depth case study of residential relocation delivery process in the Housing Market Renewal initiative in England. public and third sector actors) rather than simply an ‘unintended’ consequence of the free or state prompted housing market change as presented in traditional gentrification led RR research. The selected metropolitan areas from these countries are the study cases of the PLUREL (FP6) project. These countries have significantly different urban situations. However. current programmes in Western Europe and North America. France. between and within different tenures.WS . It shows contemporary challenges of the residential relocation delivery by identifying the processes shaping residential relocation from old demolished to alternative mixed tenure neighbourhoods (including allocation of financial assistance packages for different tenures) and showcasing outcomes that are contrasting across space. government structures and policies. Budapest. Netherlands. The paper concludes that residential relocation in the context of mixed tenure neighbourhood restructuring is a result of the operation of complex governance networks (made of private.A case study of the housing market renewal initiative in England Orna ROSENFELD Department of Urban Development and Regeneration. Hungary tosics@mri. The paper aims to give an overview about the differences in the strength of public sector institutional structures. University of Westminster. this paper calls for a re-examination of the ways in which residential relocation is researched in the new era of ‘mixte’. etc. Under market conditions these aspects are usually weakening each other: sustainable housing is expensive and thus less affordable.g. regarding planning policies and financial regulations. This is critical considering the recent financial crisis and economic downturn. Slovenia). functional urban regions. metropolitan areas) into account the importance cooperation-oriented of multi-level government structures becomes obvious.hu Balanced development of metropolitan housing markets can be defined as taking into consideration at the same time such different aspects as the sustainability of urban development.com Large scale housing demolition has increasingly become states' response to the pressures of adjusting urban areas for the future.
WORKSHOP — 05 — Large Housing Estates Co-ordinators: Iván Tosics and Glen Bramley 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
The third stage started at 21st century turn. He used to believe in a shift in housing patterns. first in Paris. Demolition and Social Mix in France: Aims and results Urban Institute of Strasbourg University. the first two attempting to overcome the traditional city by a) creating a disperse organism according to a scale and spatial solutions dear to previous urban settlements. the paper focus is on the current situation. After a short historical overview (section1). The second stage occurred in the 1960s. Maurice BLANC In France (but not in every francophone country).e. the ones that most suffered from housing shortage and speculation. France maurice. among others. Paradoxically. In the conclusion. urban renewal started in the second half of the 19th century. but in outer estates. these two laws make a coherent combination. In the 1990s. the construction of new buildings with mixed tenures for attracting middle classes into the formerly stigmatised estate and implementing social mix.the dispersion of low income residents into other places.fr. we can gather most of the experiences in three categories. after a political shift.com We can say that social housing was a big part of all the architectural experience of the last century. The idea of the paper is not to offer a critical review of the different ‘cities’. more than answers. ‘Urban renewal’. pointing flaws and successes. the re-emergence of a private sub-standard sector is unavoidable. Architects and Urban planners work hardly in the search of solutions that would face the pre-existing problems of housing in the traditional city.WS . a Communist Housing Minister passed on a law advocating a tenure mix (i. or b) inventing a condensed city as part of an infinite modern system. slum demolition in the private sector produced both an increase in homelessness and a pauperisation process in the social housing sector. as the result of an uncontrollable industrial growth.in the estate. Low income tenants were offered re-housing in new social housing. Portugal egrojordep@gmail. was also social and political. but just to present different solutions supported by various case-studies. but this time as demolition of substandard social housing in outer estates. or even to make a choice among them of the perfect settlement. Their solutions varied according to their intentions and their ideological purposes. will offer tools of evaluation for present and future proposal of architects and urban planners.212). the last group includes c) the rehabilitation of the traditional city fabric by surgical or large interventions. This. In 2003. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Pedro FONSECA JORGE. In 2000. with slum demolition as a major public health issue. . rénovation urbaine (‘urban renewal’) has a specific and confusing meaning: the buildings are not renewed but destroyed. the author revisits his own previous views. a minimum of 20% social housing in every city) as a pre-requisite for an increased solidarity in re-generated cities. Although different and specific. since it had the position of partially or totally (according to some) solve a housing problem that.blanc@unistra. when the new Gaullist government decided to eradicate slums in the inner-city of Paris and other big cities. 1993. Section 2 analyses the rationales of the link between social mix and demolition. and different proposals were made in order to solve the same problem: to dignify the urban living of the lower classes. University of Porto (FAUP). Demolition is the starting point of a two-fold strategy: . shape and extent Faculty of Architecture. more than physical. or into a far suburb. Therefore. p. Finally. demystifying misconceived ideas or supporting others. But the current pattern is different: the social housing sector unsuccessfully attempts to attract middle classes and is reluctant to accommodate the very poor. from the private substandard sector to devalued and stigmatised social housing (Blanc.05 The idea of the City in the Social Housing experience throughout the past century: scale. Urban renewal is a process giving room for new and modern buildings and for restructuring the urban space as well. Within a historical perspective. But there was no affordable housing for low income residents and they had no other choice left than moving either into another slum. the new Conservative Housing Minister passed on a law promoting urban renewal again. Section 3 shows the gap between aims (social mix) and results (the re-concentration of low-income tenants).
Edgars SUVOROVS Mass housing estates of the Vallés and the A-road 150. in the metropolitan region of Barcelona. Latvia sandratreija@yahoo. thus incorporating new attributes linked to the management of mobility and the diversification of functions and activities. management and urban quality. Currently the new residential buildings and its fenced-off territories cover big part of the courtyards what may lead to spatial as well as social conflicts. from a territorial perspective. built between the 50s and 70s . Riga Technical University. Javier MATILLA AYALA U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . the A-road 150 axis could become a vertebral axis of activities of urban. Hypothesis: The most habitual practice in renewal projects of mass housing estates has comprised of acting exclusively within the strict limits of each individual district. location and urban characteristics. the original spatial composition of districts was completely destroyed.WS . In the specific case of Vallès. In the first decade of the 21st century the public open spaces of large-scale housing estates of Riga have lost their meaning originally planned in the initial projects. social differentiation etc.g. Although public open spaces are treated as an important element of the living environment. while in other countries large-scale housing estates are dominant and normal way of housing. Analyse the fundamental characteristics of the A-road 150 axis and establish the project criteria of the its transformation in terms of its capacity to articulate the relationships between districts and municipalities. Urban renewal through the large-scale restructuring of these structures is a major challenge throughout Europe. their utilisation considerably differs from the intended one. In the initial phase of large-scale residential construction a spacious courtyard surrounded by standard multi-storey apartment blocks was seen as the most important element of a public open space. groups of residential districts with clear problems of physical. a new territorial articulation Departament d'Urbanisme i Ordenació del Territori (DUOT). thus bypassing the strategic opportunity to tackle broader scale renewal projects that are linked to their dimension. the mass housing estates were originally situated along the city outskirts. In the concrete case of the Vallés. that of the Terrassa-Montcada A-road 150) allows us to associate. Riga Technical University. Objectives: Evaluate the current status of mass housing estates in the Vallès from a collective territorial perspective in order to determine any future challenges and new intervention strategies. the new context of the mass housing estates and their relationship with different supramunicipal axes (e. creating a legal basis for new construction in large-scale residential districts. characterised by its lack of intention. In Latvia the housing ownership reform. the social structure and the corresponding new demands. often as a settlement isolated from the existing city whilst being polarised by territorial roads. Spain xavimatilla@gmail. marked an historical period profoundly connected with the extensive growth. have resulted in serious changes in the situation and problems pertaining to the large-scale housing estates.lv The processes of the last decades – the housing sector reform. In several European countries current urban restructuring programs focus on the demolition and replacement of the existing housing stock. Furthermore. social and economic renewal by way of transforming the old A-road into a new metropolitan street.com Background: The mass housing estates. functional and social segregation. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC). in compliance with the following intervention factors: location and dimensioning of the estates. Terrassa. the diversification of use and environmental quality. The results of resident’s survey show dissatisfaction with quality of public open space. Latvia email@example.com Sandra TREIJA Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning. exceeding the current local visions in such a way that determines both future renewal strategies. carrying out denationalization and privatization. along with a core capital for many inhabitants has also created a range of problems – one of them: as a result of denationalisation of land properties..05 Restructuring Large Scale Housing Estates: Case of Riga Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning. when the land in large-scale residential districts was returned to the previous owners and then provided as the minimum required land to the privatised buildings.
WORKSHOP — 06 — Social Housing and globalization Co-ordinators: Claire Lévy-Vroelant and Christoph Reinprecht 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
be Bruno MEEUS Caroline NEWTON The tone of the discourse on Social Housing in Flanders has changed over time. To achieve this aim we first need to dismantle and analyse the discourse on social housing for which we build on both Deleuze’s and Foucault’s approaches of discourse analysis.). This research is based both on a survey. irregular immigrants). in a third part of the paper. Only occupants of the most damaged buildings are rehoused.of no longer treating discourses as groups of signs (signifying elements referring to contents or representations) but as practices that systematically form the objects of which they speak” (own emphasis). I was in touch not only with occupants but also with people working in the organisation. I obtain some results for Paris. who get priority due to its particularly poor housing conditions. have a regular situation. INED.WS . at some time during the nineties this low-scale debate became a highly politicised discourse at the level of the central government leading to controversial legislation and regulations. They want to remain ‘competitive’ in emergency order and having priority. a discourse needs to be placed within its contexts. Secondly. Belgium and its consequences Pascal DE DECKER. The institutions give priority to these households over those following the standard procedure to get a public dwelling (which involves being put on the waiting list. France pascale. Foucault (1972) also emphasises this contextuality. However. sometimes in an illegal situation (squatters. with a sample of more than 500 people living in poor conditions. but they are likely to give some hints on the limits of the social policies in European countries focusing on the most disadvantaged groups. Paris.de. I will underline the tensions among applicants but also between applicants and institutions. It is precisely this knowledge that can elucidate. Until the early 1990s.decker@skynet. but it is not the only one. pascal. According to Deleuze (1980) a discourse should not be analysed through deconstructing merely the linguistic propositions. The first one complains to the institutions about not being given priority over the households witch are the most marginalized. having a legal status in the country. with even comments of the UN. complaints on the role and functioning of social rental housing were nothing more than a relative unproblematic narrative in the margins. There is of course a financial reason. are in France for a long time… This create some tensions between a population excluded from rehousing but which feels eligible for public action and another. thus putting it on the political agenda.dietrich@ined. recently arrived in the country. They are often immigrants. socially stranded. This situation can be perceived as unfair by the latter because they consider they have some rights as they work. I will explain why occupants of damaged housings are so much in demand of social houses. etc. Both the theoretical frame and the analysis will be paralleled by and interwoven with the chronicle of social housing in Flanders/Belgium in an intermediary second part. In a context of council housing shortage. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . they are likely to refuse works for getting the housing better. At first. how the (discursive) actions of some of the protagonists enabled the jump in the discourse. I spent 3 years and a half during my Phd in a semi-public organisation in charge of resorbing damaged housing in Paris. a voluntarist policy against insalubrity has been implemented since 2002. He argues that the task we should set for ourselves “consists of not . it is impossible to rehouse all the people living in poor housing conditions. The aim of this paper is to unravel the processes that fostered the discourse and to deal with its consequences. which was absorbed into everyday life practices.06 Attitudes toward the rehousing policy: The example of people living in damaged housings Pascale DIETRICH This communication is about households living in parisian damaged dwellings which apply for social housings. I will focus on the tensions related to rehousing procedures. For instance. conducted twice in two years. Occupants have also strategies which creates tensions with institutions. and on an ethnographical field work.fr On the changing discourse on social housing in Flanders. In Paris.
If defined at all. 2010). The governments only occasionally introduced new supply-side subsidies which were often after several years of operation abolished or reduced. traditional social housing concepts known from the West are hardly fully transferable into post-socialist environment. We will compare the discourses on popular districts in a process of gentrification (like the 18th district) and those describing the situation in the western Paris (where high income households have replaced the lower income populations.The study of the representations of social housing and the gentrification process is particularly relevant in the context of price increases. The transformation of the population and the morphology of the neighborhoods by the incoming middle classes and a changed of the uses of space are presented as an inevitable process. After 1990. especially when its is accessible to middle classes is a factor of gentrification? Indeed. . which would broaden the traditional meaning of social housing.sometimes very quickly (Hungary) and sometimes more slowly (Czech Republic). The goal of the paper is to find the factors influencing these specific post-socialist trends. in its first section. In most transition states public housing almost disappeared.cas. A corpus of interviews with elected officials and residents conducted in different neighborhoods in Paris. where construction of the social housing become important in the 1980’s. devalue the local market need to be carefully examined. where middle and high incomes are more important. one example of such approach currently discussed in the Czech Republic will be presented. The purpose of rent regulation and significance of housing allowance schemes in post-socialist states will be also discussed in this respect. thirty years ago). By showing the different roles that social housing can play in contrasting urban contexts.fijalkow@gmail. the overwhelming majority of public housing has been privatized to sitting tenants . We will discuss the link between the presence of social housing catégories. according to the ‘rent gap theory’ (Smith 1998). describe how current situation in post-socialist states differs from the situation in developed countries and how this difference is relevant for building of social housing schemes in this region. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . and the evolution of property price levels. is the social housing really an "outside market".06 Is social housing always an obstacle to gentrification? UMR LAVUE CNRS. specially in a tense situation? Our communication will be based on two directions of study: . But if. 2007). this document will show how its presence is sufficient enough to lower the gentrification effect . in respect to the factors influencing trends in social housing provision. "entrepreneurial class" and "creative class". Paris. The governments in post-socialist states thus search for new concepts allowing higher diversity and flexibility. town) would it works? On the other hand. build local issues. Czech Republic martin.com Yankel FIJALKOW Marie-Hélène BACQUE UMR LAVUE CNRS. The authors will also demonstrate that.cz Martin LUX The paper will. Paris.lux@soc. city. Does the presence of a « non-market housing » lead to a diversification of supply and therefore a slowdown in price increase ? Does the character "off market" of Social Housing lead ipso facto to a devaluation of the sector? On what level (district. Prague. In the final section. France The idea that social housing is an obstacle to gentrification is shared by the scientific litterature and the political writtings (Pincon and Pincon-Charlot. often spatially excluded. France yankl. Academy of Sciences of CR. advancing like a front line from affluent neighborhoods (Clerval. and also a wealthy western Paris neighborhood . We will study the Goutte d'Or operation (18th). Social housing in transition countries – different meaning and paths Institute of Sociology. very modest and middle income. This limited perspective leads to amplifying the social exclusion processes rather than reducing them. what is the role of social housing when it is integrated in the policies supporting gentrification? The hypothesis that such housing for low and middle income. will show how the identification of social housing to housing charity (despite extensive programs for intermediate income) and stereotypical images of "bobo". devalued places are reindexed by the process of gentrification.The statistical relationship between the data on social housing and market real estate will show the diversity of situations. social housing is understood as a low-quality residual public housing for the poorest part of society.WS . can we consider that social housing.
Faculty of Architecture. From a typo-morphological analysis of the dwelling plans. Since the new millennium ‘for dwell’ (also known as Clients’ Choice Programme) has gained popularity and a growing market share. The Netherlands s. this paper aims at giving a new assessment perspective of the housing issue under the influence of fabrication techniques’ globalization. Delft Technical University. France jean-yves. regulatory. Sophie VAREILLES. Based on both literature study as well as drawing up on findings from previous studies in to the effects of the sale of social housing. Case study housing at moderated rents in metropolitan Lyon (1920-2010) Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning. its developers justify their actions by the precepts of ‘sustainable development’ and suggest its operational application to the conception and the fabrication of this type of dwelling. However.nl Sake ZIJLSTRA Mixing in neighbourhoods is a goal that has been stated by national government for many years. political. the effects of the sale of social housing will be discussed in the light of ‘mixing’. Mixing Dutch neighbourhoods through the sale of social housing Department Real Estate and Housing. and social) of this evolution.arab@insa-lyon. etc. technical. at least in the European context. This analysis will enable a preliminary assessment of the influence of ‘sustainable development’ in the housing fabrication (configuration. does ‘sustainable development’ change the process of fabrication of the collective social housing? If it’s the case. This paper gives an overview of the desired goals of the sale of social rental housing in the Netherlands. For a few years. social factors) run this fabrication? From the study of the case of ‘sustainable development’ and the collective social housing.toussaint@insa-lyon. the results in terms of the established mix and in terms of related and desired effects. Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning. National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon. political. what others factors (economic. This analysis of contemporary housing leans on the HLM (subsidized housing) case study in metropolitan Lyon. Two main factors are used to explain the little effects: time and accessibility. The literature used is solely focused on Dutch empirical findings.06 ‘Sustainable development’ and globalization effect on collective social housing conception. The discussion draws attention to new (EU based) legislation limiting the influx of different tenants in social housing and thereby limiting the possibilities for mixing by sale of social housing even further in the future. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .fr This paper aims at analyzing the effects of ‘sustainable development’ on the process of fabrication of the collective social housing. The previous studies that are used. this paper will report their evolution and draw first hypotheses on the reasons (economic.WS . The desired mix and the related effects are pulled to the foreground. The study relies on retrospection on 250 residences built between 1920 and today all over Lyon and its built-up area. public space and collective areas.fr Noura ARAB Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning. France noura.fr Jean-Yves TOUSSAINT.) and more widely in the issue of housing as defined in contemporary urban societies. National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon. France sophie. The findings in this paper point at minor possibilities to reach any different mix than the existing one through the sale of social housing.vareilles@insa-lyon. orientation. what do these changes consist in? Otherwise. National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon. Where are we today? In other words. focused on the effects of sale and the option to buy amongst tenants of social housing. One of the ways to reach the desired mix is by selling homes owned by social landlords or housing associations.zijlstra@tudelft. technical. are subject of discussion.
mis´usable. ¿Are they an effective tool for promoting urban and housing mixture? Viviana FERNANDEZ Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism. within the same Housing Project but to promote ‘mixture’. the need of promoting higher levels of participation and involvement of the families in the process of getting their new houses. trying to mix people and houses in the same development. escalating the problem and attracting more and more applicants from job seeking to principal dependence on social subsidies instead of concentrating on their own hard working. Chile vivianafp@gmail. Later on in the year 2006. University of Chile. as part of the Chilean Housing Policy.WS . Czech Republic simecek@fzu. as a broader objective. not only oriented to get a more diverse typologies of houses. The paper will try to present the main characteristics of these Projects and analyze to what extent they have contributed to an urban and housing mixture and how the new government of President Piñera is trying to continue with this challenge. the need of improving the quality of the houses and the neighbourhoods developed and the need of increasing the diversity of the housing solutions provided. The aim of the new Housing Programme ‘Fondo Solidario de Vivienda’ was to fulfill those objectives. In this context come up the ‘Social Integration Projects’ with the intention of bringing together a certain diversity of people and providing them different housing solutions. very ineffective. The good side effect of the recent recession was the search of certain governments for revisions of their social policy so as to limit its cost while serving all those who should be protected as requested by the constitutional law and to motivate them to mobilize their efforts in order to become self-supporting. The administration of President Ricardo Lagos (2000/2005) realise several problems and recognised the need of targeting in the poorest people. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .06 Housing of all in social need through commercial rental housing and temporary personal social housing allowances Tomislav ŠIMECEK International Union of Property Owners (UIPI). based on the use of standard commercial rental housing in combination with means tested temporary social housing allowances offered to all in uncaused social need. Praha. All members of the household have to declare all their income as well as their assets above a certain value. Santiago. This social safety trampoline is offered only for a limited number of years.cz Most present day social housing schemes in Europe have proved to be costly. The Social Integration Projects. From this the effectual income is calculated and the household has to contribute to the usual market rent in the location where the household is earning its living by 25% of this income while the remaining part of the rent in reasonably large apartment is covered by a social housing voucher. the Chilean Ministry of Housing and Urbanism has introduced significant changes in the Housing Policy. Those whose social need resulted from negligence are left in the custody of local authorities and provided with only the basic help. during President Bachelet administration to what has been done is added the challenge of ‘Social Integration’.com Since the year 2000. during which the household has to adjust their income to their cost of housing or vice versa. The Ministry of social affairs of the Czech Republic has received a well prepared proposal for a modern concept of social housing. At the same time they lead to social and racial segregation in ghettoes of social housing units limiting their mobility in search for jobs.
WORKSHOP — 07 — Social Housing: Institutions. Organisations and Governance Co-ordinators: David Mullins and Darinka Czischke 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
but it comes from the city of Nanterre. University of Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-La Défense. University of Amsterdam.WS . Over recent decades. Not-for-profits repositioned as social enterprises. privatization and marketisation collectively serve the political goal of a smaller state.P. revealing the deal struck between social and commercial interests in each setting. Borders separating social and commercial housing sectors. The paper will focus on the effects of the specific dynamic of this operation. While this process of ‘residualisation’ provides the most common point comparison between the two settings. It compares major US and Australian programs for attracting institutional investment. This paper will focus on the case of the Hoche cooperative engaged in the eco-district of Nanterre since June 2009 as it raises important institutional. It explores new ways to provide affordable homeownership for the people with low income and the middle class. While residualisation. Planning and International Development Studies. providing a new business case for mixed-income housing. bringing a residualised system to market has proved a paradoxical pursuit. in the western suburbs of Paris. use state-support to lever private investment. economic and social issues regarding the actual debates about housing policies. new aspirations regarding lifestyle and ecology emerge. In this context. This paper sets out to explore the risks associated with dependence on profit-seeking investment and to investigate the role of national institutional configurations in modifying these risks. policymakers must ‘repackage the poor’. But the period is rich for experimentations and exchanges.Blessing@uva. prompting greater attention to the institutional conditions on which these programs rely. They both worked together to form a voluntary group of 16 households seeking that the group will actively be involved in decisions about the future housing production. and from the public developper of La Defense’s extension area. At the same time. once strictly patrolled. Financial tools incentivize investment in time-limited housing schemes. The Netherlands A. share a selectivity that rations supply side assistance to those unable to compete in the housing market. This shared quest for institutional investment in social housing has led to the international migration of social housing programs. re-emergence of the housing crisis for the working classes. often related to the social entreprise.07 Repackaging the poor: the quest for institutional investment in social housing Anita BLESSING Departement of Geography. Mosaïques-LAVUE. but also municipalities and social landlords. immigrants and in some territories the middle class. All of them give importance to the participation of the inhabitants. a case study Claire CARRIOU Department of Geography and Planning. products of differing institutional contexts. Paris. The lack of institutional supports for this approach evident in the Australian context highlights housing policy transfer as a delicate challenge of institutional design.fr The recomposition of the Welfare State in France leads to new tensions in the housing field: discussions on the role of social housing split between two patterns. Toward a new way of providing affordable housing? The Hoche cooperative in Nanterre (France).unlike some European countries where they are most common. social. Its dynamic does not come from civil society or from social organisations like cooperative societies. social housing provision has been privatized and opened to market forces. Low and moderate-income tenants are bundled into package-deals. many experiences of so-called alternative housing have flourished in recent years offering new forms of production and management of the houses. They are still at their beginning in France today . social mix and housing for the poor. These experiments come from citizen’s groups and associations.carriou@u-paris10. What are its institutional. To direct investment into groups long excluded from the market. France claire. it reveals only part of a shared path of development. In line with the moral logic of charity. economic benefits and for whom? What reformulation of common good does it engage? U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . stigmatizing social tenants.nl Social housing policy regimes in Australia and the USA. a narrowing of access over time has created dualist rental markets. are now used as trading frontiers in a bid to attract large ‘institutional investors’ such as banks and pension funds.
This is the policy change that we analyze. a material one and an immaterial one. So. For decades now. one of the characteristics of the Dutch housing policy has been that it has given the housing associations opportunities to become financially independent. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . We will examine four different aspects of the policy change. Our thesis is that policy change has been influenced by some path dependence dynamics in the implementation phase. while Italian housing policy where clearly near to a dual system. According to the Central Housing Fund the average amount of own equity is 67% of the total equity (calculations based on market value of the dwellings). An advantage of this competion is that the commercial housing sector has less possibilities to gain surplus profits in a tight market. In other words.WS . In Italy from 2000 the competences for housing have been given to the regions. Italy fabrizio. a unitary housing market may evolve in which the social sector can compete with the commercial housing sector. It sets the alternative directions that a policy process can follow. The suggestion behind this approach is that time is an important variable of the policy process.plebani@irer. The aim of this paper is to make path dependence approach work in a case study. there is no level playing field anymore. housing policy of region Lombardy are quite similar to a unitary systems. Public policy analysts are quite used to apply this approach to interpret and explain the stability of a policy.uva. We will conclude with policy proposals.conijn@asre. The case are the housing policies of Region Lombardy. But time has an influence also when a policy changes.nl Kemeny (1995) has drawn attention to the maturation process of the social housing sector. Finally we will define two different types of policy ineheritance. time structures the way and the direction of the policy change. Using Kemeny’s typology. Until then region Lombardy begun to formulate housing policy completely different from the past. Recent research of the Central Housing Fund (2010) shows that in general the financial position of the housing associations is very solid.07 The Dutch Social Housing Sector: a Case of Overmaturation Johan CONIJN Amsterdam School of Real Estate. to mature as Kemeny calls it. Time and policy change. Milano. showing how path dependence has neutralized the most innovative aspects contained in the formulation of policy change. Path dependence addresses the possibility of policy change.it Path dependence approach is a perspective that is increasing importance in housing studies. The Netherlands j. One of the consequences of the financial strength of the Dutch housing associations is that they have ample opportunities to create a substantial gap between the market rent level and the actual rent of their dwellings. This situation of overmaturation may have destabilising effects for the Dutch housing market In the paper we will give an overview of the financial position of the Dutch housing associations and show how the existing and increasing surplus effects the functioning of the housing market. If the housing policy of a country gives the social housing sector opportunities to gain financial strength. The case of housing policy in Lombardy Fabrizio PLEBANI Eupolis Lombardia. University of Amsterdam.
07 Self-help housing – if not now when ? David MULLINS Third Sector Research Centre. It will draw on the literature on policy firstname.lastname@example.org Vincent GRUIS Faculty of Architecture. United Kingdom Patricia A JONES Third Sector Research Centre.t. implying a shift back compared to the trend in recent decades. Delft University of Technology. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . United Kingdom Self-help housing involves ‘local people bringing back into use empty properties. Moreover. there has been a renewal of political and policy interest in the concept of self-help and many advantages are claimed including benefits to individuals and communities. 2011) to identify critical success factors and barriers that have prevented a wider take up of self-help models to date and the types of institutional support needed to overcome these barriers in the future.ac. the main providers of social housing in the Netherlands. the Dutch housing associations have been very dynamic. The Netherlands Since the financial and administrative liberalisation from the government in the late 1980s and the 1990s.mullins@bham. creating bigger organisations. self-help housing seems to tick all the right boxes in offering a low cost approach to meeting community housing needs: a form of organisation that maintains some momentum in regeneration programmes while offering work training and experience to those participating. Shifting back in the Dutch social housing sector Nico NIEBOER OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. support and training partners may be involved. The direction and the size of these effects. increased tax levies and the national implementation in the sector of EU regulations on ‘Services of General Economic Interest’. Factors like these are likely to have an effect on the organisational strategies of housing associations. It is concluded that. are not well known. University of Birmingham.uk Simon TEASDALE Third Sector Research Centre. University of Birmingham. filling gaps in public services and stimulating local participation in politics. local authority empty property strategies and a variety of housing.e. in general. 2011) and a national policy consultation (BSHF. A recent inquiry among housing associations sheds more light on this. housing associations are focussing more on traditional social housing tasks and ‘defending’ strategies. to more structured social enterprises that also involve the training of homeless people. and organising whatever repairs are necessary to make them habitable’. In the current English policy and fiscal context of public spending retrenchment. we make use of a classification including a social-commercial dimension and a dimension between so-called ‘prospectors’ and ‘defenders’. regarding the considerable extension of both commercial and social activities. the increased reliance and dependence on market circumstances.WS . social enterprise and hybridity to interpret this experience. and the large number of amalgamations. United Kingdom d. In recent years the Dutch social housing sector is under increased pressure as a consequence of the credit crunch. University of Birmingham. Cross sector partnerships involving private property owners. This paper draws on a scoping study (Mullins 2010). Different organisational models of self-help housing range from less formal community housing projects. depth analysis of eight local case studies (Mullins. The Netherlands n. In this paper.w. however. Jones and Teasdale. localism and the big society. This classification proves to be an adequate tool to describe the recent developments in the sector. refugees and other disadvantaged groups as part of a more holistic approach to providing housing and employment. Delft University of Technology.
WS . The paper concludes with a discussion on the future role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration considering the course taken by Dutch and UK governments.07 Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen Sasha TSENKOVA Faculty of Environmental Design.nl Since the early 1980s there has been a growing understanding in the Netherlands and in the UK that sustained area based interventions are needed to address the multiple forms of deprivation concentrated in some neighbourhoods. Canada tsenkova@ucalgary. this paper explores and compares. Housing associations aim to contribute to vibrant communities and create chances for residents to improve their lives. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .ca Hedvig VESTERGAARD Department for Town. Using a network governance paradigm. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes. Denmark The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. differentiation of rents. The Netherlands g. From bricklayers to live-changers The changing role of Dutch and UK housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration from a network governance perspective Gerard VAN BORTEL OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. Aalborg University. Housing associations contributed to the regeneration of these neighbourhoods. the changing roles of Dutch and UK housing associations in neighbourhood renewal as organisations with a hybrid position between state.vanbortel@tudelft. market and society.fiscal. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non-profit housing providers. each within the context of their national housing system. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. from the 1980s onwards. University of Calgary. affordability and choice. Both administrations emphasise localism and a more dominant role for citizens and civil society while simultaneously implementing drastic austerity measures. In both countries housing associations developed from traditional ‘bricks and mortar’ landlords into social entrepreneurs. Developments on a national level are supplemented by more detailed data from an on-going longitudinal research on the role played by housing associations in the regeneration of two neighbourhoods in the Netherlands (Groningen) and England (Birmingham). The research also identifies new models of social housing provision developed by private and non-profit housing providers in the context of mixed tenure. financial and regulatory . Both areas have a long history of regeneration interventions. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy instruments implemented in three major policy domains . housing and property. The outcomes are evaluated through a series of indicators related to housing quality. urban regeneration projects.to promote the production of new social housing. Delft University of Technology. Danish Building Research Institute.a. They not only undertake social and commercial housing projects but have also widened their activities to address social and economic deprivation. and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. stability of investment and production.
U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . the prevailing trend is towards achieving economies of scale at the expense of localism. In taking these decisions. Delft University of Technology. which implies cooperation with a wide variety of local actors. In this paper the results of two case studies of housing associations working in urban renewal neighbourhoods will be presented.vanovermeeren@tudelft. at time of scarce resources and high levels of unmet housing need. of which the rational and collaborative planning methods seem to most important. Therefore. Collaboration and Governance: Can Housing Associations Balance Efficiency with Local Accountability in Delivering New Housing? James MORGAN Heriot-Watt University.g. economical and social quality of the whole neighbourhood. as opposed to the scale of the portfolio.j. five Scottish housing associations created a special purpose vehicle to develop new housing while each association retained its independence. This paper. Faculty of Architecture.uk Locally controlled housing organisations have been instrumental in bringing about neighbourhood regeneration in the UK since the 1970s. The tensions between localism and efficiency have become important in shaping the structure of the housing system. United Kingdom James. Edinburgh.07 Area-based asset management by Dutch housing associations Arne VAN OVERMEEREN Department of Real Estate & Housing. but also on the physical.Morgan@hw. This way of decision-making combines various planning methods. The paper considers the impact of organisational culture and complexity on meeting goals and on interaction with outside partners such as local authorities.WS . New affordable housing is being delivered by larger associations working within group structures. in employing their own development staff. they take into account the characteristics of the area and the plans and wishes of other actors present in the areas. many housing associations develop asset management plans to secure that their portfolio meets company goals and market demand. housing associations nowadays do not only focus on the quality of their own housing stock. In the Devanha Bulk Procurement Initiative. It explores the importance of leadership and power in collaborations and compares the Devanha approach with other models including lead developers and group structures.ac. This structure was designed to promote efficiency while leaving significant control in the hands of the associations. in practice decisions of housing associations are often not the direct result of these plans. but of incidents at the neighbourhood level or of emerged opportunities. Localism. However. Next to that. contractors. The role of governance in determining success or failure is highlighted. In many respects they have been exemplars of good practice in asset based community development. However.nl Since Dutch housing associations are independent organisations which have to take their own decisions on their housing stock. drawing on the findings of a four year monitoring and evaluation study of the Devanha initiative. Experience has shown that the relationship between the Devanha Board and the Boards of the constituent associations has been a key determinant of the outcome of the initiative. housing associations in the Netherlands are increasingly taking decisions on their housing stock on the scale of the neighbourhood. operating through procurement clubs or by collaborations amongst independent organisations with a single ‘expert’ lead developer. The planning process of these housing associations will be described and explained using theories of planning. e. with efficiency very much in the ascendancy. suppliers and funders. The Netherlands a. addresses the question of how locally controlled organisations can work together to meet housing need whilst retaining local accountability.
Although all key actors have a preference for innovative modes of collaboration. this paper tries to develop our understanding of institutional change towards more collaborative modes in of social housing and regeneration of deprived neighborhoods.uu. Chapel Hill. In terms of game theory the collaboration puzzle. While the literature on collaborative planning. this lack of institutional stability seems to undermine the ambitions for innovative and holistic neighborhood development and social housing. More specifically. North Carolina we showcase two housing programs in Charlotte.WS . focusing on these three dimensions. multi-organizational implementation and network governance seems to claim that lack of cooperation is the most important factor explaining policy failures and implementation deficits. we discuss how the Local Housing Authority in Charlotte collaborates with the Federal government. in order to highlight current innovations in the provision of housing for low-income populations and the entrenched hybridity that is evident. Furthermore. could be interpreted with reference to the battle of the sexes game. if collaborative modes of local governance and planning are justified with its capacity to provide efficient policy responses there seems to be a dilemma. We trace the evolution of US housing policy towards greater hybridity. Although cooperation between social authorities. it is argued. Hence. and the generosity problem of collective action it illustrates.hertting@ibf. In the paper this phenomenon of continuous cooperation in repeated frustration is interpreted within a contextual rational choice approach to understand ‘the games real networkers’ play’. The coordination problem that collaborative networks are supposed to handle on the level of operative problem-solving seems to repeat itself on the level of institutional design. A somewhat provocative implication of such an analytic interpretation is that intensified communication and deliberation is not the policy solution to the collaboration puzzle and its underlying dilemma. housing companies and non-profit organizations repeatedly end in frustration. Drawing from a case study of Charlotte. we offer some thoughts on the benefits and challenges of hybridity for the delivery of affordable rental housing within the US context.edu In this paper we build on the extant literature on social enterprise and organizational hybridity by defining three dimension of hybridity.se Starting with a puzzling pattern of local multi-organizational cooperation observed in primary and secondary data on urban neighborhood renewal in Sweden. Swedish urban renewal seems to be a case of repeated cooperation without progress and frustration without disintegration on the neighborhood level. Finally. USA brohe@unc. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . the Swedish cases analyzed are characterized by an endless search for specific collaborative arrangements. Entrenched Hybridity in the Delivery of Affordable Rental Housing in the United States William ROHE Department of City and Regional Planning. University of North Carolina. and manage affordable rental housing. new cooperation efforts are continually implemented. HOPE VI and Moving to Work. Sweden nils.07 Social housing and governance of neighborhood development: repeated collaboration in frustration Nils HERTTING Uppsala University. construct. private developers and non-profit service providers to fund.
social housing providers have to face increasingly stronger government pressures to become more self-sufficient with regards to funding their activities.g. This model is currently the subject of a great deal of discussion. and the question is whether the sector is moving towards a safety net or towards an innovative mix of social rental housing and social home ownership? U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Changes are occurring in the unitary sector. social rental housing functions as a safety net outside the market. This development is significant because middle-income groups have been excluded from social rental dwellings since 2011. The Dutch social rental sector is financially independent and delivers affordable housing and neighbourhoods with a good quality of life without government subsidies. the current government coalition is implementing wide-ranging reforms to both the financing of social and affordable housing and the broader welfare system. market and policy imperatives. This paper explores the responses of these organisations to these challenging contextual developments by looking at the process of decision-making followed by one of the largest housing associations in England. mission and strategic considerations was tracked over the course of six months of decision-making using a combination of interviews with members of the executive team and with external informants. amounting to 32% of the Netherlands’ total housing stock and providing housing for both lower and middle-income groups. Findings are expected to provide greater insight into the behaviour of social enterprises in the field of housing.czischke@tudelft. the largest social rental sector in the world.nl The policy framework for social and affordable housing provision in many Western-European countries is undergoing rapid and significant changes. the question being whether it is financially and politically sustainable. the Netherlands m. The Netherlands d. Furthermore. localism agenda. Faculty of Architecture. Where does this model come from and where is it going? These are the main questions covered in this contribution.nl The Dutch social rental sector is. A case in point is the United Kingdom. Delft University of Technology. etc.WS . The Netherlands has developed an alternative model. housing benefit is being cut considerably. and to the impact created on market funding by the latest global financial crisis. Social and affordable housing: the Dutch model Where does it come from and where does it go from here? Marja ELSINGA Delft University of Technology. where. which Kemeny calls the unitary model: a social housing sector for a broad target group and in open competition with the commercial rental market. financially driven trend in social housing is that housing associations are offering social rental dwellings as social home ownership to middle-income groups.07 Decision-making by housing associations in complex policy environments: an in-depth study of social enterprise behaviour Darinka CZISCHKE Department of Real Estate and Housing.elsinga@tudelft. On the one hand. when expressed as a percentage of the total housing stock. The combination of such and other related new policy measures is creating a complex and at times contradictory policy environment for housing associations.g. A new. On the other hand. a model which is called a dual model by housing theorist Kemeny (1995). Revenues from these sales help to improve their position and offer a housing solution in particular for middle-income groups.) social enterprises such as housing associations are at the forefront of balancing societal. In many countries. as part of a drive to reduce state deficit. the ‘big society’ discourse. the amount of direct funding for new construction is reduced while housing associations are expected to build more. Dutch housing associations suffered from the recession that followed the global financial crisis and their financial position has weakened. The interplay between values. Further to the continued trend of decreasing public funding since the 1980s.k. given the emphasis put by the current government on a more prominent role of third sector actors in service delivery (e. drawing on their own financial capacity (including higher borrowing and charging of higher rents) and by increasing efficiency savings. as well as observation of strategic meetings.
WORKSHOP — 08 — Housing & Urban Policies in Central and Eastern Europe Co-ordinators: Sasha Tsenkova and József Hegedüs 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
their income and cost connected with living.g. As a result. Masaryk University and RILSA. Krakow. This cause a situation. urban sprawl and gated societies: Evidence from Poland Michał GŁUSZAK Cracow University of Economics. In the research we use discrete choice models (CL. In our paper we work with standard concepts of housing affordability. in which many tenants face increased cost of living. and even we can say that the process of rent deregulation was originally ‘softly-softly’. When compared to mature urban markets little has been done to understand the nature of demand on emerging markets in central and eastern Europe and to develop testable models for post socialist economies. We conclude with estimated implications of the rent control elimination on the development of housing affordability in the Czech Republic and formulate recommendations for housing policy makers. Housing affordability may be influenced mainly by the process of the rent deregulation. the research fills the gap in housing market and urban economics literature. Rent control used to be well founded during the transformation period in the early 90’s. The period of analysis covers the late expansion and early contraction phases of the housing cycle.pl Bartlomiej MARONA In the article we discuss whether urban development in post socialist metropolitan areas in Poland has been driven by similar mechanisms as in most of developed economies.krakow. The outcomes of our paper answers to the question what is the change in housing affordability in the Czech Republic within different housing tenure and social groups. Demand and buyers preferences’.WS . Masaryk University. Krakow. Wroclaw.muni. TriCity. tool frequently used to study housing demand. Poznan. e. The major objectives of the study were: (i) estimation of housing demand in major polish cities. and assessment of urban sprawl risk (ii) analysis of gated societies boom (iii) evaluation of housing policies using simulation discrete choice-based model.2009 Robert JAHODA Department of Public Economics.cz Dagmar ŠPALKOVÁ Department of Public Economics. HEV). Brno. Czech Republic Our paper is focused on the housing affordability progress in the Czech Republic during last years. Poland gluszakm@uek. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Each survey examined hypothetical housing decisions of 1500 households in five major polish metropolitan areas – Warsaw. finally it has accelerated after 2007. Our research is based on EU-SILC micro data for the Czech Republic in 2005 – 2009 which monitor the form of living of households. Housing affordability progress in the Czech Republic in 2005 . We confront objective monetary measures of housing affordability with the subjective ones. Brno.08 Housing demand. In the research we use state preference data from two repeated surveys ‘Housing market in Poland. residual approach or ‘ratio’ approach. Czech Republic jahoda@econ. conducted by Millward Brown SMG/KRC in late 2007 and 2008.
The analysis of housing developments realized in the first decade of 21st century resulted in formulating main directions of changes in the localization of housing developments. housing developments are formed outside of densely urbanized areas affecting suburban sprawl (urban sprawl). In the first years after the transition in 1989 the total amount of realized housing buildings has decreased considerably. on the other side . the rapidly aging housing stock constitutes an additional burden for private households as well as relatively poor quality of housing estates. Warsaw University. Existing local plans do not meet the expectations of property developers. Moreover. The study is conducted within the research project: ‘Trends in creating of multifamily housing development since 2004. Most of them were carried out by private investors using different ways of funding. These processes are regulated in a small way by planning documents / urban plan.arch@pwr. This paper discusses all that factors to assess legislative solutions for a well-functioning legal ownership and its management in Poland. financing and renovation of exclusive and common parts of buildings are concerned.pl The major part of residential buildings in Poland is from the 70’ and 80’ of the 20th century. there is still need for new residential buildings. management by cooperatives (of members’ and non-members’ premises) and hiring external manager. as well as difficult to plan social infrastructure.wroc. however. As a result.pl Robert MASZTALSKI Marcin MICHALSKI Marcin. New homeowners are not completely aware of the responsibilities and legal obligations that come along with the homeownership.masztalski@pwr. Wroclaw University of Technology. At the turn of the century the number of built dwellings began to grow significantly. It deals with available solutions such as owners’ associations as the most general obligatory solution. Poland Robert. Also changed the structure of demands and the number of constructed dwellings significantly rises. After the Polish accession to the European Union after 2004 the pace of changes in the creation of housing development accelerated considerably. changes in the parameters and surface indicators in urban planning. which are mainly built in the southern and southwestern areas of the city.developers do not want to be the subject of restrictions imposed by undisputed legal regulations of existing local urban plans. The share of private investors in housing was poor.WS . maintenance. In Wroclaw. on the Wroclaw study case’ guided by The Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland and will be completed in November 2011.08 Mixed ownership in consecutively privatized multi-family housing stock in Poland and legal challenges in its managing Faculty of Law and Administration. Many households have difficulties in paying not only the running costs but also managerial and renewal costs. inhabited by 650’000 people.wroc. inadequate supply of basic services. The most worrying consequence of the units’ sale at discounted prices is inability of former tenants and former cooperative members to meet the financial demands that the ownership entails. It affects communication problems. after Polish accession to the European Union. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .michalski. The buildings were constructed in precast technology. The research discusses legal limitations providing a well-grounded basis for comparative work.pl My paper deals with assessment of legal solutions (obligatory or optional) for consecutive privatization of public and cooperative housing stock adopted in Poland after 1990 for the benefit of holders of a ‘right to buy’ (usually tenants living in privatized structures). and reduction of lawless housing developments in relation to existing planning documents. clearly in less than a decade. private investors took the main role in residential housing. Poland katarzyna_warzecha@o2. The way in which now apartment block ownership can be effectively managed is a significant problem in Poland and other CEE countries because of the mass and uncompleted privatization of the stock. The subject of the article is results of researches on trends in shaping of multifamily buildings in Poland on the example of Wroclaw. It leads to mixed ownership of multi-family blocks and legal problems as far as management. Katarzyna KRÓLIKOWSKA New housing investments in Wroclaw after Poland’s entry to The European Union Faculty of Architecture.
Privatization of municipal flats converted millions of sitting tenants into owners of flats.ru The paper will describe the rental-ownership tendencies in Russian. The last 20 years we had 2 main tendencies: municipalisation and privatization of housing stock. Moscow. Experts are discussing the ‘new line’ in Russian housing policy such as ‘non-for profit’ and ‘profit’ rental housing .WS . The share of municipal housing stock differs from as large as 28% in Karelia.2 in Dagestan. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Municipalisation – as transfer of enterprise (industrial) housing stock to municipalities. Privatization – as transfer of municipal housing stock to sitting tenants free of charge started in 1990 and will be finished by March 1. to 1. including serious discussion about social housing. All municipal flats were located in large buildings and had very small influence on the management of their flats. In 2010 we can see great interest from the state institutions to rental housing in Russia. and creation of Russian Association of Tenants. The smallest is at the Southern regions. By the end of 2010 municipalities had only 11% of all housing stock of Russia.08 Municipalisation. More then 70-80% of population in large Russian cities are owners of flats. State University. new programs of ‘non-for-profit’ housing projects. Municipal housing stock and municipalities as homeowners are comparatively new research field in Russia. with stress on municipal housing stock and the role of municipalities as homeowners. privatization and housing tenure trends in Russian municipalities Yelena SHOMINA Higher School of Economics. 2013. Main amount and part of municipal housing stock today is at the northern part of Russia and at Far East. mainly in comparatively old (constructed in 60-70 of XXth century) multistoried buildings. Russia eshomina@hse.
WORKSHOP — 09 — Housing and Urban issues in developing Countries Co-ordinators: Christopher Watson and Yurdanur Dülgergolu-Yüksel 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
the informal area of Mansheyat Nasser. comprising 510 households.fr One of the possible side-effects of slum policies is policy induced residential mobility associated with gentrification and poverty recycling. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. the PH projects were neither sufficient nor appropriate (i.ac. In reality. the poverty-recycling hypothesis is related to the incapacity of slum households to support the costs of living in formal housing. While the gentrification hypothesis supposes a displacement of the poor due to the arrival of a wealthier socio-economic group. This comparison aims to understand how the Housing Policies meet the different housing needs in GC.e. These districts (re)present the results of the housing policies in GC in the last 60 years.in Zaied city. Culture & Society.the main national housing program between 1995 and 2005 . They namely are: Ain El-Sira public housing built in 1950s. new Zeinhom a squatter clearance project and finally. City. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Selling out: The Outcomes of Slum Rehabilitation in Mumbai Paula RESTREPO CERNA. middle class and poor). This paper will make a comparative study between four urban districts in GC.09 Public Housing and Public Housing Policies in Greater Cairo Doaa ABOUELMAGD COSMOPOLIS. Moving in. Belgium dabouelm@vub. Mubarak youth housing project (MYHP) .WS . many PH are socially mixed (Upper middle class. Mines ParisTech. Results show that the magnitude of poverty recycling and gentrification is small and that in most cases post-rehabilitation residential mobility is associated with incompatible housing attributes. The comparison between the four districts (three projects made for the people by the housing policy makers and housing made by the people themselves) is a prime issue to understand the qualities and the problems of the PH furthermore the Housing Policies in GC. France prestrep@ensmp. paris. This paper identifies the magnitude and causes of residential mobility using as an example the Slum Rehabilitation Scheme of the city of Mumbai. location and services) for housing the limited income class of Greater Cairo (GC).In addition some of them had passed through a social transformation. It is based on the results of an exhaustive household survey.be The Egyptian government has been the main actor for the Public Housing (PH) and Public Housing Policies in the last 60 years. Higher levels of residential mobility actually serve as a platform to attain better living conditions both for those who left as well as for new comers.
Therefore.WS .09 How is the relationship between the social distance and the physical distance formed in a middle size city? Department of Urban and Regional Planning.hk Zaber Sadeque CHOWDHURY Housing affordability is a major policy concern all over the world. the residential segregation is expected to occur. Dhaka. especially in developing countries. In this study. not only to low income but also to an increasing number of middle income households. the sociospatial distribution of residents on the housing market is analyzed. Various factors contribute to housing price acceleration and making housing unaffordable. income or occupation.tr Hasan Serdar KAYA Ecological theory claims that the residential location of habitants is connected to their socio-economic status. If there are differences in levels of habitants’ education.edu. the most appropriate composition of housing submarkets is determined. socio-economic status of residents is a strong predictor of residential segregation and consequently. Therefore. of housing policy environment to find out the causes of the prevailing problems and their solutions considering three research questions: What is the nature of the affordability problems of housing for the middle and lower-middle income groups in Dhaka? Why do the supply-side instruments in Dhaka fail to enable the provision of affordable housing for the middle and lower-middle income groups? In what ways can the supply-side efficiency of the housing market in Dhaka be improved to ensure the supply of affordable housing on a large scale by both public and private sectors? Both qualitative and quantitative approaches of analysis are used to analyze the collected data. The problem of affordable housing has loomed large in Dhaka as the growth of urbanization has not been matched by a commensurate growth in the supply of decent housing and it has been an aggrieved social phenomenon there. A case of a heterogeneous distribution provides an opportunity to test whether social distance is positively correlated to spatial distance by following whether the general acceptance of groups of similar socio-economic status have similar residential pattern. in the second step. the sociospatial distribution of residents is examined. is the 11th largest urban agglomeration of the world. By applying principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis on PCA. the structure of residential segregation is examined consistent with residents’ socio-economic profiles in a middle size city Bandirma. Istanbul Technical University. Consequently. in other words whether the sociospatial distribution of residents is homogenous in the city. Turkey alkayel@itu. In the first step.tr Elif ALKAY Department of Urban and Regional Planning. It is obvious that a clustering structure as opposed to complete mixing is attributed to heterogeneous sociospatial distribution of residents. Hong Kong sadeque@hku. University of Hong Kong. it will certainly help in developing pertinent policy recommendations to address the housing affordability problems in developing countries in general and that of Dhaka in particular. The comparison is expanded by questions such as: are varying socio-economic clusters located on varying housing submarkets? Are similar socio-economic clusters located on similar housing submarkets? Are there any submarkets where social mixing is a case? Answering these questions is expected to reflect how the relationship between social distance and physical distance is formed in a middle size city which is expected to have a less heterogeneous structure than that of the big cities or metropolitan areas Housing policy environment in Dhaka: an in-depth investigation on affordability problems of the middle and lower-middle income groups Department of Urban Planning and Design. provision of infrastructure etc. As the critical supply-side instruments of a housing policy environment have been investigated in this paper. It is tested whether the sociospatial distribution of residents reflects complete mixing. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . the segmented structure of a housing market in a city. Turkey hserdarkaya@itu. This paper is based on my PhD research project on housing policy environment in Dhaka and attempts to study and analyze the supply-side instruments e. the first step sociospatial clusters and the second step housing submarkets are compared.g. The existing policy environment is not efficient enough in providing affordable housing to accommodate the middle and lower-middle income groups who are the core of the economic activities. Knowles Building. the capital city of Bangladesh.edu. the regulatory regime. Istanbul Technical University.
basically related with the liberalization of the Turkish economy. knowledge of the amenity effect on housing price in China is still quite limited. most of the existing buildings as well as urban textures are not suitable anymore for a city and its inhabitants that have experienced a major economic revival. strategies to prevent gentrification. Istanbul has experienced another major growth period. this time propelled by the integration of the Turkish economy to the global markets. Utrecht University. The second major growth period is in the beginning of the 1980’s. Istanbul Technical University. The empirical results show that: 1) although in western counties. Turkey inceogl4@itu. Turkey ipekyurekli@yahoo. as a new phenomenon for the city. 3) the major disamenity is the ‘presence of heavy industry’ in 43% of all Nanjing neighbourhoods. The results will be of crucial support for planners. squatter settlements have grown.com Istanbul has lived through two major growth spurts during 20th century that have determined its urban shape. 2) among different accessibility indicators. a system of urban transformation within the current context of Istanbul will be suggested and discussed. there is no comprehensive study on the effect of various amenities and their relative weight in influencing housing price in China. During this period.edu. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .tr Arda INCEOGLU Ipek YÜREKLI Faculty of Architecture. Transforming large parts of an existing city presents a great challenge to designers and introduces opportunities. China. accessibility and neighbourhood quality show a relative equal effect on housing prices. Urban transformation in Istanbul: potentials for a better city Faculty of Architecture. government officials and housing developers to take into consideration in their planning making to create more livable and desirable residential environments. in our study accessibility exerts a far stronger impact and neighbourhood quality has a relatively less impact on housing prices.09 Assessing the relative amenity value of accessibility and neighbourhood quality in China Department of Human Geography and Planning. This study combines apartment sale data with land use and transport network data to calculate representative indicators that are used to assess the relative amenity value of accessibility and neighbourhood quality with a hedonic price model. The first one coincides with the beginning of industrialization of Turkey during the 1950’s and 1960’s. During this period.hu@geo. However. The Netherlands Stan GEERTMAN The relationship between housing price and amenity has been systematically analyzed in western countries using hedonic price models. Some scholars contribute to this issue by adopting hedonic price models in China but most of them have mainly focused on very specific types of amenities. offering new lifestyles. The Netherlands h. there are different plans beginning to be implemented using a variety of strategies by the public sector that are focusing on the transformation of the existing building stock. Istanbul Technical University. Finally. and flexible approaches to allow for different scenarios of construction. Thus. Utrecht University. even taking into account rapid car accessibility. Nanjing is a typical Chinese city which is witnessing rapid urban expansion and construction. distance to metro stop is a vey important factor for residents when buying a house. The Netherlands Pieter HOOIMEIJER Department of Human Geography and Planning. In the last decade.nl Hong HU Department of Human Geography and Planning. On the other hand. An enormous number of higher quality housing units have been built both by the private and public sectors. New proposals need to incorporate a number of strategies such as economic models. a different form of informal housing system has developed that can be called as organized squatter settlements. The paper will present a variety of strategies currently employed in the city that are dealing with the transformation of the urban structure en masse.WS . Utrecht University.uu. So far. This study assesses the relative weight of accessibility and neighbourhood quality in influencing housing prices in Nanjing. The paper will focus on three concrete urban transformation cases the authors are involved with.
which was developed by analysing the national housing policy. restoring. New jobs would be presented to the local residents of this street.09 A Framework for Housing Finance in Developing Economy: Case study of Nigeria Faculty of Development & Society. having a responsibility towards its neighbouring community and integrated with its surrounding urban tissue. Museums. Cairo Urban ‘Mixite’ . Many forgotten traditional crafts and arts can be re-adapted. flourishing the skill once more.eg Egypt as a development country is suffering from ‘mixite’ of housing and historical areas. and therefore access to housing itself. Sheffield Hallam University. The paper aims to transfer the static. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .taha@bue. and reusing will be employed in this research. and education centres will allow the public to learn more about the culture. United Kingdom The paper presents a framework for examining access issues within housing finance processes. This spine would also be a focal point for creating festivals and celebrating culture. England. touristic. can also revive the deteriorated physical elements of these historical buildings. Analysing connections between processes of housing finance would enable researchers to understand social relationships that evolve within the network and policy lattice. rehabilitating.edu. The end result of this paper can act as an inventory of this specific area. it would be insufficient to conclude on any one or two characteristics in isolation without analysing the link between them and other issues. therefore.eg Maryam AL TOUNY AlTouny@bue. United Kingdom maren. Returning its original function or showcasing. Sheffield Hallam University. which is very understudied and underdeveloped in spite of its great historical value. England.WS . TAHA Aliaa. It is observed that most of the previous research has examined isolated issues which only resulted in superficial explanations and treatment of problems.sheweka@bue. and economic sectors. upgrading their education and quality of life. which also shape the system of finance provision. rather than tackling root causes. the initial roles.uk Maren Mallo DANIEL Rob HUNT Faculty of Development & Society. commercial. The paper suggests for improvement and or change in the approach of housing study in Nigeria. A plan of conserving.m. Housing finance issues which researchers have examined were found to be connected.daniel@shu. social. reviewing previous research and observing actual practice. The restored spine will revitalise cultural. Although it comprises a treasury of the historical Islamic buildings such as the Seif el Din al-Youssefi Mosque and School. isolated historical buildings in this area into a more dynamic one.edu. the spine is completely neglected and the crawling population threatens the area.eg Samar SHEWEKA Aliaa A. Nowadays. virtually. adopting a proposed case study.Case Study: Souq El Selah Samar.edu. the famous spine of Souq El Selah (Weapons’ Market) was established in the Mamluk period for the purpose of producing weapons. educational.ac. This paper discusses the importance of the historical site of Souq El Selah in Cairo and the deterioration of its valuable monuments according to the housing ‘mixite’ problems which surrounding it. Seven–hundred years ago. and historical Sabils and Hamams (baths). The framework is conceptualised by a structure of housing provision in Nigeria. This paper will end with different strategies and recommendations. Revival of this spine is to be acquired through community participation by studying the locals’ needs and values. exhibitions.
At the same time. Syria adopted the social market economy. Since 2005.WS . The paper aims to inquire into this problem with the planners’ view of designing cities as one system. French institute for the Near East (Ifpo). Two main approaches can be identified. cultural and spatial integrity. In other words. other laws and projects try to attract investors to initiate a citywide redevelopment of informal settlements. However. in a sustainable way. for an urban acculturation. as some scholars claim recently. Syria v.org Valérie CLERC Social and spatial changes have been very fast in Damascus since the President Bachar al-Assad took office in 2000. but in different ways. The first one focuses on the social and functional qualities of informal settlements to be rehabilitated and reject the redevelopment approach. Various geographies in Istanbul. and innovative way of designing the city architecture. while the current inhabitants would be relocated onsite. mixity is not the main argument for public decision. amongst which the fact that it would endorse the partition of the city in segregated areas. a mega city of Turkey. informal settlements have increasingly featured in the political agenda. ‘Mixity’ in Urban Policies towards Informal Settlements in Damascus. Turkey Yurdanur DüLGEROGLU-YüKSEL The contemporary city is known for the heterogeneous composition of its population. various social groups form their enclaves for their own security. Sometimes this may threaten the city by destroying its social. real or electronic. with common interests. However. compactness. more recently.com Haluk ULUSAN Istanbul Technical University. Architectural Design. Liberalization attracted national and international investments and induced an important high-income property development. urban ‘mixitie’ may generate new. while informal settlements continued to expand. beliefs and values. The second one seeks to build integrated projects in these areas. Faculty of Architecture. people with the same place of origin. In that way. next to the new upscale dwellings whose sale would finance the construction of their rehousing. The walls around the settlements. In the meantime. What is the role of urban mixity in the public decisions concerning informal settlements? Both approaches encourage mixity. Especially in developing countries where the urbanisation rate is high and where the forces of globalisation are influential on the competitive use of valuable urban land. separate the different neighborhoods from each other. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . similar expectations and life styles tend to concentrate in the same neighborhood. as a whole. urgent social reorientation in a burning regional context play a much more dynamic roles to guide public decisions regarding the maintenance or not of a low-income population in an ever more valuable centre of the city. energy saving and mixity are the new slogans. the cultural and economic differences become not an obstacle but a potential for enriching housing types and life-styles in a mega city which is the main force of national development. Competition for land in pericentral areas.09 Reading the ‘urban mixite’ through residential environments in a mega city: case Istanbul Istanbul Technical University. a Concept for Public Decision? Urban Observatory for the Near East. It is reflected in the residential areas which are the most dominant zones in the urban geography. Faculty of Architecture. and because it would mainly end with an expulsion of low-income inhabitants far from the city centre. dominant urban representations or. The observation of the urban dynamics will guide the way to achieving this end. A citywide rehabilitation and regularization of informal settlements is promoted through laws. as if small cities exist within one mega city. Turkey halukulusan@gmail. aiming to combine a high growth rate with social justice. onsite or not.clerc@ifporient. Urban policies adopted sustainable development principles: density. a national policy and some local programs in Damascus. Their proponents reject the rehabilitation approach for several reasons. including the relocation of the current residents. as a developing country will be examined in order to discuss the potentials and to produce information on the terms and conditions for these potentials to be implemented. for its social and economical unfeasibility. Damascus. even if it is completely adopted. Architectural Design. The spatial separation causes over time socio-cultural segregation between these groups.
Istanbul had been designated as one of the ECoC cities during 2010. The European Capitals of Culture (ECoC) is one of the prominent cultural programs in European Union.09 Tafilelt. ‘people-centred’ perspective has defined the cultural infrastructure as an ingenious tool for structuring the public space while improving the quality of life in the city. Department of Urban and Regional Planning. On the other hand. often to the detriment of palms) and housing policies and urban planning that ignore local contexts. but also public and private investments with sponsorships and local initiatives those set to work for urban-cultural programs. we will try to show how this traditional community steps in the production of space and how local authorities consider their interventions .com The urban morphology of the valley of the M'Zab (Ghardaia.edu. then within the palm groves which initially hosted a secondary habitat.WS . This paper evaluates the ECoC programs in Istanbul whether it worked as ‘a commodity’ serving for privileged groups or ‘an accessible source’ for all residents. who warned against the dangers of floods (which continuously occupy the riverbed. two main contexts of this term are additionally highlighted in the essential literature on cultural policies. Faculty of Architecture. On the contrary. This bilateral approach is reflected on cultural policies in terms of (de)centralization of cultural infrastructure. is actually giving an example of an ingenious and responsible implementation to the Mozabite populations. Kerem KORAMAZ Istanbul Metropolitan Planning and Urban Design Centre (IMP-BIMTAS). As culture has become a ‘business’ of cities.com Elif KISAR-KORAMAZ As culture is defined as the material and shared symbolic belongings of a societal pattern. The most remarkable findings indicate that 2010 experience in Istanbul was not able to contribute the social integration of the centre. Even if the introduction of air conditioning (reducing the role of the courtyard to a source of light) has substantially modified the ancestral organization of spatial practices. Turkey elifkisar@yahoo. The cultural economy point of view defines culture as ‘a commodity and a public good’. France mouniaboualimessahel@gmail. In this communication. combining tradition with modern comfort. Most recent debates in Istanbul which criticize the centralized promotions of such ECoC projects emphasize that the ECoC served as a media on transformation and for border crossing of cultural life in the city. the latter view approaches culture as ‘a source of group identity’. Then it is essential to investigate the cultural infrastructure to what extent it is decentralized and accessible for all residents in order to validate the success of ECoC programs in Istanbul. remains very interesting to study. Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Paris-Val de Seine. southern Algeria). Paris. This evaluation is held within the assessment of the spatial pattern of cultural infrastructure and programs in terms of availability and centrality across the urban macro form. Turkey koramaz@itu. Mounia BOUALI MESSAHEL ECoC 2010 – Istanbul: ‘a Commodity’ for Consumers or ‘a Source’ for All Citizens ITU. which develops not only local and regional programs related to arts and culture. Istanbul. periphery and varying social groups. a community project to preserve the M’Zab UMR Lavue (CNRS). U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .tr T. ‘property-based perspective’ has developed policies based on centralization of cultural infrastructure and facilities serving for privileged groups. Istanbul. Today. conceived and initiated by Mozabites for Mozabites and partly funded by the Algerian state. Université Paris 10 Nanterre. this type of housing. a community housing project known as Tafilelt. transformed into permanent habitat by the uncontrolled urban growth. is characterized by a continuous developing landscape: first a growth beyond its ksour’s battlements. Tafilelt houses largely follow the traditional housing organization: with gender-separatedand introverted housing around a central ‘patio’ which provides light and air. ECoC 2010 – Istanbul was expected to cope with the social disintegration especially in low-income housing settlements which are underserved in terms of social and cultural infrastructure.
where most of the low income population in Ghana live are considered as old and dilapidated traditional housing to highlight the housing shoetage in the country. a vernacular housing form in Ghana which has traditionally accommodated the low income population in order to judge it as an adequate low income housing alternative. but has also schools. habitability. is currently Asia’s biggest slum.09 Inhabitants’ perspectives on the adequacy of the compound house in Ayigya. However. small industries. values and family culture. Institute for Urban Design. availability of services. The population growth.uni-hannover. Architectural Design halukulusan@gmail. Compound houses. residents of Dharavi also fulfil plentiful tasks. it will be highlighted how strategies can be delineated for other urban areas around the world – not only for informal settlements. From this point of view much can be learnt from Dharavi. Kumasi. It is widely accepted. the term slum does not apply to the zone. In a typical Ghanaian city. It is. Finally. lack of basic facilities. Grass root mixite: some lessons learnt from Dharavi/ Mumbai Renate BORNBERG Leibniz University of Hanover.de Haluk ULUSAN Istanbul Technical University. since it is a vibrant place of people with various backgrounds and ways of living. Thus. mosques. Adequacy of the compound houses were evaluated and assessed on the criteria of the right to adequate housing: legal security of tenure. an important economic place: not only are many goods produced here for export. and to achieve a deeper understanding of the dynamics and the hidden potentials of ‘urban mixite’. together with private elite homes are located alongside the grid-iron layout settlements of public built estates. Imar ve Sehircilik Müdürlü ü. limited housing production. community facilities and water tanks. that without the urban poor of Dharavi Mumbai would face a dramatic lack of all sorts of services. poorly serviced neighbourhoods of single storey compound houses. Turkey mim. facilities and infrastructure. It is demonstrated that compound houses in Ayigya are generally inadequate both in quantity and quality for growing population and for changing demographics. such as collecting rubbish. or serving in households of the upper class people of Mumbai. a former village which became a part of the expanding Kumasi with the urban sprawl.ozlem@gmail. This grass root neighbourhood is a tightly packed but highly efficient urban mixite where working and living are placed next to each other. cleaning streets. services and infrastructure and the deterioration of the existing housing have left basic shelter out of the reach of the most low income households in Ghana. Dharavi appears to be an urban mixite neighbourhood with small scaled workshops. A research on the adequacy of the compound houses was conducted in Ayigya. In this article it is aimed to highlight the dynamics behind the run down und ‘unaesthetic’ façades of this unique area. accessibility. materials. Balcova. Ghana. Hannover. churches. too. Izmir. location and the cultural adequacy with respect to inhabitants' views. formerly a fisher village on one of the islands today forming Mumbai-India. Germany email@example.com This study aimed to test the adequacy of the compound house.WS . Kumasi. Ghana Özlem ARSLAN Balcova Belediyesi. affordability.com Dharavi. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . temples. outside the mixed use city centre.
Eli Støa 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .WORKSHOP — 10 — Social Sustainability Co-ordinators: Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway.
a gated community and a path for integration in a social housing area. The study is based on survey data from different housing complexes addressing various housing quality aspects such as the quality of the apartment or the housing complex. Sweden k. 2006 (1999)). Malmö University. politicians and inhabitants. but also include income statistics. Lynch 1967. the result is quite different when put in relation to the physical and social position of the inhabitants in different housing areas. Mixité and connectivity are major concepts in the aim to reconnect the fragmented and segregated city through the built environment. at the same time residential segregation increases and the City has concluded that social sustainability (previously neglected) needs to be addressed in their work. household type. apartment structure. Department of Architecture. architectural and locational features with respect to sustainable social ‘mixité’ and the preferences of different tenant groups. Jacobs 1992 and J. J. Bourdieu. gym. Centre for Research on Architecture. its location as well as the importance and the quality of neighborhood relationships. In addition the database offers information on the households’ relocation history (inside and outside the housing estates) as well as their short-term intentions to move and the reasons for it. education level or income structure on the one hand and housing estate features such as location.ethz.grundstrom@mah. Switzerland craviolini@arch. Switzerland hugentobler@arch. The mixité in this area is the mix of activities and services offered to the inhabitants. Department of Architecture. gender. The Rosengård Path aims to connect a stigmatized housing area to the inner city through increased mobility. meeting places for residents only. However. interviews with planners.WS . spa. Margrit HUGENTOBLER Architectural Ideals and Interpretations of Mixité and Connectivity in the Segregated City Department of Urban Studies. 1987. Society & the Built Environment. ETH Zurich.ch In the proposed paper we explore the relations between socio-demographic ‘mixité’ and housing estate characteristics. building period. Methods include mainly qualitative methods. tenant turnover rate or ownership type on the other hand. The paper offers a detailed analysis of the intertwining between socio-demographic and socio-structural attributes such as age. ETH Zurich. 2) analyze mixité and connectivity in relation to positioning of different income groups (Bauman 2000.se Karin GRUNDSTRÖM In Sweden. Gehl. 2007. mixing transportation modes. the City of Malmö has received several awards for their work with sustainable urban development. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . In the gated community Victoria Park connectivity means proximity to transportation networks and an international airport. Mixité in this case means mixing places for work and housing. price segment. The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the relation between social sustainability and the built environment through the interpretation of mixité and connectivity in two current projects.10 ‘Mixité’ and the built ETH CASE. By mapping the intertwining between housing estate features and tenant profile as well as the tenants’ preferences we hope to contribute to a better understanding of the role of physical. mixing forms of tenure and mixing activities in a new building to create meeting places. However. Society & the Built Environment. We will show how socio-demographic ‘mixité’ is related to various building characteristics and tenant preferences regarding the social and physical environment. golf course.ch Christoph CRAVIOLINI ETH CASE. This paper will: 1) trace the underlying architectural ideals and design approaches of mixité and connectivity – and the interpretation of these concepts on the urban and local scale (K. lounge. cinema.ethz. 2004). health care and a restaurant. Centre for Research on Architecture.
or the gentrifying newcomers are more able to construct a very different. Centre for Urban and Regional Research. socially sustainable structures? Refining the question whether urban reconstruction is sustainable socially or not. Department of Architecture.hu Gábor CSANÁDI ELTE University. The challenges and successes in applying the theoretical framework of sustainability during the process of design are discussed in the conclusion.is the first settlement area of Bursa that includes many traditional houses and monumental buildings within its organic urban layout. However. but stable. Our goal is not to show the ‘right’. Although these are honourable initiatives. century and where the main principles of the Ottoman city structure first began to take shape . Hungary Adrienne CSIZMADY The modern concepts of ‘sustainability’ try to integrate other fields of research beside the relation between nature and the human kind. increased the urban population. Turkey arzucahan@gmail. is the fourth biggest city of Turkey. which leads to sustainability meant by a certain range of criteria. the traditional urban pattern of Turkish cities and the ongoing traditional lifestyle that had been shaped by the sui generis traditional urban structure is to be considered as a cultural asset which has to be conserved and transmitted to the future generations.elte. This region which is also surrounded by historic city walls is quite suitable to analyse the physical reflections of a mutual interaction between the historic and architectural heritage of the city and its socio-cultural structure and dynamism. The study presents the process of an architectural design studio. or ‘best’ practices of urban renewal. Budapest.com The city of Bursa which is one of the very first cities of Turkish settlement in Anatolia since13th. Winners and Loosers .10 Strategies for Socio-cultural Sustainability of Traditional Neighbourhoods. we try to describe the socially different types of sustainability as the result of urban reconstruction. The model and the strategies for implementation of socio-cultural studies together with architectural and urban design to obtain social sustainability are anticipated to be an important step forward for studies about socio-cultural dimensions of sustainable urban development. the multidimensional concept of sustainability has been examined in the context of urban housing with a sociocultural approach. The rapid urban development process experienced after1980's. There are strong and interesting arguments. The main question would be whether the existing social structure of a relatively deprived neighbourhood can be ‘sustainable’ in social sense. Hungary gcsanadi@tatk.Social Sustainability Trends in Urban Renewal ELTE University. We outline the interest-structures governing the process and attempt to draw the lessons from the empirical results to see how the social aspects of sustainability apply in practice. Budapest. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . We try to examine the social conflicts emerging in a city. apartment buildings were constructed all over Bursa including the case study area. Bursa. In this regard.WS . our point of view in this presentation differs from them. Empirical evidences are from research conducted in the inner part (mainly the so called Jewish Quarter) of the Hungarian capital. Centre for Urban and Regional Research. We witness debates about the criteria of sustainability among the representatives of very different practical ideas and theoretical principles. Bursa/Turkey as a Case Uluda University. but the common element is. The main aim is to raise the quality of urban life in Hisar and to achieve social equity via architectural and urban design.(or neighbourhood-) rehabilitation process instead. that most of them use normative approaches.com Arzu ISPALAR ÇAHANTMUR Fadime BOZTA fboztas@gmail. During this period. The case study area – Hisar . bringing forth housing problems in all the growing cities of Turkey.
Its impact and sustainability. which are currently in progress in SF could however be different depending on political governance and on local society’s reactions. In the second part. In the first part of the paper I will overview Italian geography of G. ‘I chose SF because it is still a popular neighbourhood with a specific ambience’). which is often given. Maybe I’m going to leave SF because it’ no longer a really popular neighbourhood). as a ‘one size fits all’ process. In the last part of the paper. 1996) and gentrifyer’s preferences and demands (Ley. one of the first things to consider is that older residents are not fleeing but rather losing their visibility. Institut des Sciences de L'Homme. Rome and Genoa) to show the gap between the theoretical landscapes and the empirical ones and highlight the leitmotif of this process in Italy as a sort of ‘urbanity nostalgia’ felt by its people.WS .casillo@ish-lyon. depend on the degree of social and economic polarization of the city concerned and on the type and tradition of urban design found there (Davidson & Lees. 2001). Lyon. Italy Ilaria CASILLO French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). on the contrary. we can see a double opposite discourse. The second one is transforming this neighbourhood to the point in which it is becoming the city’s recreational and diversion district. The consequences of change. This is due to the tendency to consider G. We are thus moving from a home based aesthetic to a retail based aesthetic (Bridge. it’s possible to understand how the consumption in SF represents one of the transformation’s haziness regarding the neighbourhood’s pattern and way of life. SF displays an initial stage of marginal residential gentrification combined with a more intensive use gentrification. Moreover. popular and tradesman neighbourhood in Florence where. and. Researchers should therefore consider the potential consequences of G. on the other hand. Milan. In this step. the first based on urbanity’s nostalgia on the neighbourhood. Secondly.cnrs. I analysed the case study of San Frediano (SF). In fact. it seems useful to abandon the dichotomist interpretation of G. France Ilaria. (cases of Turin. they rarely stress on the ‘post’ namely on the study of spatial and social consequences and their signification for the concerned actors. Several studies show that the consumption is increasingly related to lifestyles as an expression of identity and belonging. who contribute to the filtering process (eg. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . the selection process of habitants has been occurring for many years now. Group of scientific interest Democracy and Participation (GIS D&P).fr The structural and liberal theories on gentrification (from now on referred to as G. 1996).) explained a lot of elements of this process: why. I try to put into prospective the social consequences of this process in SF highlighting two types of possibility: loss of socio-diversity and of the self-innovation capacity of SF. The second discourse is that of a popular class of established residents who resist and who no longer perceive a continuity between their social and emotional status and the spaces of residential life (eg. This is the discourse of new residents with a high cultural capital. process in Italy to show its place-based differences and consequences. Using the concept of gentrification to analyse the distribution of social classes in the city and their way to appropriate them. 2005). Nevertheless. The paper aims to explore the different declinations of G. process when they analyse the restoration of the heuristic dimension of this urban analysis category. it is still difficult to measure the impacts. a collective appropriation of ‘cultural proprieties’ of SF and its history. who and where. as well as the ones which focus on the power of capital (Smith.10 Could gentrification be a sustainable urban process? The case of San Frediano neighbourhood in Florence. an old.
this paper examines the aftermath and consequences of the failure of these Public Private Partnerships to deliver regeneration. In the end. This arrangement was predicated on strong demand for private housing and high house prices. However. After the Boom: Social Housing Regeneration and Sustainability in Dublin Declan REDMOND School of Geography.10 Understanding segregation: the relationship between urban form and social exclusion Nadia CHARALAMBOUS Department of Architecture. yet at the same time maintain a variety of social ties outside of their immediate neighbourhood. Using the value of the land as leverage. the developer would receive for free part of the site to develop private housing and in return would construct some social housing on the remainder of the site. the local municipality sought bids from private developers to regenerate these neighbourhoods as mixed tenure estates. The fact that in many cities immigrants and minorities choose to live in localized clusters. such spatial patterning can actually serve as a necessary mechanism enabling social integration in the urban environment and questions the proposition that the mixed neighbourhood is the perfect solution for segregation.cy This paper aims at a rigorous re-examination of the complex relationship between the physical. Ireland declan. suggesting that spatial form needs to be understood as a contributing factor in forming patterns of segregation. The paper concludes that segregation needs to be considered as a complex and multi-dimensional process. well integrated streets. Social cohesion strategies and anti-segregation initiatives have been the subject of many far-reaching political decisions. the hopes and expectations of these communities for regeneration vanished. Interpretations of segregation have often been formulated purely in terms of social and economic factors. in relation to the notions of segregation and social exclusion. without invoking space. Recent research work even suggests that when such areas are located close to economically active. Using a case study Dolphin Estate in central Dublin. with the regeneration costing the municipality nothing. Most of these estates were in areas where land values were high. because of the collapse of the property market in Ireland only one such neighbourhood was regenerated.WS . U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Social segregation. Social initiatives rarely address urban design and prevailing methods of analysis provide few analytical insights from a spatial perspective. Following the initial anger and frustration at the end to any short-term prospect of regeneration. The paper posits that segregation has a significant physical meaning over and above its social meaning.ac. the notion of ‘segregation is bad. community activists focused on maintaining the social sustainability of the estate through continuous organising on the estate and through pressurising the municipality to continue engaging with the community on the prospect of long term regeneration. functional and social space in the city.nadia@ucy. Nicosia. Cyprus charalambous.ie During the years of the Celtic Tiger boom many existing social housing neighbourhoods in central Dublin were set to be demolished and regenerated via Public Private Partnerships (PPP). integration is good’ and vice versa seems to be a simplistic view of the city. significant anti-social behaviour and the possibility of deep cynicism on the part of residents.redmond@ucd. University of Cyprus. is growing in recognition. inequalities in living conditions and accessibility to resources. Faced with no prospect of regeneration. the paper traces the response of the community and community activists to the challenge of maintaining community confidence and stability in the future. The manner in which patterns of spatial integration influence the location of different social groups in the city is discussed. are considered as major social problems and have been the focus of research work related to sustainability. Consequently. Private developers who were about to regenerate a number of these estates withdrew and. with no prospect of significant state finance being made available. Planning and Environmental Policy University College Dublin.
carried out in the framework of a EU programme. Potentials and problems of Swiss post 1950s residential housing estates with regard to their cultural and social sustainability ETH Wohnforum – ETH CASE Centre for Research on Architecture. Marie Antoinette GLASER Reflections on integrated sustainability in housing Heidrun FEIGELFELD Vienna. Belgium and Delft.ethz. qualitative research interviews with different actor groups as well as an analysis of public discourse of the time until present. Methods of data collection included: structured surveys amongst the cities on each of the three pillars of sustainability (social. the aim is to ‘de-ideologize’ the analysis and rather point to specific potentials and problems of large Swiss housing estates of the time period from 1950 to 1980 from a qualitative position. outcomes of discussions held at workshops with representatives of each partner city and other experts and stakeholders.WS . However. conclusions and recommendations from a recent project involving local authorities from nine European cities. was to cooperate among partner cities to optimize sustainability in housing by means of affordable supply of housing. allows to write a ‘thick description’ (Geertz) of these estates by combining quantitative and qualitative findings on the built space and on the lived space. Switzerland glaser@arch. Society & the Built Environment. The residential building stock from the construction boom period in Switzerland has now to undergo renovation or deconstruction/ reconstruction measures. innovative knowledge is necessary to find and develop future strategies for sustainable practices in handling these buildings. by means of so-called 'Local Action Plans' findings have been tested with the view to achieving 'integrated sustainability' at city level. It is an indepth study of the sustainable performance of large post 1950ies residential housing estates in Switzerland with specific regard to the appraisal of different groups: the users. To do this. Since it forms the major part (60%) of Swiss housing stock.ch The presented research project is a continuing research project funded by the Swiss national science foundation. various dimensions of sustainability are discussed in relation to housing both on the scientific and on the policy and practice level of European cities and regions. the debate is characterised by a wide diversity in terms of data comparability and of geographical and cultural contexts. Zürich. the owners and the public. social cohesion and high environmental standards. The emphasis in the analyses is always put on the process of change over time. appropriation and maintenance of the chosen examples. Austria hf@srz-gmbh. the paper will draw on empirical findings. The main aim of this project. using physical analysis of the built and the surrounding spaces. In addition. This allows following cultural. namely the simultaneous consideration of all three dimensions of the concept. These findings were systematised and conceptualised by both authors.e. The Netherlands Darinka CZISCHKE Currently. focusing on just one or two of the three pillars of sustainability. discussions tend to address the issue in a fragmented way. not as a static evaluation. ETH Zürich Departement of Architecture. 'integrated sustainability'. This interdisciplinary research instrument of the newly developed so called ‘House-biographies’ method. By exploring the user perspective in combination with the expert view and the public discourse. Thus. The project follows a case study methodology and combines architectural and social as well as cultural analyses of the selected case studies in an interdisciplinary way. lacks a coherent theoretical framework that can be applied to policy and practice. In addition. values and use over time. but as a dynamic narrative of meaning.com Brussels. and review of secondary data about the cities and about the issues under discussion. environmental and economic) and one on the synthesis of the three.10 Changing uses and values over time. i. This paper aims to address this gap and to bring thought-provoking insights from policy and practice initiatives from the urban and housing fields to the scientific discourse. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . technological and social change along the history of use.
Whereas social housing is often problematic regarding questions of management and maintenance. Germany Europe-wide policy changes linked to shrinking economies and populations as well as neo-liberal planning approaches have meant drastic cuts in public expenditures. contributing to a sustainable urban development. Id22 in cooperation with the Berlin Senate and other partners with decades of experience regarding co-housing are initiating. the challenge now is to link these initiatives to housing policy and financing. without endangering their potential for innovation and self-organisation. locally-adapted responses. intergenerational and other housing forms are not adequately being provided. While social housing practices are not likely to be terminated in the near future. collaborative and community-oriented housing.com Michael LaFOND id22: Institute for Creative Sustainability. while scholars. These projects are often ecologically innovative and constructive complements to social housing. Such ‘supply shortages’ are increasingly motivating people to work locally to meet their own needs with a diversity of co-housing types: self-organized.10 The end of social housing. The development and maintenance of social housing is weakened and increasingly people are not finding access to the housing qualities they seek. Affordable. This paper presents the recent history as well as significant developments especially from the Berlin region. Co-housing reflects general trends towards further democratisations of European cities. professionals and politicians as well as the larger public continue debating possible solutions. supporting. co-housing cultures as expressions of a new collaborative housing movement do offer a variety of sustainable strategies across Europe. highlighting innovative best practices from which many lessons can be learned. A new ‘housing culture’ of citizen self-organisation is emerging: expressions of local identity which can assist with urban social integration and the stabilisation of distressed neighbourhoods. Having built up a body of knowledge over the last decades and a joint communicative infrastructure. Germany eda_kadriu@yahoo. through which citizens expect their ‘rights to the city’ to include the opportunity to help design and manage the local environment. networking and publicizing such co-housing projects both regionally and internationally. Berlin. TU Berlin. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .WS . the beginning of co-housing? Enkeleda KADRIU Urban and Regional Planning. co-housing offers the advantages of reduced bureaucracies and more participatory structures as well as creative. barrier-free. energy-efficient.
impacts and responses are mixed in different ways. Environmental Strategies Research. In it. suggested by international bodies or local authorities. For our purpose a qualitative. We argue. that innovative planning and governance approaches including scenario building can enable such transformation. conceptual system is needed. information and persuasion. Stockholm. How can scenarios of city district transformation be assessed as to their contributions to sustainable urban development? Quantitative indicator systems abound. The tool further formulates guiding questions at different levels e. drivers.se Margrit HUGENTOBLER ETH Wohnforum – ETH CASE. Analysis of the chosen scenario will then be performed in a matrix. focusing on outcomes or participatory development. pressures. now development continues in collaboration with KTH as part of a joint project. Often. ‘Does the district sustain or improve the functioning of social systems and the development of social justice and fair exchange?’ Literature on neighbourhood sustainability indicators will be reviewed to inform the sustainability assessment system at different levels.10 Impacts and Improvements – developing a qualitative tool for assessing scenarios’ contributions to sustainable urban development: examples from Stockholm city districts Örjan SVANE KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Stockholm?’ In this example. Sweden orjan. indicating which areas are affected by the scenario. the literature describes systems founded in science and practice. To emphasise the process dynamic of transformations. Faculty of Architecture.svane@abe. Such a framework was developed at ETH. Sweden Let us assume that the target of a two-generation transformation of a city such as Stockholm is ‘a city that can sustain the good life of its citizens without depleting nature’. the agents of change are identified for each aspect. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . in the city district of Södermalm. Switzerland. Zurich. Focus groups with students and practitioners will provide feedback on the proposed outcomes and processes.g. Josefin WANGEL KTH Environmental Strategies Research – Stockholm.kth. scenario building is guided by counterfactual questions such as: ‘What if ICT were innovatively applied to reduce energy use in buildings and transport through automation.WS . identifying which aspects proposed in the literature apply and contribute to a sustainable development while preserving existing qualities. energy use and its impacts are quantified through computerised modelling.
U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . action research on housing policy. To deal with the complexity of challenges and objectives as well as actors’ vertical and multilevel coordination. Israel. primarily Palestinian Israelis (among the twenty percent of Israeli citizens who are Muslim and Christian Palestinians). and what lessons might be relevant to other cases? The paper concludes with thoughts on ensuring that social concerns are more adequately incorporated into land-use planning. This paper profiles the strategies employed in the past decade to mitigate the social impacts of the Jaffa land-use plans. focussing on new policies for affordable housing.over social concerns. Israel Institute of Technoogy. Urban land-use plans from the 1980‘s set out to transform a neglected neighborhood into a sea-side haven for the city’s wealthiest residents. Norway marit. Leaders in the municipal and national agencies have recently announced a set of new affordable housing policies for Palestinian Israelis in Jaffa. Oslo. motivating this paper was that both cases included physical changes of people’s homes. Local civil society has cautiously welcomed the new policies. In this paper we ask what aspects of urban intervention programmes involve and value people during the intervention process in such a way that they are motivated to continue to take care of and develop their area afterwards. new ways of approaching critical urban areas are needed. The paper explores the change in policy that led to re-introducing social considerations into the land use plan. Haifa.ac. The strategies have included community organizing. participation and governance.no Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research. neighbourhoods’ and ownership rights. Oslo.10 Brokering Affordable Housing and Social Sustainability in Land Use Planning: the case of Jaffa. and facilitated ‘roundtables’ with participation from local and national agencies alongside community leaders. in Tel Aviv. regardless of how they valued the improvements. land subsidies for low-cost new homes and an effort to provide community loan guarantees. most strikingly. the potential displacement of low-income residents. while noting that implementation has yet to be tested. The interventions appear to have had some unexpected successes.WS . The comparison builds on a ‘most different’ approach. What interventions can help to bring the social sustainability issues back onto the agenda? This paper profiles one extreme case. Our methodological approach is two cases of urban intervention programmes in the Lisbon and Oslo regions. But how can the programmes succeed to attend social sustainability in the disadvantaged neighbourhoods? Social sustainability raises the question about the linkages and the interplay between urban interventions. set in the socially mixed city of Jaffa. and urban interventions in disadvantaged neighbourhoods are high on the agenda in European countries.ruud@nibr. Israel emilys@technion. such as housing affordability and community cohesion. Which strategies were most influential. The plans made no attempt to address complex social issues. Oslo.Tel Aviv Technion.il Land-use planning often privileges economic and physical issues . Norway Social sustainability is one of the main discourses in urban intervention programmes. change of ownership and an intention to intervene and improve the area for the existing residents is the inspiration for this paper. Norway Susanne SØHOLT Marit Ekne RUUD Einar BRAATHEN Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research. including. The important similarities. Such extensive physical interventions implied that people got involved. The critical city districts and neighbourhoods in the Portuguese and the Norwegian cases are compared to analyse how such processes impact on local social sustainability. Emily SILVERMAN A question of social sustainability: Urban interventions in critical neighbourhoods in Portugal and Norway Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research. The announced policies include a campaign to encourage ‘protected tenants’ to purchase their homes. The combination of extensive physical changes.such as historic preservation and infrastructure .
What can be learnt at this point is however how conceptualizations of various dimensions of sustainability are transformed into design proposals and how understandings are developed through negotiations of the planning process itself.WS . Often it is more or less taken for granted that the dimensions are mutually supportive although there are also potential conflicts between them. and the neglected human potential they symbolize. integration of non-residential spaces and uses and processes for involvement of future residents in the further planning of the area. but not without a plethora of problems. where the idea was simplistically accepted was a disaster. What local conditions were central for the success /or failure of modernist housing models in different contexts? This context question will be used to identify practical principles that might guide the design of modern housing. The modernist concept of urban planning. cities of Northern Europe. and from ethnographic survey of the ongoing Grand Housing Program in Addis Ababa. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . The concept is mainly regarded as important in its own right – and has to do with securing a society’s social and cultural viability in a long term perspective on both a collective and individual level. The result. is a grotesque expression of the failure of a system driven by the profit motive and failed planning policy.stoa@ntnu. This paper also looks at the Sustainable Urbanism paradigm and the possibility that it might offer as an alternative to the failed modernist satellite-suburban-monolith-alienated type of living in most major European cities. Norway eli. this paper discusses the contrasting results of modernist planning approaches in industrialized verses low-income countries and welfare verses market driven economies. Through a parallel commissioning process carried out during Fall the same year. Sweden tigran. Since the development project still is in an early stage it is too early to conclude when it comes to fulfillment of the objectives.10 Planning for social and environmental sustainability how to find the right balance? NTNU. Paying particular attention to housing. Is the idea in the solution which seeks to demolish thousands of units of the city’s modernist public housing areas and create new mixed-use units or is it in refurbishing and retrofitting the existing stock? Empirical evidences are drawn from review of studies of the Swedish Million Homes Program of the 60’s and 70’s. Ethiopia. Department of Architectural Design and Management. rather than by the requirement to satisfy sustainable urbanism. each principle responding to architectural and urban paradox posed by local and modern-contemporary condition. Eli STØA Contextual Modernism and Sustainable Urbanism as New Housing Strategies . Turning isolated public housing towers into typical mixed-income city neighborhoods under the Hope VI and under New Urbanism principles has been done in the US. Furthermore it aims to explore the potential interplay between social and environmental sustainability. housing typologies.haas@abe. The objectives and main focus areas are defined in a planning program approved by the City Council in April 2010.no Social sustainability is emphasized as a vision for many urban development and regeneration projects as well as in planning and design guidelines. are mentioned for their successful revision of modernist principles to meet local conditions. In contrast however. The ambitions for this area are very high when it comes to both environmental and social issues. spread throughout the Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.se The growing alienation of modernist public housing estates and their ethnically and socially excluded people. neighborhood design. environmental and economic dimensions. four interdisciplinary teams were selected to propose ideas for environmental solutions. which emerged in response to a very particular time and set of regional circumstances.kth. The aim of this paper is to identify important elements of the negotiation between social and environmental sustainability and to discuss how planning issues and design solutions may contribute to finding the right balance. Norway.A way for better understanding the phenomena of concentrated poverty KTH – Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm. It is moreover regarded as part of a holistic understanding of sustainable development where it is seen as essential to balance social. among others. Sweden Alazar EJIGU Tigran HAAS KTH – Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm. The discussion will be based on the documentation from an ongoing planning process in the city of Trondheim. observation and introspection studies of selected cases in the American Social Housing Program HOPE VI.
holmqvist@ibf. Cyprus zippelius. Uppsala University. The base for the Swedish social mix policy has been to.ac. The Swedish social mix policy provides an interesting case as the policy differs in important aspects from similar policies in other countries.still mostly practiced in peri-urban areas and based on the segregation of land-use and the car as primary means of transport . emma. Are cities becoming more tenure mixed? What is the nature of these changes and are these sustainable? Is there any visible differences between different types of neighbourhoods. To provide mixture in cities may therefore almost be seen as contradiction in terms.WS .social separation and the de-spatialization and de-materialization of space Architecture Department. Social categories of race.bergsten@ibf. and re-integrated into every daily life. dematerialized world of the internet. class.se Zara BERGSTEN Institute for Housing and Urban Research (IBF). by urban planners and policy makers. However. mono-functional building structure can no longer be read as in-between spaces nor used for informal encounter in in-between times. need to be re-thought.uu.is de-spatializing the urban environment constantly producing isolated environments The physical world of public urban life is moreover challenged by the virtual. They are shaped by the interaction of society with space. but might contain multiple facets or be allocated in-between. Is the Swedish social mix policy a policy for the entire city or only a rhetorical goal? In this paper we aim to analyse if and to what degree there has been changes made to the housing structure of Swedish neighbourhoods and cities (through new construction and tenure conversions) during the last decades. The aim of these policies has foremost been to counteract residential segregation through the regeneration of urban neighbourhoods. has been seen as the main instrument to enhance a mixed population. Sweden.10 A mixed city – Achievable in practise or a utopian goal? Institute for Housing and Urban Research (IBF). not only change the social and physical structure of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods.e@unic. nationality. Public open space needs to be reconsidered as a key component of social integration and community identity. People have responded to this development through withdrawing from street and neighborhood life. Yet it is a fact that the functional city model of the modern age . Since the 1970s it is foremost the construction of neighbourhoods with a mixed tenure structure that. Uppsala University. disability and age. This social and spatial development influenced all classes but particularly affected the more vulnerable and depending social groups. sexuality. University of Nicosia. The abstract notion of space in peri-urban living environments has erased the spatial relation of public open space and the buildings surrounding it. but to create socially mixed cities in their entirety. both in the measured used and the motivation for these changes? Emma HOLMQVIST The significance of public open space for social integration and neighborhood life . The functional bands of public open space within a dispersed. Contemporary cities are moreover a spatial construct of a diversity of concurrent urban manifestations.se The notion of residential social mix has during the late 1900s become an important public policy in Sweden as well as in many other European countries. We therefore need to ask if de-spatialization and dematerialization affect social behavior and social mixture. re-designed as an attractive space encouraging social encounter. understood as spatially separated and constructed. It needs to be re-conceptualized as a social space of human activities and interaction. Sweden. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . the question is if this universal aim of achieving socially and physically mixed cities has been translated into urban planning and the actual construction of mixed neighbourhoods.cy Eleonore ZIPPELIUS Cities are complex systems of interconnected physical and non-physical urban layers constantly changing and adapting to new settings and needs. as human identities are hybrid identities which cannot be unambiguously allocated to a single category. zara. This implies both the construction of new tenure mixed neighbourhoods but also the regeneration of existing neighbourhoods with a homogeneous tenure structure. gender.uu. Australia and North America.
WS . the costs may be higher in a uniformly scattered mix-mass housing projects. and it seems that this trend will continue in the future. It offers a uniform housing typology in the major cities. serves the 80% in the formal sector. United Kingdom julie. GHA has spent £887 million on improving the quality of housing stock.10 Affordabılıty Issue in Urban ‘Mıxıté’ Istanbul technical University. The trade off between economic gains. The term ‘psychosocial’ has been a focus of growing interest in relation to health and wellbeing over the past decade. mass-housing projects is giving the form to the Turkish cities for the last 25 years.tr Yurdanur DÜLGEROGLU-YÜKSEL The mass-housing projects dominate the major cities in Turkey implemented to meet the annual housing need in the nation. School of Social and Political Sciences. Faculty of Architecture. poor physical and poor mental health. based on a large-scale survey of social renters in Glasgow. Glasgow City Council undertook the largest stock transfer in Europe. contributes to the urban growth both economically and spatially. passing responsibility for the municipal housing stock to the Glasgow Housing Association (GHA). community or environment are amongst the most powerful influences on negative health behaviours. In comparison to what is gained and what is lost – in the form of lost social networks. 14% of Mass-housing projects aims to solve squatter housing problem. From the view of city architecture. Psychosocial theory provides a framework that understands personal development as a product of tensions between wider cultural or social expectations. therefore economically sustainable under the conditions of mixed income neighborhoods? Can ‘mixité’ share the same urban facilities and public spaces? The paper will attempt to provide some answers to these questions in view of recent developments called urban transformation projects in Istanbul. Can ‘mixité’ be affordable. School of Social and Political Sciences.uk Julie CLARK Urban Studies. Recently available data. squatter housing produced in the informal sector. leaving out the remaining 20% which is constituted by the lowest income groups. Lately. and evidence that these improvements can contribute to enhanced levels of status and control. University of Glasgow. Ade KEARNS U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . The Mass Housing Administration. However. building and refurbishment. University of Glasgow Following a ballot of tenants in 2003. Housing Improvements and Psychosocial Wellbeing: Evidence from the Social Rented Sector in Glasgow Urban Studies. Istanbul-Turkey yukselyu itu. housing improvement works and the psychosocial benefits offered by home. psychosocial risk firstname.lastname@example.org. but most housing units can only be purchased by average or high income urban groups. and the needs and capabilities of the individual. has offered the opportunity to explore psychosocial benefits of home in previously unavailable detail. Residential Quality. in respect of an individual. As architecture without architects and as organic developments. displaced citizens in the squatter settlements. are seeking measures to focus on affordable housing as their main goal. the highest authority which determines the annual national house production. with plans to commit a further £330 million by 2013. over a range of property types and housing interventions. Scotland. nations having more poor in their urban population. landlord relations and the quality of the wider neighbourhood are shown to be important qualifying factors. This research investigates the impacts of this state-sponsored housing improvement programme on residents’ quality of life by analysing the relationships between residential quality.ac. and sustainablerounded community is being made to favor the second. Findings offer an insight into the degree to which home improvements influence residents’ ratings of home quality. usually as a second house. In the midst of an ongoing programme of demolition.
Recently the concept of sustainability will become the main issue of urban regeneration projects. Turkey Sustainable urban regeneration is one of the approaches which is related to create sustainable built environment after introduction of ‘sustainability’ concept in Brundtland Report in 1987. The paper draws on interview material and survey data from a recent cohesion audit as well as national indicator and socio-economic indicators at LA level. 2009) at neighbourhood level and at aggregate administrative levels. mixed communities and unequal access to public services and education. 2001. Whiteknights.ac. Istanbul Technical University. A mixed method approach is employed for fuller exploration of data and social cohesion dimensions.uk Christian A.com Gökçer OKUMU Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Based on this situational assessment the possible solutions will be discussed with the community representatives and the other NGOs and local government departments. economical and environmental sustainability. United Kingdom e. Architecture Faculty. The paper utilises insights from economic geography on the role of history and expectations (Krugman. low education.uk Under the social cohesion agenda a recent focus on preventing the radicalisation of disenfranchised sections of the population is connected with more ‘traditional’ policy concerns such as persistent spatial deprivation. Among the characteristics of Fevzipasa district where Romani population lives. Istanbul Technical University. Examining a deprived area in South East England with high ethnic diversity reveals that policies targeting social connectedness and trust may be crucial for place-based cohesion strategies to alter neighbourhood relations. a methodological approach for socially sustainable regeneration will be developed on the basis of Fevzipasa district report and feedbacks from the discussions and the projects outcomes will be presented.10 Sustainable Urban Regeneration: The Case of Fevzipasa District. All of these characteristics have potential to create social problems in the area. Reconciling divergence in the dimensions of social cohesion at different levels of aggregation underpins the effectiveness of place-based cohesion strategies and the ability of policies grounded in local self-government (or in the UK the ‘Big Society’) to deliver improvements in long-standing social goals. unemployment. United Kingdom c.WS . Canakkale. Modood. to rise the quality of life and to create economic vitality. University of Reading. Turkey gokcerokumus@gmail. 2007. University of Reading. A participatory planning approach is executed to get detailed information about the district. will be analysed in terms of sustainable urban regeneration approaches. Sustainable urban regeneration projects are based on the components of social. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . 2000. Architecture Faculty. At the end of the investigation a district report will be prepared. A main aim is to establish the extent to which neighbourhood level social cohesion mirrors cross-sectional administrative processes. 1991) and social interaction models (Parekh. Urban regeneration was applied with the purpose to sanitize decayed areas. NYGAARD Ellie FRANCIS-BROPHY Institute of Education. democratic processes and historic processes) identified in the literature (Kearns and Forrest. Barca. 2000.nygaard@reading. economic email@example.com. Durlauf. 2003) to explain observed patterns and draw policy inferences. Forrest and Kearns. A key question for UK (and EU) policy makers is the extent to which place-based intervention is likely to generate the place-based improvement in neighbourhood relations or whether self-organising and market based urban dynamics may cause spatial leakage. In this paper. Whiteknights. Turkey Department of Urban and Regional Planning. In this paper Fevzipasa District which is located in the historical city center of Canakkale. bad health condition and bad condition for the built environment can be mentioned. Stone and Hulse. This paper analyses dimensions of social cohesion (social connectedness. Handan TÜRKOGLU Place-based social cohesion: comparing dimensions of social cohesion at neighbourhood and administrative level School of Economics.ac.a. 2005.
André Thomsen and Vincent Gruis 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .WORKSHOP — 11 — Housing Regeneration and Maintenance Co-ordinators: Nico Nieboer. Sasha Tsenkova.
U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . we focus on renovations of roof and façade since they hold the largest potential for energy savings. private non-profit and community (cooperative) in select case studies.WS .uni-lj.si Faculty of Social Sciences. attention will be paid to results achieved in the implementation of energy efficiency retrofits such as: quality. Canada Karim YOUSSEF Recognising the high impact of energy savings in the residential sector. technology (types of energy efficiency measures). socio-economic characteristics of households and relationships with neighbours.public. Using Slovenian Housing Survey data and multinomial logit model we test a model for the individual house owners and for the renovation decisions in multi-apartment buildings. Calgary. Moreover. One of the adopted instruments also aims at promoting energy-efficient renovation and sustainable construction of residential buildings. However. University of Ljubljana. In the context of this new political commitment this research paper will focus on the following objectives: i) to review of national and provincial policies and programs to implement energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. In line with this. technical and financial aspects.si Andreja CIRMAN Jelena ZORI Faculty of Economics. Slovenia jelena. the government has introduced The Renewable Energy Initiative in 2009 providing $70 million for energy efficiency upgrades of existing and new social housing with another $2 billion in Canada's Economic Action Plan. Faculty of Environmental Design. Results of the analysis will provide a better insight into relevant factors affecting the renovation decisions and may prove to be valuable for policy making in the area of facilitating building renovations. Srna MANDI Green and Affordable Housing in Canada: Investment Strategies of Social Housing Organisations University of Calgary. Calgary. This research is exploratory in nature and is designed to provide the first systematic evaluation of energy efficiency residential programs in Canada using an interdisciplinary framework of analysis.11 What determines decisions for building renovation: The case of Slovenia Faculty of Economics. building renovation of existing buildings is also key factor of energy efficiency which is increasingly gaining importance in recent years. financial risks and cost recovery. the Slovenian housing sector is facing a range of maintenance and renovation problems that have been hindering interventions. Faculty of Environmental Design. At the project level. The research will investigate the implementation of energy efficiency programs in the social housing sector in Ontario and British Columbia where federal programs are complemented by provincial ones. Four sets of variables are examined as potential determinants of household renovations. In our paper we identify relevant factors affecting the renovation decisions of Slovenian households. Slovenia andreja.cirman@ef. University of Ljubljana.uni-lj. University of Ljubljana. namely the location of dwelling. dwelling characteristics.zoric@ef. Statistical data on the existing housing stock in Slovenia show that over 70 percent of residential buildings are more than 30 years old and 71 percent of these buildings have never been refurbished. Slovenia Housing policies in the Central and Eastern European countries face a challenge of the deteriorated housing stock and urgent need of extensive renovations. Canada tsenkova@ucalgary. In particular.ca Sasha TSENKOVA University of Calgary. and ii) to identify preferred investment strategies and policy responses by different social housing providers . Directive 2006/32/EC on energy end-use efficiency and energy services requires EU member states to achieve a 9% saving in final energy consumption in the period from 2008 to 2016. Slovenia prepared the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2008–2016 where a set of measures which will be supported by substantial public funds are proposed in order to achieve the efficient use of energy.
Belgium Judith LE MAIRE La Cambre – Horta. within the Brussels region. Faculté d’Architecture. a collective of experts from two Brussels schools of Architecture in Brussels (La Cambre and Sint Lucas). In a second part specific attention is paid to high-rise developments and the possibilities and challenges for their sustainable (re-)development.WS . Faculté d’Architecture.11 Sustainable neighbourhoods in Brussels. However. two tools developed by Urbs that allow the assessment of housing projects regarding their sustainable character (on the three dimensions – ecological. Leuven Association caroline. Brussels. Eventually these different scenarios are examined through the lens of the Memento and the ‘sustainable check-up’. This contribution will discuss the findings of this research project and will elaborate on the specific scenarios that were developed for each of the characteristic neighbourhoods. instead one can find. ULB. Brussels.newton@mac. social and economical).U. ULB. At the end some conclusions are drawn with regard to the possibility of realizing the sustainable city of tomorrow not via new developments but using the existing urban fabric and turning it (redeveloping it) sustainable. Brussels. This service is taken on by Urbs. An analysis of the difficulties for the (re-)development of sustainable neighbourhoods and suggestions of possible methods and solutions Sophie GHYSELEN La Cambre – Horta.com Nicolas PRIGNOT Bernard DEPREZ La Cambre – Horta. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . ULB. together with Brussels institute for the environment (BIM / IBGE) created the facilitator service ‘sustainable neighbourhoods’ (quartiers durables). Faculté d’Architecture. the research project showed that this one perfect experimental site didn’t exist. that could prove to be ideal candidates for a sustainable redevelopment. Belgium Isabelle PRIGNOT La Cambre – Horta. Belgium Caroline NEWTON Sint-Lucas school of Architecture. Faculté d’Architecture. several locations. Brussels. In 2010 a report was presented regarding the search for an experimental site in the Brussels-Capital Region where a sustainable neighbourhood could be developed. Belgium In 2008 the Brussels-Capital Region. Hogeschool voor Wetenschappen en Kunst Brussels & Ghent Partner in the K. ULB.
as well as the extent to which people and communities in housing cooperatives are informed.com Gabriele WENDORF TU-Berlin. The analysis has shown that there are differences in asset management needs between mixed and mono tenure estates. But does mixed tenure really have different asset management needs compared to mono tenure estates? This idea forms the thesis of this paper. resources and capacities regarding energy efficiency.de Germany is well known for its long history and importance of housing cooperatives. motivated to get involved or participate in decision-making processes regarding energy-efficient renovations and maintenance. United Kingdom Jim.kempton@coventry. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . and the research should be of interest to a wide audience including social housing. Housing Maintenance and Mixed Tenure: Issues in the English Social Housing Sector Jim KEMPTON Coventry University. supported by semi-structured interviews. The author defines these as comprising any mix of social housing tenants with: Private renting tenants (who therefore have private landlords). These organizations have and continue to play a crucial role in the housing sector. repair and other investment. Owner occupiers (brought outright.11 How do housing cooperatives in German housing market address the energy saving issue? Enkeleda KADRIU Urban and Regional Planning. or those paying a mortgage on 100% of the property value at purchase) The term ‘asset management’ will be used to describe the physical management of estates. We hope that this paper will bring some new insights to the significant role that the housing cooperatives can play in energy-efficiency in housing. there is little information about the current approach and position of housing cooperatives in achieving a significant reduction of energy consumption to meet the EU emissions targets in housing. among other issues. 2008) providing housing to communities and people. Shared owners (i. those who buy a part share in their home. Germany vp3@tu-berlin. The Solidarity City project started by TU-Berlin in cooperation with specialized partners coming from different disciplines will.uk There has been an on-going debate in England and the broader United Kingdom regarding the development of mixed tenure housing estates. Little work has been undertaken in this specific area. Unfortunately.e. Germany eda_kadriu@yahoo. TU-Berlin. the remaining share is typically retained by a social landlord). including maintenance. According to statistics there are around 3. will be carried out.000 housing cooperatives with over two million apartments and over three million members in Germany (Cecodhas. The research methodology is based on a case study of a social housing provider. identify the problems and challenges that these housing cooperatives face in terms of organization and management. In this study facts about the current condition in the region of Berlin through case studies that represent both old and newly established cooperatives of different sizes will be presented. A literature review and interviews with RSL personnel are used to inform the discussion contained in this paper. We also lack precise information on the place that energy efficiency takes in the statute of these cooperatives.WS .ac. Also an analysis of the degree of awareness of both management and communities. aiming to fill the existent gap in the literature in this field. developers and central and local Government.
U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . making analyses through in-depth interviews with the community. Redesign in a true sense should also include additional measures. i. hybridisation of use. outsourcing of functions.com Melis VARKAL Growing urbanization puts more and more pressure on the creation of built environment. energy efficiency has been linked to the development of new technologies. The objective of the proposed integral approach is to combine data on material. The particular building stock chosen for demonstration is the Austrian social housing of the pre war era build between 1918 and 1934. such as functional reorganisation. Cities need to find innovative ways to fulfill the increasing demand and energy retrofitting is one of those approaches. During the last decades.11 Integral and Temporal Scenario Approach Department for Housing and Design. gather knowledge on usage and behaviour and critically evaluate new requirements.at This paper will present the integral scenario approach for modernisation of 20th century housing stock. address fundamentals. Three main characteristics of these type of housing is: minimal and sufficient housing units.e. get over the resistance and implement necessary measures. One further essential procedure is to identify sustainable features of the original architectural concept und to preserve and integrate these features into integral scenarios. Turkey. the majority of the existing building stock continues to function unsustainable. The demand for resources in urban areas is continuously increasing and energy is relatively prominent. Austria lorbek@wohnbau. non-governmental organizations and the community-based organization in the selected area. the focus for energy efficiency has often been on new constructions. Vienna. Maja LORBEK Neighborhood Energy Retrofits and the Role of Communities Institute for Housing and Urban Studies. Therefore. re-programming of amenities. Rotterdam. Specific art of the building stock will be used to demonstrate the principles of integral and temporal approach. the residential apartment blocks (Gemeindebau) and the settlements (Siedlungen) of Red Vienna. energy retrofitting. The Netherlands melisvarkal@gmail. Community participation is an important aspect and by participation it is more likely to understand the local context.tuwien. added common facilities and the principle of future additional space (Kern house principle) are in themselves sustainable. spatial and temporal potentials of the building stock. Later. the first objective in this study is to look into these elements and develop a framework for community participation in neighborhood energy retrofits. by using the developed framework the research analyzes potentials and limitations for participation in a selected neighborhood located in Izmir. University of Technology. however. Today. The paper investigates how community can participate and demonstrates three important determinants. The new and innovative retrofitting approach should look for integrating the concept to the process and this can be done through the analysis of different elements. there is no procedure to learn from actual usage and they also do not take into account the temporal dimension of interventions.WS .ac. This research is a descriptive and exploratory type. This paper looks into the concept of energy retrofitting in today’s urban context and puts in perspective the issue of community participation. changes in density and so on. So far. This is obviously crucial and inevitable. The temporal component of the scenario approach also allows taking into account currently unknown construction possibilities in addition to open options for future use. Faculty of Architecture and Regional Planning. Crucial processes currently affecting existing housing stock are some of the following: • partially reversed process of function outsourcing • social and material infrastructures decentralisation process • the anti urban character of energy self-reliance Traditional refurbishment practices are mostly one sided. The next step is to define integral scenarios for modernisation. which refers to improving the existing built environment with energy efficiency equipment. local government. Community participation is often disintegrated into the overall program and remains as an add-on. additional collective services and infrastructures. requires approaches that are beyond the technicalities.
The Ph. With these tools we have reached to several strategies for rehabilitation that respond to different family needs. ISCTE-IUL. The INE classification of classic families according to size reveals that in Lisbon the most representative families consist of two individuals (31. the adopters (actors who adopt the low carbon technologies and practices) and the regulators (actors who define the parameters within which others operate). many of the obstacles can be not only overcome but also innovative practices transferred to other locations nationally as well as internationally. Communications and Automation Technologies (ICAT) as well as the transformation of dwellings to respond to the new demands of dwellers.eloy@iscte. Summarising the findings from these city-wide forums. An approach based on a transformation grammar Sara ELOY Department of Architecture and Urbanism.11 The Carbon-Reduction Challenge in Cambridge. the UK government’s ambition is to decrease carbon emissions by 80 per cent on 1990 levels by 2050.WS .D. through productive dialogue and mobilised action between these different actors.D. Lisbon. Strategies for Housing Rehabilitation in the search for mixing generations and family types. in third place. For this new population reality it is necessary to define different models of housing that could be integrated in the existing residential areas through their rehabilitation and conversion. Communication and Automation Technologies in Housing Rehabilitation’. The final research objective is the definition of design guidelines to support architects in the adaptation of existing residential areas with the purpose of ICAT incorporation and the creation of diversity within the building and the sorrowing residential area. Portugal sara. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . focusing on the city of Cambridge as an exemplar.uk In response to the global challenge of climate change. United Kingdom mm10001@cam. UK Nicky MORRISON Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research (CCHPR). single-parent households and single-person families represent co-habitation groups in expansion. the paper highlights the key constraints on delivering the carbon-reduction challenge to Cambridge’s existing housing stock and how. Domestic housing represents around 27% of the total carbon dioxide emissions. Elderly people.pt This abstract describes a Ph. research that is currently being developed on the subject of ‘Methodology for the integration of Information. Nowadays dwellers demands incorporate the rising of different forms of co-habitation that are having a great expression in Portuguese cities. thesis sets off with the premise that the future of real estate market in Portugal will require the rehabilitation of existing residential areas and that it will be of utmost importance the incorporation of Information.58%) (INE 2001). The study focus on a specific building type (‘rabo-de-bacalhau’) built between 1945 and 1965 in Lisbon. The aim of this paper is to explore whether this national target is capable of being achieved at the city level.01%).55%) and. The potential to reduce carbon emissions to existing housing stock depends on the nature of the stock in terms of its age and quality. mainly because their topology is very representative of the period and its presence in the city is large. The paper draws on a series of focus group meetings with the providers (actors who bring technologies and practices required for decarbonisation into the market). of which 73 per cent comes from space and water heating in the UK. University of Cambridge. The goal is to use Shape Grammar and Space Syntax as tools to identify and encode the principles and rules behind the adaptation of existing houses to new requirements. the degree to which the energy efficiency of the dwellings can be improved. 3 individuals (19. Department Land Economy.ac. as well as the capacity and willingness of existing households to take up renewable energy and energy efficiency measures. followed by 1 individual (30.
nl Henk VISSCHER OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. how sustainable and robust the local and national financing system for quality improvements of private housing stock really is. h. Delft University of Technology. Additionally. if they need to stand surety for the total loan amount of a homeowners’ association (HOA). Short-term subsidies and low-interest loans from municipal revolving funds are applied to trigger investments in private dwelling improvement. including their environmental sustainability.11 Towards an environmentally sustainable private housing stock: Municipal governance for quality improvements in seven Dutch cases Milly TAMBACH OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. whether the municipal governance and tools. their legal and operational framework is studied. However. municipal governments need to run and cover risks. and their level of organization play key roles here. and are seeking cooperation with parties such as housing associations. The Netherlands. brokers. including their energy quality. First results indicate. but yet it seems without the hopedfor large-scale improvements. With regard to limitations of short-term subsidy schemes and possible risks for municipal governments in case they stand surety for a HOA’s total loan amount. The Netherlands m. municipalities are marketing quality improvements to private homeowners by support and communication organizations. necessary. of which parts show a diversity of quality backlogs. Delft University of Technology. municipal governments still lack enforcement possibilities and sanctions (fines) as integrative part of Dutch energy certification regulation.nl Dutch municipalities are faced with an ageing private housing stock.meijer@tudelft. The Netherlands f. contractors. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Homeowners’ willingness and capability to invest. and regarding this. Although so-called ‘multiplier effects’ are ascribed to municipal investments in such funds. applied to improve the quality of private housing stock.tambach@tudelft. in case private (energy) quality improvements are carried out seem. have been both effective and cost-effective. the question arises.WS . such as tax rebates. support and communication organizations may have a positive effect on investment decisions for quality improvements by private homeowners. They are in the process of developing a combination of communicative and economic governance tools to seduce private homeowners to invest in their dwellings’ quality. This paper investigates.nl Frits MEIJER OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment.firstname.lastname@example.org. in seven Dutch cases. More lasting instruments.m. Delft University of Technology.
proposes a conceptual model for further research. Instead of convincing residents of the necessity of sustainable retrofitting or creating enthusiasm for plans. searching for sustainable measures that are in congruity with that enthusiasm? The following questions have been answered in this research. Since evidence based theoretical research references on obsolescence are scarce rare. As an often used demolition motive.vanhal@nyenrode.Thomsen@tudelft. obsolescence can be regarded as the last phase of the life span of buildings. Delft University of Technology.11 Obsolescence as a threat for life cycle extension of residential property André THOMSEN OTB Research Institute. But there are more considerations to carefully maintain the existing stock. Knowledge about the prevention.d. Delft University of Technology. The Netherlands a. From a sustainable viewpoint. Dept. The Netherlands j. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .nl and Nyenrode Business University Center of Sustainability. The Netherlands A. the paper has inevitably an explorative character.nl Obsolescence is a serious threat for built property. Breukelen.nl Many housing associations in the Netherlands are struggling with the same problem. but in practice it is hard to reach the goals set. One of the reasons is that they need collaboration of a good part of their residents to be able to get a substantial return on their investments.m.vanhal@tudelft. a workshop with residents. Which (conscious and unconscious) needs. inventories the available knowledge. Real Estate & Housing. discusses its influence on the decision making about demolition and concludes with recommendations for property management and further research. The result was a format for a new approach for housing associations and suggestions of practical combinations of sustainable measures. describes its meaning. The merger of interests in sustainable public housing Anke VAN HAL Faculty of Architecture. A recent study focused on new ways to reach this collaboration. They have signed voluntary agreements regarding a sustainable retrofitting of their housing stock. the diagnosis and the treatment of obsolescence is therefore of growing importance. a brainstorm session with sustainable building specialists and a workshop with coworkers of a housing association. Our paper defines obsolescence. Delft University of Technology. The Netherlands C.vanderFlier@tudelft. Is it possible to use existing enthusiasm of residents as a starting point.nl Kees VAN DER FLIER Faculty of Architecture.F. wishes and desires of residents of social housing projects can be distinguished? And how can sustainable measures help to fulfill those needs? The research was based on literature research. another approach is explored. life cycle extension is necessary to minimize waste.L.WS .
I focus the way of using in the public space.ji@gmail. This is why the change the shop for the living space. I analyze this situation from the fieldwork research. It was changed in each period. Spain – A case study into the transformation of the public space and the private space in the villages Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. It is mixed the civilization and the culture. what has been built in recent years has been less than ideal. it means the history has more than 2000 years. I focus the way of using in the private space in the house. Spain wenhao. as well as quality. I think ‘this mix’ is one of the sustainability. The purpose of this study is to clarify the sustainability and the system of the transformation in the village of Rincon de Ademuz.ac. the water and the car are changed the public space using. The result has been a range of location. The transformation means the adaptation of the new civilization. Some barns also changed as second house for the city residents.WS . private outdoor space.11 A study into the sustainable system of rural housing in Rincon de Ademuz. whether planning/regeneration policy or housing policy per se. But each house have the phone in own house. as opposed to physical. ‘Building for Life’ assessment. It finds that while all the schemes examined were popular and had no significant management problems. At first. So it is not so much the operation of housing policies as the combination of a range of factors working against the originally planned outcome.uk Affordable housing policy in England has for some time emphasised careful site choice. parking. It is possible to say that the inhabitants changed the public space and keep up their life in the village. design layout and quality vulnerabilities which in the future could become quite serious. internal space and layout. the environmental impact of the new homes and potential problems. there is one telephone shop in one village before. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .ac. Some houses change the space to invite the family who live in the city during in the summer vacation.uk Sarah MONK London School of Economics. For example. exploring aspects such as resident satisfaction and scheme popularity. The electricity. The paper goes on to examine the processes whereby this can happen despite the best of intentions and tracks when and how compromises are made that have lasting impacts. housing tenure mix.tunstall@lse. Wenhao JI Why is it so difficult to create really good places? Recently built affordable housing in England University of Cambridge. the city life and the village life. whether built on previously developed or greenfield sites. United Kingdom r. financial. design and layout. This paper looks at the outcomes in five local authority areas. Recent research on affordable housing delivery in England explored the extent to which affordable housing policy outcomes are actually shaped by policy. with the intention of avoiding past problems in some social housing and standards for new affordable housing are claimed to be higher than those for housing built by private developers. United Kingdom sm23@cam. playspace for children. It is also change the using in the each period. or other constraints. And second.com People say that Rincon de Ademuz is from Roma period. Rebecca TUNSTALL From this evidence the paper concludes that recent new build schemes have been severely constrained by the experience on the ground both of delivering policies aimed at increasing densities and regenerating city centres and by the delivery of affordable housing as an adjunct to market development. home sizes and types.
nl Faculty of Architecture. The data sources are a face-to-face survey of about 200 social tenants of Zonnige Kempen. the United Kingdom (more specifically: England). Canada tsenkova@ucalgary. At the local.nl Anke VAN HAL Faculty of Environmental Design. The Netherlands j. This analysis is part of the CEM project. For social tenants in Flanders and the Netherlands. Sweden. The results of the regression analysis are strongly different for the use of electricity and gas. In a second phase of the research the discovered patterns will be used to identify groups that consume too much energy given their composition. with a focus on how policy ambitions about energy efficiency are brought forward in investment decisions at the estate level. Switzerland. Delft University of Technology.WS . more specifically the use of electricity and gas (for heating) in Flemish social housing. The Netherlands n. Delft University of Technology.h.nieboer@tudelft. Ten countries have been included in this study: Germany.11 Energy efficiency in housing management – conclusions from an international study OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. Australia. The latter – such as the age of the head tenant and the number of children/adults .d. Sasha TSENKOVA Energy use and household characteristics in Flemish social housing Research Institute for Work and Society (HIVA).are more important for explaining the consumption of electricity than the dwelling features. an administrative dataset of the energy consumption and a dataset containing the dwelling characteristics. Belgium kristof. The Netherlands v. Denmark. The state of the art of energy efficiency in the housing management of nonprofit housing organisations and the embedding of energy efficiency to improve the quality and performance of housing in management practices have been investigated. However.vanhal@tudelft. The eventual goal of this project is to draw a communication tool aimed at changing the energy consumption behavior of social tenants. Both descriptive and explanatory statistical techniques are used to explore the link between household attributes and energy consumption.gruis@tudelft. There is a lot of literature on energy saving and other forms of energy efficiency in housing. which is co-financed by the Flemish social housing agency ‘Zonnige Kempen’ and the Dutch housing cooperation ‘Woonwel’.e.be Kristof HEYLEN The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between household characteristics and energy consumption. how to bring this forward in the management of individual housing organisations is not often internationally explored. Catholic university of Leuven.ca Energy efficiency has gained a lot of prominence in recent debates on urban sustainability and housing policy due to its potential consequences for climate change.t. France.nl Nico NIEBOER Vincent GRUIS Faculty of Architecture.m. A more energy efficient consumption behavior can significantly reduce this cost. national and also international level. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . University of Calgary. the Netherlands. Delft University of Technology. Slovenia and the Czech Republic.kuleuven. Regarding gas consumption the effects of the dwelling features are ceteris paribus much stronger than the effects of the household characteristics. there are numerous initiatives to promote energy savings and the use of renewable energy to reduce the environmental burden. This paper presents the conclusions of the research.heylen@hiva. the energy cost is a major part of the monthly housing cost. An international research project has been carried out to find the answers on management questions of housing organisations regarding energy efficiency.
and have the potential to render dysfunctional normal urban redevelopment processes. The objective of this paper is to present early research findings of an ongoing project into gentrification in Hong Kong. an area that has seen significant redevelopment almost exclusively private sector-led. City University of Hong Kong. or rehabilitation of older buildings. and secondly.WS . the URA has undertaken projects of varying sizes. the pace of physical redevelopment of the inner city areas has been slow compared to the pace of economic development particularly over the last three decades. the private sector generally appears to have undertaken comparatively smaller scale inner city redevelopment projects. another inner city precinct that hosts a very large-scale URA mixed commercial redevelopment project with significant economic gravity. on the other hand. but appears to favour very large-scale inner city (re)development projects. appears to have remained economically and socially relatively mixed. however. Kennedy Town. and socially and economically vibrant inner city areas. refurbishment. Kennedy Town. A significant proportion of inner city building stock could objectively be characterized as functionally and physically obsolete when considering the aspirations and changed circumstances of society compared to as little as one generation ago. Early observations suggests that the gravity of Langham Place has transformed the immediate neighbourhood into a regional retail destination.hk Hong Kong is a somewhat paradoxical city in many ways. Langham Place. Hong Kong fredpre@hkucc. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . there appears to be very little systematic upgrading. Unlike conventional urban economics would predict. Together with high levels of economic development. and with the extent of gentrification not particularly acute. and appears to have facilitated very little spontaneous urban redevelopment or conventional neighbourhood social activities.11 Gentrification and Hong Kong’s Inner Urban Areas Adrienne LA GRANGE Department of Public and Social Administration. the Hong Kong Government has tasked the Urban Renewal Authority (URA) to complement private sector urban redevelopment activities.edu. even of those buildings with excellent locations and good potential. (East) Mong Kok. renovation.hku. University of Hong Kong. To increase the pace of and overcome problems associated with the redevelopment of Hong Kong’s inner city areas. with continued steady smaller-scale redevelopment. a vibrant urban economy.hk Frederik PRETORIUS Department of Real Estate and Construction. We consider an initial assessment of the impact of the different forms of redevelopment on the host neighbourhoods. and consider two inner city neighbourhood case studies: first. The slow pace of redevelopment to modern standards is most frequently presented as the result of high costs associated with obtaining agreement from highly fragmented ownership rights in older inner-city multi-storey buildings. Perhaps through the forced constraint of high transaction costs. We view this as early neighbourhood-specific evidence to support our intuition that massively scale-intensive redevelopment projects have quite distinct social and economic impacts on surrounding areas. Hong Kong saalag@cityu. Since its inception.
WORKSHOP — 12 — Migration. Residential mobility and Housing Policy Co-ordinators: Roland Goetgeluk and Maarten van Ham 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
profession. Lisbon. and survival analysis is applied for analyses of duration of progression in the career.com Sandra MARQUES PEREIRA Paulo MARQUES ISCTE. Portugal s. Third.12 Linking integration and housing career. type of family. Lena MAGNUSSON TURNER Innovative tools in the study of residential trajectories: an interactive website to map residential pathways and housing biographies ISCTE. The data is publicly available.no This study will investigate the extent of structural integration of immigrant households in Sweden into the local housing markets through an analysis of their housing careers. Uppsala University. In this sense. 2) disseminate de results of the project. In the study. DINÂMIA-CET. the one we are going to focus on. as well as to resources and preferences of each individual household.Instituto Universitário de Lisboa.WS . Multi-level logistic regression is applied when the probability of being in certain state in the housing career is modelled. First. Lisbon. except when not allowed by the respondent. and welfare policies.Instituto Universitário de Lisboa. Norway lena. Within this item. the information collected has two main purposes: an exploratory and qualitative approach of the theme and the purpose of building an archive of the history of Lisbon’s metropolization. 2) mark your houses in the map and tell your story – here the respondent are invited to mark each house in the map where he lived along his life story. family and work careers and the national housing. DINÂMIA-CET. A longitudinal analysis of some immigrant groups in Sweden Institute for housing and urban research. The data are derived from a longitudinal individuallevel register-based data set maintained by Statistic Sweden. The analysis is carried out by means of statistical multivariate methods. As regards the first of these two functions.. integration. age.m.com This paper presents an innovative website (www. we explore whether the housing careers of immigrant households follow the family and work careers in a similar way compared to the native population.se Lina HEDMAN Institute for housing and urban research.hedman@ibf. Housing conditions are linked to many important life-course events. Portugal pmarques1@gmail. education. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Besides presenting the website as well as it functions we’ll also present and reflect upon some of the testimonies that have already been collected in the project. Housing conditions can also influence integration. Second. and socio-economic and ethnic characteristics of their neighbourhood of residence.com) that was created in the scope of a research project called Residential Trajectories and Metropolization: continuities and changes in the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon (MAL). the website menu has an item called ‘Tell us your Story’. The objective of the study is threefold.uu. we explore the occurrence of systematic differences in housing careers between households with different ethnic background with respect to housing tenure. Sweden lina. native population is used as a control group.turner@nova. the respondent is asked to describe each residence and can upload the images with the same purpose. 3) submit your data and save your trajectory – here we offer the respondent a map with his own residential trajectory as well as its complete housing biography. The website has two main functions: 1) collect individual testimonies about this issue to be complemented with two other more systematic and orthodox methodological tools – a representative survey to the population of MAL followed by in-depth interviews. etc.Norwegian Social Research. we explore the relationship between the housing. such as gender.trajectorias-residenciais. we take a truly longitudinal approach to housing careers by exploring differences in timing of career-related events between immigrants and native Swedes. Uppsala University and NOVA . as well as integration can be a cause of housing conditions. there are three main steps: 1) fill in with your personal data.marquespereira11@gmail.
While the individual perspective of residential mobility has been widely studied. Taking the example of the inhabitants of the rundown condominiums. and 3) the impact on population dynamics and housing demand. Spain ipujadas@ub. residential location choices are therefore strongly influenced by household structure. University of Barcelona.com Using anthropological data and ethnographical research work undertaken in the urban area of Marseille (France). we will try to demonstrate how the housing market creates a form of ‘house arrest’ for people who have migrated. The papers main goal is.edu Cristina LÓPEZ i VILLANUEVA Isabel PUJADAS i RÚBIES Departament de Geografia Humana. native in their majority of the ‘Comores’ or ‘Mayotte’. paying attention on their composition. and single-person households and couples with no children going to urban centers or remaining in them. Jordi BAYONA i CARRASCO Migrants and Residential mobility in Marseille: an impossibility? Centre Norbert Elias. but it is more difficult for migrants. University of Barcelona. University of Barcelona. France leesjohanna@gmail. firstly. The decade studied was characterized by a slow population growth (3%) although the household increase was higher (18%). we will reveal how the migrants manage to inhabit in spite of the housing difficulties and thanks to their social network. Residential mobility is one of the most important factor in the metropolitan municipalities’ growth. and household structure directly affects the characteristics of the demanded housing. Of course. In this context. Johanna LEES U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .12 Households in the residential mobility process: Family structure and housing characteristics in the metropolitan region of Barcelona Departament de Teoria Sociològica. 2) housing characteristics of these households. The consequence of these processes is a demographic differentiation of metropolitan municipalities. the familiar one has not been sufficiently addressed despite their importance in predicting housing characteristics and residential choice. with familiar households moving to new suburbs. This will permit us to show that by the time they arrive in the suburban condominiums the possibility of housing mobility is getting more and more limited. Filosofia del Dret i Metodologia de les CCSS. to analyse family and housing characteristics of the 190. Retracing their residential mobility from the moment they arrived in Marseille to the time of the ethnographical research.edu Departament de Geografia Humana. As residential change reasons are closely linked to family life course. the work includes the analysis of: 1) household’s intra-metropolitan migration dynamics. Spain clopez@ub. we will describe their residential processes. In large metropolitan areas. Marseille.WS . Demonstrating why the situation of migration reinforces the difficulties of residential mobility. with an intense growth of small and outlying towns. municipality size and distance to the central city. there is a clear divergence in the new residence location. Spain email@example.com Household structure is one of the main explanatory variables of location choice in the residential mobility process.719 households which in the 2001 Census can be identified as 1991-2001 intra-metropolitan migrant households (defined through reference persons’ data). EHESS. At the same time residential mobility increases from a rate of 5‰ to 35‰. and then to compare them to those households which did not move. we will also address the theme of tactics and strategies of the migrants in this context to accede to housing. such as the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona (RMB). access to housing and residential mobility is difficult in France because of a lack of affordable housing and of the housing crisis.
To gain greater insight into the contextual factors we therefore also conducted. University of Groningen (RUG). The Netherlands c. that is the various activities (dwelling. including quantitative methods (a quantitative telephone survey of 500 households in each agglomeration). By comparing our analysis of residential lifestyles and the structural/cultural differences between the two metropolitan areas we were able to highlight the impact of context on the spatial distribution of lifestyles at different scales. development of social relations. Methodologically we opted for a comparative approach.Arts@rug. that accessibility gains due to the proximity of the highway compensate for the higher traffic noise annoyance. 50% of the respondents living in noisy areas indicated. University of Groningen (RUG).WS . However.M. the relocation intention itself is rather modest. a survey about the relocation intention of households in three specific Dutch ’highway neigbourhoods’.nl In this paper we assess the effects of highway proximity and related road nuisances on the residential mobility of households in the Netherlands. we highlighted six axes of differentiation for residential preference and seven major ‘residential lifestyles.12 Living near highways: a higher relocation chance? Faculty of Spatial Sciences. Two main groups stood out. Differentiation in lifestyles and residential choices of families in Switzerland Laboratory of Urban Sociology. for instance. rational and social evaluation). However. examining families’ residential choices in different locations and within the two metropolitan areas Lausanne and Bern. University of Groningen (RUG). 0-300 airline distance). Residential choice and residential mobility are considered here as an process through which families evaluate over time the relative ‘qualities’ of a given context in relation with their mode of living.ch Our paper presents the main results of a four years comparative and interdisciplinary research on ‘families’ residential choices’ in Switzerland.e. the data set does not contain any socio-economic characteristics.m. On the one hand we used revealed preference data about actual residential relocations in more than 18. We expect higher relocation rates in the close vicinity of highways because of higher noise and air pollution. more specific research on the way households trade off both positive and negative effects related to road infrastructure would seem to be necessary in order to increase our understanding of the current problems along highways.M. and qualitative methods (40 semi-directive interviews).nl Catherine MALOIR Taede TILLEMA Jos ARTS Faculty of Spatial Sciences. Approximately 3% of the respondents indicated a high likeliness of relocating within 2 years. EPFL. Nevertheless.nl Faculty of Spatial Sciences. residential preferences and localization? Theoretically. This research is based on the observation that the individualization of society that is taking place today has led to new differentiations within the domains of lifestyle and residential choice.000 Dutch postcode zones near highways in the period 2005-2009.b. The groups identified are products of the historical sedimentation of the different ways of relating to the environment that have appeared over time. The principle functional conclusion of this study is that urban planning and housing policies should be adapted according to the diversity of lifestyles. Moreover. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. such as accessibility gains. we found some first indications that negative effects can be compensated for by certain benefits.tillema@rug. mobility practices. Switzerland marie-paule. relocation behaviour seems to depend on households’ current residential satisfaction as well as on the importance that households attach to different constituents of the neighbourhood. we adopt a lifestyle-orientated approach within a framework taking into account the large arrays of ways people relate to the built environment and evaluate its qualities (through body experience. As a result.thomas@epfl. Marie-Paule THOMAS U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . highlighting as such the contrast between ways of living typical of (modern) industrial society and those originating from (post-modern) postindustrial society. We used a mixed-methods design. The Netherlands t.. and so on) shaping their everyday life. The Netherlands E. What connections are there between lifestyles.J. Regarding personal characteristics. Both data sets suggest that actual or intended relocations are higher in the close vicinity of highways (i.maloir@rug.
these changes are the result of processes of birth and mortality. Only a few studies have attempted to link pre-move thoughts to subsequent actual moves. Musterd 1991). Changes in the population composition of a neighbourhood may impact social upgrading and downgrading processes. Lupton and Power. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Partly. and are often held in combination: the factors associated with expecting to move differ depending upon whether the move is also desired (and vice versa).uk Residential mobility theory proposes that individuals express a sequence of moving desires.teernstra@uva. they can be attributed to processes of selective migration and ageing of the population. 2004).g. This study addresses this caveat in literature by examining residential mobility in relation to processes of social upgrading and downgrading in three Dutch cities between 1999 and 2008. Clay 1979. Much research has investigated how individuals form these pre-move thoughts. but these often do not explicitly distinguish between different types and combinations of pre-move thoughts. the relation between residential mobility and neighbourhood characteristics will be examined. School of Geography and Geosciences. since social upgrading and downgrading refer to a rise or decline of the socio-economic status of residents of a neighbourhood (Bassett & Short. University of St Andrews. with a largely separate literature examining actual mobility. University of St Andrews. Using 1998-2006 British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) data. we show that different desire-expectation combinations have different effects on the probability of subsequent moving behaviour.ac. University of Amsterdam.b.nl The population composition of a neighbourhood changes continuously.vanham@st-andrews. Preliminary results show that social upgrading and downgrading is in some neighbourhoods caused through migration movements. United Kingdom maarten. Ley 1986.feijten@st-andrews. A distinction can be made between internal upgrading and downgrading (changes in the socioeconomic status of sitting residents of a neighbourhood) and external upgrading and downgrading (changes in the socio-economic status as a result of migration processes). United Kingdom rcc28@st-andrews. individual and household characteristics from 1999-2008. Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research. 1980. School of Geography and Geosciences. this study investigates whether moving desires and expectations are empirically distinct pre-move thoughts. The study identified two important groups generally overlooked in the literature: those who expect undesired moves and those who desire to move without expecting this to happen.12 On the relationship between residential mobility and processes of neighbourhood change Urban Geographies. Next. The paper will provide tentative explanations for the observed patterns and trends. In addition. few authors actually identify whether neighbourhood change is caused through internal or external processes. Of particular interest is the role of the Dutch government and other non-market led institutions in residential mobility and neighbourhood development.uk Maarten VAN HAM Peteke FEIJTEN Longitudinal Studies Centre-Scotland. The Netherlands a. The study uses data from the Social Statistical Database of the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics. The paper will disentangle these internal and external processes by examining income development and characteristics of households moving in and out and households staying in these neighbourhoods. University of St Andrews.uk Rory COULTER Centre for Housing Research. United Kingdom peteke. Annalies TEERNSTRA A longitudinal analysis of moving desires. but most often. using panel logistic regression models. Using multinomial regression models we demonstrate that moving desires and expectations have different meanings.WS . Although some authors acknowledge this distinction (e. but in other neighbourhoods through changes in the socio-economic status of sitting residents. containing data on income. expectations and actual moving behaviour Centre for Housing Research.ac.ac. intentions and expectations prior to moving. School of Geography and Geosciences.
Ghent University. with consequent changes in occupational structure. were sought. To get an insight into how the community perceives these changes the views of established. were given priority to buy new houses.uk The study focuses on a historically. rather than rented as it has been traditionally. 2000). Stirling. and individuals who have a connection with the area. So the more local spatial contexts become important in the study of gentrification.WS . an element in the relation between the social and the spatial position. The social mix of the area has changed considerably through the rebuilding of sections of the new development as owner-occupation housing. gender relations. Therefore.altenberger@stir. income distribution. as well as capturing the changing sense of this working class community. From a policy perspective this gentrification is seen as a positive development. Belgium isabelle. In the regeneration process part of the council housing estate has been demolished and rebuilt by a private-public partnership.be The continuing economic transformation of major Western cities from manufacturing centers to centers of business services and the creative and cultural industries. it could be argued that the regeneration has a gentrification agenda. Department of Sociology. Using the census data (1960-2001) we try to find answers on these questions. disability and sickness. and at a later stage were interviewed about these. Gentrification is the translation of the economic restructuring in space. changing an area of deprivation and high crime. Even though residents. predominantly working class area in the UK which is currently going through the process of regeneration. the housing market and cultural tastes. data taken from the census of 2001 shows a limited potential for this to happen due to high unemployment. When we linked this with the definition of gentrification. Scotland. Searching for Islands of Renewal in Belgian cities Isabelle PANNECOUCKE Center for Social Theory. The expanded postindustrial middle class has replaced/displaced the industrial working class from desirable inner-city areas in cities where the financial and business and financial services sector has grown rapidly. a geographical concentrated phenomenon compared to post-war urbanization and inner city decline. we can ask ourselves if the gentrifies really fill up the pockets of poverty or does their movement result in new pockets of gentrification? Is gentrification indeed an counter-example of the assumption that filtering is a uni-directional downwards process in which lower income groups move into progressively deteriorated housing? It is also a local phenomenon on the city level because not every city has the same opportunities. A visual research method was used in which residents made photographs of their new environment. as well as new residents of the area. for example the neighbourhood. United Kingdom iris. This qualitative research tool allowed a complex insight into the residents’ perceptions about their changing environment. gentrification is a local phenomenon.pannecoucke@ugent. Although the change of an industrial to a post-industrial city is a global development. Berry (1985) refers to it as Islands of renewal in seas of decay. led to gentrification (Hamnett. Ley (1996: 12) for instance portrays the geography of gentrification as a consequence of processes of international scope (post-industrialism and post-modernism) working in association with local conditions. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Hamnett (1991) states that gentrification is relatively small scale. So we suppose that the process of gentrification will be different in Antwerp and Brussels (a more European orientation).12 Residents’ perception of their regenerated community Iris ALTENBERGER School of Applied Social Science.ac.
France Isabelle BERRY-CHIKHAOUI Sinda HAOUÈS-JOUVE LISST-Cieu. This construction project was undertaken to develop the Avenue Royale. It provides a partial explanation for real-life processes such as white flight and gentrification. It therefore becomes a breeding ground to promote the construction of new local legitimacies. through both political and social interactions. Its construction began in the late 1990's as part of a resettlement program for the displaced inhabitants of the peripheral zone outside of Casablanca's medina. incomplete urban renewal. we will focus on Nassim.fr Drawing on the example of a newly established residential district in the southwestern outskirts of Casablanca. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . So. characterized by a certain degree of social diversity. The bias against or in favor of an area acts as a self-fulfilling prophecy: the make-up of the area changes according to the bias that a minority of agents harbor towards it.goetgeluk@abf. this paper examines the construction of “figures of proximity” in urban peripheries. Important urbanization processes are underway. challenges these processes. The Netherlands marnix. Here. even though we are dealing with the creation of a housing district from scratch. The relocated inhabitants belong to the working classes and represent the vast majority of residents in Nassim. the history of Nassim is nevertheless rooted in the collective history of its original inhabitants .12 Neighbourhood change as a self-fulfilling prophecy PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. They have settled into a new form of collective housing as part of a drive towards home ownership. which has undergone vast urban renewal. The periphery studied here is one of the city's emerging centralities. the construction of figures of proximity in this particular area strongly revolves around the recomposition or the "recycling".nl A modification of Schelling’s Tipping model for residential segregation is presented in this paper. In this context of emerging urbanization. who are housed in more recent mid-range private property development schemes. University of Montpellier III. However. a socially heterogeneous.haoues-jouve@univ-tlse2. Indeed. Delft. they live alongside young.koopman@pbl. we start with the hypothesis that the local anchoring of emerging figures. We will also examine the interferences between the construction of these proximity figures and the coexistence between two socially differentiated populations.WS .nl Marnix KOOPMAN ABF Research. a new central route through Casablanca. France sinda. including the construction of new mixed housing clusters and large-scale facilities suited to the city proper. in which some agents harbor a positive or negative bias towards certain areas. particularly in terms of facilities. the construction of figures of proximity takes on a singular nature. of the figures of proximity from the original neighbourhood. Within the district.a history marked by the forced displacement from the hyper-center to the periphery. takes on the form of a conquest of a still virgin area. within this new context. This variant of the Tipping model illustrates how mere expectations about neighborhood change lead to actual neighborhood change. University of Toulouse II –Le Mirail. The Hague. The exemple of Nassim in the southwestern outskirts of Casablanca ARCDEV. The Netherlands roland. In this conquest. this hypothesis must be nuanced. middle class families. planned housing scheme. Roland GOETGELUK ‘Figures of Proximity’: from Representations of Inhabitants to Territorial Anchorage. The choice of this new residential location is generally motivated by lower land prices as compared to those in the older and more central areas of Casablanca. In this new housing area.
and logistic regressions.nl Gideon BOLT Ronald VAN KEMPEN The social inequality between neighbourhoods in cities is a long-standing concern to policy makers. University of St Andrews. Using survey data from five Dutch cities we therefore examine how the perceived in.vanham@st-andrews. Utrecht University. School of Geography and Geosciences. Insight in the effects of changes of the neighbourhood composition on perceived disorder is however still lacking. School of Social and Environmental Sciences. Using country of birth we also control for an individual’s propensity to make long distance moves during earlier periods of their life course. University of Dundee.WS . The Netherlands h. University of St Andrews. we show that those who migrate over long distances within.uu. We investigate whether Edinburgh has emerged as an occupational escalator region and whether individuals moving there experience more rapid upward occupational mobility than those living and moving elsewhere.posthumus@geo. United Kingdom maarten. however. Special attention will be paid to the influx of ethnic minorities and outflow of natives since previous research showed that the ethnic composition of neighbourhood is an important determinant of the evaluation of neighbourhoods. Using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study. their place of residence. School of Geography and Geosciences. and their occupational performance in the Scottish labour market between 1991 and 2001. Perceived disorder is most common in highly dynamic neighbourhoods.uk Allan FINDLAY Centre for Applied Population Research. This is an important finding as most literature on escalator regions focuses on international mega cities. We also found that Edinburgh is by far the most important regional escalator in Scotland. United Kingdom This paper seeks to unpick the complex relationship between an individual’s migration behaviour.ac. Gentrification literature. linking 1991 and 2001 individual Census records. shows that a high population turnover does not always result in stronger perceptions of disorder. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Population turnover and perceived neighbourhood disorder Hanneke POSTHUMUS Faculty of Geosciences.and out-migration of different types of residents relates to the development of the perceived disorder in neighbourhoods. School of Geography and Geosciences. Many scholars argue that one of the most fundamental causes of social inequality is perceived disorder. United Kingdom Peteke FEIJTEN Longitudinal Studies Centre-Scotland. and regional escalators in Scotland Maarten VAN HAM Centre for Housing Research. United Kingdom David MANLEY Centre for Housing Research. The different effects of population turnover may be explained by the influx and outflow of different types of residents.12 Migration. or to Scotland are most likely to achieve upward occupational mobility. University of St Andrews. occupational mobility.
choices and their perceptions of this process. Which approach has to be carried out to achieve a satisfying situation for all? From the questionnaires in the first study ‘best practice’ models have been developed (2009). a pending notice to quit by the housing association). thousands of Dutch social renters have to deal with forced relocation from their dwellings slated for demolition. It is much debated whether the specific situation of forced relocatees affects their dwelling search in a primarily positive or negative way. furthermore the organization of house – festivities. these relocatees have to find a new dwelling by themselves. the priority status and other legal compensatory mechanisms may strongly favour their position on the housing market above regular. In three municipalities in Lower Austria in social housing buildings it was examined. Utrecht University. which problems could arise and how these can be solved. who have knowledge or are native speakers with the mother-tongue of the persons with migration .at In living together between handicapped and non-disabled persons certain difficulties can arise (mostly for technical reasons).chances Housing Research Unit. On the one hand. we aim to reveal how the specific context and regulations of forced relocation (in urban restructuring) affect relocatees’ search process. As such. Poelten.uu. how . The presentation of the advantages of barrier-free buildings for all humans in the life cycle was discussed.problems . On the other hand. St. the promotion of the understanding among all people. with inter . We draw from a Dutch dataset of 150 in-depth interviews with relocatees in five cities. administrators in the housing management. The Netherlands Each year.12 How displaced residents experience their search process Faculty of Geosciences. In this paper. Georg SCHOERNER U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . the initial trigger is a top down force (i. Delft University of Technology. Something similar problems occur (however more from the social point of view) between humans with and without migration . New activities like e.by different measures – improvements could be done.g. Disabled persons and persons with migration background in social housing Possibilities .strategies pointed out possibilities and it is being considered to modify changes in the system of subsidies.g. Utrecht University.firstname.lastname@example.org. The second study (still in work at present) deals with the fact that in the housing sector in Austria 18% and in Lower Austria 11% of the inhabitants has a so-called migration . The Netherlands H.e. most studies are of a quantitative nature. In the context of the lecture the details and the recommendations derivable from the study will be presented in more details. Moreover.challenges .Posthumus@geo. Two studies (register numbers F-2167 and F-2187 of the Lower Austrian Housing Research Funds) partly examined the phenomena on empirical basis. Conversion . pointed out solutions and suggested criterias. non-urgent house seekers. Earlier studies on forced relocation mainly focused on either positive or negative outcomes of the search process. whereby the return quota reached nevertheless approximately 50%. Austria georg. The Netherlands Faculty of Geosciences. the organization of German courses uvm brought great successes. The Scientific Academy of Lower Austria. Also the role of the social housing companies and organizations were discussed and which improvement of the situation (e. This especially applies to the trade-offs between opportunities and constraints with regard to dwellings and neighbourhoods. Additionally.nl Hanneke POSTHUMUS Reinout KLEINHANS Annelien MEERTS OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. This is an essential part of Dutch urban restructuring policy in early post-war neighbourhoods. The interviews focus primarily on respondents’ relocation choices and the perceived opportunities and constraints. In the paper the details of the final results will be discussed. In addition a detailed evaluation of the questionnaires was done.WS . Their search process is quite different from regular house seekers in the social rented sector. several specific regulations further affect relocatees’ search process and outcomes in ways that are (potentially) different from regular house seekers.ethnic conflicts) could be realizable. facilitated with a priority status and an allowance for relocation costs. and the available qualitative research is often very small-scale. the search process itself and relocatees’ personal experiences in this context are still under-examined. welcome meetings and garden parties. although these residents may already have latent moving intentions. Usually.background.background.
WORKSHOP — 13 — Poverty Neighbourhoods Co-ordinators: Jürgen Friedrichs and George C. Galster 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .
Because the initial assignment of households on the DHA waiting list to either scattered-site or conventional public housing developments mimics a random process. Wayne State University. namely the ‘Experiment Integrative Relocation’ in Rotterdam Pendrecht and ‘Taloir Made Care’ in Breda. MI. GALSTER. Data analyzed come from a large-scale survey of current and former residents of the Denver (CO) Housing Authority (DHA). Cleveland. The second source provides a variety of neighborhood indicators measured at two spatial scales. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Delft University of Technology. so that neighborhood context can be richly operationalized in our multivariate statistical models. this program represents an unusual natural experiment holding great potential for overcoming selection bias in the measurement of neighborhood effects. though relationships differ substantially by gender and ethnicity. little research has been done on the practice of this approach and the experiences of concerned households.edu George C. urban restructuring should deal with encountered individual/household problems to ensure that problems are not simply dispersed to other areas and promote the upward social mobility of residents. the so-called ‘waterbed effects’ (i. Wayne State University. numerous questions remain as to the magnitude of such effects and the mechanisms by which these effects transpire across developmental stages. the forced relocation of households gives housing associations and other urban renewal actors the opportunity to get ‘behind the front door’ of their clients and offer them supportive services beyond basic relocating counselling. Delft University of Technology. we also try to find out whether the new approach lowers the risk of the occurrence of negative spill-over effects. We have interviewed both professionals and residents in order to study the ways in which integrative service delivery affects (former) residents of poverty neighbourhoods. Neighborhood Effects on Secondary School Outcomes for Latino and Black Youth Department of Urban Studies and Planning. USA Anna M.WS . OH. In this paper. The first source provides retrospective information on outcome variables and family characteristics. CUTSINGER Despite the rapidly expanding social scientific literature that focuses on neighborhood effects on an array of child outcomes. Detroit. We find that a variety of outcomes at secondary-school ages are associated with several contemporaneously measured aspects of neighborhood environment. Detroit. Mandel School of Social Science Case. The Netherlands Reinout KLEINHANS Recently.doff@tudelft. At the same time. DHA has operated since 1969 a large number of scattered-site public housing units located throughout the City and County of Denver.926 black and Latino children who resided in Denver public housing for a substantial period during their childhood. Our analysis is based on a sample of 1. The study collected information from: (1) 745 telephone surveys with current and former DHA tenants and (2) US census and local Denver administrative databases related to the characteristics of neighborhoods.13 Behind the front door: a new approach in urban renewal OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment.galster@wayne. We will discuss the implications of our findings for research and housing policy. By doing so. we contribute to this literature by using a natural experiment in Denver to quantify the relationships between various measures of neighborhood context and secondary educational outcomes.nl Wenda DOFF OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. gender and ethnicity. In this paper we discuss two cases in which the new approach has been applied. While the literature stresses the importance of such social assistance. SANTIAGO Department of Sociology. the relocation of social problems connected to relocated households). USA Jackie M. The Netherlands w. Western Reserve University. USA george. MI. Alongside physical upgrading. Dutch urban renewal policies have witnessed a change in approach.e.
key issues emerge related to the management of grants for community-led transformation through collaboration between multiple stakeholders. the paper provides insights into the impact of the community coalition on local youth behaviors.hedman@ibf.C is assessed using comparative data from various community stakeholders. we estimate parameters of this model using instrumental variables in a fixed-effect panel analysis employing annual data on 90.se George GALSTER Wayne State University. how the initiative has facilitated the development of new community leaders.438 working-age males in Stockholm over the 1995-2006 period. Uppsala University. To overcome the biases from geographic selection and endogeneity. businesses and resident groups seeking to utilize local assets for social revitalization of large low-income housing estates. ‘Flourishing Together’: Integrating Community Strategies into Youth-Violence Prevention in South-East Washington D. thus providing a holistic model of phenomena that previously have been fragmented into neighborhood effects and neighborhood choice literatures. though both associations are stronger for higher-income individuals. Detroit. we find that the magnitudes of these effects are substantially altered when taking selection and endogeneity biases into account. The apparent effect of percentage low-income neighbors on personal income is not only altered (although still negative) but we find evidence of a non-linear relationship that is not seen when not controlling for endogeneity.WS .tj. MI george. Sweden lina. We find evidence of both neighborhood effect and neighborhood sorting. variations in income become more strongly positively associated with percentage of high-income neighbors chosen but less negatively associated with percentage of low-income neighbors. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .13 Neighborhood Income Sorting and the Effects of Neighborhood Income Mix on Income: A Holistic Empirical Exploration Lina HEDMAN IBF. In this research paper. providing lessons for public policy makers. Through a combination of qualitative content analysis of interviews. Australia gerard. but more importantly. non-profits. Gerard MCCARTHY Department of Government.com In the context of diminished budgetary funding for social services in cities across the US. In the process.C. new models of funding community services are being explored that seek to revitalize high-crime areas whilst utilizing minimal financial resources. the utility of a coalition of non-profits for delinquency prevention in two large public housing projects in south-east Washington D. and the impact of the grant upon local inter-stakeholder coordination. University of Sydney. focus groups and assessment of available quantitative data. Our results suggest that no negative effect exists when the share of lowincome neighbors is below 20 percent but becomes more substantial when it exceeds 50 percent.edu We specify an econometric model in which an individual’s income and the income mix of the neighborhood in which the individual resides are email@example.com@gmail. When taking endogeneity into account.uu.
nl Andre OUWEHAND In many deprived urban neighbourhoods in the Netherlands strategies are deployed to attract higher income groups from outside the neighbourhood. This study will focus specifically on mobility into and out of disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Scotland. Understanding selective mobility into and out of deprived neighbourhoods Centre for Housing Research. Survey data and in-depth interviews with the residents of the complex are used to investigate their place attachment.WS .bosch@tudelft. Using individual level data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS).a. Secondly. will help to assess the effects of mixing strategies. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . The Netherlands e. which is seriously hampered by the impact of selective mobility on how individuals access certain neighbourhoods. we will describe mobility into and out of disadvantaged areas. and suggest how the results of selective mobility studies can be integrated into neighbourhood effects estimation. This paper focuses on the ways in which residents of a recently constructed middle class semi-gated community in a poor Rotterdam neighbourhood experience.manley@st-andrews. United Kingdom Maarten van HAM There are a number of literatures that would benefit from a better understanding of selective mobility into and out of disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Watt). The second is concerned with socio-economic and ethnic segregation of neighbourhoods.nl Eva BOSCH OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. using the importance of scale in neighbourhood outcomes we will use two conceptualisations of neighbourhood. either because of limited resources or other constraints. the study acknowledges the different ideas of disadvantage by proposing two measures: The first measure uses absolute disadvantage for outcomes across the whole of Scotland. Those households who enter deprived neighbourhoods have little choice over the neighbourhood that they enter.uk David MANLEY Centre for Housing Research. Delft University of Technology.m. United Kingdom d. One of the greatest challenges in this literature is the identification of causal effects. University of St Andrews.13 ‘At home in the oasis’. Delft University of Technology. Sense of home and belonging in a middle class complex in a poor neighborhood OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment.l..ac. We then model mobility outcomes to identify which individuals are most at risk of entering and which individuals are most likely to leave disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Understanding how people can feel connected and disconnected to a neighborhood where income levels are much lower than their own. And the third investigates neighbourhood effects. value and perform boundaries between their dwelling domain and the neighbourhood around it.ouwehand@tudelft. Scotland. and once in a deprived neighbourhood many households find it difficult to leave. but less is known about choice in relation to neighbourhoods. various ethnographic studies conclude that these higher income households moving to poor urban areas often remain symbolically and practically disengaged from the wider neighbourhood and its residents (Savage e. Scotland. We contribute to our understanding of mobility in two ways. We demonstrate how neighbourhood selection plays a large part in increasing our understanding of apparent causal pathways behind neighbourhood effects. The second uses relative disadvantage for outcomes within local housing markets. The Netherlands a. University of St Andrews. sense of home and sense of belonging in their new environment. However. Firstly. The first is concerned with housing choice: there is a large body of literature examining how households make housing choices in terms of what types of dwellings they access.
mutman@gmail. especially in policy debates. The paper begins by developing a theoretical framework to highlight the multidimensional quality of urban transformation and gentrification. This article examines the process of ‘social and spatial restructurings’ as called by the authors in inner-city housings of Istanbul as part of a larger phenomenon. Old town centers serve for the main tourist attraction. Its particular focuses are gentrification and the process of regeneration by which historical housing districts are reclaimed through rehabilitation. Consequently as the planning policies and the missions of decision makers’ appear to overlap. Like the cases elsewhere. for instance. Thus. Dealing with this framework. Neighbourhood Effects.arthurson@flinders. internationalization. In Turkey over the last twenty years. Australia Kathy. both that are located at the historic peninsula of the city. Adelaide.com Urban environments have become the prime reflectors of social and economic change in the world today. or help their neighbours’ (Johnston 2008: 17).edu. turguth1@gmail. This paper provides an overview of neighbourhood renewal policies in Australia. Turkey demet. This situation is touted as more beneficial for disadvantaged groups than where homogeneity dominates.13 A Social And Spatial Re-Structuring In Inner-City Residential Areas: The Case Of Istanbul Archis Interventions SEE Network. may force residents with different lifestyles into closer proximity within the neighbourhood. this paper examines different implementation processes between two different projects in the city of Istanbul. Istanbul. the second half of the paper turns to a discussion of some of the more practical and unexpected consequences of the implementation of renewal policies at the local neighbourhood level. This seems a pertinent statement to start this paper with as the opposite rationale often underlies current support for urban renewal initiatives in Australia that are linked to the idea of neighbourhood effects. Bahcesehir University. Istanbul. The projects are targeted to boost the economy and to help cities compete internationally. In this milieu policy makers and planners argue that there are benefits in thinning out spatial concentrations of impoverished tenants through lowering concentrations of social housing and developing mixed income communities with greater heterogeneity of residents across different housing tenures and income levels. The research findings suggest that such polices need to be implemented carefully if conflict between residents is to be avoided. Faculty of Design and Architecture.com Demet MUTMAN Hulya TURGUT Department of Architecture. and the rapid flow of information have had a significant effect on the city of Istanbul and its people. Flinders University of South Australia. Revising the mix. Either mixed-use residential areas or business zones did easily became gentrified spaces. These changes surely exposes that the economics brings the rapid urbanization as well as the transformation processes. and the waterfronts are turned into modern gates of the cities. It is argued that there are also some key implications of changes to housing tenure and socioeconomic mix that have been given little consideration in current debates. the disruptive quality of such restructuring processes has been exacerbated by the government’s decision to embrace urban transformation as a tool to speed the country’s integration into the global economy. It compares the approaches of two such efforts in Istanbul’s Fener-Balat and Suleymaniye neighborhoods. and the links made with the neighbourhood effects literature. Turkey. social segregation and spatial fragmentation is often exposed on sites. exploring the rationales underlying these policies. talk with. globalization. Social Segregation and Social Mix: Assessing the Evidence in Australian Urban Renewal Policies Southgate Institute for Health Society and Equity. Many investments are being done to reshape the cityscapes in means to increase the quality of life and to expand the opportunities for higher socio-economic uses. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . which have thus far received limited attention.au Kathy ARTHURSON ‘[g]ovts cannot make people like.WS .
School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning. schools as institutions. and accessibility subscores for neighborhoods tenants resided in until 2000. in one of the developed world’s least socially mobile societies.edu Julia KOSCHINSKY Emily TALEN Promoting affordable housing in sustainable communities that are accessible. Keith KINTREA Are poor educational and employment outcomes related to poor accessibility of schools and jobs? Reanalyzing MTO results in Chicago GeoDa Center for Geospatial Analysis and Computation. the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment. Tempe. dense and diverse to help improve tenant outcomes has become a central urban priority of the Obama Administration’s housing agencies. It addresses the question whether the lack of improvement in job and school outcomes in this experiment is related to a lack of accessibility to jobs and schools in low-poverty neighborhoods.13 Young People’s Aspirations in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods: Evidence from three British cities Urban Studies. plus surveys of their parents and semi-structured interviews with school staff. Scotland. and local opportunity structures come together to shape aspirations in deprived urban areas. The aspirations for education are generally to stay on in school education.ac.uk This paper aims to explore the relationship between young people’s aspirations in relation to education and employment. especially in the local authority areas on their doorsteps. This paper starts to close the gap between these literatures by reanalyzing data from the largest federal randomized control trial on neighborhood effects in recent years. By helping to identify a broader set of neighborhood measures related to tenant outcomes. United Kingdom Keith. The idea that aspirations are a key to higher achievement and can be raised by public policy was a theme of many Labour government policy papers in the 2000s and has been continued by the Conservative-led coalition elected last year. individual characteristics. jobs and other key destinations across MTO tenants’ moves. The schools were used as a point of access to young people living in disadvantaged areas. Glasgow and Nottingham. 2) many tenants frequently moved from their initial low-poverty neighborhoods back into higher poverty areas. We apply 1994-2000 Tier 1 MTO data for Chicago and focus on several interesting aspects of the initial 2000 MTO outcomes: 1) neither employment nor education outcomes improved as a result of a move to low-poverty neighborhoods. and the contexts in which they are formed.g. walkable. the siting of affordable housing. It builds on a conceptual paper which was presented at ENHR Prague 2009. an exploratory part that assesses the extent of accessibility of schools. We then extend this analysis through a statistical model that builds on Clampet-Lundquist and Massey’s (2008) specification and takes into account how long tenants resided in different neighborhood environments. again in proportions far greater than actually exist in the labour market. in far greater proportions than the number who are ever likely to attend. research on sustainable urban form and neighborhood effects has been conducted in parallel with little overlap. there are also important differences between the three contexts. At the same time. However. contrary to expectations.koschinsky@asu. University of Glasgow. take a clutch of exams and go to university. We regress employment/education outcomes in 2000 on baseline results. and place-based initiatives. aspirations among young people in the three locations are very high. USA julia. We find that. The findings are a challenge to the picture that has often been drawn by politicians and policy makers of a problem of low aspirations among young people from disadvantaged areas. Arizona State University. We conduct the analysis in two parts: One. with the lowest aspirations being found in white working class Nottingham and the highest among a largely migrant community in London.WS .Kintrea@glasgow. School of Social and Political Sciences. for housing voucher counseling. and 3) a potential mismatch between higher socio-economic status and lower school and job accessibility. The aspirations for jobs are generally to get professional and managerial jobs. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . this analysis has policy-relevant implications. connected. especially in outlying areas. The paper presents data collected in a two-stage survey in three secondary schools in London. The study was based on the premise that if there is a desire to incorporate aspirations into public policy there is a need to understand better the circumstances in which they are shaped. about whether and how such high aspirations can be achieved. set within three distinctive labour markets. e. It seeks to explore how parental circumstances and attitudes. But at the same time they raise important questions.
The New Stigma of Relocated Public Housing Residents: Challenges to Social Identity in Mixed-Income Developments Naomi BARTZ Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences. However. tenure structure. mixed-income housing seeks to reduce the stigma associated with residency in traditional public housing. We demonstrate that this new form of stigma has generated a range of coping responses as relocated public housing residents seek to maintain eligibility while buttressing their social identity. Case Western Reserve University. The negative response of higher-income residents. social mobility can be promoted among former public housing residents and the local neighborhood economy and infrastructure can be revitalized. we find this is not the case.uk Mark LIVINGSTON Ade KEARNS Urban Studies. Public housing residents have long experienced stigma as members of a social ‘underclass. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . University of Glasgow. The strategy of mixing incomes and tenures on the footprint of large public housing estates is meant to attract residents with higher incomes back to neighborhoods that have been socially and economically marginalized while maintaining affordable and public housing for lower income residents. amplifies the sense of difference that many residents feel in these contexts. The results have number of implications for policy on social mix and for neighbourhood policy in general. neighbourhood characteristics and crime rates: Evidence from Glasgow Urban Studies.firstname.lastname@example.org Mark JOSEPH Robert CHASKIN Mixed-income housing is an urban revitalization strategy that is being increasingly implemented across Europe and the U. United Kingdom Jon BANNISTER Policies on social mix are wide spread across Britain and Europe where mix is perceived as having a number of benefits. School of Social and Political Sciences. Through in-depth interviews with relocated public housing residents and observations at three mixed-income developments in Chicago. United Kingdom Urban Studies. This paper aims to add to this debate and reports on research which examines the association between neighbourhood and structural characteristics (including tenure) crime rates in Glasgow. Stigma associated with living in public housing is ameliorated. Scotland. The study models crime rates with a number of area structural variables including: population composition. there is little evidence. The research used data on tenure from the census and the council tax register from two years (2001 and 2008) and crime rates from the same time period at a neighbourhood level (datazones: average population of 600 people). of the benefits of tenure and social mix on crime or antisocial behaviour.WS . University of Glasgow. Cleveland. yet residents report that their experience of stigma has intensified in other ways. especially for those in lower socio-economic groups. University of Glasgow. built form and area deprivation. United Kingdom mark.ac. School of Social and Political Sciences. The mechanism which has been used to affect this change in social mix has been changing tenure structure. School of Social and Political Sciences. Scotland. along with stringent screening and rule enforcement.13 Tenure mix. It is hoped that.’ By deconcentrating poverty and integrating residents into developments in which their residences are indistinguishable from neighbors.S. through this strategy.joseph@case. USA mark. as yet. Scotland. One of the benefits of increasing mix is thought to be a decrease in crime and antisocial behaviour as a result of increasing collective efficacy and positive peer influence. In Britain policy in this area has been focused on increasing social mix in the most deprived areas.
and demographics.WS . in which adolescents are surveyed about their behaviour and relationships with friends and parents. may lead to more problematic behaviour. Neighbourhood effects on school achievement mediated by problematic behaviour and parenting Jaap NIEUWENHUIS Urban Geography department. institutions. Scotland. and that the included individual and family characteristics explain more than the included neighbourhood characteristics. the Netherlands j. University of Glasgow.uk Many studies indicate that people who do regular physical activity have better mental health and wellbeing than those who are inactive. consistent.nl Neighbourhood research on social outcomes often comes to the conclusion that not all the neighbourhood level variance was explained. neighbourhood and community characteristics and perceptions. using the family stress model. Utrecht University. University of Glasgow.13 Physical activity and mental wellbeing in deprived neighbourhoods Philip MASON Urban Studies.ac. First. School of Social and Political Sciences.500 respondents living in 15 deprived neighbourhoods of Glasgow. And second. We test this using the HBSC data of 2009 (N=2991). Scotland. and involved. trough these characteristics. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . In this paper we predict the effect of the neighbourhood on high school achievement to be mediated by parenting and problematic behaviour. such as aggression and substance use. We address these interrelationships using data from around 4. on the condition that the neighbourhood has an indirect effect on educational outcomes. residential. which influences their child rearing behaviour in such a way that it is less supportive. relatively low levels of both physical activity and poor mental health are found in areas of high deprivation. Additionally. real estate value.kearns@glasgow. a lack of social control in disadvantaged neighbourhoods and the influence of deviant peers. such as neighbourhood resources. their parents are interviewed about their child and their email@example.com. however. which includes information on a wide variety of topics on the neighbourhood level. It is possible that the remainder of the neighbourhood level variance can be explained by including the individual and family level characteristics. UK – areas that undergoing different types of restructuring.nieuwenhuis@geo. and more hostile and coercive. while mental wellbeing was measured on the Warwick-Edinburgh Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS). We propose two mediating factors: parenting strategies and problematic behaviour. We examine these outcomes against a background of personal. Measures of physical activity were obtained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ).uk Ade KEARNS Urban Studies. This data is combined with the Real Estate Monitor. This leads to the proposition that important characteristics are missing in current analyses. United Kingdom phil. School of Social and Political Sciences. United Kingdom ade. and that these characteristics perhaps should be found on the individual and family level. we predict more stress and poorer mental health for parents living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Both poor parenting and problematic behaviour may create vulnerability of youth in accumulating the social capital needed to achieve social mobility. The relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing specifically in deprived areas has been less thoroughly studied.uu. This is of particular relevance in circumstances where urban regeneration programmes offer opportunities for creating environments that may enhance both physical activity and mental health. and additionally.
which ‘guarantees’ have been offered by the developer to make the risks acceptable for them? What is the impact of homogeneity in class for the heterogeneity in ethnic characteristics? What is the impact of lifestyle and what are the limits to diversity? We use survey data. physical and environmental factors. In particular. Delft University of Technology.13 ‘Limited diversity?’ Representation and reputation of diversity in a disadvantaged neighbourhood Andre OUWEHAND OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. evaluation could be a good instrument to test the changes in well-being of the residents after these interventions program.ouwehand@tudelft. has a prominent position in strategies to enhance the quality of life in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Evaluation of Urban Regeneration Policy: the case of Neighborhood Law in Catalonia (Spain) Montse SIMÓ Department of Sociology.m. Which assets of the project have been most convincing for buyers to take the risk of investment in a neighbourhood with a weak reputation.nl Eva BOSCH OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment.bosch@tudelft. unemployment. University of Barcelona. but also other social. Delft University of Technology. interviews with professionals and in-depth interviews with the residents of the complex to analyse how diversity is being represented. multiple actors and actions involved.edu Poverty and social exclusion are related terms. Although both concepts have different meanings. The Netherlands e. in some neighborhoods. etc. high dependency of social subsidies. Moreover. This risk is not only provoked by economic factors. the paper shows up to what extent the policy has contributed to slow down social and spatial segregation of these places. The main objective of this communication is to present an evaluation of the results achieved through the implementation of this policy in Catalonia (Spain). although a contested concept. Summarizing. the Netherlands. The Netherlands a. developed to attract a higher income group from outside the neighbourhood using ethnic diversity as an asset of the architectural and spatial characteristics of the project as well as an asset of the neighbourhood. such as low incomes. Spain msimo@ub.WS . The methodology has a global and integral character due to the complexity of the problem.nl Social mixing. But how is this policy being implemented when developing houses for better of households under market conditions in a neighbourhood with a weak reputation? What kind of social mix or diversity is being expressed? What is the role of ‘branding’ in these processes and which lifestyles are being addressed? In this paper we focus on a project in Rotterdam. people who are living there have a risk of social exclusion.l. 2004) is an urban regeneration policy that promotes an integral regeneration process in these areas to avoid urban deterioration and improve the conditions of life of residents. Neighborhood Law (la Llei de Barris. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . the proposal aims to analyze if the policy has provoked a turning point in the deprivation process to which the neighborhood was affected. constructed and perceived.
While research generally shows that the households that were forced to move report improvements in dwelling conditions and – to a lesser extent – in neighbourhood conditions. based on their position in the social and physical words. Utrecht University. Indeed. this paper provides insight in the programme effects of urban restructuring on the social contacts and leisure activities of different categories of youth and will look at whether these effects prevail in the long run. 62) captures the importance of understanding the social dimensions of climate change: The crux of vulnerability…is as follows: people stand to experience impacts from hazards of global change in varying degrees that fall along a spectrum from positive to negative. The findings indicate that in the short run after moving the youth that was forced to move experienced a loss of social contacts and decreased their leisure activities but that in the long run they were able to ‘catch up’ again with the control group that was not forced to move. The work by Clark et al. economic and environmental issues the impacts of climate change are not evenly shared within and between urban areas. As a consequence residents of these neighbourhoods are forced to move. Utrecht University. A case study in Utrecht. more expensive housing is constructed. in which this paper is based. We compare the situation of forced movers over the last ten years with a control group of voluntary movers and non-movers. Like all social. It presents contextual and empirical findings from a case study of the South East Queensland region in Australia focusing on the importance of understanding the implications of climate change vulnerability for poverty neighborhoods U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .nl Gideon BOLT Faculty of Geosciences. Did they loose friends or did they have to quit their leisure activities after moving and were they able to make new friends and adopt new activities again in their new neighbourhood? Therefore. little is known how moving affects the social contacts and leisure activities of youth. The Netherlands kirstenvisser@geo. climate change and understanding how communities might adapt to change will become one of the increasingly important research areas for those interested in understanding the place of poverty neighborhoods in contemporary times.WS . many of the social and economic characteristics associated with disadvantaged neighborhoods are closely implicated with understanding the potential negative impacts of climate change. The Netherlands In many Dutch cities urban restructuring policies are adopted aimed at creating a social mixed population in deprived neighbourhoods.13 The Effects of Urban Restructuring on Social Contacts and Leisure Activities of Youth. Griffith University. The research has taken place in Utrecht. Utrecht University. Brisbane. social rented dwellings are demolished and new. the Netherlands. The Netherlands Ronald VAN KEMPEN Faculty of Geosciences. It is within this context. Australia There has been a long understanding between notions of well-being and human security and the lives of people and households in deprived communities.uu. The Netherlands Kirsten VISSER Faculty of Geosciences. Low-cost. As a growing area of inter-disciplinary research. (1998. Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation: What is the concern for poverty neighborhoods? Scott BAUM Centre for Environment and Population Health.
havekes@uu. This paper examines the relationships between neighbourhood disorder. we differentiate between various ethnic subgroups inhabiting a neighbourhood.g. Outcomes contribute to existing literature in two ways. Secondly. Wagner et al 2006)..nl Karien DEKKER Department of Sociology / ICS. We perform multilevel analyses on the 2005 survey Life Situation of Ethnic Minority City Residents (LAS 2005. 2001).13 Attitudes between residents of five distinct ethnic groups: the impact of neighbourhood disorder and ethnic neighbourhood composition Esther HAVEKES Department of Sociology / ICS. Utrecht University. Particularly. The Netherlands Marcel COENDERS Department of Sociology / ICS. the relative size and type of ethnic groups.e.. we test the argument of the racial proxy thesis (Harris.a. 2001).WS . 2000. The Netherlands e. Research. e. The social disorganization theory (Shaw & McKay. Studies on ethnic relations have investigated the influence of the share of ethnic minorities in a neighbourhood on prejudicial attitudes of majority residents (e. Utrecht University. indeed. Firstly. and to specific subgroups in particular. i. they disregarded the deprived socioeconomic and physical environment in which residents commonly interact.g.. Antilleans and native Dutch.g. The Netherlands In times of growing ethnic diversity and ethnic tensions there is a need for a better understanding of ethnic attitudes within urban neighbourhoods. which states that unfavourable ethnic attitudes may derive from the frustration with local problems in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. we analyse the relative impact of the ethnic composition and neighbourhood disorder for ethnic attitudes. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . ethnic neighbourhood composition and attitudes between members of five ethnic groups in the Netherlands. covering 1.435 neighbourhoods in the 50 largest cities in the Netherlands. satisfaction and feelings of safety (e.. However. Ross et al. Surinamese. We examine to what extent the relationship between neighbourhood disorder and ethnic attitudes depends on the particular structure of a neighbourhoods’ ethnic makeup. Moroccans. on the influence of neighbourhood disorder for attitudes between members of various ethnic groups in a neighbourhood. indicates that residents of disorderly neighbourhoods report lower levels of trust. We argue that the response to bad neighbourhood conditions may include aversion to neighbourhood residents of other ethnic groups in general. N=4. Utrecht University. though. rather than the actual presence of other ethnic groups. Turks. Pettigrew et al 2010. Previous attempts remain inconclusive.097). 1969) states that particularly these visible elements of neighbourhood disorder affect residents’ attitudes.
Homelessness and Social Exclusion Co-ordinators: Isobel Anderson. Evelyn Dyb and Joe Finnerty 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E .WORKSHOP — 14 — Welfare Policy.
ac. culminating in the publication of the Pathway to Home implementation plan in 2009 and the Pathway to Home: new configuration of homeless services in Dublin 2010. in some it has simply meant that cases that would previously have been recorded as homeless acceptances are reclassified as homeless preventions. Department of Land Economy. In some local authorities the service has improved the assistance provided. it is possible to make recommendations in relation to the ‘Pathways’ approach currently being implemented. Cambridge. The research explored the impact of the use of Housing Options services on the way victims of domestic violence who become homeless are assisted by local authorities. Dublin. Department of Land Economy. The paper discusses the homelessness legislation in England.uk Gemma BURGESS Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research. This paper sets out to analyse the change in policy direction in the context of homelessness models ranging from linear or staircase to the ‘housing first’ model and places Ireland as best it can within the framework. Changes in Irish Homeless Policy: What next for homeless people with a high level of needs? Niamh MURPHY Respond! Housing Association.murphy@respond. niamh. even though the same help may in fact be provided. and in some areas the service has had a negative impact for domestic violence victims and has been used by local authorities to ‘gatekeep’ and avoid meeting their legal duties. which requires local authorities to assess whether people without children who lose their homes as a result of domestic violence are ‘vulnerable’ in order to be considered to be in priority need for housing assistance. it appears that those with the highest level of need. Many victims approach a local authority for help with housing. Housing Options services have been developed extensively in the UK over the past five to ten years with a focus on preventing homelessness and addressing it with a wider range of solutions.ie With the aim of ending long-term homelessness and the need to sleep rough in Ireland. The new Irish policy will be critiqued in relation to the international research on these models and their positive and/or negative effects on shortening the homeless careers of the most vulnerable homeless people. It found that Housing Options services have had mixed results.14 Routes to safety for homeless victims of domestic violence in England Anna CLARKE Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research. However. However. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . United Kingdom Domestic violence is a major cause of homelessness in England. Therefore. As the reconfiguration of homeless services is still underway. the full effects will not be felt for a number of years. including greater use of the private rented sector. such as active drug users and people with significant mental health difficulties. a closer look at the Support to Live Independently (SLI) scheme shows that it is only aimed at those with a low to medium level of needs. At first glance Ireland seems to be moving towards a ‘housing first’ model of provision. United Kingdom acc44@cam. Ireland.WS . Cambridge. a range of policy documents and evaluations on homeless services have been published over the last number of years. The research found that the vulnerability legislation is ambiguous and local authorities often find it difficult to apply in relation to domestic violence. are still using a service that is more closely aligned with a staircase model rather than ‘housing first’. in order to ensure that the most vulnerable benefit from the reconfiguration of services in terms of obtaining and maintaining independent homes.
parkinson@rmit. has long been considered the benchmark for determining the overall effectiveness and efficacy of a particular treatment. Irish homelessness policy at a crossroads Joe FINNERTY School of Applied Social Studies. provision and population impacts going forward. In the paper we first outline the J2SI model. This desk-based policy review will explain the evolution of Irish homelessness policy. Ireland j. Some preliminary baseline data are presented on the profile of participants in the J2SI and study control groups. RMIT University.14 Evaluating homeless service interventions: towards an integrated framework for linking processes and outcomes Sharon PARKINSON Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. The Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT). and assess the prospects for directions in policy. While the RCT is becoming increasingly applied to the evaluation of complex social interventions. This paper presents the evaluation methodology of the Journey to Social Inclusion (J2SI) pilot program which provides long-term (3 years). most traditionally associated with a medical model of evidence-based practice. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . intensive support to 40 people experiencing chronic homelessness. RMIT University.au Guy JOHNSON Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Australia Greater emphasis on evidence-based practice within social policy interventions has increased the need for programs aimed at preventing and alleviating homelessness to demonstrate their overall benefit in terms of cost-effectiveness and the difference they make to the lives of those participating.finnerty@ucc. University of Melbourne. Australia sharon. We then discuss the approach and ethical implications associated with the random assignment of 88 chronically homeless clients to either the J2SI program or a ‘service as usual’ study control group whom are both followed longitudinally over the duration of the three year trial. Australia Y. Melbourne. many studies relying on this approach have neglected to explain how the various service elements and activities implemented in these programs bring about positive outcomes for clients. The paper concludes with a discussion of how service process elements will be matched to the longitudinal study of client outcomes. review relevant theory and research.WS .ie Irish homelessness policy currently stands at a crossroads: the ambitious national policy targets set for 2010 in relation to rough sleeping and use of hostels have not been achieved. and the deepening fiscal crisis of the Irish state threatens to undermine policy achievements to date. Our aim is to illustrate how some of the weaknesses inherent in studies focusing on outcomes alone can be minimised through the application of a well integrated process-outcomes evaluation framework. TSENG Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research. including homeless service responses.edu. University College Cork. Melbourne.
Secondly. The "Prevention of vagrancy and social rehabilitation of persons with no fixed abode. Protvino. both European metropolises.WS . municipal and territorial state bodies. social cohesion. The experience in Barcelona has been taken up as a successful example by the municipal government of Lyon. occupation and livelihood" draft bill had been prepared by 2008 and still has not been approved. There are two key issues on this way. However. Russia akollegova@mail. In fact. NGOs and other organizations in Russia which take part in nongovernmental care of the homeless have rich experience not only in formulating effective policies of rehabilitation (documents renewal.fr Fatiha BELMESSOUS Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. combined with a ‘monumentalisation of the periphery’. Due to these and other factors. France fatiha.cat Today’s main focus on urban renewal projects has been partly on creating and managing the public spaces of cities. organizations which help the vulnerable and at-risk do exist and work in practically every major Russian city. Moscow Region.) but also in overcoming people’s hostility. In Lyon the so-called ‘développement social urbain’ is about the interventions in the large scale housing estates combined with the improvements of the city centre spaces. Spain Teresa. there is no official strategy or support program which could be approved by authorities on the national level. the disputed nature of public spaces and the various ways in which they can be designed and developed.14 Public spaces development in Lyon (France) and Barcelona (Spain): a successful strategy against social exclusion and urban poverty? Université de Lyon / ENTPE (CNRS 5600). mass media form the distorting image of ‘BOMZH’ and extrapolate their imperfections. Russian society is faced with the growing problem of homeless’ stigmatization and violence to them. The homeless are generally faced with indifference and hostility from ordinary people. Anna KOLLEGOVA U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Barcelona and Lyon. Therefore official policymakers are well advised to engage in close dialogue with such organization as experts in solving this very serious problem. etc. On the level of people: their use of the public spaces as well as their involvement in their design are taken into account. First of all. charity funds. food service. They have been at the centre of debates concerning the privatization of space. the main challenge now for public authorities is the reanimation of the process of legal regulating the homeless’ status on the national level. Teresa TAPADA BERTELI Homeless Resocialization Policy in Russia National Research University High School of Economics. The paper is based on a research in progress about the effects of the urban renewal in Lyon and Barcelona. We suggest opening a critical debate by questioning some concepts (social mix. We can point to a wide range of such organizations: NGO. The design and implementation of complex programs that will promote tolerant attitude towards vulnerable and homeless people is also important. keeping the state care system for the homeless still just within the realm of discussion. gentrification and segregation) in order to tackle the nature and the meanings of public space policies referring to them. As for the political discourse: In both cases the interventions are implemented to reach social justice and inclusion through urban development tools. Some parallels can be drawn in the light of these cities focusing on the interventions on public spaces at different levels within the city centre and peripheral large scale housing estates: On a city-wide level intervention: In Barcelona the goal is to regenerate the urban core through ‘esponjament’ through selective demolitions. religious organizations. in affect appealing to character defect as a justification of their condition. employment assistance.belmessous@entpe.Tapada@uab. have been concerned by the interventions in public spaces as a cornerstone of urban revitalization strategy.ru This paper will attempt to describe the main changes in the resocialization policy which was implemented during the last 3 years (from 2008 to 2010).
Research Institute for Work and Society. Several hundred squats of this kind can be found in large French cities.winters@hiva. Whereas cultural and artistic squats have often been described in the sociological literature as promoting gentrification. Centre de la Vieille Charité.com This communication aims to analyze the dynamics of socio-spatial ‘mixité’ through the prism of ‘poverty squats’. but that for a significant fraction of the population the constitutional right to decent and affordable housing is not realized.WS . Marseille. and the link between the fights for housing rights and for ‘the right to live in the city’. Leuven. KULeuven. By making use of EU-SILC data and available housing statistics we compare housing quality and affordability in Flanders to other regions and countries. France florence.bouillon@gmail. Of major importance is that owner-occupied housing in Belgium already for a long time is a pillar of the welfare state. housing policy belongs to the responsibilities of the regions. They allow poor populations to live in the valued parts of big cities and therefore improve social ‘mixité’. Flanders is the largest of the three Belgian regions and one of the most prosperous regions of Europe. we shall question the effects of the presence of « poverty squats » on socio-residential variety. are hospitable housing environments. The paper concludes with some hypotheses that aim at explaining the observed discrepancies. these collectives emphasize the political character of the ‘squat’.kuleuven. Since 1980. We will then discuss the impacts that public policies concerning urban rehabilitation and insalubrity have on squats. They are buildings occupied by homeless people and new immigrants without authorization from the owner. following the example of the other forms of interstitial housing. However.be Marja ELSINGA Belgium is a federal state with three regions. We shall proceed in three steps. we shall show that these urban policies lead to the removal of squats to the suburbs and therefore promote segregationist dynamics.14 Housing quality and affordability in Flanders (Belgium) compared internationally Sien WINTERS HIVA . From former research we know that housing quality and affordability in Flanders are good on average. We will first argue that squats. Is informal housing promoting social ‘mixité’? French poverty ‘squats’ Florence BOUILLON Centre Norbert Elias. a large number of households that do not have opportunities or do not want to invest in own housing. Belgium sien. In this paper we add to this research an international perspective. Finally. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Based on examples drawn from two large French cities (Paris and Marseilles). we shall discuss the squatting actions led by ‘right to housing’ associations. are left out in the cold. By illegally occupying prestigious buildings located in the richest neighborhoods of big cities.
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Housing First: A new approach?
Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia firstname.lastname@example.org
Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
University of Queensland, Australia In 2008 the Australian Federal Government set out a policy framework to end chronic and street homelessness. The Government white paper emphasised the importance of ‘bold new ideas’ and ‘evidence based approaches’ to achieve that goal. The US Housing First model was widely seen by Australian policy makers and practitioners as an innovative means to provide sustainable housing solutions for people experiencing chronic homelessness. Principles of the Housing First approach are now being widely implemented in Australia. Although Housing First has been credited as an evidenced based practice, to date there has been little critical scrutiny of its overall efficacy. Further, Australian advocates and policy makers have given insufficient consideration to matters of transference or to implementing the model true to its evidence-based form. We have two aims in this paper. First, to critically examine the literature and assumptions that support the Housing First approach. Secondly, we consider the applicability of a Housing First approach to the Australian context: Australia’s housing, welfare and health systems differ in profound ways from those in North America. Focusing on national housing and homelessness policy, we demonstrate some of the opportunities and barriers that implementing Housing First principles to Australia represents.
Awareness of European processes to promote social inclusion
Vienna, Austria email@example.com Within the broad fields of policy and measures to be taken for combating poverty and social exclusion in Europe, securing a socially sustainable housing situation remains key. European Union level social policy targets represent a commitment of the Member States to integrate their national policies into this wider framework, to provide good practice examples for other countries, but also to test national programmes and achievements in this European context. Increasingly, housing issues are included into those targets. For this goal, the EU provides a common process – the 'Open Method of Coordination' (OMC). The responsibility to communicate this context to the national to local fields responsible for social and welfare policies and to raise awareness lies with national institutions. However, the level of awareness and acceptance of this process itself is widely unknown. This paper aims to address this gap by presenting results from a survey carried out among policy responsible and people working in the field on an administrative or NGO level in Austria in 2010. An Austrian EU-funded project (AURORA plus) has provided the framework for this activity, especially the access to the relevant groups, and the opportunity to publish the results in a broader context. Also, in Austria the past ‘2010 European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion’ has increased visibility for these European aims. The paper will show the level of awareness of various current EU and related national activities, of inclusion of Austrian national actors into the processes, and their support for policy recommendations given by the EU to the Austrian government. In addition, it will discuss the framework of the new 'Europe 2020 Strategy', the 'European Platform against Poverty and Social Exclusion' and first policy recommendations addressed to these levels, e.g. via the European Consensus Conference on Homelessness.
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Comparing homelessness policy and provision in Europe: evidence from Ireland, Scotland and Norway
School of Applied Social Science, University of Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom Isobel.firstname.lastname@example.org
Evelyn DYB Joseph FINNERTY
School of Applied Social Studies, University College Cork, Ireland While many European countries have developed national homelessness strategies, comparative empirical studies of homelessness policy and practice across European countries remains relatively rare. This paper examines developments in homelessness policy and provision in a comparative context with a view to assessing how effectively different national approaches to tackling homelessness can be compared from available evidence. The introduction reviews comparative approaches to theorizing European welfare states and homelessness, and explains the paper’s focus on Ireland, Scotland and Norway. The main body of the paper compares homelessness across the three countries in relation to: (a) the definition and measurement of homelessness (b) the profile of homeless people in the three countries (c) changing homelessness policy and housing options for homeless people and (d) available evidence of the effectiveness of national homelessness strategies. The concluding section provides a comparative analysis of progress in tackling homelessness in relation to the approaches to welfare in Ireland, Scotland and Norway. It also reflects on the quality of the available evidence base for comparison and identifies possibilities and challenges for future empirical research and for the potential for wider comparisons across Europe.
Homeless people in urban public space of Lithuania
Vilnius University, Lithuania Vita.email@example.com The main goal of this paper is to assess the public space accessibility by homeless in Lithuania, and especially to find out if the main areas where homeless people concentrate and spend most of their time are changing in time. The first part presents an historical overview of inherited attitude from XIX to XXth century of Lithuanian people to the homeless, beggars and other marginal groups. The second part is devoted to the national and local legislation of public space. It concluding that officially homelessness is tolerated everywhere, except certain representative areas of bigger cities, where special regulations outlawing homelessness sometimes exist. This chapter also lists certain penalties and measures that can be applied against homeless if they disturb public order, or cause danger because of health reasons. The third part describes the pilot survey ‘Unwelcome people in the Public Space’ insights from. The results of the survey show that different places are preferred by beggars, vagrants and homeless. The forth part looks into agents of control and mechanisms of deterrence. It finds that main agents of control – police, security guards, workers of specific businesses or private citizens are most active in different locations. Police is dealing with homeless in the most public places – squares, railway stations. Security guards and workers are taking care of their company spaces, and private citizens are most active in their apartment buildings. This chapter also discusses such deterring mechanisms as fencing and locking, as well as, video surveillance.
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Economic transfers among homeless migrant workers in Brussels and Oslo
Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Warsaw, Poland firstname.lastname@example.org In the first part of the paper I look at the various definitions of ‘informal’, ‘black’, ‘parallel’ or ‘street’ economy. I distinguish between the formal ‘economic’ definitions and ‘anthropological’ definitions that are grounded in the experience of the studied societies or groups. Next I depart from a concept proposed by Karl Polanyi (1957), who distinguished three main forms of economic integration: reciprocity, redistribution and market exchange, to analyze how different forms of economic integration acquire unity and stability of various groups. I argue that ‘economic’ definitions of ‘informal’ economy are not suitable for the description of transfers, mutual help and gifts homeless persons engage in. Monographs of homeless and deprived groups show that the boundaries between the formal and informal sectors are constantly negotiated in daily practices of various actors (Duneier 2000; Venkatesh 2006; Höjdestrand 2009). The informal is often ascribed to the members of stigmatized populations rather than because of the nature of the economic acts themselves. The problem is not only with the distinguishing between formal and informal economies but also with the distinction of economic and non-economic activities (Morales 1997). In the second part of the paper I focus on the material gathered in the course of fieldwork among Polish migrants living on the streets in Brussels and Oslo. The economic transfers they engage in may be seen as adaptation to the conditions in which they had found themselves. I focus especially on the daily practices, the different ecology of the street and institutional context in the two cities studies (for instance price and availability of alcohol and drugs) to show how those economic practices may be viewed as adaptations to the local context. The economic transfers homeless migrants take part in enable them to get by on the streets but at the same time make it more difficult to extricate from homelessness.
Tensions in Care and Containment: Amsterdam’s homeless policy against an international perspective: a historical and contemporary overview
Vu University Amsterdam, Faculty of Social Sciences & City of Amsterdam, Department of Housing and Care, The Netherlands N.F.Boesveldt@vu.nl A study of existing literature and public administrative documents on the Dutch and Amsterdam Homeless Strategy has led to hypotheses for a further study of the 2011-2014 period. This paper provides an overview of the contemporary field of Amsterdam Social Relief, the administrative responses to homelessness developed from 1979 until the present day and it’s policy’s theory (a set of normative and empirical positions). Early findings show that, remarkably, the successes of the Dutch Strategy on homelessness, are recognized and shared broader than in the Sector of Social Relief itself. In introductive publications on Governance and Chain collaboration, I actually found references to the Homeless Strategy as being an example of effective administrative intervention, a solvable social problem and an area in which professionals succeed in working together. The different phases that describe policy processes (such as agenda setting, Bovens e.a., 2007) are integrated into a model for Chain collaboration (Van Delden, 2009), so that the underlying political and social dynamic, preceding the current strategy, is reconstructed. In the 2011-2014 period further refinement of the policy takes place. For example; Medicalization of the Sector of Social Relief, before, brought in welcome National Health Insurance funding. This provided for the expansion, differentiation and improvement of services. These are available to homeless persons with ‘considerable Public Mental Health Needs’. ‘Lighter’ cases with social work instead of care needs, should be able to organise their own support, which can be obtained from different municipal windows. This is in line with current cut backs in funds for the guidance of lighter psychosocial needs. However, in order to get help, the homeless person is required to acknowledge his/ her individual support need, whilst this challenges an important trigger for homelessness; withdrawal from helping professions. Does this pose a serious threat to the success so far?
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Against the background of a review of the major housing provision policies. but the poverty business which used social security benefits as the guide overran it.sendi@uirs. Precious social resources are the present condition which was not utilized effectively but has repeated waste. 24-hour stores (a restaurant. we argue that the issue of housing accessibility is increasingly becoming acute as a consequence of the gradual abandonment of welfare state policies that occurred in many European countries during the last two decades or so. a bookstore. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . and the homeless persons are content with the miserable life. and the number of free or low fee lodgings is increasing. the housing policy.14 The tackling against the homelessness in Japan has not lead the preventive measures but invited cruel and heartless business for the homeless people Yoshihiro OKAMOTO School of Business and Public Policies.).si The events of the last five years. Slovenia richard. become incapable of paying housing rent or servicing their mortgage. There is also a search for efficient measures to deal with housing problems that arise after people lose employment and. In conclusion we also propose that the resuscitation of the welfare state should be complemented by the introduction of a universal housing care system along the principles of the universal health care system. the measure against the homeless in Japan did not bring about a radical effect. we propose that the welfare state housing care system needs to be urgently resuscitated. or cooperation of social resources.jp The homeless provisions in Japan is only a tackling against rough sleeping at the public spaces such as parks. We suggest that the resuscitation of the welfare state requires primarily shifting the emphasis from ‘housing affordability’ (the catchword of recent neoliberal housing policies) to ‘housing accessibility’. Key questions are arising. river banks. Japan yokamoto@mecl. those who live in temporary accommodations. which many developed countries take pride in. We argue that affordability does not necessarily guarantee accessibility. socially vulnerable groups' occupancy status has not improved. or find it very difficult to find employment after completing education (recent studies show a steady growth in the so-called ‘hotel mamma phenomenon’ in several European countries). Although the number of public assistance receipt household is increasing every year.chukyo-u. Housing accessibility versus housing affordability: Introducing universal housing care Richard SENDI Urban Planning Institute of Slovenia. and other policies. Although the formal number of rough sleepers is decreasing in 2003 and afterwards. This cause is considered through comparison with the homeless policy in the UK from the view point of cooperation with the homeless policy. on how to solve the housing problems of a growing number of young people who cannot.WS . trains and so on. Ljubljana. have shown that housing affordability policies that have been popularly promoted in many countries in the past. etc. In the paper. for example. streets and stations.ac. not being able to find a new job quickly. sparked off by the global financial crisis which broke out in the US in 2007. may no longer be adequate to guarantee housing accessibility. such as those who pass by the Internet cafe. Nagoya. Chukyo University. Although the focus of the homeless policy in the UK has shifted to preventive measures from the tackling against homelessness.
homeless. This has led the authors to seek to understand the reasons for their comments. as clients and citizens.uk Guido VAN STEEN This paper examines whether the distributional consequences of contrasting welfare regime types are enhanced. which are commensurable with disposable income and income-based measures of poverty. To this end.14 ‘Taking our houses’: Perceptions of the impact of asylum seekers. Some raised concerns that asylum seekers. These interviewees were mainly single parent headed families who were. Associated with these perceptions were discourses concerning migrants taking our houses. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . replicated or countered by housing systems in England and the Netherlands. accommodation they felt should rightfully be made available to Australians. or had recently been. Both housing systems exert a poverty-reducing impact compared to disposable income alone. Victoria. University of Glasgow. This paper examines one explanation for the housing shortage put forward by research participants of a qualitative Australian Research Council funded study. refugees and new migrants on housing assistance and availability in Victoria. Swinburne University of Technology. Hawthorn. Deakin University. Our synthetic concept of ‘housing poverty’ powerfully reveals that the poverty-reducing impact of housing income occurs because housing poverty falls predominantly among those who are not income poor. Welfare and housing systems therefore combine to reduce overall poverty in an act of progressive dissonance. Australia Angela SPINNEY Institute for Social Research. refugees. UK mark. discourse analysis of the interview data is used in this paper to illustrate how public and political discourses circulating at the time of the interviews.stephens@glasgow. Views on immigrants. Housing: the deviant pillar of the welfare state Mark STEPHENS Urban Studies.edu. Victoria. Others felt that these groups of people generally compete unfairly with them in a very tight housing market. We adopt the monetised concepts of net housing income and resources.ac.WS . Australia. The paper also discusses to what extent xenophobia in the Australian community has links with feelings of economic insecurity. Burwood. asylum seekers and refugees were not specifically sought. Scotland. which is largely caused by a shortage of affordable accommodation. may have influenced their views. The housing system thus emerges as a deviant and independent pillar of the welfare state. The absolute reduction is greatest in England suggesting that its housing system counters the high levels of income poverty produced by the welfare regime. and migrants score higher than themselves on welfare agencies priority lists for housing assistance. during the families’ periods of homelessness. Australia Homelessness is a large and pressing issue in Victoria. Australia email@example.com Amy NETHERY Faculty of Arts and Education. and were therefore an unexpected research finding. though the comparative levels of poverty between the two countries remain unchanged suggesting replication. These were unexpected and unintended results which arose from semi-structured interviews intended to explore perspectives on identity.
photographic and cartographic documentation. Methodologically.stoeger@jku. This macrostructural hypothesis is tested by varying the housing market context. relevant articles in local newspapers and websites.com The informal housing issue was included into the agenda of Turkey in the second half of the 20th century. Furthermore. the type of housing provision presumably influences the way in which these risks shape housing biographies. which differ according to the tenure structure and the housing policies. these settlements constitute the base of the socio-spatial duality and conflicting life situations in Istanbul. This requires the examination of housing biographies that are defined as the sequence of dwellings a household occupies during life. ‘Hasec’ hypothesizes that individuals become particularly prone to social exclusion processes in the housing markets. if they are affected by economic and labour market crisis.at The paper outlines the framework and (preliminary) results of a comparative research project on social exclusion in the realm of housing. Data is analysed by various quantitative and qualitative methods. technical measurements. Today. liberal type). through privatisation. household breakdown. 20 000 people including the pioneer groups from Black Sea Region. Exclusion is understood as a process of deterioration of the housing conditions during housing biographies. the promotion of home-ownership and the deregulation of rents) is expected to increase the risk of social exclusion in the realm of housing. In particular. field work is conducted at the city-level in selected neighbourhoods. In late 60s and 70s. a survey and expert-interviews with housing politicians and ‘gatekeepers’ in the housing markets. since the direction of housing biographies depends on the interference of macrostructural and individual factors. Austria harald. Faculty of Architecture. Turkey firstname.lastname@example.org substandard materials and without sufficient infrastructure on either state or private lands. The Socio-spatial Transformation of Yeni Sahra Squatter Settlement in Istanbul Aytanga DENER Istanbul Technical University. universalist. exclusion is structured. shrinking social networks and health problems. This paper is based on direct observation. The neighborhood is composed of low quality buildings along the curved. stanbul.WS . The current situation of the poverty neighborhoods versus governmental housing policies and urban transformation projects needs to be examined from an alternative view point. narrow streets which grew vertically and horizontally in years. it is intended to conduct observations.14 Housing and social exclusion in a comparative perspective (‘Hasec’) Harald STOEGER Institute for Social and Societal Policy. interviews and published materials. However. squatter (gecekondu) settlements became a great problem for the big cities. We selected three housing systems (conservative. a strengthening of the market forces (e. University of Linz. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . health and education possibilities appealing towards. Related to the macro-level.g. settled in 60s and the newcomers live in this area. Since housing systems have strong repercussions at the local level. The outskirts of cities were crowded with the houses built by their owners -mostly the people migrated to the cities because of socioeconomic factors pushing them out of their villages and towns whereas job. This paper focuses on the socio-spatial transformation in Yeni Sahra Squatter Settlement occurred in 40 years in regard to the changes in Istanbul. Referring to current theoretical discourses on housing systems/’regimes’ and social exclusion we analyse the process of social exclusion itself. The inhabitants are content of living together with their relatives and being able to sustain their cultural values. I argue that the squatters cover an important amount of the low cost housing demand while their residents provide cheap labor force for the city industry in this way.
WORKSHOP — 15 —
Housing & Living Conditions of Ageing Populations
Co-ordinators: Marianne Abramsson, Camilla Ryhl, Siri Ytrehus and Sarah Hillcoat-Nallétamby
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From suburb to central location residential mobility among elderly
NISAL, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Sweden email@example.com
Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Sweden firstname.lastname@example.org In Sweden an assumption is that older people today, and in particular the baby boomers, are more willing to change residence to accommodate for changing life-styles and poorer health when ageing, than was the case for earlier generations. Often this will include a move from a suburban location to a central location. In interview studies and the popular debate this would suit the idea of modern older people taking part in the culture of the city centre, such as museums, concerts and theatres. There are qualitative and survey studies pointing to such a residential mobility trend among seniors but quantitative tests are to a large extent lacking although increased mobility rates among young seniors has been shown. The aim of this study is to examine, in three case municipalities, if older people leaving owner occupation in the suburb move to apartments in more central locations. The analysis is made using a register database, Geoswede, comprising the total Swedish population. Moves of the cohorts born in the 1920s, 1930s and the 1940s are followed between 2001 and 2006. Most elderly in Sweden are stayers (75%). However, it can be concluded that in three municipalities a centralized mobility pattern can be observed. Mobility and residential patterns of the studied cohorts will impact planning issues as they constitute two out of nine million people in Sweden.
The residential changes during old age; how life transitions affect the timing of relocation choice?
Centre d’Estudis Demogràfics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain email@example.com Traditionally, the emotional attachment that elderly feel about their homes and the economic and health burden that suppose a residential move for older people has provided disincentives to mobility. Even though this static general trend, almost 15% of older Europeans change their residential location after 65. Moreover, some studies point out that this percentage will increase in the coming decades with the onset of baby-boom cohorts reaching older ages. Thus, using some Life Course Approach concepts as theoretical framework, this proposal aims to explore how extent some later life transitions as retirement, widowhood or changes in health status can unleash a residential movement on later life stage. The main objective of this paper is measure the risk of a residential move during old age taking into account other events in different life domains as family, work and health. This analysis will enable the identification of different trends by sex and possible international differences of how later life transformations push elderly to adjust their residential context to their living needs. Under the question ‘what life domain transformations trigger residential mobility at older ages?’ this proposal aims to deepen the knowledge of the causes of relocation choices at older ages. The data for the analysis will be drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE project). Due to this source provides longitudinal and retrospective data an event history analysis in planned. At the same time, the different modules of this survey provide the necessary information to link the life events offering a wide view about the timing of the elderly residential changes.
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Growing old in urban environment - cities and neighbourhoods in older people narratives
Institute for research on social reproduction and integration, Faculty of social sciences, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic firstname.lastname@example.org The paper is based on the research project ‘Ageing in the environment: regeneration, gentrification and social exclusion as new issues in environmental gerontology (2010-2012)’ which strives to understand how nowadays urban processes shape the experience of growing old and how ageing of population influences urban environment. Here we present results from focus groups discussions and individual in-depth interviews with older community dwelling residents of central parts of three biggest Czech cities: Prague, Brno and Ostrava. These cities in Central Europe went through major changes in last two decades that shaped not only social, economic, and political environment, but deeply influenced also their built environment. In our presentation we focus on how do the participants of our research perceive and experience these changes and how do they cope with the changes in their neighbourhoods. The city is by the communication partners considered a good place for growing old, as important services, like shops, GPs/hospitals and transportation are usually available in the vicinity. At the same time older people are aware of profound changes in the lived environment of their cities in the last 20 years and they are very heterogeneous in perception of those changes, and reaction to them based on their postcodes, socioeconomic and health status or mobility. One of the main issues emerging from the transcripts is disparity between feelings of growing otherness of their living environment (‘the city is not ours’, [the new neighbours are] ‘strangers, complete strangers; they have nothing in common with us’) with persisting willingness to ‘stay put’ expressed in individual life strategies. The concluding discussion raises question whether and how different forms of regeneration of the cities create risks of real as well as symbolic exclusion of older people and how these are heterogeneously incorporated into older people narratives.
Developing Seniors’ Housing through Joint Ventures
School of Engineering, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, Finland email@example.com Seniors’ housing has attained an increasing attention during the 21st century. Both the public sector authorities as well as private companies in the European countries aim to develop new housing solutions for serving the growing number of elderly citizens. While the public sector aims to cut down expenses of municipal social and health care services, including geriatric services, the private sector housing and service producers aim to occupy new businesses by offering housing concepts appointed to the elderly. However, little standardized models have so far been introduced for offering public or private seniors’ housing concepts, or a mixité of these. Particularly, the modes of cooperation within and between the public and private actors have remained unclear. This paper studies cooperation practices when producing new seniors’ housing concepts. The paper presents three recent seniors’ housing joint ventures, one public, one private, and one mixed, in the Finnish housing sector. The cases are analyzed with a network management framework, including formation of cooperative relations, relationship structure and governance, as well as alliance performance. Empirical evidence for the study was collected from the participating public and private sector actors with open-ended and semi-structured interviews during winter and spring 2009 and 2011. The findings suggest that seniors’ housing concepts are build on close cooperation, or alliances between housing and service producers. Alliance performance, in terms of the extent of service offering and actor satisfaction, is promoted by mutual goalsetting, concept design, and decision-making, as well as continuous interaction between the actors during the implementation of the development project. Contradictory, lack of mutual understanding on the actors’ goals and unilateral decision-making may impede the performance of an alliance. The paper discusses managerial implications about conditions and procedures in housing joint ventures, and offers implications for future research concerning network management in the housing sector.
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we intend to contribute to the discussion with the original and innovative hints that the case study is offering to the Italian and European debate on housing and urban change. In particular. the effects of those dynamics seem to be more visible then elsewhere in terms of growing and changing demand for social and health support and services and in new needs and expectations with reference to the spatial organization of the indoor and outdoor living spaces. Politecnico di Milano.cnr. Construction Technologies Institute. . tools and linked services for enhancing independence. The Trieste case represents an exception in the Italian context and is closer to some more frontline international experiences. . Roma.cnr. usability.indoor design quality (safety. tools and devices for home routines.morini@itc. independence in daily activities performance and services packages. Supporting the autonomy of the elderly and allowing ageing at home has been set as a policy objective in opposition to institutionalization of the elderly in specialized nursing homes.biocca@itc.WS .it Elena MARCHIGIANI Significant ageing processes are affecting many regions across Europe and are significantly changing the social and spatial profile of cities. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Solutions meeting social changes are continuously under development as regards to home layouts.it Luigi BIOCCA National Research Council. Italy l. The arguments for this orientation are grounded in the impoverishment of social quality and to the effects in terms of reduction of individual capabilities produced by institutionalization. .. Based on intensive field work and on the outcomes of several graduate students’ workshops and research projects we developed. Very often indeed the proposed solutions reveal the difficulties in tackling the complexity and extensiveness of the problem in terms of re-orientation of public action at the local level. Some selected case studies will point out at: . adaptability).innovative design solutions.smart technologies. as well as in the excessive costs that institutionalized nursery homes imply for public finance. an overview on the Italian situation will disclose new housing programs and measures for accommodating older tenants more safely and comfortably. targeting conditions that allow people to age at home has been stressing the need of redesigning and reorganizing living environment. Università degli Studi di Trieste. the increase of the elderly population is highly remarkable in urban areas and specifically in council housing estates.bricocoli@polimi. Italy a. accessibility. In Italy.it The increasing ageing population in the EU brings along new demands in the housing stock.it Massimo BRICOCOLI Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Architettura. Italia massimo. Italia emarchigiani@units. In Trieste. Annalisa MORINI Cities and demographic change: space reconsidered and the future of social housing estates in Trieste Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione. This paper illustrates some emerging and innovative housing schemes that better suit the purpose of ageing-in-place. In these significant parts of our cities.neighbourhood’s impact on the older persons’ lifestyle. Construction Technologies Institute. Roma.15 Changing housing schemes for an ageing society: Emerging issues and design solutions National Research Council.
pt Over the last years the concept of an age-friendly community has raised significant interest among international organizations and governments who have set ‘ageing in place’ as a policy goal. physical activity and health. chingyichen@alumni. Lisbon. built. we explored the causes of population aging in regions and the effect of those causes on aging.ccu. mobility. 3) safety.pt Carla CACHADINHA João PEDRO Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil (LNEC). namely variety of appropriate housing options and a wide selection of services. Further. the government should encourage childbirth and foster local socio-economic development to balance changes in demographics. Portugal jpedro@lnec. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the characteristics of an age-friendly neighborhood built environment. mixed-land use increases older persons’ independence. U 2 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E . Taiwan.tw Yen-Jong CHEN Population aging is one of the most serious demographic issues that Taiwan faces. based foremost on the experience and opinions of older residents. resulting in the decrease of mean age. there was congruence regarding the following physical characteristics of an age-friendly neighborhood: 1) diversity. Portugal ccachadinha@netcabo. Taiwan. were then compared with empirical research that investigated the role of the neighborhood on older persons’ independence. 5) comfort and pleasantness. retail. National Cheng Kung University. Then we employed Preston’s rate of change of a population's mean age to analyze the demographic structure from 1996 to 2009 in Taiwan and discovered that ‘low birth rate’ was the main contributor to population aging in Taiwan. However.edu. To achieve this goal. and average housing area are significantly negatively correlated.WS . providing a review of the literature and identification of empirical evidence in this area. Although the models that represent an age-friendly community had some differences.15 Characteristics of an age-friendly neighborhood built environment: comparing age-friendly community models with empirical evidence Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (FA-UTL). social interaction. As results suggested. 2) accessibility of buildings and outdoor space. These organizations have developed age-friendly community models that incorporate aspects of the natural.tw Ching-Yi CHEN Department of Urban Planning. These characteristics. safety and physical activity and is therefore an important attribute of an age-friendly neighborhood. and social environment and aim to optimize opportunities for quality of life in old age. Lisbon. percentage of employment of service industry. with an emphasis on the importance of urban diversity (mixed-land use). yj_chen@mail. National Cheng Kung University. social migration does lead to lowering of mean age in some regions. meaning that socio-economic development in some regions stimulate the immigration of young people or emigration of the elderly people. According to these models. the physical characteristics of an age friendly neighborhood were identified and their importance for older neighborhood users discussed through literature review of different models of age-friendly communities. number of profit-making business. 4) familiarity and sense of place.ncku. These characteristics can serve as principles to set out recommendations for the design of age-friendly urban neighborhoods. recreation and transportation options within convenient proximity to older persons home. The Social Migration Effect Toward Population Aging－ The Application of Perston’s Rate of Change of a Population’s Mean Age Improvement Model in Taiwan Department of Urban Planning. Therefore.edu. social participation. we applied panel data regression model to discuss ‘the effect of social migration on rate of change of a population's mean age’ and found that social increase rate.
colic-peisker@rmit. RMIT University. Our quantitative analysis of panel data shows that those who have recently lost homeownership have a much higher likelihood of subsequently needing housing assistance—either in the form of social housing or rent assistance—than long-term renters. Appropriate housing for older people is often stereotyped as the retirement village or the residential aged care institution (popularly referred to as nursing homes) when in fact the vast majority of older people remain living in regular single storey. and for the development industry. Australia gavin.wood@rmit. this paper will explore the perspectives of older people concerning the merits of age specific enclave living versus integration in the general community based on two recent studies funded by the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute.au Catherine BRIDGE City Futures Research Centre. Recent metropolitan urban policy and strategic planning in Australia are also advocating transit-oriented development with a hierarchy of mixed use centres – mixed in terms of land use as well as social characteristics – presumably inclusive of an increasing number of older people. Australia Like Europe. housing and planning policy. facilitate health and wellbeing. Therefore. In the light of these trends.edu. and the welfare state has retreated over the past decades.au In an ageing society the economic wellbeing and housing of older people are becoming increasingly pressing issues.edu. Faculty of the Built Environment. Our qualitative analysis. The transition out of homeownership is usually precipitated by events such as divorce and unemployment. which erode housing equity accumulated over people’s housing careers. This raises questions as to how well current housing and neighbourhood environments are able to support ageing in place. those who are ‘asset-poor’ in later middle age (55+) and retirement age (65+) are typically life-long renters or those who dropped out of homeownership. Australia has an ageing population with the percentage of people 65 and older expected to double. Melbourne. Faculty of the Built Environment.edu.au Gavin WOOD Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI). University of New South Wales. Sydney.judd@unsw. 3 or more bedroom housing in the general community until death or the very late stages of life. Melbourne. University of New South Wales. and those 85 and older to quadruple. which is an important policy consideration. the wealth accumulated during working age has growing importance to the wellbeing of older Australians. detached. Australia b. Australia val. in the first half of the 21st Century. This is encouraged by government policy which over recent decades has progressively stepped up support services for older people in the home to include even those with dementia. explores various current or anticipated housing solutions of older Australians. Sydney. The implications of these findings for future ageing. based on in-depth interviews. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Australia has an extremely dynamic housing market and homeownership is the primary wealth-accumulation method for a majority of people.15 Housing asset-poor older Australians Val COLIC-PEISKER Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI). There is evidence also that the post war ‘baby boomers’ who are now entering the aged cohort are less disposed toward age-specific housing enclaves. will then be discussed. As the caring role of family has diminished. RMIT University. Healthy planning principles are also being advocated with the aim of increasing participation for a wider range of the population.WS . the ways they cope with asset poverty and their views on existing housing policy. and encourage social and economic participation. Enclave or engage? – Mixity and housing choices in an ageing Society Bruce JUDD City Futures Research Centre.
These houses are home to e. personnel-intensive homes are tailored to the individual needs. First. Minimes). Alice ROUYER 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . France rouyer@univ-tlse2. Based on onsite research and interviews with residents and organizers of communal forms of living the paper discusses the emergence of alternative housing in Japan against the background of recent social and urban developments. which is characterized by the declining role of the traditional family as well as the lack of welfare provision by the state within in a situation of rapid demographic change and increasing social inequalities. Tokyo. Japan godzik@dijtokyo. We shall then demonstrate that in many aspects. Toulouse. The common research question was: how and to what extent do the process of gentrification enhance or decrease social exclusion of older people? Our paper is organized in two parts.15 Discussing the emergence of alternative housing in Japan German Institute for Japanese Studies. University of Toulouse II-Le Mirail. however. France Geography.g.. LISST (CNRS). Toulouse. LISST (CNRS). that older people in those neighbourhoods do not suffer from exclusionary practices or do not feel excluded. In stark contrast to opulent pricey senior residences offered by commercial providers as well as to conventional institutions such as old people’s homes. we will show how the research question requires in the French context -echoing a current debate in France. different generations with older people and nuclear families being only two possible subgroups within the larger number of residents. INSEE statistics are used to describe the nature of the social change observed in the studied areas.WS .fr This paper draws on a comparative survey on the situation of older people in inner-city neighbourhoods affected by gentrification in Toulouse and Montreal. University of Toulouse II-Le Mirail. the elderly do not entirely fit the image of the "excluded" population generally associated with gentrification processes This doesn’t mean. The paper focus on this aspect in the second part of our presentation.to clarify the description of the socio-spatial process at work in the studied neighbourhoods (Marengo. Sociology of Aging invites us to consider both sides of urban experiences of elderly: perceptions of older people are shaped by concrete changes in the city. It reflects a particular social development. We will give a quick overview of the dynamics of urban revitalization that these neighbourhoods have experienced in recent years as well as of the public policies that frame them. the emergence of these alternative housing – although still small in number – seems to respond to a growing desire of residents and organizers to escape (perceived) isolation and to form small size communities which gives them a feeling of security. Maison de l’initiative. Similar developments can be observed in the field of elderly day care and homes for people suffering from dementia: Being organized partly outside the official welfare system (which is perceived as being not flexible enough) these small scale. France Monique MEMBRADO Marc PONS Sociology.org In the last few years alternative forms of housing have emerged in Japan’s cities being based on sharing parts of the living space between a number of people not (only) related by family ties. but also affected by their individual aging. Toulouse. This work is based on the analysis of a corpus of interviews conducted with older people (over 70 years) living in the two Neighbourhoods. Maren GODZIK Getting old in a gentrified area: the cases of Minimes and Marengo neighbourhoods in Toulouse Sociology.
ac. accessibility and new technologies among older populations. the knowledge they have of the help that is available to them. Swansea University. United Kingdom S. Many large scale surveys include questions that aim to measure the needs of older people in terms of housing adaptations. and the limits of closed survey questions designed to measure the existence and use of adaptations. This paper reports the results of a French research project designed to explore the validity and reliability of ‘closed questions’ in surveys that deal with these issues.fr The planning of effective policy measures that promote ageing in place depends in part upon good quality data on the existence of housing adaptations. aids and new technologies. France Jim OGG Direction des recherches sur le vieillissement (DRV). A small sample of participants in a national health and disability survey (HSM/HSA 2008) living in Northern France and in Paris were re-interviewed in 2010 (n=32).uk Jodie CROXALL Centre for Innovative Ageing. We present a conceptual framework informed by literature about the meanings older people attribute to independence which we then use in the analysis of qualitative interviews (N = 184) completed as part of the Welsh study: ‘Extracare: meeting the needs of fit or frail older people?’. Using a semi-directive questionnaire. Wales. This paper offers a critical perspective to the ageing in place paradigm by questioning its cornerstone – the notion of later life independence. Ageing in place and independent living in question Sarah HILLCOAT-NALLETAMBY Centre for Innovative Ageing. France jim. post-modern perspectives which argue for the diversity of meanings and experiences in later life. the qualitative interviews were designed to explore extensively the respondent’s response to changing life situations in the context of their home and locality. Wales. The results show the large gap between needs and equipment available. Caisse nationale d’assurance vieillesse (CNAV). Swansea University. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .ogg@cnav. We undertake this by examining how the notion of ‘independence’ can have diverse meanings and represent quite different experiences for older people living in three different residential settings in Wales (UK) . We interpret findings in relation to theories of structured dependency and humanist. It therefore becomes increasingly difficult to question the premise that the home environment is best suited to meeting later life needs. the process by which older people with disabilities adapt to their home surroundings. residential homes and private dwellings in the community.WS .Hillcoat-Nalletamby@swansea. Paris. The study focused on older people’s care needs in each of the three residential settings. College of Human and Health Sciences. Paris. United Kingdom European policy makers increasingly emphasize the importance of facilitating ageing in place for older people as a means of ensuring their wellbeing and preservation of a sense of personal independence. College of Human and Health Sciences. Caisse nationale d’assurance vieillesse (CNAV). and the use of technologies in the home.extra-care facilities. This policy drive stems partly from research showing that older people’s preferred option is to live at home for as long as possible rather than moving to other types of supported or assisted living environments.15 Adapting the home or adapting to the home? Sylvie RENAUT Direction des recherches sur le vieillissement (DRV).
nccu. The first aim is to provide more insight in the behaviour of elderly on the housing market. The extended family was the traditional family type which the senior parent and their children can live together and have reciprocal relationships between the two generations. Taiwan mayc2110@mail. and then the environments affect the living arrangement decisions for the elderly. health condition.de. By re-examining the housing preferences of elderly in focus groups it should be possible to match housing products to each of the mature housing market segments. The data of elderly Situation Survey by the MOI in Taiwan is analyzed.tw For the coming of aging society. the seniors are healthier. The growing diversity in the behaviour on the housing market of elderly is analyzed by using data of the WoON survey. The second aim is to contribute to a better grounding of housing policy with respect to the growing diversity within the older population. By the year 2040 this figure will rise to approximately 25 percent.15 The relationships of living arrangement and the life satisfaction for the elderly people – A discussion for four regions in Taiwan Department of Real Estate Management. no matter in urbanized or rural region? Based on the unbalanced development among four regions in Taiwan. and this study estimates the life satisfaction regression model in the empirical study. it will have a profound impact on much of life as we know it. Faculty of Spatial Sciences. Six hypotheses are examined. National Cheng Chi University. Some urban and rural differences issues are discussed. DE JONG Aleid BROUWER The Urban and Regional Studies Institute (URSI). The results of this survey will be analyzed by using a conjoint analysis. This results of this paper show that if the existing living arrangement is living with children and matching the ideal one for the elderly. The analysis of housing preferences of elderly is based on a carefully constructed survey in which several residential profiles are formulated. The Netherlands P. this study intends to explore the life satisfaction degree for the elderly among the four regions in Taiwan. This should result in the identification of different segments within the elderly market. Kunshan University. economic status. the issues of the life satisfaction for the elderly are very important. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Faculty of Spatial Sciences. social support and their children’s economic status. In the research project a quantitative and qualitative approach is combined. The aim of this research project is twofold.A.Jong@rug. they will have higher life satisfaction degrees.nl Petra A. The policy implications can provide some useful suggestions on the relative family and welfare policies for the elderly. In order to respond accurately to this challenge we need to develop a further understanding of demographic trends and the growing diversity within the older population. 16 percent of the Dutch population will be aged 65 and older. As the population ages. One of the biggest challenges is to provide proper housing conditions that correspond with the diverse housing preferences of the elderly.tw Shu-Mei CHEN Pei-Shyuan LIN Department of Land Economics. Housing an ageing population: more of the same or something different? The Urban and Regional Studies Institute (URSI). University of Groningen. Are the seniors still satisfied with living with their children.ksu. Taiwan firstname.lastname@example.org. The gaps of social resources and local economy performances between the urbanized region and rural region would make different social support systems. The qualitative analysis focuses on the housing preferences of the different elderly market segments. University of Groningen.edu. got more sufficient living expense and more social supports.WS . Further the life satisfaction would be the results of the interactions between the living arrangement. The Netherlands In the year 2011.
The subjective well-being score of these 4 groups were counted by PGC morale scale. little is known about the daily lives of seniors aging in gentrifying neighbourhoods (Phillipson. preventive group. this concept is not yet familiar among older persons. well considered group. and McGill University. School of Social Work.qc. Canada victoria. a rapidly gentrifying neighbourhood. and brought forth feelings of inclusion and cohesion. Drawing on concepts of social exclusion. Although some studies have explored aging in deprived neighbourhoods. Moreover. we do not have enough elderly housings for ‘moving in time’ in Japan.ca Victoria BURNS Centre de Recherche et d’Expertise en GÉrontologie Sociale (CREGÉS).ac. In Japan. ‘Aging in Place’ has become a burgeoning topic in gerontology. Consequently. Our study revealed complex and unexpected impacts of neighbourhood change.Ca Damaris ROSE Immediate environment becomes increasingly important with age because older people’s social networks and daily routines are more restricted in space (Oswald. Québec. In Petite-Patrie the loss of senior clubs led to social disconnectedness. 2005). despite reports of increasing deprivation.. École de Travail Social.gouv. the recent construction of a community centre was unanimously recognized as a positive addition. Also. which showed a significant difference among these 4 groups. Canada Damaris_Rose@UCS. the interviewee were divided into 4 groups.the study on the composition of the timing to move into elderly housings Tokyo Kasei University. Montréal. Tokyo.cvd@ssss. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 autonomous seniors aged 60 years and above and 10 key informants. late group. One-to-one interviews were carried out towards 88 residents in 6 elderly housings in Japan. The results stress the strategic importance of spaces dedicated to seniors. Montreal. Montréal. Centre Urbanisation. however. Recommendations include the necessity of maintaining spaces dedicated to seniors in order to promote their visibility and inclusion. Québec. Yet few studies have considered what occurs when neighbourhoods undergo change. In NDG. Japan matsuoka@tokyo-kasei. School of Social Work.jp The purpose of this paper is to explore the composition of the timing to move into elderly housings and to investigate whether the action of ‘moving in time’ contribute the subjective well-being of older persons. 2) Lower Notre-Dame-de-Grâce (NDG). and the 4 elements which compose the timing to move into elderly housings were extracted.WS .burns@mail. and Université du Québec à Montréal. in two contrasting neighbourhoods: 1) Petite-Patrie. Gentrification triggered processes of social exclusion among older adults.ca Jean-Pierre LAVOIE Institut National de Recherche Scientifique. while some changes in a disadvantaged neighbourhood reinforced social inclusion. 2010). too late group. Montreal. ‘Moving in time’: is this a recommendable concept? .lavoie. a disadvantaged neighbourhood. this qualitative study sought to fill this gap in the literature.INRS. and McGill University. invisibility and loss of political influence on neighbourhood planning. ‘Moving in time to the elderly housings’ was verified as a recommended concept.15 Older people’s experiences of social exclusion in two changing Montréal neighbourhoods: The case of Petite-Patrie and Lower Notre-Dame-de-Grâce (NDG) Centre de Recherche et d’Expertise en GÉrontologie Sociale (CREGÉS). 1) The occurrence of accident which caused the disability 2) Having alternative housing option or not 3) Active consideration for best housing 4) Strong confidence in the housing Following these 4 elements. Quebec. Culture et Société. Yoko MATSUOKA 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . I would like to think about how we can make this concept popular and develop the place for ‘moving in time’. Canada jean-pierre. et al.mcgill. Québec. aging in a familiar environment increases the feeling of security and sense of self among older people. Department of Humanity and Science. displacement and place.
Sule Özüekren and Gideon Bolt 23rd Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c C O N F E R E N C E UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .WORKSHOP — 16 — Minority Ethnic Groups and Housing Co-ordinators: A.
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Making american public housing revitalization succeed: preventing and countering neighborhood negative spillover effects
University of Cincinnati, School of Planning, Cincinnati, USA email@example.com
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands firstname.lastname@example.org
In recent years, the United States and several European countries have witnessed substantial public/social housing revitalization programs, which attempt to improve the prospects of distressed communities and their residents. Where there is ample research into the effects of such programs on both target neighborhoods and individual residents, far less attention has been devoted to unintended program (negative neighborhood spillover) effects outside target neighborhoods. For example, does crime increase and school test scores go down? This issue is especially relevant for revitalization programs which require substantial relocation of residents from public or social housing slated for demolition. The most notable American example is the HOPE VI program. Many American politicians, policymakers and citizen activists fear that the relocation of public housing residents, with housing vouchers, simply moves social problems and nuisance to other areas. Relocatees often recluster in already fragile neighborhoods where they continue to struggle with poverty and deprivation and to cause nuisances and conflict in their new living environment. This paper aims to review the literature concerning negative neighborhood spillovers connected to four voluntary housing mobility programs: Gautreaux (Chicago), Thompson (Baltimore), Walker (Dallas), and the Moving to Opportunity Demonstration (five cities). Our conceptual framework for examining negative neighborhood spillovers in ‘receiving’ neighborhoods draws from George Galster’s work on poverty concentration ‘thresholds’. Although these four programs involve voluntary moves - in contrast with involuntary relocation in HOPE VI - a great deal may be learned from them because of (1) efforts in the voluntary programs to forestall resistance in destination neighborhoods of program movers and (2) special counseling and supportive programs provided to ease adjustment into low-poverty and low-minority areas. The present paper builds upon our forthcoming International Journal of Housing Policy article which reviews the literature on neighborhood spillovers associated with forced moves resulting from HOPE VI and the Urban Restructuring Policy in the Netherlands. Our review suggests that screening out multi-problem families, limiting the number of housing voucher families moving into particular neighborhoods, and providing both pre- and post-relocation counseling to displacees can minimize negative neighborhood spillovers. Whether these strategies could be implemented given America’s fiscal crisis and fragmented metropolitan governmental structure remains uncertain.
Explanations for inter-ethnic differences regarding immigrants' preferences for living in ‘ethnic enclaves’ or in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods
Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Horsholm, Denmark email@example.com
Hans SKIFTER ANDERSEN
There are large differences between the settlement patterns of different ethnic groups. One explanation for this is that different groups have been more or less successful immigrants resulting in differences regarding their economic integration and resources, which have lead to differences in their housing and neighbourhood preferences and options. Another is that some immigrants, especially the less integrated, for different reasons have specific preferences for living in neighbourhoods with an ethnic network they can rely on, so-called ethnic enclaves. It has earlier been shown that different immigrant groups in Denmark to a different extent have preferences for living close to family and countrymen or for living in so-called multi-ethnic neighbourhoods, where there are few Danes but many other ethnic groups. In this paper It is examined how variation in preferences and neighbourhood choice between different groups can be explained by their ethnic background, their social integration, their resources and the strength of their feelings of belonging to their country of origin as described by the concept of diaspora.
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The meaning of contact between ethnic groups in the context of ethnically mixed neighbourhoods
Department of Human Geography & Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands firstname.lastname@example.org Many policy makers and researchers emphasize contact between residents with different social and ethnic backgrounds as one of the many benefits of social mixing in neighbourhoods. It is believed that this inter-group contact leads to more social cohesion in society, ethnic integration and bridging ties and social capital for marginalised groups. However, what is meant by ‘contact’ is rarely defined. What does this ‘contact’ with neighbours and members of other (ethnic) groups consist of? Contact has many shapes and sizes, ranging from intensive to extensive, formal to intimate, non-verbal to verbal, physical to non-physical, from positive to negative and therefore may not always bring all the social benefits ascribed to it. In this paper we try to clarify the meaning of contact in the context of ethnic mixing in neighbourhoods by presenting results from qualitative fieldwork, consisting of focus group and individual interviews in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Developing integrated estates in Northern Ireland
Institut d’Urbanisme de Paris, Université Paris-Est Créteil, France email@example.com Northern Ireland bears high levels of segregation, even stronger in the public sector housing. The Northern Ireland Housing Executive is a Non-Departmental Public Body, established by the Housing Executive Act (Northern Ireland) 1971. Under this Act, the NIHE took over the housing responsibilities of 65 separate authorities and became Northern Ireland’s overall housing authority. The NIHE is a major actor in the Northern Ireland housing market; and policies concerning its stock can have a significant impact on communities, even if, its ability to control its housing stock has diminished because some of its housing has passed into private ownership under the ‘right-to-buy’ initiative. During the Troubles, as it was for public bodies, the search for neutrality resulted in a lack of accountability and a quasi non existent participatory process involving local communities in housing issues. Nevertheless, since the Peace Agreement signed in 1998, the NIHE policies have been developed towards communities on housing services and the issues that affect local neighbourhoods. Through the Housing Community Network, the NIHE is developing the Community Involvement Strategy, to take on board communities aspirations. The ‘Community Re-imaging Programme’ funds local and individual initiatives, the Community Safety Strategy is a three year strategic plan established to address crime. The new Community Cohesion Unit implement Race relations and Good relations (i.e. towards the 2 main conflicting identities, Catholic and Protestant). The Building of Good Relations through Housing policy supports the wider Shared Future agenda for Northern Ireland through a community led approach, the Shared Neighbourhood Programme. This paper aims at assessing these new strategies of mixing in the NIHE policies, after decades of conflict which hindered the development of such processes.
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New housing development, selective migration patterns and the segregation of minority ethnic groups in the Netherlands
PBL, Netherlands Environmental Assesment Agency, The Hague, The Netherlands firstname.lastname@example.org
Dutch policymakers perceive concentration and segregation of minority ethnic groups as a problem. Urban restructuring programmes try to achieve more mixed neighbourhoods in terms of income and ethnicity by building more expensive and owner occupied dwellings in deprived concentration neighbourhoods. At the same time large scale new housing estates are built with mostly expensive and owner-occupied dwellings. In this paper the focus is on the effect of newly built dwellings, both in restructuring areas and in new housing estates, on the selective migration patterns of minority ethnic groups and the consequences of these patterns on ethnic residential segregation. Newly built dwellings attract high income households, therefore building new dwellings in deprived neighbourhoods decreases income segregation, while large scale new housing estates increases income segregation. The effect of newly built dwellings on ethnic residential segregation is, however, more ambiguous. Newly built dwellings in deprived concentration neighbourhoods attract relatively high shares of native Dutch from elsewhere. At the same time, however, these newly built dwellings keep people from minority ethnic groups within concentrated neighbourhoods who otherwise would have left these neighbourhoods to newly built dwellings elsewhere. The effect on ethnic residential segregation is therefore mixed. The share of ethnic minorities among the people that move to large scale new housing estates does not deviate much from the city level average share of minorities. Therefore the effect of new housing estates on ethnic segregation is relatively small. Policymakers striving for less segregated cities should take into account the impact of new housing development on selective migration patterns and residential segregation both in terms income and ethnicity.
Should I stay or could I go?: Exploring the relationship between households’ characteristics and their propensity to live in areas of Birmingham where minorities are highly concentrated
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom email@example.com
Sanna MARKKANEN Miguel VARGAS
Universidad Diego Portales, Chile Spatial concentration of minority ethnic populations within English cities is nothing new. In recent years, however, it has been increasingly evident that areas of minority ethnic concentrations are not segregated enclaves or ‘ghettoes’ as much as ethnically diverse areas also inhabiting by large numbers of white Britons as well as often a mix of ethnicities. Census migration data from 2001 shows that, especially in diverse cities, such as Birmingham, minority ethnic households have been moving away from the areas of high concentrations of minority ethnic populations at a faster pace than white Britons living in these areas. This finding is in line with qualitative and anecdotal evidence, which suggests that the housing aspirations of minority ethnic households are largely in line with those of white Britons, with the importance of living in close proximity to other people from their ethnic group being superseded by the desire to live in nicer neighbourhoods with good schools and services. An important question in this context is the extent to which different groups face different constraints on mobility as well as different opportunities to move. Building on a framework used by Bayer and others (2002) in the United States, this paper analyses 2001 census data using an econometric model to explore the impact of selected household characteristics on the propensity of minority ethnic households to live in areas of high concentrations of people belonging to their ethnic group in Birmingham, UK. The impact of these household characteristics are analysed by ethnic group of the household reference person, also taking into consideration differential geographical patterns of tenure and ethnicity across the city.
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housing careers of Moroccan immigrants in the Spanish Region of Murcia were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative data. the context of housing market integration has significantly changed. and frequently use same shopping centres or restaurants. the varying situation on the local housing market. their difficulties to access to a shelter as well as to satisfy their housing necessities persisted. migrants had severe problems to get access to housing. the changing profile of the competing demanders as well as the migrants’ resources and preferences were taken into account. one of the oldest neighbourhoods in the new Dubai is selected for the study. especially in the rural areas where an important number of Moroccans lives. Once they arrived to the new place.edu. Thus. Mohammed F. However. the number of accommodation either for renting or for owner-occupying augmented. even when compared to other recent migrant nationalities. Ela ONEY-YAZICI Faculty of Architecture. In doing so. Istanbul Technical University. The research project on which the paper is based aims to understand and explain the relevance of different factors in establishing a meaningful interaction among different ethnic/national/religious groups. Contrary to the cities in Europe. Istanbul Technical University and Faculty of Business. one of their first necessities was to access to accommodation. This unique characteristic of Dubai provides a highly relevant geographical space to study ‘Mixité’. By developing a theoretical approach to explain the integration of immigrants into the housing market.tr Sule OZUEKREN Faculty of Business. immigrants in Dubai altogether do not only form the majority population but mostly live in ethnically-mixed neighbourhoods. especially of Moroccans. Special emphasis is drawn on the manners of acting of both the offering and the demanding individuals. This paper presents the preliminary findings of a qualitative research project on transnational lives of expatriates in Dubai. Since then. mostly work for transnational organizations. the resources of the Moroccans improved. Institut für Geographie. At the same time. it is shown how embeddedness of the Spanish landlords in the local neighbourhoods leads to disadvantages in the housing market integration. Furthermore. and also their willingness or reluctance to develop intercultural social contacts. Sarah MEIER 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . and their preferences increased gradually.ac.ac. Nonetheless. As a consequence. This scenario has been even more accentuated since the beginning of the recent economic crisis. the study also focuses on their daily lives and practices (both spatially and virtually) outside the neighbourhood to understand how and where do they develop and expand their social contacts. Therefore. The British University in Dubai oneyel@itu. Potsdam. immigrants from Morocco were the first important group to come to Spain as labour migrants. prejudices of the natives against them hindered their access to an adequate shelter. In the course of the ‚real estate boom’. The British University in Dubai mohammed. available flats for renting barely existed.the analyses include the perceptions of expatriates about their neighbourhood but go beyond where they actually live in. simultaneously.ae. Dubai is a unique global city where migrant workers/expatriates constitute about 85 percent of its population. Turkey ozuekren@itu. Germany sarah. Thus.tr ela.although the study is limited to The Greens. The Greens.WS .ae. DULAIMI Always the last? Housing market integration of Moroccans in Spain Universität Potsdam.firstname.lastname@example.org@uni-potsdam.edu. To accomplish this.16 Living in an ethnically-mixed neighbourhood in Dubai: The Greens Faculty of Architecture.dulaimi@buid. this paper aims to show the dynamics and processes of housing market integration of migrants in Spain.de In the mid of the 1980’s. immigrant groups in Spain have largely diversified and. when it comes to rent or sell a flat.
Istanbul Technical University. The quality of life and housing standards are so inadequate. in the end of this collective work. it is aimed to come up with some suggestions and solutions for the rehabilitation and the development of the district. It is obvious that besides the rehabilitation of the physical conditions. The Netherlands g.tr Gokcer OKUMUS Architecture Faculty.nl Reinout KLEINHANS Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU). Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University. Unfortunately. Moreover. On the basis of an extensive research in two Dutch cities (Amsterdam and Rotterdam). Turkey Ipek SAKARYA Department of Urban and Regional Planning. since then. Turkey) Arzu BASARAN-UYSAL Department of Urban and Regional Planning. The neighborhood they live in became ghettoized. The research area which is called as Fevzipasa District was also approved as ‘a special project area’ with the conservation plans made in 1996.16 Determination of the strategies for the urban rehabilitation in the Romani settlement (Canakkale City. Ethnic heterogeneity negatively affects the number of friends and acquaintances and the willingness to do something for the neighborhood or to work with voluntary organizations. This research aims to determine the problems of the district and consists of the analytical works about the area to be the basis of the future physical and social rehabilitation of the district.edu. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Recently.bolt@geo. Engineering & Architecture Faculty. Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University. even if we control for a number of other neighbourhood characteristics (like economic status and the presence of facilities). Romani people can not accord with the change of the socio-economic conditions and day by day unemployment and poverty has increased. the district has disordered housing pattern and two or three storey buildings. the Romani People perceive this kind of analytical research as a threat for their living space because of the experiences about the other Romani districts which brought about regeneration projects and related to this resulted in forced displacements. Faculty of Geosciences. up to date and trusty information about the housing area is required. this study has begun with the support of Romani People of the district and it is aimed to develop the study with collective effort.WS . Social cohesion in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods Gideon BOLT Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU). The Netherlands The idea that there is a negative link between ethnic heterogeneity and social cohesion dates back to the Chicago School in the early 20th century. there is no project which has been developed for the area. there is no association between the experienced social cohesion and ethnic diversity. Moreover. However. diversity does not only lead to less trust in the so-called out-group (for example people with a different ethnicity). Putnam argues that people in diverse communities are likely to ‘hunker down’. The participation of the people from the district is accepted as a basis of the study. we conclude that there is indeed a negative link between ethnic diversity and social cohesion. Engineering & Architecture Faculty. Turkey Fevzipasa District is one of the central and first historical settlements of Canakkale in which Romani people live. but also to distrust in the in-group. and job opportunities for the Romani People living in there. education. we found that this link only applies for native Dutch residents. Faculty of Geosciences. the most important approach is to develop long term policy which consists of providing health. First of all. there is much debate on this issue following Putnam’s paper E Pluribus Unum (2007). Therefore. Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Generally.uu. Turkey basaran@comu. For members of minority ethnic groups. but generally.
Spain pilar. ‘native Dutch/western minority’ versus ‘non-western minority’ distinction since the latter is considered to be less socio-economically integrated. educational philosophy. ‘Contextual effects’ (Manski 1995) or ‘compositional effects’ (Coleman et al. On the one hand. In the case of the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona. in-depth interviews were conducted to know the residential characteristics of their housing and how they access to them. In a wholecountry study of the Netherlands. We expect a stronger effect for Amsterdam. non-socioeconomic school segregation has been institutionally permissible and sustained as parents choose according to other considerations such as religious denomination. For each primary school. e. Karsten et al. there is no public policy repertoire of mixité or socio-spatial integration of immigrant population in Spain. Cheng Boon ONG Immigrant population and housing in Barcelona Centre de Política de Sòl i Valoracions. different studies have dismissed the existence of segregation in Spanish cities. Dijkstra et al. We obtained administrative school data for Amsterdam from 2000 to 2009 and sampled students aged five to thirteen who were enrolled in primary schools in 2000.e. This paper examines the residential and urban characteristics of immigrant population through the study of cases in neighborhoods with high concentration of immigrant population. an ethnically diverse city with the average primary school having more non-western minority students than native Dutch and western minority student. Thrupp 1999) of schools posits that the distribution of background characteristics . Our outcome variable is the event of dropping out from high school. Nevertheless.in this case.garcia.16 Is ethnic segregation in primary schools a relevant factor in explaining high school dropout? The case of Amsterdam Maastricht University. in addition to the individual and (limited) household information available in the school records. 1966. On the other hand. the immigrant population is distributed throughout the territory although is especially concentrated in areas of the city where the residential stock is more dilapidated. Ladd et al.edu The arrival of immigrants to Spain is a relatively recent phenomenon. With relevant block.almirall@upc. those of Japanese and Indonesian background).edu Blanca GUTIÉRREZ VALDIVIA Centre de Política de Sòl i Valoracions. The main segregation measures rely on the two-group. students’ ‘non-western’ background – influences individual behaviour.and neighbourhoodlevel information from CBS Statline. 2006. initial residential neighbourhood effects. which did not begin until early 2000 and has produced deep social and physical changes in Spanish cities. Ritzen et al. mediating to a large extent. 2009). 2003. Skyes and Musterd (2010) find a strong and significant effect of schools’ socioeconomic composition on educational outcome. The latter’s salience in school choice has been exacerbated by secularisation and the growing population of inhabitants with a foreign background (allochtonen) since the 1960s. especially with the exclusion of non-western groups considered to be well-integrated (i. 1997.g. and student ethnic composition. at least conceptualizing segregation as it is found in other European and American cities. Pilar GARCÍA ALMIRALL 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .gutierrez@upc. Karsten et al. Spain blanca. the propensity to dropout from high school. but student composition could also influence ‘instructional’ and ‘school organisation and management processes’ (Thrupp 1999. e.and email@example.com The Dutch school system places a strong emphasis on parental choice of schools (Dronkers 1995. average housing price and ethnic composition (up to the six-position postcode-level). 2002). 2002. Moreover. one in four non-western primary school pupils is enrolled in a school with its non-western student composition approaching ninety percent. various ethnic segregation measures were calculated at the school identifier. Barcelona.WS . Our exploratory results so far indicate that ethnic segregation in primary schools loses its initial effect on high school dropout once we account for socioeconomic factors at both the school. Thrupp et al. Barcelona. equalised state funding for private and public schools which is additionally weighted according to students’ socioeconomic and ‘foreign’ background have mediated the financial factor in school choice (Ladd & Fiske 2009). This means that at present. This could be in the form of ‘peer effects’.g. In 2000. BRIN-level (Basis Registratie INstellingen). The Netherlands cheng. we have detailed and valuable neighbourhood control variables. The technique participant observation has been used to study how immigrants use public space and what kind of interaction is established with autochthonous population.
many home owners who have moved to non-segregated areas still identify with and remain engaged in their former.Beider@coventry.uk This paper will critically review approaches to support cohesive and mixed neighbourhoods in England. Coventry University Technology Park. and which households choose to leave. Information from the property evaluation board and the electronic land registry is used to document the quantitative relevance of ongoing processes of property acquisition for the City of Duisburg. Housing organisations should focus on meeting the different needs consumers promoting cross cutting issues and improving the housing 'offer'.de Current studies reveal an increasing differentiation of social milieus of migrants living in German cities. The results of the study reveal a more differentiated picture than assumed at first: For instance. Germany heike. Dortmund. The group had previously been supported by government to meet the needs of minority communities. social housing has been the basis of conflict between different groups and cohesion.WS . Thus. community cohesion was critical of the role of black led housing associations. They were seen as implementing allocation and lettings policies that embedded difference rather than common values. was based on the premise of shared norms and common values between different groups. It is based on the assumption that increasing home ownership of migrants in disadvantaged neighborhoods contributes to the socio-economic stabilization of these areas. It will suggest that policies such as community cohesion and integration have not connected with the reality of the lived experiences of people or communities. The information shows that Turkish home owners still concentrate in ethnic neighbourhoods but also reach out to non-segregated neighbourhoods. UK Harris. This paper will suggest that community cohesion and integration are weak policies because they are government led and' top down'. Housing. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .und Stadtentwicklungsforschung.. But is this good news for disadvantaged ethnically segregated areas? The study is looking at residential relocation processes of Turkish homeowners in German Cities. the paper will suggest that the role of organisations should focus on the lived reality of communities rather than being premised on a flawed government social construction. rising levels of support for far right parties and confusion on shared values. which was introduced as government policy in 2001. since residential locations and personal spheres of action do not necessarily overlap a single neighborhood’s development potential needs to be assessed from a city-wide perspective. and are fixed responses to dynamic neighbourhoods. In particular. Debates on cohesion have now been replaced by integration with the focus on minority groups needing to demonstrate support for 'British values'. Housing organisations were viewed as being problematic in securing cohesive neighbourhoods. The qualitative part of the research focuses on the motivations and decision-making processes of Turkish households and asks which households opt to remain in ethnically and socially segregated neighborhoods. ethnic neighborhoods. Community cohesion. take no account of differences and the multiplicity of identities in communities. In conclusion. On the housing market this can be documented by an increasing home ownership level of Turkish migrants.hanhoerster@ils-forschung. Coventry. Ten years after community cohesion the evidence shows increased intolerance towards immigration. cohesion and integration: differences in policy and practice Harris BEIDER Futures Institute.16 Stay or Leave? Turkish Home owners in segregated neighbourhoods in Germany Heike HANHOERSTER Institut fuer Landes.ac. Policy has not helped housing organisations to created mixed neighbourhoods. As a public resource.
much less is known about the attempts to adjust the interior. especially on the side of the more visible ethnic minority (black people) who is the most stigmatised group. While this uneasy fit between the design of the dwellings and their users has been a subject to research and criticism. using a case study in the north of the Isère district. often associated in their minds with poverty and social disorder. The focus is on examination ‘cultural’ design typology. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . However. seduced ethnic minorities eager to move out of damaged social housings. University of Westminster. it arises side-effects for ethnic minorities. The development of ethnic solidarity can be noticed. the effects of such a policy remain ambiguous: whereas the objective of social ‘mixité’ has to be revised downwards. However. who partly lose local resources linked to social ‘mixité’. If the marketing of houses and building timetables were under the control of local authorities as well as of the builders. African states and many others wishing to make UK their home. Since the beginning of its provision social housing in England has been designed and built for. Anne LAMBERT ‘La Mixité Ethnique’ – The English Way An examination of innovative initiatives for housing im/migrant and ethnic minority population in England Department of Urban Development and Regeneration. At the same time. aroused criticism on the side of the majority of residents. Secondly. This paper is based on the research conducted between December 2009 and May 2010 in eleven local authorities in England with the highest percentage of ethnic minority population. ethnic diversity has developed de facto in private housing estates.com Orna ROSENFELD Judith ALLEN This paper examines architectural and urban adjustments in social housing made to accommodate the needs of the im/migrant and ethnic minority population in England. the increased population mobility and ethnic mixing raises questions about the fitness of social housing and its potential to accommodate the needs of new-in-migrating cultures and their social relations. especially the challenges related to understanding housing needs of a ‘foreign’ culture and provision of ‘culturally’ adjusted housing types. Pakistan. Indeed.lambert@ens. Low earning households just moving out social housings could think that their residential promotion was counteracted by arrivals of ethnic minorities. United Kingdom rosenfeldornas@yahoo. It examines nouvelle architectural and urban solutions created to address and accommodate the needs of the im/migrant population. the ethnic minorities who were not expected by local policy makers. on a micro level. with the influx of im/migrant population the English working class social housing has been increasingly allocated to provide shelter for population coming from as far as Indian subcontinent. architecture and urban design are made to support social relations of a cultural group and service their everyday needs. on a macro level. what were assumed to be. Indeed. London. mixed ethnic neighbourhoods lead to the moving out of the richest of these areas. China. combined with the temporary fall in property prices. public policies which were implemented to face the economic crisis.fr In France. Nevertheless.16 Fostering social ‘mixité’ without ethnic diversity ? Case study in a French suburban private housing estate Ecole normale supérieure. we will show how local authorities have tried to mobilize urbanistic and public financial policies such as ‘ZAC’ (zone d’aménagement concerté) and ‘Pass foncier’ to foster home ownership on their territories while controlling modes of settlement – specifically on social and ethnic criteria. In mundane terms. dwelling and urban spaces to fit the needs of the im/migrant population and the ways to achieve this. Two main consequences can be distinguished. it has led to an ethnic diversification of residential suburbs. design and learning process. spatial and social organization of suburban private housing estates were not. the recent economic crisis has dramatically slowed down the marketing and sales of private housing estates in suburban areas. generating new neighbourhood conflicts. France anne. Paris.WS . Bangladesh. whereas local authorities wished to organize social ‘mixité’ by attracting newcomers belonging to the middle class. the needs of English working class. First. Architecture and urban design are material expressions of a culture. They are an integral and defining part of an ethnic identity.
and they have difficulty in educating their children. Immigrants who are unfamiliar with Korean language and society are vulnerable to discrimination and human rights abuses.kr Eun-Jin CHOI Chung-Ang University. most ethnic group of people have Wolse (monthly rent) rather than homeownership or Jeonse (one of the most popular tenure in Korea). Oslo. (3) In terms of housing tenure. (2) Social network of immigrants and foreign workers have different path and process in line with their nationality and background of native countries.5 percent of the total population.no Immigrants are moving not only from one country to another. developed from the experiences of the households. How they succeed as newcomers and overtime rely on among other things opportunity structures in the housing market. food and interpersonal relationships. In this study. this paper is to explore a mixed community (Wongok) through questionnaire and field survey. The result is a typology of ideal types of adapting strategies. There are numerous immigrants and foreign workers. residing in the country at the end of 2008. Based on a study among three ethnic groups in Norway. I have explored different trajectories of immigrants’ adaption strategies to the housing market. South Korea ha1234@cau. The study shows that kind of adapting strategies have consequences for how the immigrants perform in the housing market and their new society. (4) Their social networks have developed mainly through religious organizations (groups). Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research. Adapting strategies – impacts for immigrants housing situation Susanne SØHOLT Department of Planning and Housing Research.WS . and illegal aliens are growing. Major findings are as follows: (1) some important obstacles for immigrants and foreign workers face in Korea are cultural differences in daily lifestyle. and they are suffering from high housing price and rent. South Korea ejchoi85@gmail. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . An important question is whether the immigrants view themselves as victims of structures and potential discrimination or agents in their own life.com The number of non-Korean residents has surged since the 1990s as a result of rapid economic development and social democratization. language.16 Assimilation and social capital of mixed ethnic neighborhood in South Korea: a case study of Wongok community Seong-Kyu HA Department of Urban and Regional Planning.ac. three major questions being posed are: (1) how do immigrants and foreign workers assimilate with local population in the mixed community? (2) What is the relationship between the perception of the level of social mix and the strength of social networks in the ethnic group community? (3) What kinds of differences exist in terms of the perception of the level of social capital and the reputation of the area in different neighborhood context? In order to address these questions. assimilation process and social capital. Norway susanne. or 2.soholt@nibr. Immigrant assimilation is a complex process in which immigrants and foreign workers fully integrates themselves into a new country.3 percent of the total foreign population. Chung-Ang University.25 million foreigners. we assess a commonly recognized element of social mix. The authors suggest the necessity of programs and policies for the improvement of immigrants’ well-being and community development based on assimilation process and social network dimensions. And illegal aliens (illegal immigrants) living in South Korea amounted to 200. individual qualities of the household and ethnic belonging.489 which still make up 17. The kinds of strategies are interpreted as expressions of how people are able to connect structures and resources from their country of origin with perceived constraints and possibilities in new contexts. Wongok is a typical mixed neighborhood which about 35% of total community population is immigrants and foreign workers. Using the results of 260 questionnaires. South Korea had 1. but to different kinds of housing systems.
su. The individual-level register-based data set represents the native and immigrant populations in the Helsinki metropolitan area between 1990-2005 and the follow-ups continue until 2008. Sweden second largest city. Finland katja. In this paper. standardised measures were developed already in the 19th century. we propose an approach to the measurement of segregation that would solve many pressing problems. To what extent does the level of segregation vary between different urban areas? Introducing a scalable measure of segregation Department Human Geography. where k can take on any value depending on how neighbourhood is defined (and data availability). The innovation is that the neighbourhood is defined for each individual as the k nearest nearest neighbours. Housing careers are analysed in terms of housing tenure and overcrowding.16 Housing careers of immigrants in the Helsinki metropolitan area Department of Social Research. Sweden In most disciplines. Sweden bo. One major finding is that the segregation levels of Gothenburg. Thus. the sensitivity of this measure to the modifiable area unit problem can interurban comparisons using this index difficult.fi The objective of the paper is to find out. are needed in the explanation of housing market careers of immigrants in the Helsinki metropolitan area. KAUPPINEN Katja VILKAMA Department of Geosciences and Geography. The properties of the proposed segregation index is demonstrated using data for Swedish municipalities. and housing careers. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . In demography. Sociology.fi Timo M. researcher must specify for which scale level the segregation measure has been computed. for different reasons. scientific progress has been linked to the development of shared conceptual frameworks and standardised systems of measurements. The main question is: do the housing careers of minority groups follow the family and work careers in a similar way compared to the host population? Discrete-time survival analysis is applied as the statistical method. Moreover. The resulting measure will be inherently scale dependent since measured levels of segregation will depend on the value of k. University of Helsinki. Internationally standardised of systems of national account were developed during the 20th century. have been wrongly assessed to be higher that the segregation levels in Stockholm. Links between events in family and work careers.malmberg@humangeo. Finland timo. or whether additional explanations. on one hand. University of Turku. This is the case also for the social sciences. In urban research this process has.se Bo MALMBERG Department Human Geography. this measure is not embraced by everyone in the field. been somewhat slower. Stockholm University.WS . This make comparisons of between different urban areas possible. Stockholm University. are assessed and compared between different ethnic groups. such as ethnically discriminating constraints in the housing market or different preferences. Stockholm University. Measures of residential segregation is a case in point. The results will give indications on whether increased resources brought to immigrants especially by labour market integration lead to similar housing circumstances as in the native population. on the other. what kinds of differences in housing careers there are between different immigrant groups and between immigrants and the natives in the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. The basic idea-taken from isolation/exposure types segregation measures--is that segregation can be measured by the probability that members of a certain subpopulation will be exposed to member of their own (or a different) subpopulation given that contacts are established at random within an appropriately defined firstname.lastname@example.org@helsinki. Although there exists widely acknowledged measures such as the index of dissimilarity. Sweden Eva ANDERSSON John ÖSTH Department Human Geography.
WORKSHOP — 17 — Gender and Housing Co-ordinators: Christiane Droste and Karin Grundström 23rd Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c C O N F E R E N C E UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .
paint. Hannover 2011 BARBARA ZIBELL Institute for History and Theory in Architecture and Planning.gender-archland. Brundtland where she described ‘sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need’. more equitable and more sustainable. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . And finally. The exhibiton was produced on the former work done at University with a group of five students on the same theme. Polytechnic University of Valencia. for example.very clearly expressed when you take care of children. Architectural Projects department. On the other side. 25th 2011 the exhibition ‘On stage! Women and men in (landscape) architecture and planning in low saxony region’ was opened in Laves Haus (Chamber of Architects) in Hannover. because we experience when one is involved in taking care of persons (children. Urbanism Leibniz University of Hanover.de Forum for GenderCompetence in Architecture Landscape Planning (gender_archland) www. some of them also teach. elderly) the vision of architectural procedures is more pragmatic. we guess that in the majority of Star System architect’s offices. Department for Planning and Architecture Sociology. during the fall-winter semester 2010-2011. design furniture… We proposed to reveal the intersectional relation among topics as we think a global vision is needed to understand professional affairs.17 Changing the docent background. On the contrary.uni-hannover. Spain ealvarez@pra. Urbanism Leibniz University of Hanover.or even try to show that women are also able to belong to the Star System in architecture often sawn as a middle-high class men’s club. One reason for organizing this exhibition was concerned that different exhibition on women’s work as architects may obscure existing sexism patterns without rendering up clear new equitable ones.zibell@igt-arch. That is to say sustainability is closely related to the needs of different generations –present and future. exhibitions often show that women architects are able to do ‘good’ architecture -as men do.de On March.de EVA Mª ÁLVAREZ ISIDRO. we wanted to point that architects usually do several things not only buildings or landscape or planning. Up to where we were informed. The exhibiton: On stage! Women and men in (landscape) architecture and planning in low saxony region.WS .es KATJA STOCK Institute for History and Theory in Architecture and Planning.uni-hannover. Germany b. Germany k. Faculty for Architecture and Landscape Sciences. women are the staff main part although not always in relevant positions and that the majority of the actual produced and famous architectural works are already produced by women. The first time the term ‘sustainable’ was employed was in 1987 UN report ‘Our common future’ directed by Ms. theorize. write.stock@igt-arch. we wanted to discuss the social relevance of taking care of domestic affairs. Faculty for Architecture and Landscape Sciences.uni-hannover. Department for Planning and Architecture Sociology.upv.
The results of this survey demonstrate that this trend of divorces has brought about significant disadvantages in terms of housing conditions. One means is through discussion of planners with civil society groups which are focused on increasing equality in the built environment. which came into force in 2010. and an uncertain economy have encouraged an increase in the number of divorces over the past few decades. There has also recently been a shift towards a single equalities focus in UK legislation. The Relationship between Divorce and Housing in Japan: A Gender Perspective Nahoko KAWATA Faculty of Education and Welfare Science. Women with lower education.jp Yosuke HIRAYAMA Faculty of Education and Welfare Science. Politically there is now even greater emphasis on facilitating citizen participation and including the voices of local people in the planning process. This paper draws on research exploring the success of equality-related initiatives in planning for housing and the built environment more generally. This paper concludes by examining the implications of an increase in the number of divorces on housing and social policies. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . The findings in this paper are mainly drawn from a survey conducted in Japan in 2009. University of Cambridge. or low-income are in particular placed at a noticeable disadvantage. However. Oita University. the research is examining how the recent shift to a single equalities focus in legislation is stimulating the development of Inclusive Design Groups and how it is impacting on existing Women’s Design Groups and Disability Access Groups. Japan The housing system in post-war Japan has explicitly been oriented towards family household home-ownership.ac. United Kingdom glb36@cam. In particular. it potentially loses the capacity to address the disadvantage experienced by particular groups.WS . race and disability. This paper explores the relationship between divorce and housing in Japan. Rather than separate legal duties for issues such as gender. all different types of inequality have been brought together through the single Equality Act. It considers the way different identities are constructed and negotiated in the participation process. equality and participation in planning for new developments Gemma BURGESS Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research. Japan kawata@oita-u. differences based on gender and socioeconomic status have also been observed in housing issues following divorce. Department of Land Economy. wherein the respondents were divorced men and women between 30 and 59 years of age. the changing social values related to families.17 An inclusive mix? Identity. the UK has different ways of enabling citizen participation. increased participation of women in the labour market. with particular reference to gender. or they are likely to move in with their parents. non-regular employment. Moreover. Oita University.uk In order to incorporate the views and needs of marginalised groups into planning for new housing and developments. The paper questions the theoretical underpinnings of the single equalities and inclusive design agenda. Disability Access Groups and Inclusive Design Groups. such as Women’s Design Groups. as within this notion of designing spaces for ‘everyone’. Divorced people are more likely to move into smaller and lower quality private rented housing.ac.
WS . Finally. The theoretical base of research on housing. gender and space is to be found in a cross-disciplinary field of spatial theory. For this (ENHR) meeting the focus of the presentation llies on methodology: the bottlenecks and benefits of international comparison. scenes. feminist and critical studies in geography.nl Intentional communities. Cohousing differs from ‘gated communities’ in that it is usually more outreaching to its environment. passages and spaces are included in a perspective where also the geographical limitation of the dwelling and neighbourhood is questioned. their contribution to emancipation. the role of professionals. consumer-producer that these communities present as a design model for ‘accomodation’. in which housing is used to develop new ways of living.molina@ibf. The presentation first introduces theoretical approaches to the research area through the perspectives of private and public space. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . The paper raises issues such as a how to assess the innovative value of the initiatives in social and gendered housing models. In this presentation. Malmö University.grundstrom@mah. A more complex conceptualization where gender and space are constituted through continuous action implies that an increasing amount of places. In the process of design and build. Collectivity. necessitates renewal of land-use.se This presentation gives a brief overview of the theoretical points of departure for research on housing. gender studies. Uppsala University. the Netherlands. Ir Lidewij TUMMERS Chair of Spatial Planning and Strategy. together with the new energy networks and sustainability demands.se Irene MOLINA Institute of Housing and Urban Research (IBF). social economy and ecology. Particularly interesting is the rupture with boundaries such as private-public. it is primarily the spatial-theoretical grounding we want to emphasize. The first theme relates to the reinterpretation and reshaping of private and public space and the second theme relates to the transgression of boundaries – towards performative and fluid space. a wide range of contexts linked to the specific (planning) history of the country can be observed. reviewing differences in planning systems. they all strive for collaborative ways of building and design. Studying cases from the European countries where the trend to co-housing is mostly increasing (Germany. finance and legislation. Belgium and France).uu. accessibility of the housing market. Delft University of Technology The Netherlands and research team CITERES. While the characteristics of these projects varies and can be classified in different sets of typologies. we conclude that the complexity of the recent theoretical development is a possible explanation of the fact that research specifically on housing has declined. obstacles in planning law and so on. Tours. labour-domestic. energy networks and housing law. Sweden irene. Gender and Space Karin GRUNDSTRÖM Department of Urban Studies. France l. intentional communities face the consequences of converging or clashing with national housing and spatial policies and regulations. The physical design encourages both social contact and individual space. new forms of ownership.17 Intentional communities: methods for reviewing the rise of citizens’ housing initiatives in a European perspective. dialectical space. community practices. Cohousing residents are consciously committed to living as a community. Genossenschaften or Cohousing are types of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their own neighbourhouds.tummer@tudelft. sociology and architecture.c. urban and environmental quality. Housing. Sweden k. everyday space and urban. Secondly examples of research within two themes related to the spatialtheoretical point of departure are presented. cooperatives de logement. Maison des Sciences de l’homme. Even though a number of anthologies have been presented during the last decade and the field of research on gender and space has expanded – the focus particularly on housing has declined. gender and space. Gävle.
vera@uab. particularly in territory and management fields. The research concludes with a discussion of women’s influence in the new rurality and governance in rural areas. If further analyzes women’s participation in decision-making investigating if they have capacity to involve innovative stakeholders in local policy making. The research applies qualitative and quantitative methodology. Spain antoni. addressing the fact that Catalonia has a surprising low participation on women´s political appointments compared to Spain. It further analyzes the features and impacts of women´s political appointments and the links of their policies to civil society demands. Spain antonia. Spain ana. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .cat Marta PALLARES-BLANCH marta. The study based on the analysis of gender political and economic roles in rural Catalonia has twofold. First.com Ana VERA Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.email@example.com@gmail. TULLA Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. including in-depth interviews and information from elaborated databases.cat The present paper explores women’s contribution to rural/local development strategies in a mountainous area. The paper reviews the evolution of women’s participation during last decades in local authorities connecting women’s participation rate with the existence of equal opportunity programs or gender policies in Spain. It is presented a brief view of the economic characteristics of the High Pyrenees region in order to understand main initiatives on local development.cat Antoni F. it explores the push and constraints factors that affects rural women´s political appointments. the authors investigate gender approaches to local economic development exploring to what extend women’s decisions can be significantly different to men’s entrepreneurial approaches.17 Local politics and economic viability in rural Catalonia: a gender perspective Antònia CASELLAS Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.WS . Second.tulla@uab.
WS .it Francesca Crosta Department of Sociology and Social Research. and difficulties in maintaining or finding a suitable home become the factors most likely to lead to a process of impoverishment and marginalization. Italy francesca. Therefore. the housing issue is increasingly creating pathways to poverty and social exclusion. the huge growth of foreign immigration and especially the phenomenon of family reunification. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . especially if they are single parents with young children. the gradual reduction of the stock of private rented dwellings and the rising costs of those still on the market. with the steady rise in single-parent families. but more and more affecting women in certain conditions and at certain periods of their life cycle. Even in a "rich" city like Milan. with the resulting increase in the percentage of foreign children and families.make access to housing a very complex and uncertain issue. the spread of new ways to "make a family".crosta@unimib. who increasingly have to handle difficulties in a society becoming more and more insecure and precarious. more and more involving women. University of Milano-Bicocca.it In recent years housing issues have increasingly been discussed both in academia. as the impact of economic. This is particularly true for women. and the continued failure of the public housing system to meet the growing demand from a different kind of population.17 Housing issues and a new kind of poverty Francesca Zajczyk Department of Sociology and Social Research.zajczyk@unimib. These are the factors associated with the poverty path and the social exclusion of men and women. Italy francesca. social and demographic processes and the lack of appropriate measures to tackle the problem mean that the "housing question" is now a real social issue. University of Milano-Bicocca. the spread of irregular contractual situations in the labor market. in addition to job loss or irregular employment. and particular attention has been paid to those problems experienced by certain social groups. a situation which policies seem unable to deal with: a decrease in social networks on which people may rely. strong imbalances in the housing market. fraught with obstacles. the media and political circles. the trauma of separation from a family or social isolation. In such a framework.
WORKSHOP — 18 — Innovative Methods in Residential Environments and People Studies Co-ordinators: Henny Coolen and Hélène Bélanger 23rd Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c C O N F E R E N C E UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .
However.WS . DINÂMIA-CET. Three different methodological tools were chosen for this exploratory study of the reciprocal relationship between this open space and the new or more traditional residents/users. In turn. and sketch maps were used to explore the cognitive maps of residents’ living environment. its scale and major components. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . which are very small. In methodological terms the research was innovative and complementary by following these procedures: i) indepth interviews with residents. Single man. their use of the neighbourhood spaces (including the park) and their perception of the transformation of their living environment. This paper concludes with a critical assessment of the potentials and limits of these three qualitative tools. ii) photographs of the interior of the apartments. NVivo is also a powerful tool in the analysis of visual contents such as sketch maps. appropriation and identity construction. The codification and triangulation of these three different narratives was made with NVivo software. semi-structured interviews were used to explore residential satisfaction among different types of residents. a functional support to enjoy the city´s downtown . semi-structured interviews and sketch maps were chosen and results first analysed separately in order to extract preliminary basic information – different types of narratives – each tool could provide.18 Methodological complementarities between visual documentation and people’s discourse: uses and perceptions of small houses in Lisbon’s center Sandra MARQUES PEREIRA ISCTE. pictures. Representations and appropriation of public spaces in residential environments: a qualitative methodological assessment Hélène BÉLANGER Département d’études urbaines et touristiques. we believe that a mix of tools can address biases. live it as an extension of the teenager room.marquespereira11@gmail. Université du Québec à Montréal. taken separately or in conjunction with each other. young adults. or synthesis observation schemata. ii) the location within the historic area of Lisbon nearby one of the most popular nightlife neighbourhoods. these tools gave valuable but rather incomplete information. As such. Canada The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a qualitative methodological approach in the investigation of the impacts of revitalization of residential public spaces to their representations. the main aspect that differentiates the ways of living in these very tiny houses rest in the household type. iii) the vocation towards a transitional domestic space. inconsistencies or a lack of information. Lisbon. Québec. Well known for the analysis of verbatim. In this case study the (revitalized) linear park and its canal located in a working class neighbourhood in the city of Montreal (Canada) gave the stimulus for the rehabilitation of a brownfield site for luxurious housing. Besides the common feeling shared by all the individuals that this was a transitory housing solution. This is a housing model with three specific characteristics: i) the size of the apartments.com This paper presents the results of a study on the uses and perceptions of a specific new housing model located in Lisbon. young childless couples in cohabitation make a very intensive use of these apartments’. In situ observation. École des sciences de la gestion. Montréal. ii) the respective layouts as well as the objects that were identified inside the apartments. Separately.Instituto Universitário de Lisboa. especially in comparison with the previous household type: these houses are seen by them as the ideal scenario to test and consolidate their (still informal) conjugal relation. in situ observation was used to study the interaction of users of the park and potential conflicts about uses and appropriation of the space. Portugal s.
23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .WS . in an attempt to relate household activities with the daily pattern of domestic routines.ac.com The aim of this contribution is to rethink the path dependency approach in housing studies. then the concept of path dependency is introduced in a third section. how often. Analysis is carried out at two levels: a) the way families live. using the insights from Stalnaker’s possible worlds concept and consequently to put together a more complete framework of this approach in the study of housing policies and spatial planning. but it proves especially useful when studying housing policies and spatial practices. Belgium Pascal De DECKER Sint-Lucas school of Architecture. this study argues that a methodology which combines ‘crosscutting variables’. both a social and a spatial entity. using quantitative methods of analysis. An understanding of how individuals and families establish relationships between themselves and their environment is considered important. Belgium caroline. which identify with three types of families found in contemporary Cyprus society.nadia@ucy. with whom. In a second part Stalnaker’s motivation for using possible worlds is discussed. Drawing on data from 80 houses in a rural area in Cyprus. Caroline NEWTON A spatio-temporal interpretation of domesticity Department of Architecture. A fourth section illustrates how combining both approaches can provide a clearer understanding by briefly examining housing policies in Flanders. UCY. building on the perception of the home as a spatial and social entity. If Stalnaker’s possible worlds are ‘The ways things could have been’. In order to do this I will first explore the concept of possible worlds. data includes the retrieval of spatial. Path dependency is often used in economics and the social sciences.cy Nadia CHARALAMBOUS This paper is interested in the ways in which the home. Hogeschool voor Wetenschappen en Kunst Brussels & Ghent Partner in the K. in relation to family members and visitors. maybe path dependency is about ‘the way things can no longer be (because of. as a built form.U. Leuven Association. Nicosia.)’. and the way it is used by Stalnaker. bringing together both humanistic and technical viewpoints.. and where b) the configuration of the house plans in relation to the activities observed. Additionally the concept of path dependency is introduced. parents/children and family/visitors relationships) drawing attention to the inability of the quantitative method alone (study of large sample plans) to capture the increasing complexity of family life. concerning who does what. provides a more holistic approach to the interpretation and understanding of family life and its relation to the residential environment. The study’s main focus is the micro-use of space in the domestic environment. Hogeschool voor Wetenschappen en Kunst Brussels & Ghent and Faculty of Applied Engineering Sciences. enriches our knowledge and understanding of the relationship between humans and their residential environments and strengthens our perception of the diversity and complexity of domestic life. University College Ghent. I start from Stalnaker’s possible worlds concept and briefly answer the question in what way possible worlds contribute to the way people are trying to understand the world in order to make decisions in a given situation. through the incorporation of social concerns in spatial analysis. We suggest that the approach of the notion of the house as a complex structure. responds to or even contradicts cultural/social characteristics. Finally the concluding section brings everything together and formulates some final remarks. Mechelen. social and temporal information of the nature of domestic activities throughout a day. The paper explores the range of factors involved in the residential environment (individual needs and routines. The paper suggests the presence of ‘spatiotemporal genotypes’ in traditional firstname.lastname@example.org ‘The way things could have been’… An exploration into Stalnaker’s possible worlds concept and its relevance for housing studies Sint-Lucas school of Architecture. Consequently. given the increasingly divided. Cyprus charalambous. complex and differentiated experiences of contemporary life. household activities.
this data matrix may be analyzed by standard data analytic or statistical techniques. total units with shared hallway and units density have inverse effects on defensible of space complexes that with increase in amount of them. In addition was to being caused higher self esteem of low-income families. income levels. the peoples from different races. is reduced degree of defend the space. but in that case we ignore the relational aspect of the data. data in housing research involve relations with respect to environmental features. other variables of research consist of building height. Direct and indirect effects of variables on defensible of space complexes were calculated through path analysis and regression tests. access the largest source for crime prevention. gave the opportunity that are important part of mainstream society. The idea that was presented in 1972 by Oscar Newman. In the above components. Ardabil Branch. They were asked to their own beliefs in complexes included in the 26 questions. Iran Hassan FERIDONZADEH Sama technical and vocational training college.feridonzadeh@gmail. The relational data may be arranged in a features-by-meanings matrix. findings showed that factors such as education. age the resident people have direct effect on the defensible spaces of the residential complex.18 Network analysis of relational data Henny COOLEN OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment.h. or with valued entries measuring the strength of a relationship. Iran h. Delft University of Technology. It covers both the display and the analysis of these data and illustrates both aspects with examples from my own research. For the purpose of analysis these data are organized in a person-by-attribute matrix in which the persons are seen as cases and the attributes as variables. Too.83( ) and neighborhood relations with Beta coefficient=0. however. Case study: LALE & MILAD complexes in Ardabil province. for instance when we have measured the meanings people attach to their preferences for different dwelling features. Validity of the instrument calculated by content validity and the understudying construct showed that the instrument had proper validity. In the meantime. The results of the present study with use the Lisrel 8.07 have the lowest effect in among observed variables.com The main purpose of the research was to study the role of defensible of residential complex spaces in Structural Equations of Modeling (SEM). done is defensible space design to strengthen the control of sense the environment in the people. In this case we not only have a set of individuals and a set of dwelling features but also a set of meanings and the relationships between the set of features and the set of meanings. Structural equations of modeling in creating defensible spaces of residential complex.c. The Netherlands h. income levels and education are forced together to living. and apartments rules have direct effect on defensible of residential complex spaces. increase in number of population and the genesis residential complexes in cities. This is a two-mode adjacency matrix with either 1/0-entries indicating the presence/absence of a relation. Subsequently. Sometimes. 28 family (14 family from the LALE residential complex and 14 family from the MILAD residential complex) in Ardabil city were selected by random cluster Sampling. Of course. Variables such as neighborhood relations. Techniques that have been proposed are correspondence analysis. This paper presents and discusses ways of applying network analytic techniques to relational data encountered in housing research. the apartments rules have significant effects on defensible of space complexes with regression coefficient=0. and more recently network analysis. Islamic Azad University.WS .5 revealed that. Moreover. multidimensional scaling.coolen@tudelft. for instance we may have measured the preferences individuals have for different features of dwellings. the set of dwelling features and the set of meanings can be analyzed separately.nl In housing research we often study personal attributes. SociEconomic Status (SES).c. Nowadays. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Both types of matrices can be analyzed in several ways.
overcrowding. Living in decent conditions affords access to intimacy. i. avoids outside threats and creates the conditions for a social subject to interact with the social world and his environment. affects the inhabitants towards the inhabiting function. between oneself and his environment. and how residential environment is felt to be stigmatising and depreciating for the inhabitants and affects the relation process to themselves. projects in which these methods have been applied in the housing domain. ‘What is the use of lifestyle research in housing?’ A case study from the Netherlands André OUWEHAND OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. France leesjohanna@gmail. we will describe how energy deprivation. But lifestyle is also a contested concept in housing research. inadapted homes.ouwehand@tudelft. Nevertheless we see an increasing interest of housing professionals in lifestyle methods developed by different agencies. What happens then when dwellings and residential environment do not assure those functions? What happens when the residential environment being stigmatised depreciates the inhabitants? How do the inhabitants see and understand themselves? What are the expressions of social suffering? What kind of skills and tactics do the inhabitants develop to face up and deal with this environment? Using anthropological data and ethnographical research work undertaken in the urban area of Marseille (France). The paper will try to demonstrate how residential environments through an analysis of inadequate housing. private housing. Delft University of Technology.e. We will compare the lifestyle methods used in the Netherlands and present the results of case studies. In this paper we want to fuel the discussion about the added value and necessity of lifestyle research for the domain of housing. in rundown suburban condominions.18 When residential environment affects: anthropology of the inhabiting functions in a stigmatised urban environment Johanna LEES Centre Norbert Elias.WS . Lifestyle is expected to provide a surplus value compared to more traditional housing indicators such as socio-demographic and socio-economic variables. although in the field of practitioners and administrators it is a contested concept as well. The overall aim of this submission is to describe how such housing in a deprived residential environment context negatively affects the inhabiting function and in this way creates social suffering.nl Wenda DOFF At the turn of the century the supposed change from a supply oriented to a demand oriented housing market and the increasing complexity of the multicultural society have boosted the development and application of lifestyle research in the domain of housing.com In this paper. I will address the theme of residential environment and health. damp. In order to assess the surplus value of lifestyle research we use interviews with involved agencies and professionals. The notion of ‘inhabiting’ is to be considered as a relational process between oneself and the social body. privacy and hospitality. lack of running water. malfunctioning lifts. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Marseille. insalubrity have consequences on everyday life and on mental health. The validity and reliability of the concept have been questioned and housing scholars are critical about the necessity of lifestyle as an added value for housing research and housing practice. The Netherlands a.l.
’Affordance’ is a quality or asset within a specific environment. as a guiding principle in housing. Sweden ingabritt. The aim of the project is to analyse how urban density affects people’s actions and choices of residential location. Urban density is a key concept. which were used to distinguish four lifestyle categories: 1) neither individualistic nor collectivistic oriented (n = 595. 3) mostly collectivistic oriented (n = 171. However. The stratified study areas were selected on criteria of physical density. The Netherlands s. Suggested conclusions are that physical density as such seems to increase the amount of perceived affordances only within a very close environment of the home.j. The paper concentrates on perceived affordances regarding workplaces. accessibility may outweigh physical density as an influence on choices of residential location. schools and social networks. such as place of work. The survey covers important ‘affordances’ inherent in the physical environment of the household. Inga Britt WERNER 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .kth. JANSEN OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. a lifestyle typology has been developed that is based on universal requirements of human nature and interests (individualistic versus collectivistic). 36%). education. For this purpose. especially in cases where socio-demographic variables alone fall short. Current housing characteristics (in respondents who are not willing to move) and preferred housing characteristics (in respondents that are willing to move) are compared between the groups. Preliminary results show that respondents’ perceived number of alternative workplaces within 1 kilometre from home has significant positive and strong correlations to physical density as well as to mix of urban functions. The study employs theories and concepts from planning research and environmental psychology. mix of functions and accessibility within the region. gender and household type. The current study explores this assumption for a number of housing preferences. Any further away from home than 1 km.T. School of Architecture and Built Environment. Conclusion: Values may have some additional worth for explaining and predicting housing preferences. Range and variety of urban functions are then important additions to measurement of physical densities. The main method is a survey covering a stratified randomised sample of 4 500 individuals in stratified within the Stockholm area. 14%. Urban density and perceived affordances of workplaces Urban and Regional Studies. 38%). A number of statistically significant differences in housing preferences between the four groups are observed. after correction for socio-demographic variables most of these differences disappear. conform Schwartz (1987) and Schwartz and Bilsky (1990). income. some researchers argue that these variables no longer suffice to explain and predict preferences and that they should be supplemented with lifestyle variables.WS . indicating that they are a result of differences in socio-demographic variables and not of differences in actual housing preferences between the four email@example.com The added value of lifestyle variables: the search continues Sylvia J.t. Delft University of Technology. However. Royal Institute of Technology. Recently. These values form six value domains. shops. Results: The four lifestyle groups differ statistically significantly with regard to age.jansen@tudelft. increasing numbers of perceived affordances had a stronger correlation to accessibility. Methods: Data were collected though telephone interviews in January and February 2010. their impact on housing preferences seems to be rather limited. 11%). The range of affordances widens considerably with increasing accessibility. 2) mostly individualistic oriented (n = 221. Another key concept is ‘affordance‘. The data are analysed with statistical methods. however. which can be perceived and used by an individual for carrying out a certain activity. 4) both individualistic and collectivistic oriented (n = 563. and.se There is a consensus among planners and politicians that dense cities are better for the environment than sprawling urban landscapes. Stockholm. Respondents were asked to indicate the importance of 29 values. Thus.nl Introduction: People’s preferences for residential environments have long been predicted on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics alone. such as pleasure.
a rapidly growing Eastern Mediterranean city. the willing to pay and purchasing intention. a stimulated lab in KSU. technology acceptance and sustainable environmental awareness. In general terms. North Cyprus. there is often a need to assess how well a residential environment meets the requirements. environmental maintenance. appropriateness as a place to live.edu. and makes it possible to carry out excellent residential environment. Famagusta. R. In addition. availability of things to do. Mersin. North Cyprus. any such assessment may be viewed as an indicator of residential satisfaction. Neighbourhood satisfaction among diverse groups of inhabitants: findings from Famagusta area study Department of Architecture.C.oktay@gmail. A probability sample of 302 local residents and 96 international students from different households were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Furthermore the willing to pay and the purchasing intention for the smart kitchen products are the key factors affect on the market feasibility. Considering the mixed demographic composition of Famagusta and the lack of well established norms of service and maintenance we postulated that satisfaction with the neighbourhood to vary along with perceived quality of the attributes of the city.com Derya OKTAY Robert W. This study examines relationships between neighbourhood satisfaction and selected measures of perceived neighbourhood quality among two different groups of inhabitants. MARANS In the person-environment relationship. and then to finish the questionnaire with stated preference. accessibility. In conducting the questionnaire survey. The analysis of users’ satisfaction would help to offer the designer some useful revised suggestions based on user’s feedback. Kunshan University. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . The empirical study will constructs a linear structure relation model to explore the co-relationships between the satisfaction. Although both groups were satisfied with their neighbourhoods. Taiwan City. local residents and international students. Department of Real Estate Management. O. (Thanks for the financial support from NSC97-3114-E-168-001. Eastern Mediterranean University.ksu. the willing to pay and purchasing intention for the smart kitchen. and expectations of its inhabitants – that is how satisfied they are with it (Francescato. mayc2110@mail.O. but also guide the product improvement toward market orientation. and sense of neighbourhood as home.18 The study of consumers’ satisfaction and the willing to pay and purchasing intention for the smart kitchen Kunshan University.C. The neighbourhood attributes considered were attractiveness. residing in Famagusta. Far East University. Taiwan Shwuhuey WANG Department of Business Administration. regression analyses demonstrated that appropriateness of the neighbourhood as a place to live and sense of neighbourhood as home were most important for local residents while attractiveness and environmental maintenance were most important for the students. Taiwan. National Changhua University of Education.centered design. the author invites the kitchens main users to experience the functions of the smart kitchen. Taiwan R. noise. The results of the analysis indicate significant differences among local people and the international students in environmental factors contributing to neighbourhood satisfaction.O.WS . Turkey derya. C.tr de. and Department of Business Education. this study employs independent sample t-test to examine the variance of consumers’ satisfaction toward the smart kitchen by different family type. we expected satisfaction among local residents to be higher than that of students because the former have lived in the city longer and have stronger ties to their neighbourhoods. traffic. In this context.tw Shumei CHEN Department of Business Administration. 1998).firstname.lastname@example.org. goals.) Tzai-Zang LEE The objective of this study is to examine the co-relationship between consumers’ satisfaction. Taiwan R. The results not only highlight on the concept of user. It strengthens the market feasibility of smart kitchen.
WORKSHOP — 20 — Provision of Land for Social and Affordable Housing Coordinators: George de Kam and Willem Korthals Altes 23rd Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c C O N F E R E N C E UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .
20 Key players in the Social and Affordable Housing provision in Italy Laura POGLIANI Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione DiAP. Housing demand in Italy has transformed over time.pogliani@polimi. The initiatives of some Bank Foundations have grown in the past 5 years in order to promote ethical investment (not free grants). In both cases.ru. the main mission is to produce and manage affordable. sense of identity and membership. as far as possible. social mix. more attention to local (political) discretion could substantially improve our understanding of how national housing systems really work. the impact of the decisions of local government on the distribution of housing related welfare has increased. g.it The question discussed in this paper is to what extent the so-called Third sector (not-for profit and limited profit) and the private operators can become effective partners for addressing the issue of housing needs. single-parent families. rooted in planning tools. A Dutch Case Study and some suggestions for International Comparative Research George DE KAM Institute of Management Research. since the Italian legislation offered relevant tools for the development of affordable housing (mainly for sale with limitations) and limited public social housing. but also for citizens in (re)considering their political preferences. which will be illustrated along the paper. real estate funds dedicated to social housing. as a consequence of the shift of responsibilities to the local level. the private sector is being captured through negotiations and bonus incentives or by inclusionary obligations. and in particular. but its involvement arises more shadows than lights. and for providers of social housing to re-assess their stakeholder management in the local civil and political community. and other aspects of the location of housing. able to address issues of integrated accommodation needs. social housing. On the other side. Politecnico di Milano. such as inclusion. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . this will be confronted with the findings of our empirical research into the relationship between local political attitudes towards housing associations and some outcome measures of housing related welfare. playing an important role in greenfield as well as in brownfield areas. to public amenities and leisure facilities. the overall result of public-private partnership consists mainly in the construction of housing buildings rather than in the creation of a public domain of land and properties. It is a condition stressing the need of a multidimensional approach and asking for convergent public. functional mix. and. temporary workers. This paper investigates the distributive effects of this type of local discretion in the Dutch institutional context. In international comparative research.nl In several developed countries there is a tendency not only to reduce the level of involvement of government in planning and housing. including not only income but also access to job opportunities. social and private resources. An important aspect of planning and housing policies is the redistribution of welfare in a broad sense. worth studying. Local Politics and the Regional Distribution of Land and Housing related Welfare. immigrants. Italy laura.dekam@fm. The Cooperatives of householders’ contribute in providing housing and services has become essential in the past 50 years. So. off-campus students and others) and the extension of the housing emergencies into intermediate segments of the population who until recently were untouched by such difficulties. but also to shift the remaining tasks in this policy domain from central to regional or local tiers of government.WS . The Netherlands. Radboud University Nijmegen. After a theoretical assessment of the potential variance in these effects between local jurisdictions. It will be argued that greater awareness of this relationship is important not only for designing and implementing policies (both at the national as well as the local level). In most recent urban practices. but in few cases. the challenge relies in a process of community building. becoming more complex and diversified and is currently characterized by the presence of ‘atypical’ housing demand (strong increase in singles.
Nowadays the pendulum swings towards the emerging new role where the local authority orchestrates private landowners. in architectural possibilities. Thus it illuminates the room of manoeuvre for the local authorities for establishing a local land tenure policy and to tailor this policy to housing market fluctuation. The paper presents the juridical and financial elements which constitute local land tenure policy. We will be attentive to new forms of shared rather than individual home ownership and study its possible consequences and how these converge or clash with relative policies. raising questions about a third sector in the relationships between institutions and individuals. which was recognized as a basic human right and which has recently been thrown into question. France sylvette. the relationships between private and public spaces. Up to the end of the 20th century.denefle@univ-tours. We will examine the emergence of these new ways of living. and North Africa). It separates elements that are locally controlled and elements that are centrally controlled.20 Supply of Land for Housing: Policy. Aas. we consider that economic development gave almost everyone access to housing. demands for sustainability and renewal of legislation. But the western socio-economic model collapsed at the beginning of the 21st century. In Norway the evolvement of municipal land tenure policy can be characterised as a pendulum swinging from a policy where local authorities are active and privileged purchasers of land for development to local authorities being active sellers of publicly owned land. Sharing living spaces: towards alternative forms of ownership Housing Sylvette DENEFLE University of Tours. Policy Change and the Roles of Markets and Institutions Berit NORDAHL Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning.Nordahl@umb. innovations in the law. and there have been many experiences. legislation is less restrictive than in France. community practices. and it is highly symbolic that the global awareness of these profound social changes arose from a property crisis which started in the USA. The paper analyzes the of the evolvement of the policy changes in the light of the housing market fluctuations as well as light of policy changes at central level. In Europe and elsewhere (notably North and South America. in France. Norway Berit. Europe and beyond. and between uses and responsibilities. Cooperative ownership constitutes a central issue around which cross-cutting questions can be raised at multiple levels: daily living arrangements. in citizenship. varying in form from country to country. within a very wide range of contexts linked to the specific history of the country. We will present a work issued of a research program ALTER-PROP (funded by the French National Agency for Research) in which housing is used to study new forms of ownership based on social economy and ecology.fr The recent French experiments of cooperative of inhabitants will be used as a way of approaching the complex issue of the right of ownership. In this policy the local authority seeks influence over the land supply but without having to purchase the land.no This paper addresses the changing role of the local authority in the supply of land for housing. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .WS . Norwegian University of Life Science.
Currently.korthalsaltes@tudelft. Archer.tr Sevkiye Sence TURK OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. KORTHALS ALTES Varying approaches to affordable housing from a common base – Australia . However. The second aim of the paper is to analyze the Turkish LR system in relation to the provision of social housing. Turkey has to produce enough quantity and quality of housing at a reasonable price. the relationship between social housing and LR has not been taken into consideration so far. the capacity of land readjustment for social housing has not been examined sufficiently. Therefore. However. New Zealand and the UK compared London School of Economics.nl Land readjustment (LR) is perceived by many urban planners as an essential tool for creating a healthy. The first aim of this paper is to explore the capacity of LR for the provision of social housing in an international context. livable. New Zealand also has strong rights to develop within a zoning system – but has used other legislation. such as. squares. This has survived almost unchanged in the UK until today. 2008. It may play a role in the provision of basic urban infrastructure. Geo-information and Land Development Section. That is. the discussion about the capacity of LR for the provision for social housing in Turkey provides a contribution to the international literature. Hong. This paper compares and contrasts the three systems. Willem K. because there is an important housing shortage for low and middle income groups. Turk. Delft University of Technology. Istanbul. Firstly it is relevant. Australia and New Zealand have taken different paths from a common legal base. Istanbul Technical University. This has provided greater certainty to developers but has undermined the capacity to negotiate affordable housing without compensation and has therefore entrenched the need for direct subsidy for new affordable housing supply. the LR method within the framework of the applicable law can be implemented both in built-up and new development areas. The big changes have been the introduction of local plans from 1990 which are seen to have reduced the responsiveness of the planning system to increases in demand for appropriate residential land while enabling affordable housing and now the introduction of incentives to local authorities to ensure provide both market and affordable housing. United Kingdom Nicole GURRAN London School of Economics. car parks. Turk and Korthals Altes. 1997). 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . All three systems have faced particular challenges over the last few years. The provision takes place through various LR mechanisms in different countries (Doebele 1982. public service areas (on-site and offsite) such as roads. which can be utilized by the inhabitants of the city. 1999.k. 2002. Although the benefits and significance of LR methods have been highlighted by many country studies.20 The Capacity of Land Readjustment for Social Housing : An Analysis for Turkey Faculty of Architecture.WS . United Kingdom Christine WHITEHEAD The 1947 Town and County Planning Act introduced a comprehensive system of urban planning based on individual site permissions in the UK. The Netherlands w.edu. 1999. and organized urban development. Turkey turkss@itu. their successes and failures to draw lessons for the future about how the three systems might better enable adequate housing both market and affordable. Larsson. United Kingdom Patricia AUSTIN London School of Economics. it is established that LR has a capacity for the provision of land for social housing and for or social housing financing (Archer. The second reason why the Turkish is relevant is that Turkey has a long tradition of using LR. 2010). Discussing the capacity of LR for social housing in Turkey is relevant. In Australia the emphasis has been far more towards a zoning system. notably with respect to environmental damage and distributional externalities to support affordable housing provision. sewer systems and public green areas.
Jane Ball and Julio Ponce Sole 23rd Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c C O N F E R E N C E UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .WORKSHOP — 21 — Legal Aspects of Housing. Land and Planning Co-ordinators: Sergio Nasarre Aznar.
mostly focused on personal property security rights. and therefore also land law. This does not only concern property law relating to movables. Increasingly these national legal systems are struggling with developments in society that they cannot immediately cope with. When an optional instrument in European private law is made. Malaysia sazlinor@iiu. can be created. The Netherlands Bram AKKERMANS Maastricht European Private Law Institute (M-EPLI). housing and property development is something that can be proud of. as well as an increasing influence of EU law on national law as we work towards the further completion of the EU Internal Market. Faculty of Law. Kuala Lumpur. This is considered as part of the mechanism that will support the growth of land. This is also related to the confidence that public will have towards the property developers. The Netherlands B. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . security rights and trusts. This paper takes account of these (policy) developments and seeks to highlight common thought patterns both at Member State and at an EU level to build foundations of an EU property law doctrine on which a future European property law. It is the objective of this paper to discuss the provisions. Developments include the new inclusion of the work towards a Euro-mortgage in the EU 2020 Internal Market strategy. This includes new objects of property law. It is hoped that the Malaysian government will improve the laws and regulations governing this tribunal and thus need to study the experiences and practices in other jurisdictions. 2002. but also case law of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) relating to free movement of capital and services and the acquisition and financing of such an acquisition of land in other Member States. housing and property development. the Tribunal for Homebuyers’ Claim has been established in the year of 2002 to enable house purchasers to file a claim against property developers for any problem related to housing development.WS . Property law in both common and civil law systems uses a doctrinal system of reasoning at its foundation. which is based on the DCFR. This movement exists in increased activity at a European Union level. These developments force the need to rethink this doctrinal system of reasoning. Faculty of Law. Maastricht University.edu.21 European Union Property Law in Development Sjef VAN ERP Maastricht European Private Law Institute (M-EPLI). but also increased pressure on property law systems because of European Union developments. In Malaysia. to have a proper and structured mechanism in relation to land.my Being one of the developing countries. International Islamic University. it is in most systems undesirable to recreate a separation between personal property and land law at a national level. 1966 and the Tribunal for Homebuyers’ Claim Regulations. that includes rules on the transfer of ownership. but also land law. Even though the DCFR concerns mostly movables.nl There is a clear movement towards the development of European Union Property Law. rules and procedures relating to the Tribunal for Homebuyers’ Claim that is specifically regulated by the Housing Development (Control and Licensing) Act. Maastricht University. such as the well known problems with the legal status of bank accounts and the more recent problems concerning virtual property. the pressure for modernisation on national systems increases.Akkermans@maastrichtuniversity. National property law systems are – finally – also in development. Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws. Empowering House Purchasers: A Focus on Malaysian Tribunal for Homebuyers’ Claim Azlinor SUFIAN Private Law Department.
affordable housing. while the prospect of the exciting mixed use redevelopment there is uncertain.homesandcommunities. which was intended to demolish the plant. The paper will discuss the problems associated with the requirement that relevant tenancies must be for a minimum period of two years. and further reductions in legal aid. For example.du. This paper will use this case study in Denver to consider how (1) such polluted sites ( ‘brownfields’) are common in urban areas. Colorado. Denver. which may result in a housing and welfare crisis for many vulnerable people in the near future. where private investors would buy the site and engage in the cleanup and building efforts. Denver.edu Edward ZIEGLER Jan G. The paper will discuss the problems associated with the use of the anticipated extra income.http://www. This paper will consider the impact of this document on planning and the housing market. Unfortunately. This paper will discuss how this site was the subject of a community benefit agreement signed in 2006. When the private developer became unable to obtain financing to continue environmental remediation. Now the toxic.WS . and also legal assistance in the form of rezoning classifications and relaxed environmental standards. A Litany of Disaster for UK Housing London South Bank University. many tenants will pay more rent because social landlords will offer fixed-term tenancies at up to 80 per cent of local market rent. (2) there is vast potential in redeveloping and regenerating these sites so that they become centers with mixed uses. This is far higher than the highest rent at present. That funding will now mainly concern ‘Affordable Rent’ properties (2). these high hopes became a victim of the financial collapse plaguing the American real estate industry after 2009. and the effect of the accompanying reductions in housing benefit allowances.21 Public-Private Partnerships in America for an Urban Mix Regeneration Site Development: The Case of the Polluted Gates Rubber Plant in Denver University of Denver Sturm College of Law.uk/public/documents/Affordable-Homes-Framework. clean up the contaminants. LAITOS University of Denver Sturm College of Law. as a result of this document. (3) a combination of private investment and public assistance can be deployed to create new mixed-use urban centers. and (4) there are always financial risks associated with such ventures. abandoned rubber plant still remains. United Kingdom email@example.com/affordable-homes 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . combining employment. and new commercial development in a transit-oriented environment.homesandcommunities.ac.co. viewed 27 February 2011 at http://www. near sustainable green transit. and then create there a perfect blend of high-density mixed uses. the Minister for Housing and Local Government (The Rt Hon Grant Shapps) announced the publication of the Framework for the Government's Affordable Homes Programme for 2011-15 (1). For planning and housing purposes the definition of affordable housing is being revised to refer to ‘Affordable Rent’. and that it has passed responsibility for the provision of affordable housing to inadequately prepared and inadequately funded local councils. In the past. USA eziegler@law. Government agencies would assist by providing financial subsidies in the form of sales and property tax reimbursements. 1.pdf 2. This redevelopment would have been the product of a public-private partnership. USA The old Gates Rubber Company is an abandoned and contaminated 50-acre site in the heart of Denver. as well as other financial help such as bond issuance. It will conclude that the government gives little consideration to mixed housing in the UK. certain funding in the UK has been available for social rent and various intermediate affordable homes.co.uk Francine BAKER On the 14 February 2010. the redevelopment was halted. affordable housing. This paper will discuss the connection of this document with provisions of the UK’s Localism Bill which will decentralise planning decisions concerning the allocation of affordable housing requirements in the UK.
Other alternatives. This becomes more complex with the introduction of electoral districts created in the electoral law that exist in Chile since the late 80's. concluded that all used a territorial approach.cl Carlos MUÑOZ Matías DZIEKONSKI Santiago.only recently. extrapolated into an abstraction as a working methodology for other territories. geography or other and specific Ministry. each institution was not clearly using the territorial concept. it is possible to propose a score of relevant topics to be considered for a possible instrument of Sustainable Land Management. which is the political administration fragmentation of the territory with its highest expression at the community level.which includes multi-sector variables as a relevant part in a whole geographic topic . and a vital influence in the processes of management and financing of investments in the territories involved.21 A condominium regime within one dwelling (sub-condominium) University Rovira i Virgili. On the basis of these characteristics of the territorial configuration.WS . the Public Administration has incorporated the territorial planning process . are not attractive for landlords because it is controversial their right to demand the payment of any rent. paying a rent for a room or even just for a bed.munoz. Chile. Viewing the history of political-administrative division that developed this country. specifically in the implementation of its products. which entitled the tenant to use all the surface of the dwelling). Thus. and almost 50% in shared flats under a lease. and primarily for the implementation of development programs and not as a norm. However. such as the property right of ‘habitatio’. planning as a whole regardless of territorial space. The organization of several people within the same dwelling usually takes place through the rent of one specific room to each one. who are true holders altogether of property rights and would have as a consequence more security and stability in their tenure. and thus could infer that they used the traditional method. From the private law perspective we have another way to promote the access to affordable housing: the constitution of a condominium inside a dwelling (sub-condominium). which is governed by general dispositions of the Spanish Civil Code (which do not give to the tenant the same protection as the lease foreseen at the Urban Leases Act of 1994.cat Both ownership and lease are the most common property tenures in Spain. It must be possible from this background. Chile carlos. which in one form or otherwise benefited the users in the territory of the region. both rights are clearly insufficient to meet the current social needs. a social phenomenon which has been exacerbated by the credit crunch is the fact that more than 20% of the immigrant population lived in an insalubrious situation in 2007. School of Architecture. Héctor SIMÓN MORENO Integrated Territorial Planning in Chile. on information collected between 2001 and 2006 at regional public services. which involve either the purchase of a dwelling (which usually takes place through a mortgage) or a lease contract. Spain hector.p@usach. Extrapolated experiences approach from specific Public Services in the O'Higgins Region faced with the political administrative division. Historically. it is possible to check the consistency (or not) who have had these with the dynamics that actually make it up.simon@urv. In Chile. and with regard to the latter some problems arise with its legal nature (it does not create a property right). In the Region of O'Higgins. Sometimes there is no other option that sharing the dwelling with other people. it has insisted on treating the problem from the perspective of some specific disciplines such as economics. Tarragona. It could be a way to organize the coexistence of several people. This paper tries to show who could this scheme be structured in our legal system.000 evictions). We have to bear in mind that the former is sometimes so expensive for people with low income (since 2007 have taken place 176. Nevertheless. University of Santiago de Chile. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .
Along with those federal funds come certain requirements for documenting and justifying the use of those funds to the U. This includes rare tenure types connecting to the past. impressions. but tries to compare ‘tenancies’. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and its Office of Inspector General which monitors and audits the permissible use of those funds and also whether such funds were used unlawfully and with criminal intent. The University of Sheffield. Elements of residential security increasingly arise from generic anti-eviction laws. Firstly the available national types of occupancy right in one country should be looked at by listing these by the national description of type. United Kingdom jane. not as tenancies or property.com Support for housing and development programs in the United States generally involves local and state government as well as by various non-profit non-governmental organizations’ use of federal program funds. One role of lawyers advising and representing state. contract law. and NGO entities that carry out these federally-funded programs has been to provide legal representation of these entities. sometimes government investigators have attempted to invade this privilege to obtain more information regarding the facts and actor’s motivations. case law and national empirical work. Whether national occupancy rights are secure is essentially an empirical question.WS . It cannot be assumed that the Roman law vocabulary describes the same thing in different countries. jurisprudence is the protection of what is termed the ‘attorney-client privilege’ that was established so lawyers could effectively represent their clients.S. HETZEL Wayne State University Law School. The extent to which Roman or mediaeval fragmentation hangs around everywhere is surprising. local. Tenures can then be grouped into European families. USA otto@hetzelesq. Some basic legal comparisons can help. This is not a small job. Then effective rights and their limitations can be ascertained from statutes. statute or consumer law. or indeed any type of legislation. whether property law. fragmentary tenures cast light on some common origins of land rights. Michigan. especially when disputes arise regarding proper uses of these funds. Most countries have a continuum of residential rights from the insecure to the very secure. which is not entirely a common European legal concept. The national legal bases for residential regulation and protection should be examined.21 Protecting the Attorney-Client Privilege in Advising Local.S. In Europe.ac. but neither much legal comparison of typologies of other residential land rights and residential security. There are also insecure occupancy rights everywhere. State and NGO Entities Administering Federally-Funded Housing and Development Activities Otto J. One of the bedrock principles of U. One EU study makes a start. legal theories. Protection of the attorney’s thoughts. such as hotels and hostels. and strategy including communications with their clients are considered essential on public policy grounds to ensure clients will fully and effectively communicate with their attorneys and their statements to counsel not be revealed. There is ample international work on property.uk This working paper seeks a methodology by which national tenures or residential land rights can be compared. In the quest for factual information.ball@sheffield. Seeking a methodology to compare tenures or residential occupancy rights in Europe Jane BALL School of Law. The general legal characteristics of all residential tenures need to be compared. social law. Detroit. This paper describes the importance of preservation of the privilege while still permitting funding sources to ensure that the funds have been used consistent with federal restrictions on their use and discusses recent issues that have arisen in contests for access to information between the federal government and attorneys representing entities that have been administering housing and development activities using federal funds.
both private tenant and home-owner – rather than landlords or policy-makers. Others commented that whilst the actual scheme had. The paper presents a historical overview of squatting and policies for reducing vacancy in The Netherlands and evaluates the current legal arrangements. or fail to achieve acceptable standards of management. Domestic peace can only be disturbed when furniture (table. which culminated in the squatter riots during the coronation ceremonies of queen Beatrix and prince Claus on April 30. After that period squatting was allowed to prevent structural vacancy. In 1964 the first squatting actions took place in Amsterdam. the authority can take enforcement action. For Dutch government this was a reason to propose an Anti-Squatting Act which would make squatting illegal. Later the period of protection was adapted to one year. The aim of this paper is to examine the reality behind one such scheme that was implemented in Neath-Port Talbot in South Wales in an area of some depravation. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . with a high publicity profile.ac. In 1914 the highest Dutch Court decided that entering a vacant dwelling is not punishable by law. all private landlords must obtain a licence and if they fail to do so. Since October 2010 the Squatting and Vacancy Act is valid which makes squatting illegal but doesnot offer a solution for an effective reduction of vacancy. Selective Licensing under the 2004 Housing Act and their effects on Resident Satisfaction and Community Engagement: A Case Study Julian SIDOLI DEL CENO Birmingham City University. 1980. sometimes with heavy violence since 1974. Delft University of Technology.priemus@tudelft. It focuses on examining the perceptions of the actual residents in the designated area . It was found that many tenants were unaware of the actual operation of the scheme confusing it with a much wider regeneration scheme.WS . In 1994 a Vacancy Act was enacted: vacant properties were protected legally during the first six months. bed) is present in the dwelling.21 Squatters and municipal policies to reduce vacancy Hugo PRIEMUS OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. The Act came into force in April 2006.sidolidelceno@bcu. In 2010 Parliament supported a proposal for a squatting prohibition. seat. It had been primarily developed with the need to tackle problems in areas of low demand and many of the provisions bear similarity to those relating to the mandatory and discretionary licensing of Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs) which were also introduced by the 2004 Act. The Netherlands h. In an area subject to selective licensing. brought little actual changes it had created what might be termed ‘a perception of value’ resulting a positive sense of change. In the meantime the squatting movement in Amsterdam developed strongly.uk The Housing Act 2004 (Sections 79-81) introduced a scheme of selective licensing of private landlords in a local housing authority’s area. Selective licensing was introduced as an attempt to address two distinct but arguably related issues: poor quality private housing (often coupled with indifferent management) and anti-social tenants. This proposal did not reach a political majority. United Kingdom julian. as of yet.nl Squatting has been considered since many decades as a strategy to prevent and to reduce vacancy.
despite some amendments to it and its implementation regulations. The paper also includes a topical classification of important developments in the past year’s jurisprudence.21 Legal decisions of the Council of State of The Netherlands in 2010 H. relevant laws and the legal framework on housing and squatter settlements. Recently. until quite recently.WS . research.B. unearned income (rentier). During the period 1945-1960. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . This approach creates many conflicts and contradictions about property/tenure rights. Thus. The Netherlands info@vandullemenadvocaten. The first serious and formal attempt embodied in the Gecekondu Law is still in use. and environmental affairs by the Administrative Court of the Council of State of the Netherlands in 2010. renewal. planners. the illegal settlements (called gecekondu in Turkey) became a major point of interest in housing. statistical data. Since the appearance of squatter settlements. The selection includes decisions relating to administrative procedures. impact of legal time restrictions. NGOs and local/central governments. After the Gecekondu Law was passed. The aim of this paper is to discuss how legal arrangements affects both now and in the past the squatter movement and urbanization in the big cities of Turkey. architects.tr The squatter housing phenomenon appeared in Turkey after World War II and has increasingly continued up to now. The method of this study is based on literature. environmental quality and the livable environments for everyone among squatters. The Impact of Legal Regulations on the Squatter Housing (‘Gecekondu’) Phenomenon in Turkey Yasemin ALKISER Faculty of Architecture.edu. and the scope of jurisdiction of government bodies. planning. which was considered to be linked with renewal and rehabilitation. a lot of other legal arrangements regarding prevention.M. and other governmental bodies on local. there have been many legal steps like the Gecekondu Law and the Urban Transformation Law which both intend to solve the squatter housing problem. commissions. many squatter housing solutions have centered on forgiveness. sociologists. squatter housing solutions are focused on ‘urban transformation’ which includes mostly regeneration much more than renewal or rehabilitation.raadvanstate.nl A summary of important developments in the jurisprudence relating to the fields of housing. urbanization resulting out of development attempts had led to the generation of illegal squatter settlements. rehabilitation. VAN DULLEMEN Attorney at law in The Hague. public benefits. References will be provided to the selected decisions that are all published at: www.nl. provincial and state level. investors. construction and demolition or forgiving had already been engaged in. Until the first Gecekondu Law was passed in 1966. Turkey alkiser@itu. Istanbul Technical University. Focus is also given to subjects and doctrines of general administrative (procedural) law affecting judicial decisions in these areas of significance to European and International law.
WORKSHOP — 22 — Private rented markets Co-ordinators: Aideen Hayden. Julie Rugg and Bob Jordan 23rd Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c C O N F E R E N C E UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .
when rent increases (not rent levels) were fixed at a maximum of 25%. 4% in Ankara. Austria Karin. In this paper. This is done by using data of the household survey on housing wealth 2008 (HSHW 2008) conducted by the Austrian central bank. With the lowest income quartile this difference is more pronounced than with the upper income quartiles.at One of the targets of social housing policy is to keep housing costs affordable for lower-income households. The paper analyses whether this works and compares therefore housing costs of homeowners with those of renters. Instead. position of private rented market in Turkey is analyzed firstly on general by providing legal aspects that determine the context and secondly by physical attributes of renting in Ankara. The median housing cost burden in Vienna with an income share of 22% is lower than the housing costs as percentage share of income for renters in the other Austrian provinces (26%). 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Mersin University. It is much lower than the respective value for renters (rents plus operating costs) with a median value of 22% (mean 26%).Wagner@oenb. 28% in Istanbul in 2003). Vienna. Turkey pelincp@gmail. Physical differences between private rented and owner occupied dwellings have not been much to lead tenure discrepancies when compared to countries with social housing. housing association apartments . Faculty of Architecture. Rent levels were never controlled by administrations. Finally the paper analyses the sociodemographic characteristics of renters of public housing apartments and of renters of housing association apartments.WS .Gemeindewohnung. however these were subject to misuse by homeowners. rent-free homes) show a median housing costs share in income of 36%(mean 49%) in the 1st income quartile compared with 43% (mean 57%) for renters of private homes. It is shown that when moving to another home renters estimate their future housing costs much better than homeowners do After all. Renters could face eviction under certain situations determined by the Law on Property Rents. The differences get lower with higher income quartiles. leading to easy evictions. Public renting never existed in the country. Landlords had monopolistic powers to determine rent levels and increases and households were forced to accept these amounts.com Turkey is characterized with high home ownership rates (71% in 2003). Renters of subsidized homes (public housing apartments .Genossenschaftswohnung. company housing. It can be shown that the share of housing costs on income (debt service plus operating costs) for the median homeowner is 6% (mean 15%). Governments did not develop social rented housing and pro-owner laws have been followed. the capital city. This trend was broken only in 2000. Private rented market in Ankara: legal aspects and physical attributes Gulsun Pelin SARIOGLU ERDOGDU Department of City and Regional Planning. followed by new tenant agreements with new tenants at increased rent levels. a large proportion of housing stock is privately rented especially in the big cities (26. bringing more profit to the homeowners.22 Are housing costs higher for homeowners or for renters? How is their income burden? Does social housing policy work? Karin WAGNER Oesterreichische Nationalbank. one third of renters (32%) is forced to cut back their expenses for being able to pay their housing costs (for the homeowners those forced to cut back expenses are 27%). There is still no government control in the setting of initial rents.
the environmental impacts. University of Mauritius. Reduit. it is feared on the long term whether the cost of such massive investment will bring end result if no solution is foreseen to prevent massive disruption of native and natural fauna and flora and the eventual negative environmental consequences and the local population. Yet the origins of this decline have not been subject to in-depth scrutiny. this study will analyse whether development patterns need to be controlled so as to prevent segregation between the different social classes and the population. and housing associations or the growth of owner-occupation. the previously dominant private rental housing market in Britain began a process of long-term decline that continued up to the late 1980s.mu Manta NOWBUTH Suhail Ahmad AHMADI Municipal Council of Rose Hill suhail4ever@gmail. The works target at determining the impacts of the development within neighbouring settlements.mu University of Mauritius. Previous historical scholarship on private renting in Britain has tended to focus on the 19th century or on particular episodes such as rent strikes and the 1915 Rent Act. Mauritius k. Focusing on the period from the Edwardian housing slump in the 1900s through the interwar years up to 1939.ac.uk Peter A.22 The Impact of Integrated Resort Schemes (IRS) on the population Yashwaree BAGUANT-MOONSHIRAM.WS . at least when compared with the research on the early origins of council housing. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .kemp@spi. social benefits incurred under the Corporate Social Responsibility are encouraging.baguant@uom. However.ox. 1986) associated with private renting that had dominated the urban housing market in the late 19th century. by contrast. It seeks to clarify the misconceptions behind the IRS and has for objective to determine the benefits and drawbacks of such schemes within the parameters of Town and Country Planning. The private rental housing market between the two world wars. Reduit.com The purpose of this study is at making an impact analysis of development implemented under the Integrated Resort Scheme (IRS). The promotion of IRS by authorities as an essential component of the investment strategy in Mauritius is justified by the economic importance that such development reaffirms. KEMP During the early 20th century. This study will analyse ways in which there would be more efficient management of land use. In looks in particular at the origins of the decline of the ‘structure of housing provision’ (Ball.ac. The transformation of the urban private rental housing market in early 20th century Britain Oxford Institute of Social Policy. United Kingdom peter. The profits incurred by promoters and Government under the IRS are in no way contested. the social impacts and the economic impacts. Oxford. it charts and analyses the developments and processes that undermined that structure of provision. and if the prevailing planning policies need to be reviewed and if new criteria need to be introduced to assess land value in order to prevent further isolation of low social classes. has been neglected and yet this was a transformative period during which the long-term processes of decline became embedded in the political economy of housing in Britain. The paper will present a theoretically-informed account of the transformation that occurred in the urban private rental housing market in early 20th century Britain. Furthermore. Mauritius mnowbuth@uom. Finally.ac.
United Kingdom moxley@dmu. Leicester. A key issue that is explored is the effect of policies on the demand for private renting and investment in the sector. housing attracts often heavy political interference of governments because of the very spread socialist or even communist doctrines and public pressures calling for the provision of housing as a cheap or nearly free service for the electorate public. Praha. Delft University of Technology. The Netherlands The size of the private rented housing sector (PRS) varies markedly between countries.22 The role of policy in determining the size of the private rented sector: international comparisons Michael OXLEY Centre for Comparative Housing Research. Faculty of Business & Law. The paper explores the effect of policy on the size of the PRS relative to other tenures in recent years in several countries with emphasis on the evidence from France. taxation and regulation are considered in the context of the housing systems of particular countries. See: http://www. In Europe we have adopted after the end of the second-world-war the Convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. including also rental housing units. We will concentrate in this contribution on setting the limits of interference that is still admissible in private rental housing in Europe 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . the UK and the USA.ac. The paper draws on some of the evidence in the authors’ research report for the English Department of Communities and Local Government: Promoting Investment in Private Rented Housing Supply: International Policy Comparisons (November 2010). At the same time. Delft University of Technology. This convention in its first protocol guarantees in its article No. which became an obligatory part of constitutional law of all EU member states.cz Rental housing as well as any other business in order to attract investors has to offer reasonable security of investment and reasonable return on invested capital. The reality is unfortunately much worse.gov.uk/publications/housing/investprivaterentedhousing Economy and legal aspects of private rental housing and the importance of proper adjustment of market rents Tomislav ŠIMECEK International Union of Property Owners (UIPI). Many countries are still keeping in force legal and economical regulation of rental law and rents far beyond the acceptable limits. Czech Republic simecek@fzu. United Kingdom Marietta HAFFNER OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. De Montfort University.communities. The definition and measurement of the size of the sector in each country is considered. The roles of subsidies.uk Tim BROWN Centre for Comparative Housing Research. The Netherlands Joris HOEKSTRA OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment. 1 the peaceful enjoyment of every person´s possession. Based on this it seems that all countries should obey this binding law and that the governmental interference should be kept within reasonable limits to allow peaceful enjoyment of everyone´s property. Germany. Leicester. Faculty of Business & Law. De Montfort University. The analysis is important in understanding current tenure distribution and is relevant to evaluating policies that seek to increase the size of the sector.WS .
Praha. including ‘hybrid’ rental tenancies with features of both social and private rented tenancies.22 Housing policy tools supporting young families and their possible applications in the private rental sector in the Czech Republic Institute of Sociology. that would improve relationships between private landlords and young tenants and decrease both perceived and real risks of the two sides of the possible rental contract. 1997). Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. better security of tenure for private rented tenants. in which housing market has not developed fully. A more tenure neutral stance is manifested in the extension of rights previously associated with social housing tenants to those in the private rented sector (PRS).kostelecky@soc. For such people. The second (the main) objective is to discuss possible tools of housing policy aimed at supporting young families that would be suitable for the situation in European states with transitive economies. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . This is a departure from the previous policy which applied only to sitting local authority tenants. Irish housing policy has operated in part to limit the housing risk of the citizen. on the basis of need rather on the basis of tenure occupied by the individual. Ireland Aideen HAYDEN. Tenant purchase (right-to-buy) has been extended to those assessed as in social housing need but who demonstrate a capacity for subsidised home ownership. private rental market could serve as an affordable housing alternative provided that suitable housing policy alleviates potential problems between private landlords and potential tenants. Bob JORDAN Threshold. Traditionally a home owner society.cas.ie This paper argues that Ireland has moved in recent years to a more tenure neutral position in the context of social housing policy. rates of homeownership in Ireland have fallen in tandem with substantial growth in the private rented sector (from 7% to 12% in less than a decade). On the basis on empirical research (workshops with representatives of private landlords and focus groups with young people who cannot afford housing ownership) a new housing policy tools are being proposed and tested. We suggest instead that measures to achieve this have reduced risk for more vulnerable members of society and increased the extent of social commitment. Czech Republic tomas. and improved PRS accommodation standards. We pay special attention to young people who have not enough income to afford purchase of their own flat or house and who are at the same time denied access to (municipal) social rental housing where regulated rents are still relatively affordable. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. We examine this proposition by reviewing various measures taken by the Irish State over the last decade. Ireland has moved to a more tenure neutral position. It represents a ‘decoupling’ of social housing supports from tenure and extends these benefits to low income tenants in the PRS. Czech Republic Jana VOBECKÁ Institute of Sociology. Tomáš KOSTELECKÝ Private rented regulation and the shift towards tenure neutrality in the Republic of Ireland University College Dublin. While Ireland demonstrates some of the characteristics of countries in the ‘retrenchment’ phase (Doling. O’Sullivan and De Decker have suggested that the ‘privatisation’ of risk has involved making the PRS ‘fit for purpose’. Ireland bob@threshold.WS . In developing structures which attach particular housing benefits to the individual.cz The paper has two objectives. statutory dispute resolution outside of the courts. Praha. The first objective is to compile descriptive overview of housing policy tools used to support young families in European and selected non-European developed countries.
WORKSHOP — 23 — Housing and Cities: Changing Social and Spatial Boundaries Co-ordinators: Gülçin Pulat-Gökmen. Ahsen Özsoy 23rd Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c C O N F E R E N C E UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Renaud Le Goix.
peyroux@univ-tlse2. Centre for Urban and Regional Research. used and shared. Budapest. conflicts are likely to arise not only with those living in the surrounding areas. the North-American model of Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) have gained popularity in both suburbs and inner cities.ac. but also among those living inside the development itself. Claire BÉNIT-GBAFFOU Conflicts around gated communities ELTE University. the third major source of conflict is local inhabitants and civil organisations.fr Elisabeth PEYROUX School of Architecture and Planning. which are still weak.hu Gated communities. In more than one case. The comparative analysis shows how the control over local space.elte. where emphasis will be put on examining the motives of investors and flat owners in parallel. and community identities. EHESS). The cases of gated communities and City Improvement Districts LISST-Cieu (UTM. Significant changes are also underway in the organization and governance of these neighborhoods: the involvement of private sector and non-profit organizations in security provision and urban management challenges the role of the state and blurs the boundaries between public. Hungary csizmady@tatk. identities and competing legitimacies. As far as there are substantial differences according to status and interests there are potential sources of conflict within the relatively homogenous community as well. which are in a certain sense similar to. Mozambique): Security. this presentation explores the nature and impacts of gated communities (in Cape Town.WS . Adrienne CSIZMADY 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . This step is followed by the long process of official authorisation. Surveys providing data as well as interviews will support the argumentation. symbolizing social transformation. but in another sense very different from those experienced in the countries of Western Europe. The investor must first reach an agreement with the local government. but are beginning to raise their voices. the internal dynamics of communities and the relationship between citizens and state. Université de Toulouse II . heavily linked to security matters. Maputo and Windhoek) and City Improvement Districts (CIDs) (in Johannesburg and Cape Town) on urban forms. investors have become fed up with fighting inconsequential officials and have simply moved on to another country. The spatial spreading of these two models at the metropolitan scale has brought up significant shifts in the way urban space is being controlled. Wits University.firstname.lastname@example.org Private neighbourhoods in Southern African cities (South Africa. The presentation will be based on analyzing these conflicts on the example of Budapest. particularly at neighbourhood level. Due to the nature of gated communities. conflict also frequently arises between those who live in surrounding areas versus those who are moving in. gained ground as both a home and a status symbol for the ambitious nouveau riche or for the members of those social layers who were able to adapt dynamically to post-socialist market conditions. but also in low-income residential neighbourhoods. community-based and private stakeholders. business and property owners being keen to protect their assets and secure a clientele in commercial and business areas.za The past decades have witnessed the rapid expansion of private security in Southern African cities. Besides potential conflict between investors and local inhabitants. is an object of competing legitimacies. Namibia and Mozambique. spatial practices. Eastern European investments generate unique systems of conflict. Johannesburg. South Africa Claire. CNRS. Drawing on a collective research program conducted on the privatization of security and new forms of governance in South Africa.Le Mirail. Namibia. Besides local governments and authorities. Two models have gained momentum: while gated communities have became emblematic of the heightened protection of residential suburban areas. but also and especially on social relations. France elisabeth.
Our central hypothesis is that open spaces and walls are often theatrical artifacts that transform inequalities into distance. proximity and first coming .it Whether open public spaces play a role as catalysts for change in the sake of the common good this is very much depending on the quality of governance and society. the current state of urban research appeals to different disciplines such as sociology and anthropology. the academic. Casablanca. political and urban planning interest give a particular focus on housing sector.WS . Our contribution focuses on the city of Milan. construct and govern. Maroc haliminternet@yahoo. some authors have focused on the question on our theme. we jointly put under observation the spatial and architectural dimension of walls as well as the individuals and populations they define. Trends in a new aesthetic of open green spaces will be discussed as an exemplary device of separation together with the development of a new geometry of socio-spatial arrangements in which the production of walls raises as a diffuse trend in the new spirit of capitalism and as a representation or choreography of a new social order.fr Structural foundations of neiberhooding Be neighbor or neighborly ? This question engage the presupposition of disjunction which in turn uses one or the other expression: Should we conclude so far to cleavage of postures? Indeed. Italy ota.savoldi@polimi. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . deep changes are affecting the design and use of open spaces in new housing developments within the central core of the city.deleonardis@unimib. Politecnico di Milano. Politecnico di Milano. Italy massimo. The new city have seen the day. Italy paola. In a phase of re-urbanization and of so called ‘urban renaissance’. In conclusion. the approach takes into account the sociology. Università di Milano Bicocca.it Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione. the design and of urban transformation is using open space to organize separation and our interpretation is that the spatial character of urban change in Milan is endangering some fundamentals which made the European city renown as a place of emancipation and democracy. Open Spaces.23 Neighborhooding betwen barrieres and etendue witch place for the social links Abdelhalim BENBOUAIJILI University Hassan II. Field research reveals that more and more. as the Professor Louis Wirth who examined the concept-distance proximity. a new form of neiberhooding appears. The area in question consists of three segments: the first is a new building lived by a people coming from the slums. With reference to intensive research work rooted in the analysis of contemporary social and urban policies and change. anthropology.it Massimo BRICOCOLI Ota DE LEONARDIS Paola SAVOLDI Dipartimento di sociologia e di ricerca sociale. which allows a certain homogeneity of the inhabitants of that district multiple concepts as distance. The land on which I work is a newly formed district. I am a member of the CM2S actor in the field of urban planning. The Aesthetics and Politics of Social Order Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione. I lead a thesis entitled neighborliness between extended and gates at the direction of the anthropologist Mr. the physical and symbolic features of the new open spaces being produced under the pressure of the real estate market are expressing new conditions and forms of social and spatial re-organization which seem to correspond to the expectations of suburban dreams within the city. Hassan Rachik. The study area has a similarity with Chicago since the early 20th century. Walls and Housing. In Morocco.bricocoli@polimi. deserves special attention both in methodological and theoretical levels. the second segment is populated by newcomers and the third is a large gated communities. public spaces become a surface of multiple interaction. urban planning and land planning. In Italy.
dead-ends. Department of Geography. The paper will first introduce the typology of residential subdivisions according to street patterns and public vs. Paris 1. pricepatterns across time and social change. Indeed. University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. lollipops. The planning and design of most of the post-1990 residential clusters are adapted from Hong Kong. second. Chambre des Notaires / French Office of the Registrar). private street structure (gated vs. France rlegoix@univ-paris1. we wish to introduce an analysis of the local contexts of production of suburban residential subdivisions. Paris 7). an analysis of subdivision morphological fragmentation. where semienclosed housing estates have long existed and have been regarded as the most common and accepted form of residential organization. Univ. Residential districts also emerged as a result of the urban policy of segregating work places and domicile places. H. loops. we study a representative sample of subdivisions in the western suburban areas of Paris metropolitan region (78 – Yvelines). It finally explores the livability of this new type of residential organization and its implications for China’s urban sustainability. It first traces the scale of gated residential communities in the leading cities such as Shanghai and Guangzhou. Paris 7).hku. and uses field data collected in 2010 and 2011. France The proposed paper aims at analyzing the intricate interactions between the production of suburban residential patterns. By doing so. This paper investigates the causes and the sustainability implications of this newly emerged residential models in China. at the municipal level. replacing the former cellular residential compounds built for employees of all ranks in the same organizations. We will the focus on two main issues: (1) how the different types of street patterns correlates with the housing price structure over time (1996-2006). 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . In this aim. and urban planning and transport policy.hk Rebecca L.fr Renaud LE GOIX UMR Géographie-cités 8504 (CNRS Univ. matched to a database of enclaved subdivisions provided by the Greater Paris Region Planning Agency (from now on IAU-IdF).WS . Department of Geography. This will be achieved by the means of quantitative analysis (multilevel spatial analysis of income patterns and morphological typologies of subdivisions) and qualitative data. They also resemble the gated communities proliferated in American and European cities since the mid-eighties. It then attempts to explain this new residential trends by investigating factors pertinent to urban China’s marketizing land administration and governance systems. The analysis will draw on the concepts and debates in the gated community and urban sustainability literature. Univ. CHIU Residential development in Chinese cities since the 1990s has been commonly organized in the form of housing estates targeted for different socio-economic groups. The University of Hong Kong rlhchiu@hkucc. a comparative study of socio-spatial fragmentation (based upon properties data) and interactions between actors and suburban sprawl. we push the argument that analyzing morphologies in the production system of suburban residential areas requires to investigate several dimensions that underlies the theoretical and methodological choices the paper will discuss and justify: first. We analyze property values and seller-buyer profiles of single family houses (1996-2006. Paris 1.23 Suburban morphologies and contextual effects on property values time patterns in the western suburbs of Paris UMR Géographie-cités 8504 (CNRS Univ. database BIEN. analyzed in terms of seller-buyers characteristics. hierarchized street patterns). University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. and (2) to what extent dominant street patterns and residential morphologies connect to social change. Alexandre HUET From mixed residential compounds to gated communities in Chinese cities: Transition to sustainable housing forms? Department of Urban Planning and Design. non-gated .
Public-private partnerships have created various housing projects on the unplanned areas near motorways. The results of the analysis are presented by the generation of relational maps and by ‘Bertin’ graphics. with secure. and in these delineated boundries the residential settlements are constructed. Common points in all these applications are a promising new lifestyle and increasing quality of life.tr This paper aims to discuss the developments of the housing supply by government in terms of urban housing transformation processes in Istanbul since 2000. Istanbul Technical University. Yildiz Technical University. In the paper. Istanbul. Turkey ggokmen@itu. Gated communities are surrounded by some sort of barriers such as walls. Turkey fusuncizmeci@yahoo. the “Relational Stratification’ model developed by Lebart is used.edu. and depending on it the land size and developement plan conditions affact significantly the typology differentations of gated communities. Istanbul. As the analysing method of study. sport and recreational areas. Turkey ozsoya@itu. It has seen that the urban location of gated community. religous facility and education.tr Gulcin PULAT GOKMEN Ahsen OZSOY Faculty of Architecture. these settlements are large-scale projects which include a large number of housing units and social amenities that serve only the gated community inhabitants. The applications of the Housing Development Administration has begun to transform unplanned squatter areas to new enclosed urban housing settlements or made built to private construction firms some new vertical gated housing projects in Istanbul. it is not possible to identify the gated communities only as some kind of residential settlement areas. Yildiz Technical University.23 Typological Analysis of Spatial Organization: Gated Communities in Istanbul Housing Production and Building Management Department. gated borders and well-controlled entries.com Fusun CIZMECI Architectural Restoration and Conservation Department. we will try to answer the following questions: How was this supply realized and why was it supported and encouraged by both local and central governments? Why does the central government support this process by providing very attractive credits? Who are the residents? Is there a real demand for these types of dwellings by the target users? Why are those tall housing blocks constructed with such a high density and do they provide a better housing quality in the urban environment? 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . etc. However. building high density/vertical gated housing settlements. Istanbul Technical University. such as the applications of the Housing Development Administration. 90 gated communities in different locations of İstanbul have been analyzed and their site plans have been categorized typologically. In fact.edu. Istanbul. The basic idea of this new concept is to developed spatial borders which seperate the inhabitans from the rest of the city. local authorities and public-private partnerships.com Gated communities.celebioglu@gmail. forests and water dams with the new development plan proposals. It has been also predicted that these factors formulate the spatial and functional design of social amenities in gated communities. Banu CELEBIOGLU Quality of new enclosed/ gated housing developments realized by public and local authorities in Istanbul Faculty of Architecture. In the scope of the study. In this study the diversification of the spatial organization of gated communities offering a functional diversification and beneath causing a social segregation has been explicated. doors or fences. Istanbul. shopping. being produced synchronously in many metropolises all around the world.WS . Therefore types of housing supplies by central and local government emerging after the year 2000 will be examined. The social amenities in the concept of gated community diversify among to theirs functions such as sports. Turkey banu. entertainment. Faculty of Architecture. The local government has also produced and marketed housing settlements in various parts of the city by means of a firm established for this purpose. constructing high rise buildings to save space for social. Faculty of Architecture. cultural. This diversification enables the inhabitants to meet the daily necessities without leaving the gated community but it also causes an isolated lifestyle for them. offer a new housing concept to the upper-middle income groups. On the other hand this diversification is the most important factor for preference of the gated communities by upper-middle income groups.
finding the different forms of housings (social. Bío-Bío and Metropolitan Santiago’. overlapping and crossing layers of information at the scale of census detail (2002).and the form of a new extended urban region.23 Housing forms and rural functionality within the urban macro region of Chile: toward a social mixity in peri-urban? Alejandro SALAZAR Institute of Geography. Chile asalazab@uc. the pressure of property development and the transformation of border agriculture on last decades. The research shows the results of project Fondecyt nº 1100999 (2010) ‘The new functional rurality (density and travel time).cl Rodrigo HIDALGO Institute of Geography.cl The key elements to analyze the social mixity of suburbs or inter-metropolitan areas are mobility -within the context of the social territorial transformation process in the peri-urban space at the Metropolitan Region of Santiago and Valparaiso (Chile). 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . the kind of inhabitants. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Fondecyt nº11060310 (2006) ‘The new metropolitan rural areas: resizing. gates communities. Santiago. These results confirm dissociation among the use of land. which can be understood as the expression of inter-territorial changes and the formation of an inter-metropolitan space within the urban macro region of Chile. natural resources and poverty in the metropolitan areas of Chile. and the demographic density. Chile posses@uc. The existence of a social structure and a functional use of the space are recognized as the result of subjects like the expansion of the regional central crowd. Comparison of Valparaíso Region. Valparaiso and Viña del Mar’.cl Pablo OSSES Institute of Geography. Santiago. the transportation time to its respective regional capitals (rural functionality) The relations between these two variables are obtained through GIS. periurbanization and impacts on rural territorial development of the Santiago Metropolitan Region 1992-2002’. and public policies. A cluster analysis of the social-economic and social-professional classifications is added in order to determine the spatial conditions of social mixity in this inter-metropolitan border. Chile rhidalgd@uc.WS . Santiago. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. The case of Santiago. and Fondecyt nº1095222 (2010) ‘The transformation of the CBD: business restructuring and residential elitism (gentrification). social-rural spaces). Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. relation to economic activities. This research looks for establishing the existing relationships between the social-economical conditions of population.
Jana Zdrahalova. Ahsen Özsoy 23rd Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c C O N F E R E N C E UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .WORKSHOP — 25 — Reviewing architecture and the residential design in the urban context – a critical inventory Co-ordinators: Birgit Jürgenhake.
nowadays. Although there are no physical interventions capable to guarantee the improvement of social mixité. On the contrary: the rise of social divergences is manifesting in highly segregated spaces. This approach is the legacy of issues such as functionalist approach to urbanism. Nowadays. which elements of living space remained unchanged or how they changed. The main goal of mix use approach. The architecural planning can’t solve the essential divergences. and Garden City movement in modern times. there is no tendency to increasing social mixité. On the other hand mix-use could be expanded in different scale. that contemporary architecture is condensing the social interactions. and urban revitalization process to restore life to the city. it is mainly the residential sphere.use parcel or sites . is to place various people in several hours in urban space. This approach tries to ask for the conditions of social mixité within the small focus on the housing unit and its developement: If it is right. with a should to be being modified. urban life faced with a tendency to find a solution based on separation of residential areas from the other urban activities.mahouti@gmail. On one hand. to make it habitable for a wider community. family. Mixeduse re-emerged in 1960-70s. while the urban life has been dismantled in the past. If they have the possibility to do so. In a first step I will try to find out. architecture can try to enhance the possibilities of the inhabitants to negotiate the social limitations.at Following the sociological discussions. namely assumed the urban environment a combination of pollution-belching factories and poverty-stricken slums. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . was based on the ideas of 19th century. the social adverse and economic impacts which are created by the single operation of urban spaces. Iran banafsheh.tugraz.mix-use walk able or transit areas And loft units. the social progression has to become visible in the floor plan. The social aspects of small innovations in housing units Karl Heinz KAHLIG TU.mix-use buildings -mix. including : . as a security providing tool. social diversity and density can be argued as the characterizing fact of urban conditions.25 Mixed-use development Banafsheh MAHOUTI Shahid Beheshti University. I will try to propose some innovations in the dwelling.WS . that are underrepresented due to the selective immutability of the living conditions. therefore. and the way they correspond to the aspects of work. cities would be addressed the various needs of the life by experiencing a diverse range of different species in such a way. Graz. Being influenced by industrial revolution deterioration. on the other hand they result in conflicts. Zoning. Based on this aspects. where this conflicts take place. people try to avoid the physical proximity of distanced social groups. Tehran. However many residential areas have been developed without any attention to their environment. hygiene and security. This way of thinking which is developed before 1950. is considerable. Comparing floor plans of the last decades it seems that only particular aspects of the dwelling were adapted to new circumstances. In best case. Austria Kahlig@student. This innovations should reinforce the inhabitants to negotiate the social limits. This article reviews the brief history of mix-use benefits and Represents the use of this knowledge in residential environment designing method. existed prior to the advent of modernism. maybe it is possible to identify social groups or habits.( live and work )are smallest scales for organization.com ‘Mix use’ as a traditional life style. Because it is the place of essential stay. and increase their possibilities to act and to communicate.
one of Europe’s metropolitan cities with the highest standards of living quality. replacing outdated – whether for the hosted typologies or for their urban forms and energy consuming characteristics – existing ensembles. either of elevated (Y-towers) or medium building height. contemporary architects reinterpret triangular urban forms and apartment typologies of the part. searching to create new and attractive ambiances in the urban tissue. neighborhood change and ‘mixité’. Based on a thorough neighborhood survey. comparing it to larger-scale transformation projects that also occurred in the area. High-income households have not pushed out all low-and middle-income households. effective as so far demonstrated particularly in the housing construction domain. Changing living modes and altered urban conditions have been seriously taken into consideration by the city’s administrative authorities in a series of urban transformation programs set up in this particular time lapse. have thus become more attractive. Such measures. both in technical and aesthetic terms (De Decker. Kaminer et al. France to Switzerland and the United States).kuleuven. Density characterized by strong quality traits seems to be their priority. Switzerland antigoni. In the district of Zurich-Schwamendingen. In this background and amidst a sort of eclecticism diffused in contemporary architectural conception that borrows morphologies from previous historical periods without apparent distinction. Which are these typologies and what are the subtle differences with their precedents manifesting their innovative character? Which other conceptual priorities are fixed by the designers in terms of urban forms and of the isolated unit. Large projects have a more disrupting impact in terms of ‘mixité’. with the production of a considerable number of housing units. it is question to apprehend a contemporary design approach to the cloverleaf or star-shaped plan associated in the after war period with large-scale residential projects (from Sweden. represent a particularly active political will operating in close collaboration with notfor-profit housing promoters. Belgium Department of Architecture. while individual renovations do improve overall housing quality. Belgium michael. this paper investigates the impact of this house-by-house process of neighborhood change. Urbanism and Planning. Heverlee. 2008). Architects have eagerly taken up the renovation challenge. Michael RYCKEWAERT 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Some inner city neighborhoods characterized by urban blight and degraded housing in the 1990s. more households buy existing homes and subsequently renovate them. A 2005 housing survey showed that physical housing quality in Flanders (the northern region of Belgium) has improved in recent years (Heylen 2007).be Upgrading housing quality increasingly implies transforming existing housing and neighborhoods. Belgium. Rather than buying new homes. It concludes that the step-by-step renovation process results in a ‘mild’ gentrification.katsakou@epfl. These findings suggest that more thoroughly pursued transformation strategies of old housing might have a more disruptive impact and lead to a more intense gentrification.ch In Zurich’s urban environment. A case study in Ghent. as well as the densification and revival of certain urban areas and city districts. and what kind of parallels may be found with the utilization of similar building types in differentiated contexts? This article proposes to examine in detail a series of case-studies designed for recent housing competitions in Switzerland. both on the urban scale as on that of the unit have been consistently searched through the organization of numerous housing competitions promoting the quality of architectural design. Antigoni KATSAKOU Renovating houses.25 Densification through a revisited urban form of the modern: Swiss residential complexes of triangular morphologies Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. resulting in a truly mixed neighborhood. interviews with inhabitants who renovated homes as well as an architectural analysis of their dwellings. leading to a process of gentrification (Vandermotten 2007). adapting town and row houses to present-day housing standards.ryckewaert@asro. Residential complexes serving as condensing nucleuses with their necessary infrastructure have been systematically promoted. where the city’s urban planner Albert Steiner applied for the first time in the nineteen forties the principles of the ‘ville verte’. Among the State’s primary objectives have been controlling the phenomenon of urban sprawling and families’ exodus towards the suburban periphery. energy efficient measures are not applied in a systematic way. But neighborhood change can lead to gentrification. A downside of the process is that. New solutions. A stock of small dwellings (large town houses split up in apartments. 2010). important changes have taken place during the last fifteen years. a series of specific case studies issued from residential competitions of recent years has been for several architectural teams the occasion to revisit design patterns of the modern. pushing out low-income groups and replacing them by urban elites (Berg. small workers houses) assures that lower income groups still find affordable housing in the neighborhood. Ryckewaert et al. creating closed off sub-communities within the neighborhood. This paper explores this problem on the basis of a case study in one urban neighborhood in Ghent.WS .
Cyril and Methodius. University Sts. Cyril and Methodius. It requires paradigmatic shift away from an idea of urban development as a series of successive deterministic events towards a perspective that allows for the continous transformations of morphological. University Sts.edu. Macedonia Ivana TOPALOVSKA Faculty of Architecture. Macedonia Jovan IVANOVSKI Faculty of Architecture. between different cultures. Macedonia Bojan KARANAKOV Faculty of Architecture. Cyril and Methodius. spatial and functional configurations and explore the issue of dwelling within the city’s historic district. Skopje. Skopje. cultural and social relations and figurations. the continuities and the discontinuities in urban space. University Sts. Macedonia ognen. The study explores a series of architectural tools that excersise the complex analisys of urbanity within the Skopje’s historic district and proposes a strategy for soft renewal. These series of diverse fragments of urban form coexists in time and space as a collage of complex urban strata that creates its unique image. Historic cycles in urban development of Skopje and different level of realization of planned and real transformation within the urban fabric of Skopje resulted in fragmented plan of the city. the study presents an effort through a bottom up approach to reconstitute once existing qualities of complex relations between the public and private. programs. stressing contact and influence. religions and good neighborhood practice in urban context of Skopje’ historic district.ukim. Macedonia In the context of a debate that examines the transformations. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . Skopje’s historic district is an example of such a social and spatial mixture of shapes. Macedonia Ana IVANOVSKA Faculty of Architecture. This approach does not recognise the distinctive qualities of the place and petrifies the otherwise dynamic phenomena of the city. University Sts. Cyril and Methodius. cultures. Cyril and Methodius. this paper focus to the architectural strategies. Cyril and Methodius. Macedonia Dominika BOSKOVA Faculty of Architecture. practicies and people.mk Goce ADJI-MITREVSKI Faculty of Architecture. Skopje. Programs for preservation of the historic district in Skopje has led to a separation and isolation through fixing in time the physical structure of the city. and mixture and diversity over the deterministic and fixed concepts of the urbanity.WS . Skopje. ethnicities. Through series of case studies that introduce the urban dialog between typologies. University Sts. Skopje. Cyril and Methodius. programs.marina@arh. University Sts. University Sts. Skopje. Skopje. tools and social meaning of urban change.25 Urban dialog: strategies for soft renewal of Skopje’s historic district Ognen MARINA Faculty of Architecture.
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Reading housing with proximity in lefkoşa through oikodomos learning activities
Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagosa, North Cyprus, Turkey
Beril ÖZMEN MAYER
Proximity refers to a set of distances between multiple parties interact to each other in the built environment as people and as their homes. These components create a complex mechanism in housing configurations and layouts in multiple layers consisting of physical, psychological, social and cultural levels. There are a number of aspects can be evaluated in this conceptual framework in different scales as well; from the unit scale to housing groups and to the neighborhood and to urban / suburban areas. Proximity can be perceived in a housing unit with its interconnectedness with the others in several ways. On one hand, a social mapping can be readable through the household members’ perception, behavior and lifestyles. This may decode the relationship in certain family structure and its neighbors and how this character links and configure in certain environments and in cultures. On the other, the territories around home conveys a holistic understanding and interpretation with the concept of proximity; through recording the public, private and in-between zones in and around home environments, and the neighborhood can be evaluated terms of interfaces, which reflects as boundaries and thresholds in different housing typologies and neighborhood patterns and various urban / suburban densities. The paper is aimed to apply this conceptual framework into selected residential areas, which have been significant effects in the timeline of the city of Lefkoşa; and mapping proximities in the different scales (from the unit to the urban patterns) and levels (physical, social, etc.) and also recording different housing typologies to create an understanding and interpretation of these specific housing quarters and the overall objectives might be reached for this specific city. This study is a part of the learning activities, which are led by the Research Project Oikodomos; the virtual campus to promote the study of dwelling in contemporary Europe.
Housing in the former periphery of Barcelona: Towards the finding of criteria for urban renewal
Departament d'Urbanisme i Ordenació del Territori, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain email@example.com
Àrea d’Urbanisme UIC-ESARQ, Barcelona, Spain firstname.lastname@example.org
The Eixample Cerdà in Barcelona is worldwide known as a paradigm of modern-planned city. Despite its conceptual clearness, the pattern didn’t succeed in urbanizing some areas of the so called ‘Pla de Barcelona’. The foothill of Collserola and the middle hills of Tres Turons were so sloppy that they were set apart from an erudite project such as Eixample Cerdà. Instead of it, they became the first periphery of Barcelona, the result of non-planned urban processes. During the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century nothing prevented the low income and immigrant population from building their informal slums on this non-regulated territory. Illegal plots were rapidly developed without considering essential urban infrastructure. This process of informal urbanization resulted into a first ‘sloppy periphery’ of the city, which was physically contiguous to the Eixample but discontinuous to it in terms of urban quality. Demands for urban improvement and social justice have been explicitly expressed by dwellers since then. More recently, in 2009, a common approach to all sloppy neighborhoods appeared to be necessary, since the lack of ‘Barcelona standard urban conditions’ was more and more obvious. The Planning Department of the city commissioned the authors of the paper with the ‘Strategic Plan for Sloppy Neighborhoods in Barcelona’. The Plan proposes a morphological approach and tries to find links between social problems and morphological deficiencies. The main research lines of the Plan are: • Urban fabric, architecture, residential typologies and socio-demographic disjunctions. Basic living conditions. • Accessibility and integration in the metropolitan net of flows. • Mixed and collective uses of civic sphere. The extended paper will describe Barcelona’s sloppy periphery and will provide some more general strategies and criteria for the refurbishing of residential areas located in former peripheries that have become fully urban environments.
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Ambitions of Residential Houses in Dutch cities The interface of the building as a research object Discussing two highlights of Dutch residential houses and their changes through time
Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands B.Jurgenhake@tudelft.nl The architecture of residential buildings has always being related to social conditions and political tendencies, to new techniques, new materials and contemporary popular taste. Dwelling in the urban context makes it very necessary to deal with the aspect of privacy next to the public domain. Dwelling is an activity that takes place in both, the private and the public, the interior and the exterior spaces. The interface of the dwelling is the place where the transition from interior to exterior (and vice versa) takes place. The Netherlands has a long history of collective residential houses - especially social houses. The last century has brought several highlights in residential housing projects which pretended to show a new an better way of design. Different architectural tendencies can be found at the residential interface, telling more about the inner life of the house or hiding it behind a mask that tells us a different story. Some design attitudes pretend to create a fluently transition from inner life to the public, some pretend to protect the home from it. All these tendencies and ideas show a discussion about how to design residential buildings in the urban context, how to give identity to a building which hosts several families in one building and at the same time how to communicate with the city. In this paper first the highlights of residential housing design the last century will be shown very briefly. Then a method to analyse the interface with its function as a mediator and a protector between public and private will be elaborated and discussed. The design of the interface will be analysed on two case studies of residential houses from the inspiring idea behind it up to their condition today.
Spatial Characteristics and Semantic of Urban Environment
Department of Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic email@example.com This paper presents the results achieved in first 5 months of a three-year research project. The project objectives are to develop methodology that helps to identify the relationship between semantics of the city space and its spatial characteristics. Understanding the semantics of townscapes and the impact of townscape on people’s behavior may increase our comprehension of how different city structures influence people’s cognitive space. The results can be used in similar localities to support the development of a stronger relationship of people to the place and community. The methodology will be demonstrated on 4 different localities in Prague, Czech Republic. The townscape semantics will be analyzed from interviews of a population sample defined as women with at least one child younger than 10 years who live in the evaluated locality. We assume that these interviewees have spent a lot of time in their neighborhoods and therefore they have deep knowledge of the place. Correlations between the spatial attributes of the locality and its semantics will be investigated. We expect to identify important characteristics of the townscape that have the key impact on its semantics. This paper focuses on the initial phase – the spatial analysis of localities. For the analysis Space Syntax and GIS tools will be used. The research will be done in three steps. First, localities with similar 2D data will be analyzed using Space Syntax. Then, 3D data will be included, to describe building heights and landscape. The greenery index, built-up area index and the buildings volume will be also used as descriptors. Finally, the localities will differ in additional features such as the building surface, material, expression or architectural design, while their 2D and 3D characteristics will be similar. For these data sets people’s perception of space will be evaluated.
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UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II
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Updating the masterpiece: A 1930-1970 garden-city versus urban evolution
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Toulouse, France firstname.lastname@example.org The Butte-Rouge garden-city located 10 miles away from Paris is among the first and the biggest social mass-housing districts built in France in the 1930-1970 period. Commissioned by Henri Sellier, the general layout of the 4000-dwelling district broke away from the traditional fabric of the city. Designed as a healthy and decent environment for the underprivileged workers, it displayed small collective housing plots in a green landscaping. Paying tribute to the E. Howard’s concept, the district also integrated vegetable-gardens and deliberately rejected any form of workshop or office to the surrounding area. The development of the urban layout during 40 years remained relatively faithful to the first intents, thanks to the permanence of the architectural firm and of the commissioner’s office. Conceiving the district as a self-contained urban piece, the planners did not catch the opportunity to connect the garden-city to the expanding Châtenay-Malabry village. Today, the neighborhood still entirely belongs to the Affordable Housing Office of the Hauts-de-Seine. The tenants of this unattractive district are among the poorest of the region. The urban enclosure, the isolated location remote from public transports, the surface of the apartments that do not allow family living lead to a general disaffection, attested by the schools – the gardencity has 2 elementary and 2 secondary schools with only half enrollment in all of them – Recently, the region decided the creation of a tramway that would remedy the 80-year-old problem of lack of public transport and would increase the attractiveness of the site. Meanwhile, the garden-city rewarded the ‘20th century Heritage’ distinction by the Ministry of Culture, for its architectural and environmental quality as well as its integrity. The school of architecture of Paris-Belleville was then entrusted a study that explored solutions of adapting the dwellings to our current lifestyle, mixing uses and types of housing having respect to the architectural and landscape qualities. The conclusions of this research will be discussed in this paper. NB: this study was integrated in the exhibition created by the School of Architecture of Paris-Belleville titled ‘Le grand ensemble: entre pérennité et démoliton’ (The mass-housing district: between permanence and demolition) that will be displayed at the School of Architecture of Toulouse in June and July 2011.
Urban and Regional Planning and Architecture Department, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey email@example.com
Representation is powerful cultural work in a wide variety of forms to produce and maintain, but also to challenge common notions of the urban existence. Different sources like; literature, cinematography, architecture, tourist guides, postcards, photography, city plans and other provide selective representations of the urban frames and reshape the metaphors and narratives which are widely used to desrcibe the experience of urban living. The aim of this theoretical project in it's present form is to be able to explain the '’Housing Transformation of Süleymaniye District'’ in Istanbul starting from early 1900s. Süleymaniye is one of the unique Ottoman places that could preserve own original shape after the last big fire in 1918. Though it is on UNESCO list, Sülyemaniye is still trying to get rid of enemies who are rapturously waiting its ‘end’. The area itself was one of the most popular housing locations in the historic zone of Istanbul. Unfortunately, it became an abandoned district in a few decades because of the local government policies during the 1940's. Atatürk Boulevard which separated Zeyrek and Süleymaniye districts in a savage way was constructed from 1941 to 1942. Afterwords a lot of new buildings (as if they are a concrete curtains) were located along the Boulevard without any care for space or considering the design. Moreover the mass migration to Istanbul in 1950's deepened this transformation process in one of the last unique Ottoman places. With it's monuments, narrow streets, brick roofs, façades, different people living and events happening there Sülyemaniye was an astonishing place to experience. It was possible to see a lot of architectural elements in a unique form. With the help of all these urban operations, the area now seems to be like a bomb waiting for the end. Nowadays, not only an architectural laboratory, but also some ‘frames’ that belong to urban development process are still available to be seen in Süleymaniye.
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UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II
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Neighborhood Jamal Abad is located in northern Tehran. detorieted housing stock creating a new chaotic/mixed development that forces different demographic groups to live side by side. leading to the Alborz Mountain range. Besiktas. service centers and business sites are not there. In the paper . For having secure cities they had to be designed and built safe for all age groups. sport.WS . a layered construction created over the course of time. the user has less variation. Iran Hamid GHANBARAN Considering the direct impact of urban spaces on offensive behavior it’s crutial. peace and vitality. High land prices in neighborhoods is prevent the formation of desirable and proper neighborhood center. Where the land price is higher.com Marzieeh JAFARI Department of Architecture & Urbanism. to identifying and acting to resolve the factors that led the threats.mutman@gmail. green space and educational needs of many local retail is having underlying price or no more or less per capita. In recent years. In a case of İstanbul. So in trying to redesign the neighborhood has been on creating the diverse users and needs of neighborhoods. In some cities historic or older central areas deteriorate through excessively high densities of tenant populations. by providing residents and answer their needs. Istanbul Bahcesehir University. Istanbul. To build sustainable city development in urban areas should be appropriate user in this neighborhood have per capita are standard. residential. the informal settlements or deteriorated housing stock has been replaced with high-rise housing / gated communities geared toward the high-income populations. Many of the changes relate to the movements and energies of low income groups whose activities are becoming increasingly dominant in rapidly growing cities throughout the world. Half-public spaces like the space around buildings.com Hulya TURGUT Demet MUTMAN Istanbul. Rural migrants and national immigrants create pressures on existing urban housing stock and frequently to the development of new informal settlements. Tehran. Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University. Turkey demet. One of the key factors in the creation of this palimpsest/layers is the new developments that replace existing stock such as the informal settlements. office. and in others high density multi-storey constructions replace older settlements and change the social and economic relations of the area. There are numerous interrelated factors. Theories of urban planners can study concluded that creation of calm area and needs of neighborhood residents is more important than creating shelter. in this neighborhood it’s not available.25 New Housing in Istanbul : An Urban Palimpsest Faculty of Architecture and Design. it is also seen especially in metropolitan cities that under the umbrella of urban regeneration. Turkey turguth1@gmail. Such dynamic processes create what has sometimes been described as an urban palimpsest. The role of open space in the social security area ‘Case Study: Jamal Abad district. Tehran. public green space and the existence of different shops in the street which they are the eyes of security and consider the public facilities and infrastructure requirements in a neighborhood. Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University. "Jmalabad" Due to high land prices. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .s@gmail. Tehran – Iran’ Department of Architecture & Urbanism. Iran marzieeh. the user is mostly residential and open spaces of social existence possible comfort and leisure of citizens creates. In this neighborhood.com The rate of change of housing environments in urban areas is continually increasing as the effects of globalization impact in multiple ways on the contemporary city. Natural growth of urbanised groups leads to ever large populations seeking affordable accommodation. gender and according to population and social class. various examples of new housing developments in İstanbul that examine the social and spatial dynamics of this palimpsests will be presented providing and creating a platform for discussion and debate. General users as cultural.
archi.fr This paper is based on a doctoral thesis in geography and urban planning. France and defended in June 2007. an assessment. France juan-carlos. and with its numerous dimensions. held at University of Toulouse. the demolition of the habitat as an object. through the analysis of stakes of the demolition. a framework and urban renewal policies. This thesis is dealing with a strong symbolic object.rojas-arias@toulouse. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .WS . This thesis develops a transdisciplinary methodology articulating social sciences and architectural practices. The observation of the residential moving of the inhabitants makes it possible to reveal some contradictions generated by demolition in the life of the inhabitants. and exploring interactions between the inhabitants of the city. urban policies and the built framework. This paper presents some theoretical elements on urban renewal. and above all recommendation based on the paradigm of sustainable urban development. Confronting these various sources leads to produce both. followed by a physical observation of various case studies in France and Colombia.25 The policy of demolition: Urban renewal and social housing in France and Colombia Juan Carlos ROJAS ARIAS Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Toulouse.
WORKSHOP — 26 — Toulouse special workshop (in French) Co-ordinators: Marie-Christine Jaillet and Fabrice Escaffre 23rd Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c C O N F E R E N C E UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .
Nous prenons ici le terme d’usagers dans un sens large. est relatif aux bâtiments neufs à basse consommation (Laurenceau et Tricoire 2010) . France En France. concerne les performances énergétiques des établissements scolaires (Catarina. Laboratoire Services. Plus globalement. financé par la Région PACA et la ville de Nice. en prévision de la retraite…). réalisation et exploitation c'est-à-dire les maîtres d’œuvre. le logement que le tertiaire : ECOTER. Les personnes les plus démunies sont confrontées à une précarité résidentielle croissante. environnementale. Quelle est l’« expérience vécue » de ces personnes de leurs différentes situations résidentielles et leur rapport aux institutions en charge des attributions ? Comment les individus essaient-ils de se protéger sur le marché immobilier. Ceux-ci fournissent de solides éléments de cadrage sur les demandeurs de logement en Ile-de-France.tricoire@cstb. ainsi que les perspectives de la recherche. de nombreuses études font aujourd’hui apparaître que les critères purement techniques sont insuffisants pour s’engager sur une trajectoire effective de Facteur 4 tant les questions de performance globale et d’usages d’un bâtiment sont fondamentales. Process. grâce au logement ? Les attentes face au parc public sont probablement hétérogènes. Surinvestissement. naissance d’un enfant. il s’agit d’étudier les inégalités en matière de logement dans ces contextes caractérisés par des systèmes de prise en charge des problèmes de logement différenciés. la recherche porte sur l’Ile-de-France. Or.26 Sociologie de l’innovation et des usages dans le bâtiment Département Économie et Sciences Humaines. France aurelie. et Bichet 2010) . ainsi que les modalités d’action. depuis le début du XXIe siècle. la question du logement est au cœur des préoccupations des habitants des grandes villes. Une première typologie des demandeurs de logements sera présentée. liée à l’augmentation des loyers et des coûts du logement mais aussi aux discriminations qui s’exercent sur le marché immobilier. La situation sociale et résidentielle de cette population pourra être décrite ainsi que son hétérogénéité. exploitation. CSTB Université Paris-Est. quel que soit le degré de complexité technologique des dispositifs installés. Aurélie TRICOIRE Les demandeurs de logements sociaux : une comparaison européenne des inégalités d’accès au logement Pascale DIETRICH-RAGON INED. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .WS . de plus en plus de ménages sont conduits à se tourner vers le logement social. Après une première analyse à partir de l’enquête logement de l’INSEE de 2006. Ceci permettra d’analyser les tensions liées à l’attribution d’un bien rare et soumis à des procédures d’allocations différentes. À la recherche de meilleures conditions de logement et d’une plus grande sécurité à cet égard. les entreprises de la filière du bâtiment. Dans un premier temps. Paris. les relations et les représentations des différents acteurs. les maîtres d’ouvrage mais également ceux qui contribuent à leur conception. l’objectif est d’effectuer une comparaison avec plusieurs autres grandes agglomérations européennes correspondant à des conceptions différentes du logement social (« généraliste ». des entretiens qualitatifs seront réalisés.fr Le Grenelle de l’Environnement a confirmé que le bâtiment constituait un gisement considérable de diminution des émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Nous posons donc que les enjeux Facteur 4 vont transformer profondément les pratiques et les systèmes de référence de l’ensemble du cycle de vie des bâtiments (conception. « résiduelle » et « universelle »). les propriétaires et bailleurs. financé par l’ADEME. et GerHome. mais aussi socialement. Il s’agit de réduire par quatre les émissions de gaz à effet de serre d’ici 2050 par rapport aux émissions de 1990. Dans cette communication. Une enquête quantitative longitudinale sera ensuite mise en place auprès d’un échantillon de demandeurs de logements franciliens. Dans un deuxième temps. Ma recherche vise à étudier les parcours résidentiels des demandeurs de logements sociaux. L’accord de la Mairie de Paris a déjà été obtenu pour l’accès à la base répertoriant l’ensemble des demandeurs de la région. concerne le maintien à domicile des personnes âgées (Anfosso et Tricoire 2010). et de saisir l’effet de ces politiques sur la cohésion sociale. etc. E3SoHo. et de saisir l’effet du contexte local. sanitaire. etc. Ce travail de recherche se décline autour de plusieurs projets portant aussi bien sur le neuf que la réhabilitation. Innovation (DESH-LSPI). construction. financé par l’Union européenne. recyclage). incluant à la fois les occupants des bâtiments. porte sur le logement social (Tricoire 2010) . Il s’agit de comprendre les motifs et les logiques dans lesquels s’inscrivent les demandes. C’est pourquoi nous menons un travail de recherche interrogeant la réception et l’adaptation des comportements des usagers des bâtiments face aux innovations que les actuels objectifs de performance énergétique. contribuent à introduire dans les bâtiments et ce. Ce choix s’effectue aussi couramment à certains « tournants » de la vie (rupture conjugale. financé par le CSTB. les bureaux d’études. les premiers résultats issus de l’analyse de l’enquête logement de l’INSEE pourront être présentés. démolition. Tricoire.
favorisent la mixité sociale. Portant plus largement sur la question de l’ « habiter ».WS . il s’agira ici d’interroger les effets de la présence de squats d’habitation sur la diversité socio-résidentielle. En effet. Nous procèderons en trois temps. A partir d’exemples puisés dans des grandes villes françaises. France florence. par là même elle en invisibilise d’autres. Portant sur la précarité énergétique. c’est-à-dire des bâtiments occupés sans autorisation du propriétaire par des personnes privées de domicile. nous montrerons comment le chercheur à partir d’une catégorie d’action publique construit son objet de recherche et définit des terrains pertinents. Ainsi. Marseille. c’est le cas notamment ici des propriétaires occupants. Dans le cas de la précarité énergétique. sont des habitats hospitaliers. de rapport à l’autre et de rapport à l’habiter. EHESS. le recours à la notion d’inconfort dans le logement a amené le chercheur à travailler pour ses terrains en squats. à l’instar d’autres formes de logement interstitiel. Marseille. qui puisse alimenter de manière critique l’action publique. Nous soutiendrons d’abord l’idée selon laquelle les squats. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . et à l’origine financée par le PUCA. en copropriétés dégradées ainsi que dans l’habitat insalubre de centre ville ancien de Marseille. mais aussi les effets que celle-ci produit sur les occupants en termes de rapport à soi. Si les squats culturels et artistiques ont souvent été décrits par la littérature sociologique comme favorisant la gentrification. des objets divergents : le cas de la précarité énergétique pour une anthropologie de l’habiter Johanna LEES Centre Norbert Elias. pour construire ses terrains il s’est agi de substituer à la catégorie d’action publique précarité énergétique. si une catégorie d’action publique a pour effet de visibiliser certains publics.com L’objet de cette communication est d’analyser les dynamiques de la mixité socio-spatiale au prisme du squat de pauvreté. ces collectifs mettent l’accent sur le caractère profondément politique du squat. nous évoquerons pour terminer les actions de squattage menées par des associations de défense du droit au logement. et sur le caractère indissociable des luttes relatives au droit au logement et au « droit à la ville ». On trouve dans les grandes villes françaises plusieurs centaines de squats de ce type.bouillon@gmail. cette thèse se donne pour objectif à la fois de décrire la multiplicité des situations de précarité énergétique. l’enjeu de la détection des publics est un enjeu fort.26 Le logement informel favorise-t-il la mixité ? L’exemple des squats de pauvreté français Florence BOUILLON Centre Norbert Elias. France L’objectif de cette proposition sera de présenter un travail de thèse en cours. En occupant des bâtiments prestigieux situés dans les quartiers les plus riches des grandes villes. Nous évoquerons ensuite les effets des politiques de rénovation urbaine sur les squats. Catégorie d’action publique et objet du chercheur. nous partirons de l’idée d’une nécessaire déconstruction des catégories institutionnelles comme préalable à l’élaboration d’un objet scientifique. Enfin. celle plus subjective d’un point de vue empirique d’ « inconfort dans le logement ». Ils permettent à des populations désargentées d’habiter dans les centres valorisés des grandes villes et en cela. Ainsi. Ainsi. mettant à jour tout l’enjeu des publics invisibilisés par l’action publique. nous montrerons que ces politiques conduisent à déporter les squats dans les périphéries urbaines et favorisent les dynamiques ségrégatives.
seuls les auteurs de la France des petits moyens (Cartier et al.en lien avec leur surreprésentation dans ces segments du parc. les politiques urbaines de sécurité ont à leur tour un véritable impact territorial et sont parfois prétextes à la transformation de l’espace urbain. Mais aussi qu’il peut y avoir une relation de cause à effet sur les rapports interactifs de l’espace et de la société. nous distinguerons dès lors trois types de mobilité résidentielle selon le sens qu’elles revêtent pour les ménages : les mobilités de proximité liées à une immigration ancienne et ouvrière. par les habitants eux-mêmes. Algérie beghdoudlam@gmail. cités de transit et HLM (Simon 1998. Pour répondre à la demande de sécurité qui émane des citoyens. D’un côté. auxquelles correspondent des modalités spécifiques d’accession.com Le phénomène des violences urbaines et le sentiment d’insécurité qui en découle sont au cœur des dynamiques urbaines contemporaines. l’accession à la propriété des ménages issus de l’immigration dans le périurbain revêt des significations contrastées. France anne. Quelles ressources économiques. au déclenchement d'un processus accéléré de dégradation de l'espace urbain avec des répercutions irrémédiables sur l'espace public. entre sortie du parc HLM dégradé et projet d’installation durable en France.WS . Blanc-Chaléard 2006) .fr A partir d’un travail de thèse mené dans des lotissements périurbains d’Ile de France et de Rhône-Alpes. en soulignant l’accès récent des « enfants de cités » à la propriété. des moyens publics. A partir d’une enquête ethnographique. nous nous proposons d’examiner les conditions sociales et les modalités de l’accession à la propriété des ménages issus de l’immigration. loin de répondre à des logiques communautaires. pourvu qu’elle soit sécurisée. mais peu importe la forme de la bâtisse. viols. En Algérie. bidonvilles. la plupart des études sur les populations immigrées se concentrent sur les lieux historiques d’habitat . l’architecture a entamé un certain virage. Paris. la question de l’accession à la propriété est rarement croisée avec celle de l’immigration. la violence urbaine a généré un nouveau type d’architecture et par conséquence un nouveau type d’urbanisme. les mobilités résidentielles des ménages en ascension sociale issus de la « 2ème génération ».taudis. Les mutations de la structure sociale de l'habitat urbain ainsi que l'inadaptation de ce dernier aux nouvelles exigences des nouveaux occupants. le plus souvent maghrébine ou d’Europe du Sud . meurtres) a amené l'état mais aussi les particuliers à se protéger et cela en construisant autrement. On construit des habitations dites modernes. que le sentiment d’insécurité et de peur est entrain d’influencer la production architecturale et urbanistique autrement dit. Nous nous proposons de faire le point de la situation à travers le cas du quartier Es Seddikia qui a subi de grandes mutations. basculant dans le cycle infernal du tout sécuritaire. En définitive. sociales. ont crée des contradictions quant à la qualité du cadre bâti. les mobilités plus atypiques de migrants de « première génération » issus d’Afrique subsaharienne ou d’Asie. La peur exacerbée par les nombreuses agressions (vols. Nous nous sommes rendu compte à travers la zone d’étude retenue comme champ d'investigation pour notre travail de recherche. privés et communautaires servent les nouvelles politiques urbaines des grandes métropoles. ces migrations liées aux études ou à des contextes politiques spécifiques semblent davantage entraîner des situations de déclassement. Problématique de la violence urbaine et de l’organisation spatiale Lamia Khadidja BEGHDOUD Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Mohamed Boudiaf Oran (USTO). Si la violence sociale fabrique du territoire. familiales cette mobilité sous-tend-elle ? Comment s’inscrit-elle dans leur trajectoire sociale et migratoire ? En effet. parce qu’elle se heurte à la question des statistiques ethniques et constitue sans doute un fait social minoritaire (Lelévrier 1995). D’un autre côté. alors que les quartiers d’habitat pavillonnaire ont fait l’objet de plusieurs grandes enquêtes sociologiques depuis les années 60.26 L’accession à la propriété des ménages issus de l’immigration : le rôle des lotissements périurbains Anne LAMBERT Ecole normale supérieure. souvent liées à une promotion professionnelle . 2008) se sont intéressés à la diversification ethnique des pavillons. en particulier non européenne. Plus urbaines.lambert@ens. Face à cet état de fait nous assistons. depuis quelques décennies. Lévy-Vroelant 2004. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c .
ensuite à l’intérieur des palmeraies.garrec@gmail. à l’éclatement d’une bulle spéculative au moment de sa livraison et à des « malfaçons juridiques ».com La morphologie urbaine de la vallée du M’Zab à Ghardaïa (sud algérien). Alors que les politiques actuelles proposent de répondre aux problèmes des quartiers HLM en difficulté par la démolition. Université Paris 10 Nanterre. Elle montre que les problèmes qu’a connus cet ensemble immobilier ne sont pas dû. 23rd C O N F E R E N C E Toulouse Saccoche vert anis : pantone 381c UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II 23rd C O Toulo 23rd Toulouse U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I C O N F E R E N C E Stylo vert anis : pantone 381c + tour du cou vert anis : pantone 381c . est en train de donner l’exemple d’une implantation ingénieuse et responsable. cependant ce logement est très intéressant à étudier dans le mesure où il allie la tradition au confort moderne. qui au départ accueillaient un habitat secondaire. Cette communication s’appuie sur mon travail de thèse mené sur l’une des premières copropriétés des trente glorieuses qui a fait l’objet d’une action publique et d’opérations de démolition : Les Bosquets à Montfermeil en région parisienne. connait un paysage qui ne cesse de se développer .le. 7218) Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Paris-Val de Seine. France mouniaboualimessahel@gmail. l’exemple de la copropriété des Bosquets montre que la propriété n’est pas toujours un vecteur de mixité et qu’elle est parfois loin de constituer un gage de sécurité et la manifestation d’une ascension sociale. On peut cependant se demander si les difficultés d’un grand ensemble en copropriété sont assimilables à celles d’un grand ensemble HLM et si la démolition ne prend pas un sens différent dans ce contexte particulier. propres à ce système juridique et liées aux financements publics qui sont à l’origine de sa construction. pour les mozabite. l’action publique a aggravé ces déséquilibres de gestion et les démolitions ont constitué un nouveau facteur de fragilisation des trajectoires des ménages. France sylvaine. Tafilelt. Tafilelt . mais au fil d’une croissance urbaine incontrôlée se transforme en habitat permanent. car l’introduction de l’air conditionné a bouleversé une organisation ancestrale des pratiques spatiales. financé en partie par l’état. soit un logement sexué. s’inspirent très largement de la maison traditionnelle. aux caractéristiques du bâti ou de l’environnement mais à des difficultés de gestion internes à la copropriété. d’abord une croissance au-delà des enceintes de ses ksour (singulier Ksar. L’exploration de l’histoire de cette cité privée offre des pistes de lecture originales du problème des grands ensembles. ville fortifié du Sahara). initié et conçu par des mozabites. un projet communautaire de logements.WS . à des mozabites avertis du danger des crues. en premier lieu. la reconstruction de logements privés et l’accession sociale à la propriété. En privilégiant depuis 1981 les interventions sur la forme architecturale et la diversification du peuplement. introverti s’organisant autour d’un élément central « le patio » qui assurait son éclairage ainsi que son aération. un projet communautaire pour préserver le M’Zab Mounia BOUALI MESSAHEL UMR Lavue (CNRS. mais aussi aux politiques de logements ainsi qu’à une planification urbaine qui ne tiennent pas toujours compte du contexte local.26 La démolition d’un grand ensemble en copropriété : un nouveau regard sur la rénovation urbaine ? Sylvaine LE GARREC Institut d’Urbanisme et d’Aménagement Régional d’Aix-en-Provence. Les logements de Tafilelt. ce mode d’action commence aussi à être utilisé en réponse aux problèmes rencontrés par des tours et des barres en copropriété. même si aujourd’hui son rôle principal est plutôt l’éclairage. qui occupent de façon continue le lit de l’oued souvent au détriment de palmiers . Nous tenterons de montrer dans cette communication comment intervient cette communauté traditionnelle dans la production de l’espace et comment les autorités locales essayent d’en tenir compte. Aujourd’hui.com Tandis que la démolition s’impose au sein de l’intervention publique sur le parc HLM des années 1950-1970.
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