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WORKSHOP 01

Housing Finance and Regulation


Co-ordinators: Jens Lunde, Stefan Kofner and Christine Whitehead

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Hedging housing risk in Denmark using house price indices


Marc LUND ANDERSEN
Knowledge Centre for Housing Economics, Copenhagen, Denmark man@bvc.dk Different solutions to reduce home equity risk have been presented in academic articles. Nevertheless homeowners still does not have opportunities to hedge housing risk. It seems to be generally agreed that a sustainable solution must involve integration of house price indices linked to a potential product. Regardless of design, such products would not be able to eliminate all home equity risk. The reason is the heterogenic characteristics of homes. These characteristics cause an idiosyncratic component in price changes for a single house compared to the related house price indices. In this paper a unique set of data is used to analyze the idiosyncratic component and the potential efficiency using products based on house price indices to hedge home equity risk. 52,656 repeated sales in Copenhagen from 1993-2009 is used to construct a Repeat Sales Index. The results indicate that homeowners would still have a great deal of risk to carry despite hedging themselves with such kind of index based products.

House price volatility and taxation


Marietta HAFFNER
Delft University of Technology, OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, The Netherlands, and College Design and Social Context, RMIT University, AHURI m.e.a.haffner@tudelft.nl

Michael OXLEY
Delft University of Technology, OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, the Netherlands and Centre for Comparative Housing Research, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom moxley@dmu.ac.uk The central question in this paper is: What impact might taxation have on the volatility of house prices? Measures of house price volatility for Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, UK and USA will be compared. The principal forms of housing taxation will be summarised. A series of tentative propositions about the potential impacts on price volatility of the different forms of housing taxation will then be compared. This discussion will be set in the context of the overall principles and purposes of housing taxation. The scope of the taxation measures considered will include taxes on income, property values, land values, capital gains and transactions. An agenda for further research to investigate the interaction between taxation and other factors contributing to housing market volatility will be set out.

23rd

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Distributional impact of subsidies related to housing in Flanders


Kristof HEYLEN
Catholic university of Leuven, Research Institute for Work and Society (HIVA), Belgium kristof.heylen@hiva.kuleuven.be The goal of this study is to analyze the distributional effects of the subsidy systems related to housing in Flanders, the north region of Belgium. It is explored which income groups benefit the most. Concerning owner-occupiers these subsidies are the mortgage interest deduction, the reduced VAT rate for renovation, the reduced transaction costs for the purchase of modest dwellings and the lower property tax for modest dwellings. With regard to tenants the below-market rent of social housing, the housing allowance and the systems of social loans are the subsidies at stake. The distributive impact is measured by means of the user cost concept. Within this perspective a dwelling is regarded as an investment good that generates housing services that can be consumed. The user cost is the price households pay for these services. In order to calculate the level of subsidies the actual user cost is compared with a benchmark. In this study the benchmark is the situation in which no subsidies are granted, given the existing tax system. Regarding owner-occupied housing, all fiscal arrangements that deviate from the general tax system, lower the costs and are aimed at specific target groups, are regarded as subsidies. The subsidy for social tenants is the difference between the actual subsidized - rent and the market rent. Data are drawn from the Flemish Housing Survey of 2005 and administrative data. The results show that the fiscal advantages are mainly received by the 40% highest income groups. The deductions on property tax and transaction costs are to a lesser extent directed at higher incomes, since they include a condition of modest housing. The subsidy of social rent is for 70% directed at the lowest income quintile. With regard to housing allowances this share reaches 95%.

Repossession and Recession: Housing in hard times


Beverly A SEARLE
University of St Andrews, United Kingdom bas4@st-andrews.ac.uk This paper draws attention to an aspect of current legal practice related to mortgage debt and the repossession of homes. In particular it questions the traditional privileging within the judicial system of creditors over occupiers. It does this within the context of the aftermath of the 2007 Great Financial Crisis, the cause of which lay within the heart of the housing financial (creditor) sector. The paper draws attention to the need to embrace the wider social policy context when dealing with the aftermath of this recession. The circumstances associated with repossession are heightened during periods of economic decline; owneroccupiers are at increasing risk of losing their home where economic conditions put pressure on household budgets, options for re-mortgaging are constrained and welfare safety nets are in decline. This is compounded where social policy positions owner-occupation as the preferred tenure and an asset base for welfare. This paper argues that whilst the psychological and social consequences of repossession may have longer term scaring effects on households, the difficult financial circumstances that lead to repossession are in many cases a temporary setback and may be a natural part of the life-cycle as younger owners establish themselves, their careers and families. This finding may provide a potential solution in the more flexible management of mortgage terms and re-payment criteria.

23rd

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Government-subsidised demolition of real property as a response to vacancies in the Swedish rental housing market
Sven-Olov DAUNFELDT
Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

Niklas RUDHOLM
Economics Department, Dalarna University, Sweden

Bo SDERBERG
Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Sweden bo.soderberg@ibf.uu.se The Swedish multi-family rental housing market has been subject to a prolonged rent control regime, initially introduced during the Second World War. Following a number of reforms it may today best be characterised as an indirect, and somewhat soft, price control instrument. Still, and quite uniquely, all rental flats are subject to rent control. To promote construction of new multifamily rental housing under a rent control system that, at least in growing cities, are binding, Government investment subsidies have been used widely. Since the early 1990s, however, these subsidies have been phased out. When still running, the subsidy program supported new construction everywhere, including municipalities that later were to experience population decreases. Over the last two decades depopulation, in combination with the previous subsidy-stimulated construction, has caused high vacancy rates in several less attractive rental housing markets. In almost all cases these vacancies are in council housing. Instead of lowering price (which from an economic point of view may appear the most reasonable action) the main ambition in many municipalities have been to reduce supply. The Government has (surprisingly enough) supported supply-reducing measures and even financially subsidised demolition of usable housing. In this paper we study this quite unique and odd housing policy instrument. We investigate to what extent demolition could be explained by housing market indicators and demographic variables as well as local political and general economic conditions. We make use of a panel of annual data for the time period 1990-2009 with some 290 municipalities as cross-section identifiers. The results (from preliminary estimations of panel-data regression models) indicate that several RHS variables mentioned are significantly explaining the demolition measures. The supply-reduction generally has little long-run effect on the vacancy rates. The welfare-loss of demolitions appears to be quite substantial.

Comparing responses to the financial crisis


Kathleen SCANLON, Jens LUNDE Christine WHITEHEAD
London School of Economics and CBS, United Kingdom This paper reviews the evidence from questionnaires provided from ENHR members across Europe and other industrialised countries on how countries have been responding to the financial crisis and the effect that it has had on the mortgage and housing markets. The preliminary results were presented at the ENHR/EMF workshop in Brussels in April. This paper presents updated and extended analysis as well as building on earlier surveys at different stages of the economic cycle. We hope that a revised version, taking account of comments at the conference, will form the basis for a journal article to be published early next year.

23rd

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Housing career after the rejection of a state supported first time buyers loan
Rolf BARLINDHAUG
Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (NIBR), Department for Housing and Environmental Planning Research rolf.barlindhaug@nibr.no

Torunn KVINGE
Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (NIBR), Department for Housing and Environmental Planning Research torunn.kvinge@nibr.no Municipalities redistribute funds from the Norwegian State Housing Bank for home purchasing. The scheme is targeted at disadvantaged in the housing market. Nevertheless, those who receive these loans must have an income high enough to allow for mortgage payments. The loan is given at interest rates equivalent to the average interest rate in the financial market. The benefits for the household are linked to the access of credit without the need of down payment, and without having to pay an extra risk premium. About 30 percent of the applications for a loan are not approved, most of them because the applicant is not supposed to be capable of paying the loan back. In this paper we will examine the housing situation for those whose application were rejected, two years after the decision was made, and contrast the situation to those who were acknowledged. We mainly focus on the home ownership rate and the factors which influences the probability of being a home owner after two years. The analysis is based on a rich data set, consisting of the complete application data from 2006 and a number of register information about the applicants for the years 2005 to 2008. Age, ethnicity, household type, location, income and equity all seem to be important. Generally the home ownership rate was rising with income and equity, but falling with age. We find that the home ownership rate among those who were not granted a state loan because of lacking ability for mortgage paymentwas 47 percent in 2008, and being highest among young couples living outside the biggest towns.

Ethical Social Fund. A way to finance Social Housing


Fabrizio PLEBANI
EUPOLIS Lombardia, Milano - Italy fabrizio.plebani@irer.it

Veronica MEROTTA
EUPOLIS Lombardia, Milano - Italy veronica.merotta@irer.it The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of Ethical Social Fund as an instrument to face the public financial shortage. Our analysis draws from the progressive State separation from the housing issues and the consequential need of involving private channels in order to continue financing social housing. Since 2001 with a modification of the Constitution, a plenty of responsibility moved from central level to local governance. Within these changes social housing financing became more and more entrusted to Regions. In the last decade, public financial contribution has been reduced profoundly and Regions had to find an alternative way to keep producing social housing. This evolution evolved in a diversified regional model, generally oriented toward a form of financial co-participation between public and private actors. The specific case we are going to deepen in the paper is a local Fund active in Lombardy, which has been able to attract within few years funding for 80 million of Euro. This new financial mean provides a robust structure to define and manage public and private interests and enables to produce new affordable housing. This experience has afterwards then inspired the national housing plan which contains a specific policy called Integrated System of funds (SIF).

23rd

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The Shanghai housing and mortgage markets


Jie CHEN Mark STEPHENS
Urban Studies, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom mark.stephens@glasgow.ac.uk Since the end of the welfare-oriented urban home distribution system in the late 1990s, Chinas home mortgage business has experienced tremendous growth and currently it is the primary funding resource for urban residents home purchases. How the development of home mortgage business is related to the boom in Chinas real estate market has not received much empirical examination. This paper utilizes the most recent data in Shanghai to examine this relationship. In this paper the impact of mortgage loans on the evolution of real estate markets will be studied through both documental review and statistical analysis. Particular attention will be paid to how the market functioned during 2008 to 2009, when the global financial crisis hit, and how the availability of mortgage credit played a significant role in the quick recovery of the Shanghai real estate market in 2009.

Real estate investment trusts and social housing. Social and functional mix as the constitutive element or the essential condition to satisfy the housing demand?
Paolo MELIS
Dipartimento di Architettura, Universit degli Studi di Cagliari ingpmelis@gmail.com The recession stage in progress records in the last years a renewed involvement of European states toward special programs to increase the social housing stock. For that reason, in Italy in 2008 has launched a national housing plan targeted at the housing stock increase whose main interests elements reside in the promotion of public and private capital partnerships forms and in the sensitivity to the range of population which is unable to meet their housing demand on the open market and at the same exceeds the maximum thresholds to access to subsidized housing. The action lines provided include the establishment of a local real estate investment trusts system, which can multiply the State appropriated resources and guarantee to investors a minimum ethical return through an appropriate residential and functional mix. But how does the functional and housing mix may be the main address of integrated forms of territorial government, and not just the requirement for the financial sustainability of the interventions? The condition for a wider success of new forms of social housing construction lies in the ability of local communities (local governments, businessmen and social partners) to interpret the critical issues and opportunities of the region and develop proposals in which the provision of specific start-up and management forms is able to ensure an effective response to housing demand. In this direction the examination of the first initiatives in progress at national and regional level can allow to focus on the public entitys role in setting out the rules of the private sector involvement and in the promotion of local actions that can achieve a real social mixit.

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Systemic risks of owner-occupied housing in the Czech Republic


Petr SUNEGA
Institute of Sociology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Socio-economics of Housing Department, Prague- Czech Republic petr.sunega@soc.cas.cz

Martin LUX
Institute of Sociology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Socio-economics of Housing Department, Prague, Czech Republic martin.lux@soc.cas.cz We focused on the assessment of selected systemic risks of owner-occupied housing in the Czech Republic in comparison with other countries. The systemic risks tested in the paper are se follows: 1. significant increase in the share of low-income households in the owner-occupied housing in the period of housing market boom and its sustainability; 2. the volatility of house prices in the Czech Republic in comparison to other countries and 3. the behavior of Czech mortgage lenders in the period of housing market boom. The thesis, whether among Czech homeowners repaying mortgages significantly increased the share of low-income households and whether significantly increased the share of homeowners in arrears with their mortgage payments in the period 2005-2009 was tested with the use of the Survey of Income and Living Conditions data of the Czech Statistical Office. With the use of OECD house price data was also tested the volatility of residential property prices in the Czech Republic and other developed countries. As some data about the mortgage market easily available in the developed countries are still missing in the Czech Republic (for example LTV ratios, etc.), we conducted the questionnaire survey among main Czech mortgage lenders. Preliminary results show, that the systemic risks of owner-occupied housing in the Czech Republic mentioned above are in general low, although the results of the survey confirmed to some extent inclination to risky behavior among Czech mortgage lenders.

The purchasing power for housing and the underestimated role of interest rates as a house price determinant
Frank VASTMANS
Center for economic studies - Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Frank.Vastmans@econ.kuleuven.ac.be

Erik BUYST
Center for economic studies - Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Erik.Buyst@econ.kuleuven.ac.be Real income and the real interest rate have been widely considered as two important price determinants for housing. We find that the purchasing power for housing, which is based on the net present value of future income flows, is a more powerful concept. It is intuitive and realistic in nature for first time buyers who need substantial mortgage-financing. Based on aggregated yearly time series data of Flanders (Belgium), we analyze the difference between nominal house prices and house price estimations based on the purchasing power for housing, for which no estimate of future house price appreciations or inflation rates is needed. This approach yields stronger results than a model where real income and real interest rate are used separately as explanatory variables for real house prices. The ratio price-to-purchasing power for housing is more stable than the price-to-income ratio, while the interest rate elasticity as derived from the imposed functional form of purchasing power for housing is much higher than generally found in literature.

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The financial crisis and housing market stability: lessons from disparate systems
Bernard VORMS
ANIL Paris - France

Christine WHITEHEAD
London School of Economics, United Kingdom c.m.e.whitehead@lse.ac.uk The UK housing finance market has been particularly integrated into the global financial system as a result of both deregulation and policy pressures to expand owner-occupation. This has helped to explain why both the mortgage and housing markets have been heavily affected by the crisis of 2007/8 - especially with respect to sources of mortgage funds, the terms and conditions under which mortgages are made available as well as patterns of house prices and supply. France, on the other hand, has maintained a special circuit of housing finance together with strong government involvement in the operation of the mortgage market. It has also put continuing emphasis on social housing as a source of housing for mainstream households. There have been few signs of financial tensions among mortgagors although house prices did rise quite rapidly in the early years of the century and government has seen the need to support the housing system. In the UK much of the commentary around the crisis has emphasised the risks associated with specific aspects of the mortgage market. In France on the other hand there has been more discussion around the extent to which social housing helps to support housing market stability as well as the need for government subsidised intermediate housing. Drawing on a range of analyses from the two countries as well as broader international experience, the authors will analyse the major attributes of the two systems and their robustness in response to the financial crisis and the resultant recession and then look at more fundamental issues around the costs and benefits of more flexible financial markets as compared to more regulated systems involving significant government support.

Is regulation the reason why private renting is more common in some countries than others?
Sanna MARKKANEN
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom sm725@cam.ac.uk

with Sarah MONK and Christine WHITEHEAD


There is currently renewed interest in the role of the private rented sector across many European countries. This is in part linked to recent developments, such as worsening access to owner-occupation and the decline in importance of social rented sector as well as to more fundamental issues such as demographic changes, labour market flexibility and regulatory and fiscal environments. Of relevance to potential expansion is the role that regulation may play in determining the potential size and attributes of the private rented sector especially as in some countries there is pressure to increase regulation while in others the objective is further to deregulate. This paper explores the context-dependent nature and impact of regulatory change across a variety of European countries. The paper examines the level and type of regulation observed in different countries in relation to the scale of private rental provision. It looks at how the scale and attributes of private renting have changed in response to regulatory initiatives. A range of examples are taken from countries where private renting continues to decline and others where it is expanding. The evidence suggests that there is no direct and easily predicted relationship between regulatory change and the role of private renting and that the impacts of change depend crucially on the interface between regulatory change and more fundamental issues of profitability and consumer choice.

23rd

Toulouse
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WORKSHOP 02
Housing Economics
Co-ordinators: Michael Ball and Edwin Deutsch

23rd

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Exploring the immigrant-native homeownership gap in Norway: The role of cultural attachment
Kristin AARLAND
Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Oslo, Norway kristin.aarland@nova.no Immigrants overall have lower homeownership rates than natives in Norway as in most other countries. However, there is considerable diversity among different groups of immigrants in terms of their housing outcomes, which to some extent may be explained by differences in duration of stay and economic resources (endowment effect). In this paper we aim to provide additional insight into the complex process that determines housing outcomes for immigrant groups by exploring the role of cultural attachment to the host and native country. Using data from the 2005 Survey of Living Conditions carried out among the ten largest immigrant groups in Norway, we focus on three measures of cultural attachment: language skills, civic participation in host society and maintenance of ties to country of origin, including visits, return plans, remittances and the pursuit of a dual home strategy. We expect to find that closer attachment to the host country will translate into better housing outcomes and that strong attachment to country of origin will imply poorer housing outcomes in the adopted country. We will estimate how quantitatively important the cultural effect is and whether it varies by country of origin.

Housing Policy and Family Dynamics in Europe 1945-2010


Annika BJRKLUND
Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Sweden annika.bjorklund@humangeo.su.se The aim of this paper is to discuss the connections between housing policy and family dynamics, and to show how and why housing policy can have effect on fertility rates. Since WWII housing policy has changed considerably in European states. The general policy trend has moved away from ample state subsidies and state regulations of housing markets, towards free market solutions for housing and housing construction, sharply decreasing general housing subsidies and a shift instead towards appointed subsidies to low-income areas and low-income households. In spite of similar trends in housing policies between European countries, there are temporal as well as spatial variations between countries. These differences offer a possibility to identify effects of housing market conditions on family dynamics. One result of the changing policy trends is higher general costs for housing at household level. Based on empirical research in Sweden it has been shown that there are significant links between housing costs and family dynamics, as increasing costs for housing has led to decreasing rates of fertility. Most European countries today face declining birth-rates. Analyzing the connections between housing policy and fertility may therefore be highly relevant in order to better understand the effects of housing policies on society, in particular, the consequences for population development and family dynamics. At present, however, such studies may be carried out at national level, but at European level these analyses are challenging, since there is a lack of data infrastructure and data base required for this research approach. This paper therefore suggests how a European data base on housing policy and housing market could be designed, by discussing essential variables and indicators to include in such a data base.

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Tenure choice in the Swedish housing market


Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Sweden

Cecilia ENSTRM ST Bo SDERBERG

Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Sweden

Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Sweden mats.wilhelmsson@abe.kth.se

Mats WILHELMSSON

We study tenure choice in the Swedish housing market over the time-period 1990-2008. For each year of the time-period under study, and for a selection of municipalities, we estimate separate probit models where the probability to chose a certain tenure form is dependent on a series of individual economic, demographic and social characteristics. We make use of a particularly rich database that includes all inhabitants in Sweden, i.e. some nine million observations per year. The explanatory vector includes variables such as permanent income, housing allowance, educational background, family size, ethnic origin and sex. In particular, we include a series of explanatory variables that specifically facilitate the interpretation of what determines the tenure choice of pensioners, students and unemployed young citizens. The municipalities were chosen to represent a number of stylized demographic patterns, including larger cities with an influx of migrants and rural areas with decreasing population. In particular, we are concerned with capturing the varying level of foreign immigration among municipalities. The probit models are based on the standard theoretical work by Henderson and Ioannides (1983). The results (from preliminary estimations) indicate that the RHS variables mentioned are generally significantly explaining the local annual variation in tenure choice. We further find a tenure choice pattern that varies over municipalities as well as over the time period under study.

Rent control and segregation in the Swedish housing market


Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Sweden

Ilian DREA PERSSON Bo SDERBERG

Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, Sweden bo.soderberg@ibf.uu.se We study whether there is segregation in the Swedish multi-family rental housing market despite a sustained rent control regime initially introduced during the Second World War. In particular, we are interested in analysing whether there is an overrepresentation of people with high income in rental flats in attractive local sub-markets. The analysis is applied to the Swedish housing market over the time-period 1990-2008. The analysis draws on seminal work by Glaeser and Luttmer (2003). There are certain difficulties involved in measuring the degree of segregation in a market where, as in Sweden, rent control embraces all rental housing units. We use the degree of income segregation in the non-regulated market for cooperative housing as a bench-mark. We consider parishes useful as delimitations of local sub-markets within municipalities. Within each local sub-market we recognise three different segments of multi-family housing, i.e. co-operatives, rental council housing and rental housing in other multi-family income properties. For each municipality and for each year of the time-period under study, we estimate average income for the three tenure form segments, separately, in each geographical sub-market. We make use of a particularly rich database that includes all inhabitants in Sweden, i.e. some nine million observations per year. Under the null of no income segregation in rental housing there should be no correlation between the distributions of average income in the co-operative market on the one hand and the two respective rental markets on the other hand. We find strong evidence for income segregation in attractive housing markets. However, the segregation is less pronounced in rental housing than in the co-operative market. Segregation in council housing is lower than in other rental housing. Segregation has increased in both rental housing segments over the time period under study.

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The relationship between turnover ratio and price in Taiwans real estate market
Nanya Institute of Technology, Zhongli, Taiwan, R.O.C. lindachou@nanya.edu.tw The paper examined the stationary of turnover ratio and the lead-lag relation of turnover ratio and housing price. Turnover ratio, the percentage that the housing flows account for the housing stock during some period of time, can be appropriately used to describe the condition of transactions in a certain area. The more the turnover, the more frequent transactions there are. In this article, we first conduct the unit root test to see if the turnover ratio is stationary, i.e., not to increase without boundaries, and investigate the lead-lag relationship between prices and turnover ratio with ECM model and Granger causality test to determine whether higher prices boost the higher turnover ratio or the higher turnover ratio result in higher prices. There are three results in the paper. First, the turnover ratio is stationary after 1st difference. Second, the log unit price of the whole country market led the turnover ratio one quarter, and it led the turnover ratio two quarter in metropolis (Taipei) market. The two variables have long-term balanced relations, and they are affected by their previous period. Third, the impulse response functions of the whole country market and metropolis market are differently. More information of turnover ratio helps to explain the unit price variance. And the variance decomposition level of unit price variance to turnover ratio is increasing quickly in metropolis market than it in whole country market.

Mei-Ling CHOU

Self-Reported Dwelling ValuationsHow Accurate Are They?


Central Bureau of Statistics, Israel dromanov@cbs.gov.il

Dmitri ROMANOV Larisa FLEISHMAN Aviad TUR-SINAI

Central Bureau of Statistics and Hebrew University, Israel

Central Bureau of Statistics and Tel Aviv University, Israel

Owners valuations of dwelling prices are central in construction of housing price indices, empirical research on housing markets and, as estimates of individuals and households most valuable assets, usually serve as a key explanatory variable in micro-economic analysis. The U.S. Decennial Census of Housing and several major surveys, e.g., the American Housing Survey, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the Survey of Consumer Finances, and the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions, include a question relating to self-reported dwelling value. Thus, the degree of accuracy of these valuations is of undisputed importance for empirical research. Previous studies show that, on average, owners tend to overestimate the value of their dwellings by 5% relative to market valuation, with the bias ranging from -2% to 16%. Most of these studies have not identified any systematic association between the bias of self-reported dwelling value estimates and observable owner and dwelling characteristics. We analyze the variation of the bias over the distribution of dwelling sale prices, using a unique data set of more than 22,000 observations from annual samples of Israels Household Expenditure Survey over a twelve-year period (19972008) merged with the national sample of housing sale transactions during the same period, parsed by census tract. This information, combined with a rich set of owner, dwelling, and neighborhood socio-economic, environmental, and geographic characteristics, allows us to investigate the self-reported valuation bias within a comprehensive conceptual framework that is novel for research on this topic. Our findings indicate that self-reported estimates of dwelling values are, on average, 27% higher than the mean market prices of houses in the corresponding census tracts. The valuations of inexpensive and costly dwellings are biased in different directions: estimates reported by people who occupy dwellings in the first (lowest) eight deciles of the price distribution are upward-biased, to the extent of more than 50 percent in the lowest decile of the distribution, whereas those who live in the most expensive dwellings more typically understate the value of their homes by up to 20 percent in the top decile of dwelling prices. We also find that the self-reported valuation bias is systematically associated with owner's traits as well as with dwelling and neighborhood characteristics.

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Rivalry between social and private landlords: Exploring landlords perceptions of competitors and landlords competitive strategies in two local housing markets
Christian LENNARTZ
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands c.lennartz@tudelft.nl Governments in many countries have required social housing providers to operate more market-orientated and engage in commercial activities. Conversely, public authorities in some countries have tried to strengthen the role of the private rental sector in the provision of housing for low income households and homeless people. As a result, the once clear demarcation between the activities of social and private landlords appears to be shifting, which has possibly led to increased competitive pressure on both landlord groups. As part of a wider research project, this paper aims to shed light on the behavioral aspects of competition between social and private landlords. Drawing on data from thirty in-depth qualitative interviews with housing association managers, letting agents, and private landlords in two local housing markets, Coventry in England and Breda in the Netherlands, this study explores landlords perceptions of providers in the other rental sector, the influence of the structure of the local rental market on these perceptions, and the impact of increased competitive pressures on landlords decisions on rent setting, investments and

Strategic Interaction between Inter Vivos Gifts and Housing Acquisition


Shinichiro IWATA
Faculty of Economics, University of Toyama, Japan iwata@eco.u-toyama.ac.jp

Norifumi YUKUTAKE
Housing Research and Advancement Foundation of Japan & Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University, Japan

Takako IDEE
Faculty of Economics, Seikei University, Japan This paper models an interdependence of parental gifts and childrens housing investments, considering an informal care issue behind these decisions making. Empirical results, which use a sample who acquires a house in Japan, indicate that the housing investments function is negatively related to gifts, reflecting children feel burden to provide informal care. The theory then suggests, supported by empirical results, that there is a case where a policy event of a gift tax reduction may encourage intergenerational transfers, but it consequently reduces housing investment along with the housing investment function.

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Do housing allowances help people stay in their homes ?


Vronique FLAMBARD
Lille Catholic University, Economics and Management, France veronique.flambard@icl-lille.fr

Stphane VIGEANT
Lille Catholic University, Economics and Management, France Specific assistance is devoted to housing on the ground of negative externalities associated with unsustainable and unsafe housing. Because the total effect of housing allowances can be decomposed into a price and an income effect, housing financial difficulties are not mechanically reduced. There is a potential for housing overconsumption and there is a possibility that most of the allowance is spent on other goods and services. Besides it is well documented that housing allowances can be captured at least partially by landlords, therefore recipients only benefit partially from the housing subsidies. Using the French Housing Survey of 2002, we have investigated whether or not housing allowances actually help people to stay in their homes. Selection bias has been taken into account. As a matter of fact, housing allowances are meanstested, and therefore recipients are not selected randomly in the population. Similarly, tenants are self-selected (by opposition to home owners). The analysis of marginal effects shows that the most important variables are the selection effect for being a recipient (capturing unobservable factors and behaviour), the events (especially family events or job loss) and finally the level of education. Last, but not least, the gain provided by the program of housing allowances in terms of sustainable housing (measured with the Average Treatment Effect) is computed. No reduction in threat of forced move or in difficulty paying the rent is guaranteed. In other words, recipients are not better protected than non recipients from unsustainable housing. The conclusion of this paper is therefore that housing allowances are not sufficiently flexible to counter balance the inherent disadvantage of recipients, especially for households that cumulate risk factors, even when all observed factors are controlled for.

Housing Mobility and Tenure Choice with varying constraints and rationing: a model for English regions built from micro household transition data
Institute for Housing, Urban & Real Estate Research, School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom g.bramley@hw.ac.uk)

Glen BRAMLEY

Real Estate Economics, Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom

Michael WHITE

This paper describes an approach to modelling households mobility and tenure choice decisions in an hierarchical fashion using micro household panel data on housing and household transitions. Labour and housing market effects are fed in using linked sub-regional data. Models calibrated in this way are then combined in an overall simulation model for the English regions with embodied demographic structural changes to trace the impact of economic and policy scenarios on future tenure structures and unmet housing needs. This approach is argued to be appropriate to a system characterised by a rationed supply of social housing and spatially variable market conditions, while recognising the theorical importance of expected mobility for tenure choice given transaction costs. While the model appears to work well its results suggest a pessimistic outlook for home-ownership in England, even before the effects of tighter mortgage lending regulation can be fully factored in. Current policy changes affecting social renting supply, rents and housing allowances will also pose extra challenges for the model.

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House prices, accessibility and housing market segmentation in Luxembourg: Evidence from a hedonic pricing model
Julien LICHERON
CEPS/INSTEAD, Differdange, Luxembourg julien.licheron@ceps.lu This paper seeks to estimate the role of distance and accessibility in spatial disparities of real estate prices in the GrandDuchy of Luxembourg, a small country with a dominant centre. House prices have steadily increased in this country since the beginning of the nineties, but significant disparities are observed: the capital is one of the most expensive cities in Europe, while real estate prices are much lower in the north and the west of the country. A hedonic pricing model is used to disentangle the relative effects of property characteristics, socio-economic factors, neighbourhood effects and accessibility on flats asking prices. The model is used to derive predictions of real estate price gradients. Then, several approaches are tested to analyse market segmentation and define housing submarkets: two predefined geographical delineations, two statistical clustering methods, and a method relying on spatial autocorrelations of the residuals from the hedonic estimates. Out-of-sample predictions allow for a comparison of the prediction accuracy in the alternative housing segmentation approaches (as in Goodman & Thibodeau, 2003; Bourassa, Cantoni & Hoesli, 2007; Chen, Cho, Poudyal & Roberts, 2009). The results highlight the importance of an investigation at a sub-market level, since spatial disaggregation yields significant gains in hedonic prediction accuracy. Accessibility to the capital seems to play a major role in the definition of housing submarkets in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.

Social Segregation and the Computation of House Price Indices: An Application of the Composite Commodity Theorem to the Definition of Housing Market Areas
Gwilym PRYCE
University of Glasgow, School of Social and Political Sciences, Scotland, United Kingdom Gwilym.Pryce@glasgow.ac.uk

Nema DEAN
University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom This paper considers the implications of social and residential segregation for house price index calculation. The greater the segregation of society, the more pronounced the segmentation of housing markets is likely to be. Rather than all house prices for a country or region moving in unison, price movements will be fragmented across space. This has important impacts on how we compute house price indices. Hicks' composite commodity theorem says that for two commodities to be included in the same price index, the price relatives of those two commodities must be constant. If not, different index methods will produce different results. This paper utilises the Composite Commodity Theorem to define the areas at which house price indices are produced as a way of minimising the discrepancies across index methodologies.

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Allocative efficiency of different housing subsidy systems


University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam School of Real Estate, The Netherlands

Frans SCHILDER

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam School of Real Estate, The Netherlands j.conijn@asre.uva.nl

Johan CONIJN

The rental sector is strongly subsidized in the Netherlands. There are demand subsidies in form of housing allowances, but supply subsidies are dominant. As a result of rent regulation the actual rent level is on average much lower than the market rent level. Housing subsidies are economically often not efficient; subsidies drive households away from market equilibrium. When society thinks of housing as a merit good, or in cases of market failures, however, there may a good reason for subsidizing housing. The general result in literature regarding subsidizing housing is that demand subsidies are to be preferred above supply subsidies. Since the supply subsidy is granted to all renters in the same way and in virtually the same amounts there should be room for improvement in terms of welfare gains. In this paper we will compare the current system of housing subsidies in the rented market with an alternative with only demand subsidy. The current system includes rent regulation, housing allowances and supply subsidy; the proposed system includes market rents and only demand subsidy depending on the income level of the household. For each system we will estimate the welfare loss following the methodology presented in e.g. Rosen (1985) and Poterba (1992). Taking housing affordability criteria into account we show that there is room for significant welfare gains following more efficient allocation of housing subsidies.

House price indices. Quality correction and the long term trend
Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark mos@sam.sdu.dk

Morten SKAK

It is generally accepted that indices of price developments for a good should be cleaned for changes of the goods quality. But cleaning of house price indices for quality changes is complicated because the data needed for proper cleaning is hard to get, and also because it is unclear what proper cleaning is. Based on the Danish SPAR house price index, the paper firstly discusses this problem, and secondly the factors behind the long term trend of this house price index in real terms.

The structure of housing in urban settlements


Theis THEISEN
Department of Economics and Business Administration, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway Theis.Theisen@uia.no Within the model of a mono-centric town it is shown that the share of dwellings that are apartments depends positively on the towns population, and on share of single person households, while the relationship is reversed for detached dwellings. Data for Norwegian urban settlements are used for estimating a system of dwelling share equations. The empirical results confirm the predictions from the theoretical model. Some settlements deviate substantially from the general pattern. We argue that examination of such deviations may be useful in urban planning.

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The Roles of Folk Custom and Taboo on Home Improvement Decisions


Wen-Chieh WU
Department of Public Finance, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan jackwu@nccu.edu.tw In this investigation, we test whether folk custom and taboo have impacts on the home improvement decision of homeowner. Using a group of Taiwanese homeowners as the study samples, our empirical results provide the evidences that both folk custom and taboo indeed play certain roles on the decisions of home improvement. We find that the likelihood of a homeowner making home improvement significantly rises at the time that is defined to be capable of bringing good fortune by folk custom. However, on the other hand, the incentive of a homeowner making home improvement is significantly reduced at the time that is considered as taboo. Our results also find Dink family is the most likely to make home improvement, whereas single family is the least likely to make home improvement. However, the single family is willing to spend the largest amount of home improvement expenditures once it decides to do it. On the other hand, households with dependent children and elderly would spend relatively less money on home improvements.

Equity withdrawal and moves to specialist retirement accommodation: the case of Britain
School of Real Estate and Planning, Henley Business School, University of Reading, United Kingdom

Michael BALL

There is a growing literature highlighting low equity withdrawal by elderly homeowners. This paper utilises a unique data set of recent British movers into owner occupied retirement housing to explore the determinants influencing choice of this housing option. The results correspond to the argument that a simple life cycle view of housing wealth does not hold, as many purchasers utilise non-housing wealth or have low equity release. However, the size of prior housing wealth does seem to influence the value of the property purchased. Housing affordability constrains the propensity to move at older ages, which may contribute to the low mobility of older people.

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The slow burn of declining housing affordability and spatial polarisation


Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia tburke@swin.edu.au

Terry BURKE

Michael STONE Liss RALSTON


This paper uses a residual income method of affordability measurement to get a better understanding of the growing polarisation of Australian cities. While we might talk about the desirability of social mix (however defined) housing market dynamics, without appropriate interventions, tend to push cities in the direction of social dispersion and polarisation. Using Melbourne, Australia, as a case study this paper examines how the housing market has created a slow burn process of social and spatial polarisation and highlights how polarisation is not just in terms of income but also of household type and building form. In Australia the traditional method of measuring affordability is a ratio method of 30 percent of income committed to housing costs. However as this paper outlines this method fails to provide an adequate understanding of the nuances of housing affordability and its impact on market dynamics. A residual income model of affordability not only provide a better measure of affordability but also a better understanding of how housing markets work; in Melbournes case the market is creating a long term and potential non solvable problem of urban form which will undermine Melbournes long held status as one of the half dozen most liveable cities in the world. Applying the residual income model of affordability to unit record sales of all residential property transactions in Melbourne we demonstrate how households with incomes less than the 40 percent decile, and families in particular, have been increasingly excluded from the home purchase market or pushed to the fringes of Metropolitan Melbourne.

Regional Productivity and Socio-Economic Networks


Edwin Deutsch
Research Group EOS, University of Technology, Vienna, Austria edwin.deutsch@tuwien.ac.at Although the spatial organisation of productive activities is discussed in a vast body of literature, relatively little attention is paid to the interplay with the regional housing structure. Instead the latter is simply deemed to result from the local demand of the work force. The present paper aims at demonstrating that housing supply plays a crucial role when it adapts to the local characteristics of the work force, conditional upon the structure of markets and the institutional framework of housing. The paper relies on empirical evidence drawn from Austrian regional NUTS3-data on manufacturing and commercial productivity, and on the shares of social renting. The starting point is the hypothesis put forward by Jane Jacobs, later expanded in the "New Economic Geography", that productivity and growth positively depend on the degree of diversity of productive activities and market interactions. In the present paper, the hypothesis is tested with spatial econometric methods. It will be shown that labour productivity positively depends on internal economies (the firm sizes) and external economies (the availability of networks in a sufficiently diversified market environment). Given that result the paper then turns to issue of housing structures. The Austrian system of social renting is designed to supply housing for a local work force, with a commitment to preserve social cohesion by sheltering an adequate mix of households. Quite interestingly it can be shown that the share of social renting is positively correlated with the degree of productive diversity. One may conclude that Austrian social renting gives support to regional productivity.

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WORKSHOP 03
Housing Markets Dynamics
Co-ordinators: Richard Turkington and Peter Boelhouwer

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Heritage and its role in revitalising the housing market


Andr MULDER
Department of Real Estate & Housing, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands a.mulder@tudelft.nl Due to the demise of traditional industry large industrial estates, often at central locations, become available for re-use. Municipalities have reacted by trying to attract new users who would need a lot of space, like big shopping centres, while strengthening the urban economy. However, these attempts have not always been succesful. Also, local people may feel alienated if all remnants of the past, in which they lived and worked, are ignored. In the recent past, some attempts were made to re-use buildings in a way more connected to the history of the area. The IBA Emscher Park (in the German Ruhr area) experimented in the 1990s with a less intensive use of industrial estates, while at the same time keeping many of the buildings standing and involving the local communities. The Ruhr area cities now are something of a tourist attraction, something that no-one could have predicted during the age of smoke and dust. Less well known is the fact that the refurbishment and new building of 30 garden cities was also part of the IBA. Chimney Pot Park in the English city of Salford (Greater Manchester) also built on local traditions. Facades of terraced houses were kept, but behind them new homes with uncommon layouts were created: an attempt to reconciliate the traditions of a working class estate with new urban living (including alternative household formations) to the area. In this paper, the increased role of heritage as a way to help revitalising the housing market of shrinking of cities will be explored.

Reflection of Social Mixit in Urban Spaces: Fener and Balat Districts in Istanbul
Banu CELEBIOGLU
Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Architectural Restoration and Conservation Department, Istanbul, Turkey banu.celebioglu@gmail.com

Fusun CIZMECI
Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Housing Production and Building Management Department, Istanbul, Turkey fusuncizmeci@yahoo.com Fener and Balat districts are located on the historic peninsula of Istanbul. Rehabilitation programme of those districts is the first work in Istanbul after it has been declared as a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1985. The aim of the programme is to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants of Balat and Fener. Once a living area of Greeks, Armenians and Jews, the Fener and Balat districts are presently inhabited by a mostly Muslim population that immigrated from other cities and rural areas. Buildings and environment of Balat and Fener, that a great part consists of traditional dwellings, demonstrate many problems of decay and dereliction. Occupiers of those buildings are obliged to repair them to live in. Unfortunately, most of the people are the ones, who have low incomes. In that condition, the inhabitants have two choices: they will either be settled in periphery to the mass housing totally unfamiliar to their life style, which are indicated to them by government or they will repair their own houses in city center with the financial support of the government. In the past 5 years, this historic area took attention like other historic quarters in Istanbul with the influence of the rehabilitation programme. A different social group, who have upper economic status and education began to settle in the area and this caused a revival in housing market, restoration works for historic buildings, different social and architectural needs and thereby problems of different social status living together. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the social mixit reflect to the urban space and if we can see in urban aspect the zoning of the social segregation focused on the case of Fener and Balat districts.

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Metropolitan growth, residential expansion and real state business in Santiago of Chile: From the new downtown to the expanded borders
Rodrigo HIDALGO
Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Santiago, Chile hidalgo@geo.puc.cl,

Alejandro SALAZAR
University of Glasgow, School of Social and Political Sciences, Scotland, United Kingdom asalazab@uc.cl,

Federico ARENAS
University of Glasgow, School of Social and Political Sciences, Scotland, United Kingdom farenasv@uc.cl

Pablo OSSES
University of Glasgow, School of Social and Political Sciences, Scotland, United Kingdom posses@uc.cl These last years are witnesses of a significant change in the Latin American metropolis, which is represented mainly by important aspects as changes in the way of social segregation, or space and the development of new focus, which among other factors, move the supply of good and services -that in the past were exclusively in central areas - to the border zones. Otherwise these last interventions are closely related to the new strategies of financial assets addressed to real state business which aim is the fast return of investment, thus the production of housing is the core point in these changes. The expansion of residences is reviewed inside the overcrowded areas the same that in border zones, enhancing different results and classification related to the social and morphological space produced. The downtown have experienced these last years an intensive higher density in residential areas, which in some cases produces a significant process of gentrification. While this occurs, and adding the fact of immigrants from neighbour countries as Per, these areas retake the old practices of overcrowding and exclusion in old houses that are sub-rented and in consequence ruined. The peripheral areas, by its side contain two ways of housing market that show social inequalities within the Chilean society, represented by gated properties for middle and high classes privatopolis- and by popular housings with reduced spaces - 40 m2 - in wide areas - precariopolis. Communications, within this context, look for observing deeper the morphological changes at metropolitan scale, which are associated to royal state business along the different overcrowded urban areas in Santiago of Chile.

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Connecting the periphery: housing market effects of the new Westerscheldetunnel


OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands j.s.c.m.hoekstra@tudelft.nl

Joris HOEKSTRA Evert MEIJERS

OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands e.j.meijers@tudelft.nl

OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands m.spaans@tudelft.nl

Marjolein SPAANS

The complex relationship between transport infrastructure and spatial economic development has been debated ever since the first roads, railways and canals were built. However, relatively limited attention has been paid to housing market effects of new infrastructure development. Recent evidence suggests that the impact of transport infrastructure development is highly localized. This paper provides an exploratory spatial data analysis of local accessibility impacts on the housing market. Empirical evidence is presented for a case in the Netherlands: the construction of the 6km long tunnel underneath the Westerschelde estuary-mouth. Since it was opened in 2003, it links the central part of the province of Zeeland in the Southwest of the Netherlands with the more peripheral part of Zeeland called Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. For several reasons this case is of wider interest, which includes the rather strong changes in accessibility and centrality the opening and routing of the tunnel has caused, in particular since it replaced ferries that provided connections at locations quite distant from the tunnel route. Also, the location in a border and river delta region limits external effects. We explore whether those areas that became better accessible witnessed a stronger rise in value of housing property than those areas that became relatively less well accessible. Also, we consider whether such effects turn out differently for the centre and the periphery. In addition, we consider the effects on the type of households living in those areas. Finally, we present results from a large survey held among residents in those areas, which questioned their housing market behaviour, as well as their perception of the impact of this tunnel.

Tackling housing market volatility in the UK


Urban Studies, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom mark.stephens@glasgow.ac.uk

Mark STEPHENS

Over the course of the last century the UK housing system has become centred on owner occupation. However, this model of home ownership has been stretched beyond its limits as more people have become priced out of the market, and ownership levels have fallen particularly among younger households. The private rented sector has taken some of the strain, having expanded following deregulation and houses a range of household types, but offers little security. The social rented sector has been subject to policy-induced decline and has become more of a safety net. The UK housing market has also been characterised by persistent price instability that affects home-owners most directly, but also impacts on private tenants. Against this background the Housing Market Taskforce was established by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation to propose a series of long-term policy options to create a socially sustainable housing market by addressing the root causes of instability and better protect those at risk. This paper summarises its findings. It covers a wide range of issues including: the importance of housing supply; measures to tackle short-term volatility; the provision of better safety nets; and the development of alternatives to home ownership.

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Understanding the relationship between households and dwellings in Catalonia: a tool for better policy design
Montserrat PAREJA-EASTAWAY
Department of Economic Theory, University of Barcelona, Spain mpareja@ub.edu

Montse SIM
Department of Economic Theory, University of Barcelona, Spain Undoubtedly, the peculiar evolution of the Spanish housing markets in the recent past is object of a diverse set of analysis and researches. However, when focusing on the relationship between household characteristics in terms of structure, income or dimension and the occupancy of certain dwellings according to size, quality or tenure, the availability of extensive data is limited or not up to date. For instance, a basic question such as who lives - what typology of household or which nationality - in rented housing is hardly answerable. In Catalonia, a first edition of new source was published in 2009 with data obtained in 2007: the Demographic Survey. Among the objectives of this survey, it provides an update on the relationship between the main structural demographic variables and housing. Based on this source of information, the purpose of this paper is two-fold: on the one hand, it aims to use the possibilities of the explanatory power of multivariate analysis to unfold the underlying dimensions behind the allocation of households to dwellings and, in particular, better understanding of tenure choices. Without any prior assumption, factor analysis would allow us to set the minimum dimensions with the maximum informative power to explain the structural relationship between households and dwellings and precisely provide better insight on tenure choice of Catalan households. On the other, these results will be confronted to the current housing market situation and the existing housing policy strategies to facilitate housing access to certain groups. Theoretically, the increase in knowledge on the functioning of the housing market will allow the development of more accurate policy tools and less waste of public resources.

Local Level Policies for Market Housing: A Four Act Policy Evolvement Story
Berit NORDAHL
Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning, Norwegian University of Life Science, Aas, Norway berit.nordahl@umb.no Norway has more than 20 year of experience in developing policies for market housing supply. This policy evolves as interplay between central and local level: the local level is the executing body; the central level draws up the rules of the game. This paper analyzes the role of the local level in improving market based housing supply. It applies a state-market perspective and describes the policy evolvement as a four act play: It starts by drawing a distinction between policies aiming at correcting public failures and policies aiming at correcting market failures. The first two acts in the play addresses public failures and the two last acts address market failures. The paper shows that the state is by far clearer when it comes to perceive public failures than market failures. The state played an active role in urging the local authorises to improve their own performances toward the market. The two first policy acts are stories of bureaucratic improvements in which the two government levels work hand-in-hand. But when it comes to perceiving market failures, the state is more reluctant. Thus, the local authorities are taking the lead: The paper closes by describing the fumbling pursuit of the local authorities in developing policies which can overcome externalities and problems in the land market.

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Housing system reform: expert opinions and political reality in The Netherlands
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University, The Netherlands p.j.boelhouwer@tudelft.nl

Peter BOELHOUWER Hugo PRIEMUS

OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University, The Netherlands h.priemus@tudelft.nl

This paper describes analyse to what extent a more or less collective feeling of urgency to reform the Dutch housing market is addressed in the political arena. By doing that, it sheds some light on the effectiveness and influence of partly academic research and recommendations on the political decision making process. We conclude that the suggestion of several advisory bodies to start a serious reform of the housing system in the Netherlands was due to coalition considerations almost fully neglected by the new government. Although there is a common understanding among experts and interest organisations in the Netherlands that the current housing systems needs radical changes, coalition politics in the Netherlands are apparently more important to explain housing policies. We can conclude that the effectiveness and influence of partly academic research and advice on the political decision making process was quite modest in the last couple of years.

Knockdown-rebuild in Sydney: Suburban housing renewal as an example of contemporary residential choice and neighbourhood change
City Futures Research Centre, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia. b.randolph@unsw.edu.au

Bill RANDOLPH Ilan VISEL

City Futures Research Centre, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia.

City Futures Research Centre, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia. There is a considerable wealth of research addressing questions of household mobility and residential change in urban neighbourhoods. A recent phenomena in Australian cities is the renewal of lower density residential suburbs, often originally built in the inter-war or post-war decades to 1970, through a process popularly known as knock-down rebuild (KDR). KDR typically involves the demolition of older single detached dwellings by owner-occupiers or developers and their and replacement with larger dwellings or semi-detached houses. This paper addresses this issue in the context of the Sydney housing market. Using a database of Development Applications submitted to 30 local councils across the Sydney metropolitan area in the last 5 years, the paper presents an analysis of over 6,000 applications for KDR that were identified and mapped. A survey was sent to the whole sample, including demographic questions about the household as well as questions about the motives to undertake KDR. The analysis focuses on whether, and how, the spatial context in which KDR is undertaken varies from place to place. To this end, the paper poses the following question: how applicable is it to utilise the profile of place as a means to both perform and contextualise housing sub-market analysis? To construct and analyse different contexts, a socio-economic profiling exercise was undertaken, using data from the 2006 Australian Census as well as property price data, the details of which are provided in this paper. Four distinct locational typologies (or KDR sub-markets) were identified and spatial identifiers attributed to the survey returns. In doing so, the applicability of using area profiling techniques to describe changing urban housing market dynamics is assessed. We discuss the validity of this approach in this paper as well as reporting survey findings outlining the demand drivers for this form of urban renewal contextualised against these typologies.

Simon PINNEGAR

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Housing development and policy change: What changed in Turkey in the last decade?
Gulsun Pelin SARIOGLU ERDOGDU
Department of City and Regional Planning, Mersin University Faculty of Architecture, Turkey pelincp@gmail.com In 2002, The Justice and Development Party won the elections in Turkey. During their first period of government (2002 2007), the new government initiated housing mobilization in which in approximately two years the aim was to begin construction on 150,000 housing units, and in nine years by 2011 500,000 new dwellings in total all over the country.. This target was criticized on the grounds that rather than answering the housing need, main concern of the new government was mostly on multiplier effects of housing and its most probable refurbushing impacts on macro economics. Ever since 482.886 dwellings were produced only by Housing Administration of Turkey, excluding private developers. Turkey previously had experienced larger amounts of housing construction: In a three-year period (19931995) over 500,000 units had been produced annually, none of which were built through public investments. Another major policy change of JDP was introduction of mortgage law in 2007. Due to high inflation figures the country was experiencing, it was not possible to get credits for longer periods. Being already a home-owner society, this law affected the pace of home ownership rates. Yet the law is argued to be a compilation of several related articles rather than offering a housing finance system which would solve affordability problem. These policy changes are noteworthy however there are significant aspects to be criticised. And thus in this paper, effects of these changes in the Turkish housing system is analyzed. In doing so, several paramters are used from Turkish Statistical Institue and Housing Administration like dwellings produced, dwelling costs, inflation rate, composition of new stock (building size and household matching) and the effect of mortageg law on home ownerhsip rate.

Demographic change and the German housing market


Andr SCHARMANSKI
Urban Affairs and Spatial Development, Federal Institute for Research on Building, Bonn, Germany andre.scharmanski@bbr.bund.de In the scope of the booming economy and a still favorable financing environment investment in the German housing market is currently experiencing a minor renaissance. However investors should take seriously the demographic risks, which differ fundamentally from region to region. According to current population forecast by 2025 Germany's population will have declined from 81.5 million to just under 77.9 million. Decline is no longer a singular problem in the Eastern part of Germany. The number of districts with a declining population continues to increase. Between 2010 and 2025 almost 85% of the existing 440 districts in Germany will experience a decline in population. This brings up the question what consequences demographic decline can possibly have for the housing markets in Germany? Demographic development is often said to be the Achilles heel of housing demand. First the uneven development across Germany poses large risks in the regions that are losing population and households. Risks of vacancies will be especially high for some market segments like apartment houses, and especially in East Germany and the old industrial areas in West Germany. Second analog to the demographic change the demand for new buildings will be declining. High demand is only expected for some core markets like Munich, Berlin and Frankfurt am Main. Finally the paper seeks to determine how demographic factors have contributed to past changes in real housing prices as well as their possible impact over the next coming decades. Is there a significant price effect, insofar as declining population leads to significant negative price effects and vice versa? Based on a forecast for the period up to 2025, the paper draws conclusions on the impact of demographic change on the long-term housing demand potential and the rental price reactions.

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Patterns of housing demand under uncertainty: a case study in Lisbon


Teresa COSTA PINTO
ISCTE, Lisbon University Institute, Portugal teresa.pinto@iscte.pt From the results of a questionnaire to the potential demand for housing in an area of Lisbon, we intend to explore in this communication, patterns of housing demand with taking into account the current context of crisis and uncertainty surrounding the housing markets and societal evolution itself. Therefore, the sociological profiles of potential buyers / tenants are presented, exploring the relationship of certain residential options (in terms of location, house type, tenure and price) and the particular characteristics of individuals who want change their residential situation: socio-economic group, age, stage of life course and location of current residence. These data will be used as a pretext for a reflection on the characteristics of the current demand for housing in Lisbon, with particular emphasis in the first place, the analysis of consolidated demand housing trends that have come to constrain several urban dynamics in structuring social and urban fabric of Lisbon metropolis (such as the tendency shown by many studies to a residential mobility characterized by geographic continuity). Secondly, it is intended to account for emerging trends in demand (such as the increasing demand for rental) and the profiles associated with them, interpreting them in light of both the current constraints of the real estate market, or of cultural and social changes driving new attitudes and housing values.

Socially unsustainable development of the Spanish houses typology in crisis times


Gala CANO FUENTES
Sociology and Social Policy Department, Faculty of Economics, University of Murcia, Spain galacano@um.es Housing market shows great sensitivity to recent changes in the economic field, it becoming a significant variable in analyzing the social consequences that the crisis has had on the population. In times of crisis, it is necessary more than ever, join the real state of the housing market with public policy development. In Spain, where the bubble of the housing market has reached record highs, we see that the housing market reflects a social divide: the crisis has not affected everyone equally. Although on a first analysis it would seem that there is not any changes in the typology of houses built (block of flats / detached houses), in a deeper study can be found that the number of new endorsements of detached houses construction is the only one still growing since 2005. The average increase was change in Spain from 22.8% of total guarantees for family homes in 2005 to 60.9% in 2009. In some regions, this increase was accompanied by the growth of blocks of flats but only until 2007. At the same time, there was a change in the average size of homes: the average area of detached houses increased while the size of the block of flats had a weak reduction. On this subject, your may find that both houses of 0 and 1 plant, such as 4 and 5 have increased their share of the total houses built, can we speak of a duality in the house built? This paper shows a comparative analysis between the different administrative regions of Spain in order to establish resemblances or differences between them. Inside the market housing, social consequences of the difference in the typology of houses tendered could be the beginning of a future unsustainable social developing.

23rd

Toulouse
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I

C O N F E R E N C E

WS - 03

How much tenure mix is there in England, how has this changed over the last three decades and what are the implications for policy?
Rebecca TUNSTALL
Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics, United Kingdom r.tunstall@lse.ac.uk Mixed (or more mixed) housing tenure within neighbourhoods has been pursued in many countries and for many decades as a policy goal in itself, and as a tool to achieve social mix through housing and renewal policy, and a proxy indicator of social mix. There has been much research on the impact of tenure mix policies, and discussion of whether housing tenure mix is of independent value, and how successful and how complete it is as a tool or proxy. However, some of the fundamental evidence needed in these discussions has been missing: after decades of tenure mix policy we do not know how much tenure mix there is or was. The paper develops and applies several definitions of tenure mix, some widely used in the study of inequality and of ethnic segregation. These include the number and proportion of neighbourhoods where no one tenure group is dominant, or beyond one standard deviation from the mean, as well as the evenness of spread of tenures between neighbourhoods, via Gini coefficients, and indices of segregation, dissimilarity and isolation. These measures are applied to data from the 1981, 1991 and 2001 censuses of population in England. Then the paper answers the following fundamental questions: 1) How many mixed tenure neighbourhoods are there in England and how evenly spread are the tenures? How does the pattern vary across the country and where are the most and least mixed tenure areas found? How does tenure mix compare to other measures of social mix? 2) How has the number of mixed tenure neighbourhoods and the spread of different tenure groups changed over the past three decades? 3) Have housing and neighbourhood policies had any effect on tenure mix overall?

23rd

Toulouse
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I

C O N F E R E N C E

WORKSHOP 04
Growing discrepancies between sustainability and affordability in the metropolitan housing markets in the period of public finance crisis
Co-ordinators: Ivn Tosics and Glen Bramley

23rd

Toulouse
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C O N F E R E N C E

WS - 04

Increasing social mixing and socioeconomic inequalities: the influence of liberal housing policies in Spanish greatest cities
Facultad de Sociologa, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain

Marta DOMINGUEZ Jesus LEAL

Facultad de Sociologa, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain jleal@cps.ucm.es

Facultad de Sociologa, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain Economic changes in greatest Spanish cities influenced in a deep social and economic restructuring with a considerable increase of the upper and middle class and a greater social and economic inequality in terms of occupations, education and wages. But at the same time it changed the spatial inequalities pattern with a decrease in segregation for most of social categories combined with other spatial ways of differentiating social groups like housing exclusion and increasing overcrowding. In these changes it is to notice the spatial expansion of the upper class, both in periphery and in city centre with some clear gentrification process, related also to deep changes in local housing markets. At the same time different housing practices among immigrants produced different patterns in urban settlements.

Elena MARTINEZ

Foreign Migration, Urban Growth and Suburbanisation Dynamics in Large Spanish Metropolitan Areas
Human Geography Department, University of Barcelona, Spain jordibayona@ub.edu

Jordi BAYONA-i-CARRASCO Fernando GIL-ALONSO

Human Geography Department, University of Barcelona, Spain fgil@ub.edu

This paper analyses the impact of international migration on the evolution and populations composition of the Spanish largest urban areas, focusing on foreigners participation in suburbanization dynamics. During the last decade, Spain has been the European country with largest international migration inflows. The proportion of foreign residents has therefore increased from a trifling 2.3% in 2000 to todays 12.2%. In other words, in absolute terms, more than five million new inhabitants have been added to the population. Moreover, they have been unevenly distributed throughout the territory, concentrating in specific provinces which specialise on tourist, services or intensive agriculture jobs, and in large urban areas. It is on this second issue that the paper will be focusing. Spain has about fifteen large metropolitan areas with more than half a million inhabitants. According to 2010 data, the percentage of foreigners in their central cities ranges from 17.5% and 17.4% in Barcelona and Madrid to 5.3% or 1.7% in Seville and Cadiz. The paper seeks: 1) to provide an overview of recent population changes in Spanish metropolitan areas; 2) to distinguish stages in them (urban cores decrease, new growth due to international immigration, new suburbanisation by foreigners, and the impact of the economic crisis); 3) to look for urban development timing differences between metropolitan areas, as well as differences in their respective central citys role and in the type of outskirts; and finally, 4) to analyze mobility residential dynamics, taking differences in foreigners and Spaniards choice of location of residence into account.

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 04

Does Scale Matter? Evolution of Housing Policies Governance in Greater Paris Region
Urban planning, University of Paris 1 Panthon-Sorbonne, France xavier.desjardins@univ-paris1.fr The Paris metropolitan area suffers from a lack of housings. The right-wing government and the left-wing regional leader agree with the fact there is an urgent need to build more. Around 30 000 housings are built each year since 2000 in Ile-de-France. The region wants 60 000 to be built per year. What are the causes of such a shortage? For many observers, the municipalities are responsible for such a restrictive residential development. More than 1300 municipalities are responsible for the building permits and for the local planning. Each of them does what their voters want: to preserve the value of their home and, mostly in the periphery, to maintain the low-density of their neighbourhood. So, many reforms were designed to deal with this problem and to promote inter-municipality cooperation. Urban planning and housing programming are transferred from municipality to this new inter-municipal body. This institution is a little bit more far from local pressures and could be a little bit more careful to metropolitan challenges. Our paper will present the result of a research project on the effects of such a governance change. Three case studies have been analyzed to characterize these effects in terms of observations, management and planning. The main result of this research is that the scalar change has few impacts. Indeed, local authorities, cooperating or not, are confronted with the quite impossible challenge to promote a more compact and denser development while most of national building subsidies are consumer-oriented. The only field on which the inter-municipality has a significative effect is social mix, not because of a volunteer policy of the municipalities, but thanks to a quite stringent check of the respect of social mix quotas by the state agencies.

Xavier DESJARDINS

Going too far in the battle against concentration? On the balance between supply and demand of social housing in The Netherlands
c.p.dol@tudelft.nl

Kees DOL

OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands r.j.kleinhans@tudelft.nl

Reinout KLEINHANS

About twelve years ago, Dutch urban housing policy shifted from traditional urban renewal to urban restructuring and creating more socially diverse neighbourhoods. The motives run parallel to the long-lasting academic and policy discussion on concentration, segregation and social mix. Here, we focus on the main instruments of urban restructuring, i.e. demolition of social housing and new construction of more expensive rental and owner-occupied housing. Continuing restructuring may lead to insufficient social rented stock for low-income households, i.e. the so-called target group of social housing. Although there has been ample research into social implications of urban restructuring, this issue has hardly been studied. Our research questions are twofold: 1. To what extent have urban restructuring areas witnessed a drastic change in (the concentration of) the social rented housing stock as opposed to other residential areas? 2. To what extent does the decreasing supply of social rented housing match the changes in (quantitative) demand by the target group? Our research involves two of the largest cities in the Netherlands, The Hague and Rotterdam. We used national, regional, municipal and housing association statistics to describe changes in the housing stock and the target group of social housing since 2000. The results show that although substantial changes can be seen due to restructuring, concentration of social rented housing remains high in most restructuring neighbourhoods. Rotterdam, which had a very large social housing stock at the beginning of the restructuring, still has sufficient affordable housing for lower income households. However, in The Hague the market for social rental housing has become quite tight as a result of restructuring. Anticipating on this situation, the municipality made regional agreements to secure sufficient affordable housing. In both cities, restructuring has not resulted in concentrations of social rented housing in other, non-restructuring neighbourhoods.

23rd

Toulouse
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C O N F E R E N C E

WS - 04

Local service business in residential areas the perspective of service provider


School of Engineering, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, Finland jaakko.siltaloppi@tkk.fi

Jaakko SILTALOPPI

School of Engineering, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, Finland arto.huuskonen@tkk.fi

Arto HUUSKONEN Jukka PUHTO

jukka.puhto@tkk.fi, tel. +358 50 568 0031 School of Engineering, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, Finland Prior housing studies have examined the mixit of residential areas mostly by their social and physical features, but service features although recognized as important have received less attention. Especially, the roles of local services in the mix as well as their relationship to other neighborhood dimensions are of interest when developing multi-functional residential areas. This paper aims to explore the relationships between private, local services and other features of residential areas e.g. demographics, social environment, and physical surroundings - through a case study in two residential areas in Helsinki, Finland. Both quantitative and qualitative data was utilized in the research: 19 interviews were conducted with local service entrepreneurs, municipal zoning officials, and local non-profit associations to find out their perceptions of local services. Secondary data was investigated from business registers. Additionally, observations were used to determine the local services in the selected residential areas. This study suggests five major factors that influence local services. First, the socio-economic status of the residents affects service consumption. Second, location within the city in terms of connections to and attainability of other service venues affect the ways in which people move from the area to consume services. Additionally, local business environments have an effect on peoples mobility. Fourth, physical surroundings support lively service business by offering facilities for service business. Finally, the social environment relates to services through issues of communality and safety. The effect of these factors on local services is most evident in the presence or absence of leisure and creative services that portray individual lifestyles, while basic services such as grocery stores or hair dressers seem to be less affected. Due to a qualitative and descriptive approach, more research is needed to validate the findings statistically as well as to explore the mechanisms behind the development of local services.

Localised planning, sub-regional markets and affordability outcomes: early views of a large scale policy experiment
Institute for Housing, Urban and Real Estate Research, School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom g.bramley@hw.ac.uk After half a decade of strong top down policy and planning to promote housing supply and affordability in England, we have from 2010 an abrupt change of policy. Decisions are to be devolved to local level, with no more government targets and the dismantling of regional planning. A financial bonus will incentivize local authorities to agree to additional house-building. It is quite unclear a priori how this system will work, so it may be regarded as a large-scale social-economic (and environmental) experiment. This paper will comment on early impressions of the way the new system may develop, drawing on research engagement with local planning authorities in one of the more pressured areas of southern England. These comments will cover issues of information and measurement of planning decisions and policies, and of sub-regional collaboration. It will also utilise a new sub-regional economic market model to explore the affordability implications of different patterns of local decision-making on housing land supply.

Glen BRAMLEY

23rd

Toulouse
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C O N F E R E N C E

WS - 04

Sub-Centres or Edge-Cities 2 An In-Depth Analysis of a Fast Changing Region Patterns of suburban socio-economic transformation in South-Western Budapest Agglomeration
Centre for Socio-Spatial Development Studies, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary kocsisjb@gmail.com In my paper presented at the ENHR Istanbul Conference (SUB-CENTRES OR EDGE CITIES? - socio-spatial and economic transformation of South-Western Budapest agglomeration) I analysed the socio-economic developments of one of the fastest changing Budapest agglomeration area from rather a larger scale point of view. The recent and ongoing qualitative and quantitative analyses namely, interviews with local stakeholders, residents and a survey of 1,600 interviewees in the settlements of the area enables us to accomplish now a more in-depth scrutiny of the processes and to give a more thorough and detailed description. Micro-tendencies in, and patterns of, movements, the causes thereof, both in case of households and enterprises will be accounted for, as well as the different approaches and actions taken by institutional actors and the rationale behind are being mapped and will presented at the conference. The results will be placed and analysed within the theoretical framework presented in Istanbul, distinguishing global and local trends in the transformation of the edges of cities and the transition from a monocentric to a polycentric urban fabric within a large metropolis area of Eastern Central Europe.

Jnos B. KOCSIS

How Milan housing market is responding to the financial crisis? Traces of innovative housing policies operating in an old institutional framework
Dipartimento di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy silvia.mugnano@unimib.it

Silvia MUGNANO Pietro PALVARINI

Dipartimento di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy p.palvarini@campus.unimib.it

Although Milan is the wealthiest Italian city, it shows significant problems related to the access to housing. A polarized scenario has always existed. The Milan housing system is characterized on the one hand by the presence of housing exclusion and housing deprivation and on the other hand by a vast proportion of well-housed population. However, during the last decades housing deprivation has considerably changed. In particular, two trends can be observed related to hardship. The traditional forms - like inadequate dwellings or overcrowding - have decreased, while some new forms of hardship (especially related to affordability and security of tenure) have increased. The financial crisis occurring in the last two years is likely to reinforce these trends. Property values remain at high levels, while the credit crunch makes it harder the mortgage-financed homeownership and the rent sector is constantly shrinking. This directly affects the housing affordability of a growing proportion of families, leading in the worst cases to evictions and repossessions. Public sector could respond by increasing the affordable rent sector (supply side), and improving housing allowances for low income renters (demand side). On the contrary, in the last decades public housing stock has progressively decreased, and housing benefits have been reduced due to the current phase of fiscal austerity. Policy response to the affordability issue relies mostly on a measure called housing sociale, a partnership where the public actor provides building areas free of charge for private developers to build housing which is partly to be rented below the market price. However the outcomes of this measure are quite scant so far, as developers prefer to invest in more profitable high quality housing. The future of the Milanese housing scenario is on the verge of falling and the risk is that the city will turn into a place that only attracts population for working, visiting and consuming but not for living.

23rd

Toulouse
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C O N F E R E N C E

WS - 04

Residential relocation: the forgotten nemesis of mixed tenure neighbourhood restructuring - A case study of the housing market renewal initiative in England Orna ROSENFELD
Department of Urban Development and Regeneration, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom rosenfeldornas@yahoo.com Large scale housing demolition has increasingly become states' response to the pressures of adjusting urban areas for the future. However, unlike initiatives of the past dealing with monotenure neighbourhoods, current programmes in Western Europe and North America, involve demolition and rebuilding of mixed tenure neighbourhoods or a change of tenure mix ratio. The residential relocation (RR) incurred in this new context has not been sufficiently explored. This is critical considering the recent financial crisis and economic downturn. The residential relocation research (in the Western Europe and the North America) is still more often than not framed in a gentrification framework developed for analysis monotenure, mainly, private housing market change in the 70s. Based on the in depth case study of residential relocation delivery process in the Housing Market Renewal initiative in England, this paper calls for a re-examination of the ways in which residential relocation is researched in the new era of mixte. It shows contemporary challenges of the residential relocation delivery by identifying the processes shaping residential relocation from old demolished to alternative mixed tenure neighbourhoods (including allocation of financial assistance packages for different tenures) and showcasing outcomes that are contrasting across space, between and within different tenures. The paper concludes that residential relocation in the context of mixed tenure neighbourhood restructuring is a result of the operation of complex governance networks (made of private, public and third sector actors) rather than simply an unintended consequence of the free or state prompted housing market change as presented in traditional gentrification led RR research.

Towards balanced metropolitan housing markets: the role of government, planning policy and financial regulations
Ivn TOSICS
Metropolitan Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary tosics@mri.hu Balanced development of metropolitan housing markets can be defined as taking into consideration at the same time such different aspects as the sustainability of urban development, the affordability of housing and the social mix of different social groups. Under market conditions these aspects are usually weakening each other: sustainable housing is expensive and thus less affordable, housing schemes aiming at affordability usually create socio-spatial segregation, socially mixed neighbourhoods are rarely fulfilling strong criteria of sustainability, etc. Thus to achieve a positive combination of these three aspects requires strong interventions from the side of the public sector in each municipality, regarding planning policies and financial regulations. Taking broader urban areas (e.g. functional urban regions, metropolitan areas) into account the importance cooperation-oriented of multi-level government structures becomes obvious. The paper aims to give an overview about the differences in the strength of public sector institutional structures, planning policies and financial regulations in six European countries (UK, France, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia). These countries have significantly different urban situations, government structures and policies. Thus the comparative analysis illustrates the variety of public sector approaches across Europe. The selected metropolitan areas from these countries are the study cases of the PLUREL (FP6) project.

23rd

Toulouse
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I

C O N F E R E N C E

WORKSHOP 05
Large Housing Estates
Co-ordinators: Ivn Tosics and Glen Bramley

23rd

Toulouse
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I

C O N F E R E N C E

WS - 05

The idea of the City in the Social Housing experience throughout the past century: scale, shape and extent
Faculty of Architecture, University of Porto (FAUP), Portugal egrojordep@gmail.com We can say that social housing was a big part of all the architectural experience of the last century, since it had the position of partially or totally (according to some) solve a housing problem that, more than physical, was also social and political. Architects and Urban planners work hardly in the search of solutions that would face the pre-existing problems of housing in the traditional city, as the result of an uncontrollable industrial growth, among others. Their solutions varied according to their intentions and their ideological purposes, and different proposals were made in order to solve the same problem: to dignify the urban living of the lower classes, the ones that most suffered from housing shortage and speculation. Although different and specific, we can gather most of the experiences in three categories, the first two attempting to overcome the traditional city by a) creating a disperse organism according to a scale and spatial solutions dear to previous urban settlements, or b) inventing a condensed city as part of an infinite modern system. Finally, the last group includes c) the rehabilitation of the traditional city fabric by surgical or large interventions. The idea of the paper is not to offer a critical review of the different cities, or even to make a choice among them of the perfect settlement, but just to present different solutions supported by various case-studies, pointing flaws and successes, demystifying misconceived ideas or supporting others. This, more than answers, will offer tools of evaluation for present and future proposal of architects and urban planners.

Pedro FONSECA JORGE,

Urban renewal, Demolition and Social Mix in France: Aims and results
Urban Institute of Strasbourg University, France maurice.blanc@unistra.fr.

Maurice BLANC

In France (but not in every francophone country), rnovation urbaine (urban renewal) has a specific and confusing meaning: the buildings are not renewed but destroyed. Urban renewal is a process giving room for new and modern buildings and for restructuring the urban space as well. Within a historical perspective, urban renewal started in the second half of the 19th century, first in Paris, with slum demolition as a major public health issue. But there was no affordable housing for low income residents and they had no other choice left than moving either into another slum, or into a far suburb. The second stage occurred in the 1960s, when the new Gaullist government decided to eradicate slums in the inner-city of Paris and other big cities. Low income tenants were offered re-housing in new social housing, but in outer estates. The third stage started at 21st century turn. In 2000, a Communist Housing Minister passed on a law advocating a tenure mix (i.e. a minimum of 20% social housing in every city) as a pre-requisite for an increased solidarity in re-generated cities. In 2003, after a political shift, the new Conservative Housing Minister passed on a law promoting urban renewal again, but this time as demolition of substandard social housing in outer estates. Paradoxically, these two laws make a coherent combination. Demolition is the starting point of a two-fold strategy: - the dispersion of low income residents into other places; - in the estate, the construction of new buildings with mixed tenures for attracting middle classes into the formerly stigmatised estate and implementing social mix. After a short historical overview (section1), the paper focus is on the current situation. Section 2 analyses the rationales of the link between social mix and demolition. Section 3 shows the gap between aims (social mix) and results (the re-concentration of low-income tenants). In the 1990s, slum demolition in the private sector produced both an increase in homelessness and a pauperisation process in the social housing sector. In the conclusion, the author revisits his own previous views. He used to believe in a shift in housing patterns, from the private substandard sector to devalued and stigmatised social housing (Blanc, 1993, p.212). But the current pattern is different: the social housing sector unsuccessfully attempts to attract middle classes and is reluctant to accommodate the very poor. Therefore, the re-emergence of a private sub-standard sector is unavoidable.

23rd

Toulouse
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C O N F E R E N C E

WS - 05

Restructuring Large Scale Housing Estates: Case of Riga


Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Riga Technical University, Latvia sandratreija@yahoo.com

Sandra TREIJA

Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Riga Technical University, Latvia pasts-e@inbox.lv The processes of the last decades the housing sector reform, social differentiation etc., have resulted in serious changes in the situation and problems pertaining to the large-scale housing estates. Urban renewal through the large-scale restructuring of these structures is a major challenge throughout Europe. In several European countries current urban restructuring programs focus on the demolition and replacement of the existing housing stock, while in other countries large-scale housing estates are dominant and normal way of housing. In Latvia the housing ownership reform, carrying out denationalization and privatization, along with a core capital for many inhabitants has also created a range of problems one of them: as a result of denationalisation of land properties, when the land in large-scale residential districts was returned to the previous owners and then provided as the minimum required land to the privatised buildings, the original spatial composition of districts was completely destroyed, creating a legal basis for new construction in large-scale residential districts. In the initial phase of large-scale residential construction a spacious courtyard surrounded by standard multi-storey apartment blocks was seen as the most important element of a public open space. Currently the new residential buildings and its fenced-off territories cover big part of the courtyards what may lead to spatial as well as social conflicts. The results of residents survey show dissatisfaction with quality of public open space. In the first decade of the 21st century the public open spaces of large-scale housing estates of Riga have lost their meaning originally planned in the initial projects. Although public open spaces are treated as an important element of the living environment, their utilisation considerably differs from the intended one.

Edgars SUVOROVS

Mass housing estates of the Valls and the A-road 150, a new territorial articulation
Departament d'Urbanisme i Ordenaci del Territori (DUOT), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Terrassa, Spain xavimatilla@gmail.com Background: The mass housing estates, built between the 50s and 70s , marked an historical period profoundly connected with the extensive growth, characterised by its lack of intention, management and urban quality. In the specific case of Valls, in the metropolitan region of Barcelona, the mass housing estates were originally situated along the city outskirts, often as a settlement isolated from the existing city whilst being polarised by territorial roads. Hypothesis: The most habitual practice in renewal projects of mass housing estates has comprised of acting exclusively within the strict limits of each individual district, thus bypassing the strategic opportunity to tackle broader scale renewal projects that are linked to their dimension, location and urban characteristics. In the concrete case of the Valls, the new context of the mass housing estates and their relationship with different supramunicipal axes (e.g. that of the Terrassa-Montcada A-road 150) allows us to associate, from a territorial perspective, groups of residential districts with clear problems of physical, functional and social segregation; exceeding the current local visions in such a way that determines both future renewal strategies. Furthermore, the A-road 150 axis could become a vertebral axis of activities of urban, social and economic renewal by way of transforming the old A-road into a new metropolitan street. Objectives: Evaluate the current status of mass housing estates in the Valls from a collective territorial perspective in order to determine any future challenges and new intervention strategies, in compliance with the following intervention factors: location and dimensioning of the estates, the social structure and the corresponding new demands, the diversification of use and environmental quality. Analyse the fundamental characteristics of the A-road 150 axis and establish the project criteria of the its transformation in terms of its capacity to articulate the relationships between districts and municipalities, thus incorporating new attributes linked to the management of mobility and the diversification of functions and activities.

Javier MATILLA AYALA

23rd

Toulouse
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I

C O N F E R E N C E

WORKSHOP 06
Social Housing and globalization
Co-ordinators: Claire Lvy-Vroelant and Christoph Reinprecht

23rd

Toulouse
U N I V E R S I T Y O F T O U L O U S E I I

C O N F E R E N C E

WS - 06

Attitudes toward the rehousing policy: The example of people living in damaged housings
Pascale DIETRICH
This communication is about households living in parisian damaged dwellings which apply for social housings. In Paris, a voluntarist policy against insalubrity has been implemented since 2002. In a context of council housing shortage, it is impossible to rehouse all the people living in poor housing conditions. Only occupants of the most damaged buildings are rehoused. They are often immigrants, recently arrived in the country, sometimes in an illegal situation (squatters, irregular immigrants). The institutions give priority to these households over those following the standard procedure to get a public dwelling (which involves being put on the waiting list, having a legal status in the country, etc.). This situation can be perceived as unfair by the latter because they consider they have some rights as they work, have a regular situation, are in France for a long time This create some tensions between a population excluded from rehousing but which feels eligible for public action and another, socially stranded, who get priority due to its particularly poor housing conditions. The first one complains to the institutions about not being given priority over the households witch are the most marginalized. Occupants have also strategies which creates tensions with institutions. For instance, they are likely to refuse works for getting the housing better. They want to remain competitive in emergency order and having priority. At first, I will explain why occupants of damaged housings are so much in demand of social houses. There is of course a financial reason, but it is not the only one. Secondly, I will focus on the tensions related to rehousing procedures. I will underline the tensions among applicants but also between applicants and institutions. I obtain some results for Paris, but they are likely to give some hints on the limits of the social policies in European countries focusing on the most disadvantaged groups. This research is based both on a survey, conducted twice in two years, with a sample of more than 500 people living in poor conditions, and on an ethnographical field work. I spent 3 years and a half during my Phd in a semi-public organisation in charge of resorbing damaged housing in Paris. I was in touch not only with occupants but also with people working in the organisation. INED, Paris, France pascale.dietrich@ined.fr

On the changing discourse on social housing in Flanders, Belgium and its consequences
Pascal DE DECKER,
pascal.de.decker@skynet.be

Bruno MEEUS Caroline NEWTON


The tone of the discourse on Social Housing in Flanders has changed over time. Until the early 1990s, complaints on the role and functioning of social rental housing were nothing more than a relative unproblematic narrative in the margins, which was absorbed into everyday life practices. However, at some time during the nineties this low-scale debate became a highly politicised discourse at the level of the central government leading to controversial legislation and regulations, with even comments of the UN. The aim of this paper is to unravel the processes that fostered the discourse and to deal with its consequences. To achieve this aim we first need to dismantle and analyse the discourse on social housing for which we build on both Deleuzes and Foucaults approaches of discourse analysis. According to Deleuze (1980) a discourse should not be analysed through deconstructing merely the linguistic propositions, a discourse needs to be placed within its contexts. Foucault (1972) also emphasises this contextuality. He argues that the task we should set for ourselves consists of not - of no longer treating discourses as groups of signs (signifying elements referring to contents or representations) but as practices that systematically form the objects of which they speak (own emphasis). It is precisely this knowledge that can elucidate, in a third part of the paper, how the (discursive) actions of some of the protagonists enabled the jump in the discourse, thus putting it on the political agenda. Both the theoretical frame and the analysis will be paralleled by and interwoven with the chronicle of social housing in Flanders/Belgium in an intermediary second part.

23rd

Toulouse
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C O N F E R E N C E

WS - 06

Is social housing always an obstacle to gentrification?


UMR LAVUE CNRS, Paris, France yankl.fijalkow@gmail.com

Yankel FIJALKOW

Marie-Hlne BACQUE
UMR LAVUE CNRS, Paris, France The idea that social housing is an obstacle to gentrification is shared by the scientific litterature and the political writtings (Pincon and Pincon-Charlot, 2007). The transformation of the population and the morphology of the neighborhoods by the incoming middle classes and a changed of the uses of space are presented as an inevitable process, advancing like a front line from affluent neighborhoods (Clerval, 2010). But if, according to the rent gap theory (Smith 1998), devalued places are reindexed by the process of gentrification, what is the role of social housing when it is integrated in the policies supporting gentrification? The hypothesis that such housing for low and middle income, devalue the local market need to be carefully examined. Does the presence of a non-market housing lead to a diversification of supply and therefore a slowdown in price increase ? Does the character "off market" of Social Housing lead ipso facto to a devaluation of the sector? On what level (district, city, town) would it works? On the other hand, can we consider that social housing, especially when its is accessible to middle classes is a factor of gentrification? Indeed, is the social housing really an "outside market", specially in a tense situation? Our communication will be based on two directions of study: - The study of the representations of social housing and the gentrification process is particularly relevant in the context of price increases. A corpus of interviews with elected officials and residents conducted in different neighborhoods in Paris, will show how the identification of social housing to housing charity (despite extensive programs for intermediate income) and stereotypical images of "bobo", "entrepreneurial class" and "creative class", build local issues. We will compare the discourses on popular districts in a process of gentrification (like the 18th district) and those describing the situation in the western Paris (where high income households have replaced the lower income populations, thirty years ago). - The statistical relationship between the data on social housing and market real estate will show the diversity of situations. We will discuss the link between the presence of social housing catgories, very modest and middle income, and the evolution of property price levels. We will study the Goutte d'Or operation (18th), where construction of the social housing become important in the 1980s, and also a wealthy western Paris neighborhood , where middle and high incomes are more important. By showing the different roles that social housing can play in contrasting urban contexts, this document will show how its presence is sufficient enough to lower the gentrification effect .

Social housing in transition countries different meaning and paths


Institute of Sociology, Academy of Sciences of CR, Prague, Czech Republic martin.lux@soc.cas.cz

Martin LUX

The paper will, in its first section, describe how current situation in post-socialist states differs from the situation in developed countries and how this difference is relevant for building of social housing schemes in this region. After 1990, the overwhelming majority of public housing has been privatized to sitting tenants - sometimes very quickly (Hungary) and sometimes more slowly (Czech Republic). The governments only occasionally introduced new supply-side subsidies which were often after several years of operation abolished or reduced. In most transition states public housing almost disappeared. If defined at all, social housing is understood as a low-quality residual public housing for the poorest part of society, often spatially excluded. This limited perspective leads to amplifying the social exclusion processes rather than reducing them. The goal of the paper is to find the factors influencing these specific post-socialist trends. The purpose of rent regulation and significance of housing allowance schemes in post-socialist states will be also discussed in this respect. The authors will also demonstrate that, in respect to the factors influencing trends in social housing provision, traditional social housing concepts known from the West are hardly fully transferable into post-socialist environment. The governments in post-socialist states thus search for new concepts allowing higher diversity and flexibility, which would broaden the traditional meaning of social housing. In the final section, one example of such approach currently discussed in the Czech Republic will be presented.

23rd

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Sustainable development and globalization effect on collective social housing conception. Case study housing at moderated rents in metropolitan Lyon (1920-2010)
Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon, France noura.arab@insa-lyon.fr

Noura ARAB

Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon, France jean-yves.toussaint@insa-lyon.fr

Jean-Yves TOUSSAINT, Sophie VAREILLES,

Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon, France sophie.vareilles@insa-lyon.fr This paper aims at analyzing the effects of sustainable development on the process of fabrication of the collective social housing. For a few years, its developers justify their actions by the precepts of sustainable development and suggest its operational application to the conception and the fabrication of this type of dwelling. Where are we today? In other words, does sustainable development change the process of fabrication of the collective social housing? If its the case, what do these changes consist in? Otherwise, what others factors (economic, technical, political, regulatory, social factors) run this fabrication? From the study of the case of sustainable development and the collective social housing, this paper aims at giving a new assessment perspective of the housing issue under the influence of fabrication techniques globalization. This analysis of contemporary housing leans on the HLM (subsidized housing) case study in metropolitan Lyon. The study relies on retrospection on 250 residences built between 1920 and today all over Lyon and its built-up area. From a typo-morphological analysis of the dwelling plans, this paper will report their evolution and draw first hypotheses on the reasons (economic, technical, political, and social) of this evolution. This analysis will enable a preliminary assessment of the influence of sustainable development in the housing fabrication (configuration, orientation, public space and collective areas, etc.) and more widely in the issue of housing as defined in contemporary urban societies, at least in the European context.

Mixing Dutch neighbourhoods through the sale of social housing


Department Real Estate and Housing, Faculty of Architecture, Delft Technical University, The Netherlands s.zijlstra@tudelft.nl

Sake ZIJLSTRA

Mixing in neighbourhoods is a goal that has been stated by national government for many years. One of the ways to reach the desired mix is by selling homes owned by social landlords or housing associations. Since the new millennium for dwell (also known as Clients Choice Programme) has gained popularity and a growing market share. However, the results in terms of the established mix and in terms of related and desired effects, are subject of discussion. This paper gives an overview of the desired goals of the sale of social rental housing in the Netherlands. The desired mix and the related effects are pulled to the foreground. Based on both literature study as well as drawing up on findings from previous studies in to the effects of the sale of social housing, the effects of the sale of social housing will be discussed in the light of mixing. The literature used is solely focused on Dutch empirical findings. The previous studies that are used, focused on the effects of sale and the option to buy amongst tenants of social housing. The findings in this paper point at minor possibilities to reach any different mix than the existing one through the sale of social housing. Two main factors are used to explain the little effects: time and accessibility. The discussion draws attention to new (EU based) legislation limiting the influx of different tenants in social housing and thereby limiting the possibilities for mixing by sale of social housing even further in the future.

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Housing of all in social need through commercial rental housing and temporary personal social housing allowances
Tomislav IMECEK
International Union of Property Owners (UIPI), Praha, Czech Republic simecek@fzu.cz Most present day social housing schemes in Europe have proved to be costly, very ineffective, misusable, escalating the problem and attracting more and more applicants from job seeking to principal dependence on social subsidies instead of concentrating on their own hard working. At the same time they lead to social and racial segregation in ghettoes of social housing units limiting their mobility in search for jobs. The good side effect of the recent recession was the search of certain governments for revisions of their social policy so as to limit its cost while serving all those who should be protected as requested by the constitutional law and to motivate them to mobilize their efforts in order to become self-supporting. The Ministry of social affairs of the Czech Republic has received a well prepared proposal for a modern concept of social housing, based on the use of standard commercial rental housing in combination with means tested temporary social housing allowances offered to all in uncaused social need. Those whose social need resulted from negligence are left in the custody of local authorities and provided with only the basic help. All members of the household have to declare all their income as well as their assets above a certain value. From this the effectual income is calculated and the household has to contribute to the usual market rent in the location where the household is earning its living by 25% of this income while the remaining part of the rent in reasonably large apartment is covered by a social housing voucher. This social safety trampoline is offered only for a limited number of years, during which the household has to adjust their income to their cost of housing or vice versa.

The Social Integration Projects, as part of the Chilean Housing Policy. Are they an effective tool for promoting urban and housing mixture?
Viviana FERNANDEZ
Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile vivianafp@gmail.com Since the year 2000, the Chilean Ministry of Housing and Urbanism has introduced significant changes in the Housing Policy. The administration of President Ricardo Lagos (2000/2005) realise several problems and recognised the need of targeting in the poorest people, the need of promoting higher levels of participation and involvement of the families in the process of getting their new houses, the need of improving the quality of the houses and the neighbourhoods developed and the need of increasing the diversity of the housing solutions provided. The aim of the new Housing Programme Fondo Solidario de Vivienda was to fulfill those objectives. Later on in the year 2006, during President Bachelet administration to what has been done is added the challenge of Social Integration, as a broader objective, not only oriented to get a more diverse typologies of houses, within the same Housing Project but to promote mixture, trying to mix people and houses in the same development. In this context come up the Social Integration Projects with the intention of bringing together a certain diversity of people and providing them different housing solutions. The paper will try to present the main characteristics of these Projects and analyze to what extent they have contributed to an urban and housing mixture and how the new government of President Piera is trying to continue with this challenge.

23rd

Toulouse
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WORKSHOP 07
Social Housing: Institutions, Organisations and Governance
Co-ordinators: David Mullins and Darinka Czischke

23rd

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Repackaging the poor: the quest for institutional investment in social housing
Anita BLESSING
Departement of Geography, Planning and International Development Studies, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands A.P.Blessing@uva.nl Social housing policy regimes in Australia and the USA, products of differing institutional contexts, share a selectivity that rations supply side assistance to those unable to compete in the housing market. In line with the moral logic of charity, a narrowing of access over time has created dualist rental markets, stigmatizing social tenants. While this process of residualisation provides the most common point comparison between the two settings, it reveals only part of a shared path of development. Over recent decades, social housing provision has been privatized and opened to market forces. Not-for-profits repositioned as social enterprises, use state-support to lever private investment. Borders separating social and commercial housing sectors, once strictly patrolled, are now used as trading frontiers in a bid to attract large institutional investors such as banks and pension funds. While residualisation, privatization and marketisation collectively serve the political goal of a smaller state, bringing a residualised system to market has proved a paradoxical pursuit. To direct investment into groups long excluded from the market, policymakers must repackage the poor. Low and moderate-income tenants are bundled into package-deals, providing a new business case for mixed-income housing. Financial tools incentivize investment in time-limited housing schemes. This shared quest for institutional investment in social housing has led to the international migration of social housing programs, prompting greater attention to the institutional conditions on which these programs rely. This paper sets out to explore the risks associated with dependence on profit-seeking investment and to investigate the role of national institutional configurations in modifying these risks. It compares major US and Australian programs for attracting institutional investment, revealing the deal struck between social and commercial interests in each setting. The lack of institutional supports for this approach evident in the Australian context highlights housing policy transfer as a delicate challenge of institutional design.

Toward a new way of providing affordable housing? The Hoche cooperative in Nanterre (France), a case study
Claire CARRIOU
Department of Geography and Planning, Mosaques-LAVUE, University of Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-La Dfense, Paris, France claire.carriou@u-paris10.fr The recomposition of the Welfare State in France leads to new tensions in the housing field: discussions on the role of social housing split between two patterns, social mix and housing for the poor, re-emergence of the housing crisis for the working classes, immigrants and in some territories the middle class. At the same time, new aspirations regarding lifestyle and ecology emerge. In this context, many experiences of so-called alternative housing have flourished in recent years offering new forms of production and management of the houses. All of them give importance to the participation of the inhabitants. These experiments come from citizens groups and associations, often related to the social entreprise, but also municipalities and social landlords. They are still at their beginning in France today - unlike some European countries where they are most common. But the period is rich for experimentations and exchanges. This paper will focus on the case of the Hoche cooperative engaged in the eco-district of Nanterre since June 2009 as it raises important institutional, economic and social issues regarding the actual debates about housing policies. It explores new ways to provide affordable homeownership for the people with low income and the middle class. Its dynamic does not come from civil society or from social organisations like cooperative societies, but it comes from the city of Nanterre, in the western suburbs of Paris, and from the public developper of La Defenses extension area. They both worked together to form a voluntary group of 16 households seeking that the group will actively be involved in decisions about the future housing production. The paper will focus on the effects of the specific dynamic of this operation. What are its institutional, social, economic benefits and for whom? What reformulation of common good does it engage?

23rd

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The Dutch Social Housing Sector: a Case of Overmaturation


Johan CONIJN
Amsterdam School of Real Estate, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands j.conijn@asre.uva.nl Kemeny (1995) has drawn attention to the maturation process of the social housing sector. If the housing policy of a country gives the social housing sector opportunities to gain financial strength, to mature as Kemeny calls it, a unitary housing market may evolve in which the social sector can compete with the commercial housing sector. An advantage of this competion is that the commercial housing sector has less possibilities to gain surplus profits in a tight market. For decades now, one of the characteristics of the Dutch housing policy has been that it has given the housing associations opportunities to become financially independent. Recent research of the Central Housing Fund (2010) shows that in general the financial position of the housing associations is very solid. According to the Central Housing Fund the average amount of own equity is 67% of the total equity (calculations based on market value of the dwellings). One of the consequences of the financial strength of the Dutch housing associations is that they have ample opportunities to create a substantial gap between the market rent level and the actual rent of their dwellings. So, there is no level playing field anymore. This situation of overmaturation may have destabilising effects for the Dutch housing market In the paper we will give an overview of the financial position of the Dutch housing associations and show how the existing and increasing surplus effects the functioning of the housing market. We will conclude with policy proposals.

Time and policy change. The case of housing policy in Lombardy


Fabrizio PLEBANI
Eupolis Lombardia, Milano, Italy fabrizio.plebani@irer.it Path dependence approach is a perspective that is increasing importance in housing studies. The suggestion behind this approach is that time is an important variable of the policy process. Public policy analysts are quite used to apply this approach to interpret and explain the stability of a policy. But time has an influence also when a policy changes. Path dependence addresses the possibility of policy change. It sets the alternative directions that a policy process can follow. In other words, time structures the way and the direction of the policy change. The aim of this paper is to make path dependence approach work in a case study. The case are the housing policies of Region Lombardy. In Italy from 2000 the competences for housing have been given to the regions. Until then region Lombardy begun to formulate housing policy completely different from the past. Using Kemenys typology, while Italian housing policy where clearly near to a dual system, housing policy of region Lombardy are quite similar to a unitary systems. This is the policy change that we analyze. Our thesis is that policy change has been influenced by some path dependence dynamics in the implementation phase. We will examine four different aspects of the policy change, showing how path dependence has neutralized the most innovative aspects contained in the formulation of policy change. Finally we will define two different types of policy ineheritance, a material one and an immaterial one.

23rd

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Self-help housing if not now when ?


David MULLINS
Third Sector Research Centre, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom d.w.mullins@bham.ac.uk

Simon TEASDALE
Third Sector Research Centre, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

Patricia A JONES
Third Sector Research Centre, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom Self-help housing involves local people bringing back into use empty properties, and organising whatever repairs are necessary to make them habitable. Different organisational models of self-help housing range from less formal community housing projects, to more structured social enterprises that also involve the training of homeless people, refugees and other disadvantaged groups as part of a more holistic approach to providing housing and employment. Cross sector partnerships involving private property owners, local authority empty property strategies and a variety of housing, support and training partners may be involved. In the current English policy and fiscal context of public spending retrenchment, localism and the big society, self-help housing seems to tick all the right boxes in offering a low cost approach to meeting community housing needs: a form of organisation that maintains some momentum in regeneration programmes while offering work training and experience to those participating. Moreover, there has been a renewal of political and policy interest in the concept of self-help and many advantages are claimed including benefits to individuals and communities, filling gaps in public services and stimulating local participation in politics. This paper draws on a scoping study (Mullins 2010), depth analysis of eight local case studies (Mullins, Jones and Teasdale, 2011) and a national policy consultation (BSHF, 2011) to identify critical success factors and barriers that have prevented a wider take up of self-help models to date and the types of institutional support needed to overcome these barriers in the future. It will draw on the literature on policy windows, social enterprise and hybridity to interpret this experience.

Shifting back in the Dutch social housing sector


Nico NIEBOER
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands n.e.t.nieboer@tudelft.nl

Vincent GRUIS
Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Since the financial and administrative liberalisation from the government in the late 1980s and the 1990s, the Dutch housing associations have been very dynamic, regarding the considerable extension of both commercial and social activities, the increased reliance and dependence on market circumstances, and the large number of amalgamations, creating bigger organisations. In recent years the Dutch social housing sector is under increased pressure as a consequence of the credit crunch, increased tax levies and the national implementation in the sector of EU regulations on Services of General Economic Interest. Factors like these are likely to have an effect on the organisational strategies of housing associations, the main providers of social housing in the Netherlands. The direction and the size of these effects, however, are not well known. A recent inquiry among housing associations sheds more light on this. In this paper, we make use of a classification including a social-commercial dimension and a dimension between so-called prospectors and defenders. This classification proves to be an adequate tool to describe the recent developments in the sector. It is concluded that, in general, housing associations are focussing more on traditional social housing tasks and defending strategies, implying a shift back compared to the trend in recent decades.

23rd

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Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen


Sasha TSENKOVA
Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Canada tsenkova@ucalgary.ca

Hedvig VESTERGAARD
Department for Town, housing and property, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Denmark The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy instruments implemented in three major policy domains - fiscal, financial and regulatory - to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes. The outcomes are evaluated through a series of indicators related to housing quality; stability of investment and production; differentiation of rents; affordability and choice. The research also identifies new models of social housing provision developed by private and non-profit housing providers in the context of mixed tenure, urban regeneration projects.

From bricklayers to live-changers The changing role of Dutch and UK housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration from a network governance perspective
Gerard VAN BORTEL
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands g.a.vanbortel@tudelft.nl Since the early 1980s there has been a growing understanding in the Netherlands and in the UK that sustained area based interventions are needed to address the multiple forms of deprivation concentrated in some neighbourhoods. Housing associations contributed to the regeneration of these neighbourhoods, each within the context of their national housing system. In both countries housing associations developed from traditional bricks and mortar landlords into social entrepreneurs. They not only undertake social and commercial housing projects but have also widened their activities to address social and economic deprivation. Housing associations aim to contribute to vibrant communities and create chances for residents to improve their lives. Using a network governance paradigm, this paper explores and compares, from the 1980s onwards, the changing roles of Dutch and UK housing associations in neighbourhood renewal as organisations with a hybrid position between state, market and society. Developments on a national level are supplemented by more detailed data from an on-going longitudinal research on the role played by housing associations in the regeneration of two neighbourhoods in the Netherlands (Groningen) and England (Birmingham). Both areas have a long history of regeneration interventions. The paper concludes with a discussion on the future role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration considering the course taken by Dutch and UK governments. Both administrations emphasise localism and a more dominant role for citizens and civil society while simultaneously implementing drastic austerity measures.

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Area-based asset management by Dutch housing associations


Arne VAN OVERMEEREN
Department of Real Estate & Housing, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands a.j.vanovermeeren@tudelft.nl Since Dutch housing associations are independent organisations which have to take their own decisions on their housing stock, many housing associations develop asset management plans to secure that their portfolio meets company goals and market demand. However, in practice decisions of housing associations are often not the direct result of these plans, but of incidents at the neighbourhood level or of emerged opportunities. Next to that, housing associations nowadays do not only focus on the quality of their own housing stock, but also on the physical, economical and social quality of the whole neighbourhood, which implies cooperation with a wide variety of local actors. Therefore, housing associations in the Netherlands are increasingly taking decisions on their housing stock on the scale of the neighbourhood, as opposed to the scale of the portfolio. In taking these decisions, they take into account the characteristics of the area and the plans and wishes of other actors present in the areas. This way of decision-making combines various planning methods, of which the rational and collaborative planning methods seem to most important. In this paper the results of two case studies of housing associations working in urban renewal neighbourhoods will be presented. The planning process of these housing associations will be described and explained using theories of planning.

Localism, Collaboration and Governance: Can Housing Associations Balance Efficiency with Local Accountability in Delivering New Housing?
James MORGAN
Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom James.Morgan@hw.ac.uk Locally controlled housing organisations have been instrumental in bringing about neighbourhood regeneration in the UK since the 1970s. In many respects they have been exemplars of good practice in asset based community development. However, at time of scarce resources and high levels of unmet housing need, the prevailing trend is towards achieving economies of scale at the expense of localism. New affordable housing is being delivered by larger associations working within group structures, operating through procurement clubs or by collaborations amongst independent organisations with a single expert lead developer. The tensions between localism and efficiency have become important in shaping the structure of the housing system, with efficiency very much in the ascendancy. In the Devanha Bulk Procurement Initiative, five Scottish housing associations created a special purpose vehicle to develop new housing while each association retained its independence. This structure was designed to promote efficiency while leaving significant control in the hands of the associations, e.g. in employing their own development staff. Experience has shown that the relationship between the Devanha Board and the Boards of the constituent associations has been a key determinant of the outcome of the initiative. This paper, drawing on the findings of a four year monitoring and evaluation study of the Devanha initiative, addresses the question of how locally controlled organisations can work together to meet housing need whilst retaining local accountability. The role of governance in determining success or failure is highlighted. The paper considers the impact of organisational culture and complexity on meeting goals and on interaction with outside partners such as local authorities, contractors, suppliers and funders. It explores the importance of leadership and power in collaborations and compares the Devanha approach with other models including lead developers and group structures.

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Social housing and governance of neighborhood development: repeated collaboration in frustration


Nils HERTTING
Uppsala University, Sweden nils.hertting@ibf.uu.se Starting with a puzzling pattern of local multi-organizational cooperation observed in primary and secondary data on urban neighborhood renewal in Sweden, this paper tries to develop our understanding of institutional change towards more collaborative modes in of social housing and regeneration of deprived neighborhoods. Although cooperation between social authorities, housing companies and non-profit organizations repeatedly end in frustration, new cooperation efforts are continually implemented. While the literature on collaborative planning, multi-organizational implementation and network governance seems to claim that lack of cooperation is the most important factor explaining policy failures and implementation deficits, Swedish urban renewal seems to be a case of repeated cooperation without progress and frustration without disintegration on the neighborhood level. In the paper this phenomenon of continuous cooperation in repeated frustration is interpreted within a contextual rational choice approach to understand the games real networkers play. Although all key actors have a preference for innovative modes of collaboration, the Swedish cases analyzed are characterized by an endless search for specific collaborative arrangements. Furthermore, this lack of institutional stability seems to undermine the ambitions for innovative and holistic neighborhood development and social housing. The coordination problem that collaborative networks are supposed to handle on the level of operative problem-solving seems to repeat itself on the level of institutional design. Hence, if collaborative modes of local governance and planning are justified with its capacity to provide efficient policy responses there seems to be a dilemma. In terms of game theory the collaboration puzzle, it is argued, could be interpreted with reference to the battle of the sexes game, and the generosity problem of collective action it illustrates. A somewhat provocative implication of such an analytic interpretation is that intensified communication and deliberation is not the policy solution to the collaboration puzzle and its underlying dilemma.

Entrenched Hybridity in the Delivery of Affordable Rental Housing in the United States
William ROHE
Department of City and Regional Planning, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA brohe@unc.edu In this paper we build on the extant literature on social enterprise and organizational hybridity by defining three dimension of hybridity. We trace the evolution of US housing policy towards greater hybridity, focusing on these three dimensions. Drawing from a case study of Charlotte, North Carolina we showcase two housing programs in Charlotte, HOPE VI and Moving to Work, in order to highlight current innovations in the provision of housing for low-income populations and the entrenched hybridity that is evident. More specifically, we discuss how the Local Housing Authority in Charlotte collaborates with the Federal government, private developers and non-profit service providers to fund, construct, and manage affordable rental housing. Finally, we offer some thoughts on the benefits and challenges of hybridity for the delivery of affordable rental housing within the US context.

23rd

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Decision-making by housing associations in complex policy environments: an in-depth study of social enterprise behaviour
Darinka CZISCHKE
Department of Real Estate and Housing, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands d.k.czischke@tudelft.nl The policy framework for social and affordable housing provision in many Western-European countries is undergoing rapid and significant changes. Further to the continued trend of decreasing public funding since the 1980s, and to the impact created on market funding by the latest global financial crisis, social housing providers have to face increasingly stronger government pressures to become more self-sufficient with regards to funding their activities. A case in point is the United Kingdom, where, as part of a drive to reduce state deficit, the current government coalition is implementing wide-ranging reforms to both the financing of social and affordable housing and the broader welfare system. On the one hand, the amount of direct funding for new construction is reduced while housing associations are expected to build more, drawing on their own financial capacity (including higher borrowing and charging of higher rents) and by increasing efficiency savings. On the other hand, housing benefit is being cut considerably. The combination of such and other related new policy measures is creating a complex and at times contradictory policy environment for housing associations. Furthermore, given the emphasis put by the current government on a more prominent role of third sector actors in service delivery (e.g. localism agenda, the big society discourse, etc.) social enterprises such as housing associations are at the forefront of balancing societal, market and policy imperatives. This paper explores the responses of these organisations to these challenging contextual developments by looking at the process of decision-making followed by one of the largest housing associations in England. The interplay between values, mission and strategic considerations was tracked over the course of six months of decision-making using a combination of interviews with members of the executive team and with external informants, as well as observation of strategic meetings. Findings are expected to provide greater insight into the behaviour of social enterprises in the field of housing.

Social and affordable housing: the Dutch model Where does it come from and where does it go from here?
Marja ELSINGA
Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands m.g.elsinga@tudelft.nl The Dutch social rental sector is, when expressed as a percentage of the total housing stock, the largest social rental sector in the world, amounting to 32% of the Netherlands total housing stock and providing housing for both lower and middle-income groups. The Dutch social rental sector is financially independent and delivers affordable housing and neighbourhoods with a good quality of life without government subsidies. Where does this model come from and where is it going? These are the main questions covered in this contribution. In many countries, social rental housing functions as a safety net outside the market, a model which is called a dual model by housing theorist Kemeny (1995). The Netherlands has developed an alternative model, which Kemeny calls the unitary model: a social housing sector for a broad target group and in open competition with the commercial rental market. This model is currently the subject of a great deal of discussion, the question being whether it is financially and politically sustainable. Dutch housing associations suffered from the recession that followed the global financial crisis and their financial position has weakened. A new, financially driven trend in social housing is that housing associations are offering social rental dwellings as social home ownership to middle-income groups. Revenues from these sales help to improve their position and offer a housing solution in particular for middle-income groups. This development is significant because middle-income groups have been excluded from social rental dwellings since 2011. Changes are occurring in the unitary sector, and the question is whether the sector is moving towards a safety net or towards an innovative mix of social rental housing and social home ownership?

23rd

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WORKSHOP 08
Housing & Urban Policies in Central and Eastern Europe
Co-ordinators: Sasha Tsenkova and Jzsef Hegeds

23rd

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WS - 08

Housing demand, urban sprawl and gated societies: Evidence from Poland
Micha GUSZAK
Cracow University of Economics, Krakow, Poland gluszakm@uek.krakow.pl

Bartlomiej MARONA
In the article we discuss whether urban development in post socialist metropolitan areas in Poland has been driven by similar mechanisms as in most of developed economies. When compared to mature urban markets little has been done to understand the nature of demand on emerging markets in central and eastern Europe and to develop testable models for post socialist economies. As a result, the research fills the gap in housing market and urban economics literature. The major objectives of the study were: (i) estimation of housing demand in major polish cities, and assessment of urban sprawl risk (ii) analysis of gated societies boom (iii) evaluation of housing policies using simulation discrete choice-based model. In the research we use state preference data from two repeated surveys Housing market in Poland. Demand and buyers preferences, conducted by Millward Brown SMG/KRC in late 2007 and 2008. Each survey examined hypothetical housing decisions of 1500 households in five major polish metropolitan areas Warsaw, Krakow, Poznan, Wroclaw, TriCity. The period of analysis covers the late expansion and early contraction phases of the housing cycle. In the research we use discrete choice models (CL, HEV), tool frequently used to study housing demand.

Housing affordability progress in the Czech Republic in 2005 - 2009


Robert JAHODA
Department of Public Economics, Masaryk University and RILSA, Brno, Czech Republic jahoda@econ.muni.cz

Dagmar PALKOV
Department of Public Economics, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Our paper is focused on the housing affordability progress in the Czech Republic during last years. Housing affordability may be influenced mainly by the process of the rent deregulation. Rent control used to be well founded during the transformation period in the early 90s, and even we can say that the process of rent deregulation was originally softly-softly, finally it has accelerated after 2007. This cause a situation, in which many tenants face increased cost of living. The outcomes of our paper answers to the question what is the change in housing affordability in the Czech Republic within different housing tenure and social groups. In our paper we work with standard concepts of housing affordability, e.g. residual approach or ratio approach. Our research is based on EU-SILC micro data for the Czech Republic in 2005 2009 which monitor the form of living of households, their income and cost connected with living. We confront objective monetary measures of housing affordability with the subjective ones. We conclude with estimated implications of the rent control elimination on the development of housing affordability in the Czech Republic and formulate recommendations for housing policy makers.

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 08

Mixed ownership in consecutively privatized multi-family housing stock in Poland and legal challenges in its managing
Faculty of Law and Administration, Warsaw University, Poland katarzyna_warzecha@o2.pl My paper deals with assessment of legal solutions (obligatory or optional) for consecutive privatization of public and cooperative housing stock adopted in Poland after 1990 for the benefit of holders of a right to buy (usually tenants living in privatized structures). The way in which now apartment block ownership can be effectively managed is a significant problem in Poland and other CEE countries because of the mass and uncompleted privatization of the stock. It leads to mixed ownership of multi-family blocks and legal problems as far as management, maintenance, financing and renovation of exclusive and common parts of buildings are concerned. New homeowners are not completely aware of the responsibilities and legal obligations that come along with the homeownership. The most worrying consequence of the units sale at discounted prices is inability of former tenants and former cooperative members to meet the financial demands that the ownership entails. Many households have difficulties in paying not only the running costs but also managerial and renewal costs. Moreover, the rapidly aging housing stock constitutes an additional burden for private households as well as relatively poor quality of housing estates. This paper discusses all that factors to assess legislative solutions for a well-functioning legal ownership and its management in Poland. It deals with available solutions such as owners associations as the most general obligatory solution, management by cooperatives (of members and non-members premises) and hiring external manager. The research discusses legal limitations providing a well-grounded basis for comparative work.

Katarzyna KRLIKOWSKA

New housing investments in Wroclaw after Polands entry to The European Union
Faculty of Architecture, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland Robert.masztalski@pwr.wroc.pl

Robert MASZTALSKI Marcin MICHALSKI

Marcin.michalski.arch@pwr.wroc.pl

The major part of residential buildings in Poland is from the 70 and 80 of the 20th century. The buildings were constructed in precast technology. In the first years after the transition in 1989 the total amount of realized housing buildings has decreased considerably. The share of private investors in housing was poor, however, clearly in less than a decade; private investors took the main role in residential housing. At the turn of the century the number of built dwellings began to grow significantly. Most of them were carried out by private investors using different ways of funding. After the Polish accession to the European Union after 2004 the pace of changes in the creation of housing development accelerated considerably. Also changed the structure of demands and the number of constructed dwellings significantly rises. In Wroclaw, inhabited by 650000 people, there is still need for new residential buildings, which are mainly built in the southern and southwestern areas of the city. These processes are regulated in a small way by planning documents / urban plan. Existing local plans do not meet the expectations of property developers, on the other side - developers do not want to be the subject of restrictions imposed by undisputed legal regulations of existing local urban plans. As a result, housing developments are formed outside of densely urbanized areas affecting suburban sprawl (urban sprawl). It affects communication problems, inadequate supply of basic services, as well as difficult to plan social infrastructure. The analysis of housing developments realized in the first decade of 21st century resulted in formulating main directions of changes in the localization of housing developments, changes in the parameters and surface indicators in urban planning, and reduction of lawless housing developments in relation to existing planning documents. The subject of the article is results of researches on trends in shaping of multifamily buildings in Poland on the example of Wroclaw, after Polish accession to the European Union. The study is conducted within the research project: Trends in creating of multifamily housing development since 2004, on the Wroclaw study case guided by The Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland and will be completed in November 2011.

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 08

Municipalisation, privatization and housing tenure trends in Russian municipalities


Yelena SHOMINA
Higher School of Economics, State University, Moscow, Russia eshomina@hse.ru The paper will describe the rental-ownership tendencies in Russian, with stress on municipal housing stock and the role of municipalities as homeowners. Municipal housing stock and municipalities as homeowners are comparatively new research field in Russia. The last 20 years we had 2 main tendencies: municipalisation and privatization of housing stock. Municipalisation as transfer of enterprise (industrial) housing stock to municipalities. Privatization as transfer of municipal housing stock to sitting tenants free of charge started in 1990 and will be finished by March 1, 2013. Privatization of municipal flats converted millions of sitting tenants into owners of flats, mainly in comparatively old (constructed in 60-70 of XXth century) multistoried buildings. More then 70-80% of population in large Russian cities are owners of flats. In 2010 we can see great interest from the state institutions to rental housing in Russia, including serious discussion about social housing, new programs of non-for-profit housing projects, and creation of Russian Association of Tenants. By the end of 2010 municipalities had only 11% of all housing stock of Russia. All municipal flats were located in large buildings and had very small influence on the management of their flats. Main amount and part of municipal housing stock today is at the northern part of Russia and at Far East. The smallest is at the Southern regions. The share of municipal housing stock differs from as large as 28% in Karelia, to 1.2 in Dagestan. Experts are discussing the new line in Russian housing policy such as non-for profit and profit rental housing .

23rd

Toulouse
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C O N F E R E N C E

WORKSHOP 09
Housing and Urban issues in developing Countries
Co-ordinators: Christopher Watson and Yurdanur Dlgergolu-Yksel

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 09

Public Housing and Public Housing Policies in Greater Cairo


Doaa ABOUELMAGD
COSMOPOLIS, City, Culture & Society, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium dabouelm@vub.ac.be The Egyptian government has been the main actor for the Public Housing (PH) and Public Housing Policies in the last 60 years. In reality, the PH projects were neither sufficient nor appropriate (i.e. location and services) for housing the limited income class of Greater Cairo (GC), many PH are socially mixed (Upper middle class, middle class and poor).In addition some of them had passed through a social transformation. This paper will make a comparative study between four urban districts in GC. These districts (re)present the results of the housing policies in GC in the last 60 years. They namely are: Ain El-Sira public housing built in 1950s, Mubarak youth housing project (MYHP) - the main national housing program between 1995 and 2005 - in Zaied city, new Zeinhom a squatter clearance project and finally, the informal area of Mansheyat Nasser. This comparison aims to understand how the Housing Policies meet the different housing needs in GC. The comparison between the four districts (three projects made for the people by the housing policy makers and housing made by the people themselves) is a prime issue to understand the qualities and the problems of the PH furthermore the Housing Policies in GC.

Moving in, Selling out: The Outcomes of Slum Rehabilitation in Mumbai


Paula RESTREPO
CERNA, Mines ParisTech, paris, France prestrep@ensmp.fr One of the possible side-effects of slum policies is policy induced residential mobility associated with gentrification and poverty recycling. While the gentrification hypothesis supposes a displacement of the poor due to the arrival of a wealthier socio-economic group, the poverty-recycling hypothesis is related to the incapacity of slum households to support the costs of living in formal housing. This paper identifies the magnitude and causes of residential mobility using as an example the Slum Rehabilitation Scheme of the city of Mumbai. It is based on the results of an exhaustive household survey, comprising 510 households. Results show that the magnitude of poverty recycling and gentrification is small and that in most cases post-rehabilitation residential mobility is associated with incompatible housing attributes. Higher levels of residential mobility actually serve as a platform to attain better living conditions both for those who left as well as for new comers.

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 09

How is the relationship between the social distance and the physical distance formed in a middle size city?
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey alkayel@itu.edu.tr

Elif ALKAY

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey hserdarkaya@itu.edu.tr

Hasan Serdar KAYA

Ecological theory claims that the residential location of habitants is connected to their socio-economic status. If there are differences in levels of habitants education, income or occupation, the residential segregation is expected to occur. Therefore, socio-economic status of residents is a strong predictor of residential segregation and consequently, the segmented structure of a housing market in a city. In this study, the structure of residential segregation is examined consistent with residents socio-economic profiles in a middle size city Bandirma. In the first step, the sociospatial distribution of residents is examined. It is tested whether the sociospatial distribution of residents reflects complete mixing, in other words whether the sociospatial distribution of residents is homogenous in the city. It is obvious that a clustering structure as opposed to complete mixing is attributed to heterogeneous sociospatial distribution of residents. A case of a heterogeneous distribution provides an opportunity to test whether social distance is positively correlated to spatial distance by following whether the general acceptance of groups of similar socio-economic status have similar residential pattern. Therefore, in the second step, the sociospatial distribution of residents on the housing market is analyzed. By applying principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis on PCA, the most appropriate composition of housing submarkets is determined. Consequently, the first step sociospatial clusters and the second step housing submarkets are compared. The comparison is expanded by questions such as: are varying socio-economic clusters located on varying housing submarkets? Are similar socio-economic clusters located on similar housing submarkets? Are there any submarkets where social mixing is a case? Answering these questions is expected to reflect how the relationship between social distance and physical distance is formed in a middle size city which is expected to have a less heterogeneous structure than that of the big cities or metropolitan areas

Housing policy environment in Dhaka: an in-depth investigation on affordability problems of the middle and lower-middle income groups
Department of Urban Planning and Design, Knowles Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong sadeque@hku.hk

Zaber Sadeque CHOWDHURY

Housing affordability is a major policy concern all over the world, especially in developing countries. Various factors contribute to housing price acceleration and making housing unaffordable, not only to low income but also to an increasing number of middle income households. Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is the 11th largest urban agglomeration of the world. The problem of affordable housing has loomed large in Dhaka as the growth of urbanization has not been matched by a commensurate growth in the supply of decent housing and it has been an aggrieved social phenomenon there. The existing policy environment is not efficient enough in providing affordable housing to accommodate the middle and lower-middle income groups who are the core of the economic activities. This paper is based on my PhD research project on housing policy environment in Dhaka and attempts to study and analyze the supply-side instruments e.g. the regulatory regime, provision of infrastructure etc. of housing policy environment to find out the causes of the prevailing problems and their solutions considering three research questions: What is the nature of the affordability problems of housing for the middle and lower-middle income groups in Dhaka? Why do the supply-side instruments in Dhaka fail to enable the provision of affordable housing for the middle and lower-middle income groups? In what ways can the supply-side efficiency of the housing market in Dhaka be improved to ensure the supply of affordable housing on a large scale by both public and private sectors? Both qualitative and quantitative approaches of analysis are used to analyze the collected data. As the critical supply-side instruments of a housing policy environment have been investigated in this paper, it will certainly help in developing pertinent policy recommendations to address the housing affordability problems in developing countries in general and that of Dhaka in particular.

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 09

Assessing the relative amenity value of accessibility and neighbourhood quality in China
Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University, The Netherlands h.hu@geo.uu.nl

Hong HU

Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University, The Netherlands Pieter HOOIMEIJER Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

Stan GEERTMAN

The relationship between housing price and amenity has been systematically analyzed in western countries using hedonic price models. However, knowledge of the amenity effect on housing price in China is still quite limited. Some scholars contribute to this issue by adopting hedonic price models in China but most of them have mainly focused on very specific types of amenities. So far, there is no comprehensive study on the effect of various amenities and their relative weight in influencing housing price in China. This study assesses the relative weight of accessibility and neighbourhood quality in influencing housing prices in Nanjing, China. Nanjing is a typical Chinese city which is witnessing rapid urban expansion and construction. This study combines apartment sale data with land use and transport network data to calculate representative indicators that are used to assess the relative amenity value of accessibility and neighbourhood quality with a hedonic price model. The empirical results show that: 1) although in western counties, accessibility and neighbourhood quality show a relative equal effect on housing prices, in our study accessibility exerts a far stronger impact and neighbourhood quality has a relatively less impact on housing prices; 2) among different accessibility indicators, distance to metro stop is a vey important factor for residents when buying a house, even taking into account rapid car accessibility; 3) the major disamenity is the presence of heavy industry in 43% of all Nanjing neighbourhoods. The results will be of crucial support for planners, government officials and housing developers to take into consideration in their planning making to create more livable and desirable residential environments.

Urban transformation in Istanbul: potentials for a better city


Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey inceogl4@itu.edu.tr

Arda INCEOGLU Ipek YREKLI

Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey ipekyurekli@yahoo.com

Istanbul has lived through two major growth spurts during 20th century that have determined its urban shape. The first one coincides with the beginning of industrialization of Turkey during the 1950s and 1960s. During this period, as a new phenomenon for the city, squatter settlements have grown. The second major growth period is in the beginning of the 1980s, basically related with the liberalization of the Turkish economy. During this period, a different form of informal housing system has developed that can be called as organized squatter settlements. In the last decade, Istanbul has experienced another major growth period, this time propelled by the integration of the Turkish economy to the global markets. An enormous number of higher quality housing units have been built both by the private and public sectors, offering new lifestyles. On the other hand, most of the existing buildings as well as urban textures are not suitable anymore for a city and its inhabitants that have experienced a major economic revival. Thus, there are different plans beginning to be implemented using a variety of strategies by the public sector that are focusing on the transformation of the existing building stock. Transforming large parts of an existing city presents a great challenge to designers and introduces opportunities. New proposals need to incorporate a number of strategies such as economic models, strategies to prevent gentrification, and flexible approaches to allow for different scenarios of construction. The paper will present a variety of strategies currently employed in the city that are dealing with the transformation of the urban structure en masse. The paper will focus on three concrete urban transformation cases the authors are involved with. Finally, a system of urban transformation within the current context of Istanbul will be suggested and discussed.

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 09

A Framework for Housing Finance in Developing Economy: Case study of Nigeria


Faculty of Development & Society, Sheffield Hallam University, England, United Kingdom maren.m.daniel@shu.ac.uk

Maren Mallo DANIEL Rob HUNT

Faculty of Development & Society, Sheffield Hallam University, England, United Kingdom The paper presents a framework for examining access issues within housing finance processes, and therefore access to housing itself, adopting a proposed case study. The framework is conceptualised by a structure of housing provision in Nigeria, which was developed by analysing the national housing policy, reviewing previous research and observing actual practice. Housing finance issues which researchers have examined were found to be connected; therefore, it would be insufficient to conclude on any one or two characteristics in isolation without analysing the link between them and other issues. Analysing connections between processes of housing finance would enable researchers to understand social relationships that evolve within the network and policy lattice, which also shape the system of finance provision. It is observed that most of the previous research has examined isolated issues which only resulted in superficial explanations and treatment of problems, rather than tackling root causes. The paper suggests for improvement and or change in the approach of housing study in Nigeria.

Cairo Urban Mixite - Case Study: Souq El Selah


Samar.sheweka@bue.edu.eg

Samar SHEWEKA Aliaa A. TAHA

Aliaa.taha@bue.edu.eg

Maryam AL TOUNY
AlTouny@bue.edu.eg Egypt as a development country is suffering from mixite of housing and historical areas. Sevenhundred years ago, the famous spine of Souq El Selah (Weapons Market) was established in the Mamluk period for the purpose of producing weapons. Nowadays, the spine is completely neglected and the crawling population threatens the area. Although it comprises a treasury of the historical Islamic buildings such as the Seif el Din al-Youssefi Mosque and School, and historical Sabils and Hamams (baths). This paper discusses the importance of the historical site of Souq El Selah in Cairo and the deterioration of its valuable monuments according to the housing mixite problems which surrounding it. The end result of this paper can act as an inventory of this specific area, which is very understudied and underdeveloped in spite of its great historical value. A plan of conserving, restoring, rehabilitating, and reusing will be employed in this research. The paper aims to transfer the static, isolated historical buildings in this area into a more dynamic one, having a responsibility towards its neighbouring community and integrated with its surrounding urban tissue. Revival of this spine is to be acquired through community participation by studying the locals needs and values. Returning its original function or showcasing, virtually, the initial roles, can also revive the deteriorated physical elements of these historical buildings. The restored spine will revitalise cultural, social, educational, touristic, commercial, and economic sectors. New jobs would be presented to the local residents of this street, upgrading their education and quality of life. Many forgotten traditional crafts and arts can be re-adapted, flourishing the skill once more. Museums, exhibitions, and education centres will allow the public to learn more about the culture. This spine would also be a focal point for creating festivals and celebrating culture. This paper will end with different strategies and recommendations.

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 09

Reading the urban mixite through residential environments in a mega city: case Istanbul
Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Architectural Design, Turkey halukulusan@gmail.com

Haluk ULUSAN

Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Architectural Design, Turkey

Yurdanur DLGEROGLU-YKSEL

The contemporary city is known for the heterogeneous composition of its population. It is reflected in the residential areas which are the most dominant zones in the urban geography. However, people with the same place of origin, with common interests, beliefs and values, similar expectations and life styles tend to concentrate in the same neighborhood. Especially in developing countries where the urbanisation rate is high and where the forces of globalisation are influential on the competitive use of valuable urban land, various social groups form their enclaves for their own security. Sometimes this may threaten the city by destroying its social, cultural and spatial integrity. The walls around the settlements, real or electronic, separate the different neighborhoods from each other, as if small cities exist within one mega city. The spatial separation causes over time socio-cultural segregation between these groups. The paper aims to inquire into this problem with the planners view of designing cities as one system, as a whole. In that way, the cultural and economic differences become not an obstacle but a potential for enriching housing types and life-styles in a mega city which is the main force of national development. In other words, as some scholars claim recently, for an urban acculturation, urban mixitie may generate new, and innovative way of designing the city architecture. Various geographies in Istanbul, a mega city of Turkey, as a developing country will be examined in order to discuss the potentials and to produce information on the terms and conditions for these potentials to be implemented. The observation of the urban dynamics will guide the way to achieving this end.

Mixity in Urban Policies towards Informal Settlements in Damascus, a Concept for Public Decision?
Urban Observatory for the Near East, French institute for the Near East (Ifpo), Damascus, Syria v.clerc@ifporient.org

Valrie CLERC

Social and spatial changes have been very fast in Damascus since the President Bachar al-Assad took office in 2000. Liberalization attracted national and international investments and induced an important high-income property development, while informal settlements continued to expand. Since 2005, Syria adopted the social market economy, aiming to combine a high growth rate with social justice, in a sustainable way. Urban policies adopted sustainable development principles: density, compactness, energy saving and mixity are the new slogans. At the same time, informal settlements have increasingly featured in the political agenda. Two main approaches can be identified. A citywide rehabilitation and regularization of informal settlements is promoted through laws, a national policy and some local programs in Damascus. In the meantime, other laws and projects try to attract investors to initiate a citywide redevelopment of informal settlements, including the relocation of the current residents, onsite or not. What is the role of urban mixity in the public decisions concerning informal settlements? Both approaches encourage mixity, but in different ways. The first one focuses on the social and functional qualities of informal settlements to be rehabilitated and reject the redevelopment approach, for its social and economical unfeasibility, and because it would mainly end with an expulsion of low-income inhabitants far from the city centre. The second one seeks to build integrated projects in these areas, while the current inhabitants would be relocated onsite, next to the new upscale dwellings whose sale would finance the construction of their rehousing. Their proponents reject the rehabilitation approach for several reasons, amongst which the fact that it would endorse the partition of the city in segregated areas. However, even if it is completely adopted, mixity is not the main argument for public decision. Competition for land in pericentral areas, dominant urban representations or, more recently, urgent social reorientation in a burning regional context play a much more dynamic roles to guide public decisions regarding the maintenance or not of a low-income population in an ever more valuable centre of the city.

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 09

Tafilelt, a community project to preserve the MZab


UMR Lavue (CNRS), Ecole Nationale Suprieure d'Architecture de Paris-Val de Seine, Universit Paris 10 Nanterre, Paris, France mouniaboualimessahel@gmail.com The urban morphology of the valley of the M'Zab (Ghardaia, southern Algeria), is characterized by a continuous developing landscape: first a growth beyond its ksours battlements, then within the palm groves which initially hosted a secondary habitat, transformed into permanent habitat by the uncontrolled urban growth. Today, a community housing project known as Tafilelt, conceived and initiated by Mozabites for Mozabites and partly funded by the Algerian state, is actually giving an example of an ingenious and responsible implementation to the Mozabite populations, who warned against the dangers of floods (which continuously occupy the riverbed, often to the detriment of palms) and housing policies and urban planning that ignore local contexts. Tafilelt houses largely follow the traditional housing organization: with gender-separatedand introverted housing around a central patio which provides light and air. Even if the introduction of air conditioning (reducing the role of the courtyard to a source of light) has substantially modified the ancestral organization of spatial practices, this type of housing, combining tradition with modern comfort, remains very interesting to study. In this communication, we will try to show how this traditional community steps in the production of space and how local authorities consider their interventions .

Mounia BOUALI MESSAHEL

ECoC 2010 Istanbul: a Commodity for Consumers or a Source for All Citizens
ITU, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Istanbul, Turkey koramaz@itu.edu.tr

T. Kerem KORAMAZ

Istanbul Metropolitan Planning and Urban Design Centre (IMP-BIMTAS), Istanbul, Turkey elifkisar@yahoo.com

Elif KISAR-KORAMAZ

As culture is defined as the material and shared symbolic belongings of a societal pattern, two main contexts of this term are additionally highlighted in the essential literature on cultural policies. The cultural economy point of view defines culture as a commodity and a public good; the latter view approaches culture as a source of group identity. This bilateral approach is reflected on cultural policies in terms of (de)centralization of cultural infrastructure. As culture has become a business of cities, property-based perspective has developed policies based on centralization of cultural infrastructure and facilities serving for privileged groups. On the contrary, people-centred perspective has defined the cultural infrastructure as an ingenious tool for structuring the public space while improving the quality of life in the city. The European Capitals of Culture (ECoC) is one of the prominent cultural programs in European Union, which develops not only local and regional programs related to arts and culture, but also public and private investments with sponsorships and local initiatives those set to work for urban-cultural programs. Istanbul had been designated as one of the ECoC cities during 2010. Most recent debates in Istanbul which criticize the centralized promotions of such ECoC projects emphasize that the ECoC served as a media on transformation and for border crossing of cultural life in the city. On the other hand, ECoC 2010 Istanbul was expected to cope with the social disintegration especially in low-income housing settlements which are underserved in terms of social and cultural infrastructure. Then it is essential to investigate the cultural infrastructure to what extent it is decentralized and accessible for all residents in order to validate the success of ECoC programs in Istanbul. This paper evaluates the ECoC programs in Istanbul whether it worked as a commodity serving for privileged groups or an accessible source for all residents. This evaluation is held within the assessment of the spatial pattern of cultural infrastructure and programs in terms of availability and centrality across the urban macro form. The most remarkable findings indicate that 2010 experience in Istanbul was not able to contribute the social integration of the centre, periphery and varying social groups.

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 09

Inhabitants perspectives on the adequacy of the compound house in Ayigya, Kumasi, Ghana
zlem ARSLAN
Balcova Belediyesi, Imar ve Sehircilik Mdrl , Balcova, Izmir, Turkey mim.ozlem@gmail.com This study aimed to test the adequacy of the compound house, a vernacular housing form in Ghana which has traditionally accommodated the low income population in order to judge it as an adequate low income housing alternative. The population growth, limited housing production, lack of basic facilities, services and infrastructure and the deterioration of the existing housing have left basic shelter out of the reach of the most low income households in Ghana. In a typical Ghanaian city, outside the mixed use city centre, poorly serviced neighbourhoods of single storey compound houses, together with private elite homes are located alongside the grid-iron layout settlements of public built estates. Compound houses, where most of the low income population in Ghana live are considered as old and dilapidated traditional housing to highlight the housing shoetage in the country. A research on the adequacy of the compound houses was conducted in Ayigya, Kumasi, Ghana, a former village which became a part of the expanding Kumasi with the urban sprawl. Adequacy of the compound houses were evaluated and assessed on the criteria of the right to adequate housing: legal security of tenure, availability of services, materials, facilities and infrastructure, affordability, habitability, accessibility, location and the cultural adequacy with respect to inhabitants' views. It is demonstrated that compound houses in Ayigya are generally inadequate both in quantity and quality for growing population and for changing demographics, values and family culture.

Grass root mixite: some lessons learnt from Dharavi/ Mumbai


Renate BORNBERG
Leibniz University of Hanover, Institute for Urban Design, Hannover, Germany bornberg@iras.uni-hannover.de

Haluk ULUSAN
Istanbul Technical University, Architectural Design halukulusan@gmail.com Dharavi, formerly a fisher village on one of the islands today forming Mumbai-India, is currently Asias biggest slum. However, the term slum does not apply to the zone, since it is a vibrant place of people with various backgrounds and ways of living. It is, too, an important economic place: not only are many goods produced here for export, residents of Dharavi also fulfil plentiful tasks, such as collecting rubbish, cleaning streets, or serving in households of the upper class people of Mumbai. It is widely accepted, that without the urban poor of Dharavi Mumbai would face a dramatic lack of all sorts of services. Thus, Dharavi appears to be an urban mixite neighbourhood with small scaled workshops, small industries, but has also schools, temples, mosques, churches, community facilities and water tanks. This grass root neighbourhood is a tightly packed but highly efficient urban mixite where working and living are placed next to each other. From this point of view much can be learnt from Dharavi. In this article it is aimed to highlight the dynamics behind the run down und unaesthetic faades of this unique area, and to achieve a deeper understanding of the dynamics and the hidden potentials of urban mixite. Finally, it will be highlighted how strategies can be delineated for other urban areas around the world not only for informal settlements.

23rd

Toulouse
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C O N F E R E N C E

WORKSHOP 10
Social Sustainability
Co-ordinators: Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway, Eli Sta

23rd

Toulouse
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WS - 10

Mixit and the built


ETH CASE, Centre for Research on Architecture, Society & the Built Environment, Department of Architecture, ETH Zurich, Switzerland craviolini@arch.ethz.ch

Christoph CRAVIOLINI

ETH CASE, Centre for Research on Architecture, Society & the Built Environment, Department of Architecture, ETH Zurich, Switzerland hugentobler@arch.ethz.ch In the proposed paper we explore the relations between socio-demographic mixit and housing estate characteristics. We will show how socio-demographic mixit is related to various building characteristics and tenant preferences regarding the social and physical environment. The paper offers a detailed analysis of the intertwining between socio-demographic and socio-structural attributes such as age, gender, household type, education level or income structure on the one hand and housing estate features such as location, building period, apartment structure, price segment, tenant turnover rate or ownership type on the other hand. The study is based on survey data from different housing complexes addressing various housing quality aspects such as the quality of the apartment or the housing complex, its location as well as the importance and the quality of neighborhood relationships. In addition the database offers information on the households relocation history (inside and outside the housing estates) as well as their short-term intentions to move and the reasons for it. By mapping the intertwining between housing estate features and tenant profile as well as the tenants preferences we hope to contribute to a better understanding of the role of physical, architectural and locational features with respect to sustainable social mixit and the preferences of different tenant groups.

Margrit HUGENTOBLER

Architectural Ideals and Interpretations of Mixit and Connectivity in the Segregated City
Department of Urban Studies, Malm University, Sweden k.grundstrom@mah.se

Karin GRUNDSTRM

In Sweden, the City of Malm has received several awards for their work with sustainable urban development. However, at the same time residential segregation increases and the City has concluded that social sustainability (previously neglected) needs to be addressed in their work. The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the relation between social sustainability and the built environment through the interpretation of mixit and connectivity in two current projects; a gated community and a path for integration in a social housing area. Methods include mainly qualitative methods; interviews with planners, politicians and inhabitants, but also include income statistics. Mixit and connectivity are major concepts in the aim to reconnect the fragmented and segregated city through the built environment. However, the result is quite different when put in relation to the physical and social position of the inhabitants in different housing areas. The Rosengrd Path aims to connect a stigmatized housing area to the inner city through increased mobility. Mixit in this case means mixing places for work and housing, mixing transportation modes, mixing forms of tenure and mixing activities in a new building to create meeting places. In the gated community Victoria Park connectivity means proximity to transportation networks and an international airport. The mixit in this area is the mix of activities and services offered to the inhabitants, cinema, lounge, spa, gym, golf course, health care and a restaurant; meeting places for residents only. This paper will: 1) trace the underlying architectural ideals and design approaches of mixit and connectivity and the interpretation of these concepts on the urban and local scale (K. Lynch 1967; J. Jacobs 1992 and J. Gehl, 1987, 2004), 2) analyze mixit and connectivity in relation to positioning of different income groups (Bauman 2000, 2007, Bourdieu, 2006 (1999)).

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Strategies for Socio-cultural Sustainability of Traditional Neighbourhoods; Bursa/Turkey as a Case


Uluda University, Department of Architecture, Bursa, Turkey arzucahan@gmail.com

Arzu ISPALAR AHANTMUR Fadime BOZTA

fboztas@gmail.com

The city of Bursa which is one of the very first cities of Turkish settlement in Anatolia since13th. century and where the main principles of the Ottoman city structure first began to take shape , is the fourth biggest city of Turkey. The case study area Hisar - is the first settlement area of Bursa that includes many traditional houses and monumental buildings within its organic urban layout. This region which is also surrounded by historic city walls is quite suitable to analyse the physical reflections of a mutual interaction between the historic and architectural heritage of the city and its socio-cultural structure and dynamism. The rapid urban development process experienced after1980's, increased the urban population, bringing forth housing problems in all the growing cities of Turkey. During this period, apartment buildings were constructed all over Bursa including the case study area. However, the traditional urban pattern of Turkish cities and the ongoing traditional lifestyle that had been shaped by the sui generis traditional urban structure is to be considered as a cultural asset which has to be conserved and transmitted to the future generations. In this regard, the multidimensional concept of sustainability has been examined in the context of urban housing with a sociocultural approach. The model and the strategies for implementation of socio-cultural studies together with architectural and urban design to obtain social sustainability are anticipated to be an important step forward for studies about socio-cultural dimensions of sustainable urban development. The study presents the process of an architectural design studio. The main aim is to raise the quality of urban life in Hisar and to achieve social equity via architectural and urban design. The challenges and successes in applying the theoretical framework of sustainability during the process of design are discussed in the conclusion.

Winners and Loosers - Social Sustainability Trends in Urban Renewal


ELTE University, Centre for Urban and Regional Research, Budapest, Hungary gcsanadi@tatk.elte.hu

Gbor CSANDI

ELTE University, Centre for Urban and Regional Research, Budapest, Hungary

Adrienne CSIZMADY

The modern concepts of sustainability try to integrate other fields of research beside the relation between nature and the human kind. We witness debates about the criteria of sustainability among the representatives of very different practical ideas and theoretical principles. There are strong and interesting arguments, but the common element is, that most of them use normative approaches. Although these are honourable initiatives, our point of view in this presentation differs from them. Our goal is not to show the right, or best practices of urban renewal, which leads to sustainability meant by a certain range of criteria. We try to examine the social conflicts emerging in a city- (or neighbourhood-) rehabilitation process instead. The main question would be whether the existing social structure of a relatively deprived neighbourhood can be sustainable in social sense, or the gentrifying newcomers are more able to construct a very different, but stable, socially sustainable structures? Refining the question whether urban reconstruction is sustainable socially or not, we try to describe the socially different types of sustainability as the result of urban reconstruction. We outline the interest-structures governing the process and attempt to draw the lessons from the empirical results to see how the social aspects of sustainability apply in practice. Empirical evidences are from research conducted in the inner part (mainly the so called Jewish Quarter) of the Hungarian capital.

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Could gentrification be a sustainable urban process? The case of San Frediano neighbourhood in Florence, Italy
Ilaria CASILLO
French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), Group of scientific interest Democracy and Participation (GIS D&P), Institut des Sciences de L'Homme, Lyon, France Ilaria.casillo@ish-lyon.cnrs.fr The structural and liberal theories on gentrification (from now on referred to as G.) explained a lot of elements of this process: why, who and where. Nevertheless, they rarely stress on the post namely on the study of spatial and social consequences and their signification for the concerned actors. This is due to the tendency to consider G. as a one size fits all process. Its impact and sustainability, on the contrary, depend on the degree of social and economic polarization of the city concerned and on the type and tradition of urban design found there (Davidson & Lees, 2005). Moreover, it seems useful to abandon the dichotomist interpretation of G. which is often given, as well as the ones which focus on the power of capital (Smith, 1996) and gentrifyers preferences and demands (Ley, 1996). Researchers should therefore consider the potential consequences of G. process when they analyse the restoration of the heuristic dimension of this urban analysis category. The paper aims to explore the different declinations of G. process in Italy to show its place-based differences and consequences. In the first part of the paper I will overview Italian geography of G. (cases of Turin, Milan, Rome and Genoa) to show the gap between the theoretical landscapes and the empirical ones and highlight the leitmotif of this process in Italy as a sort of urbanity nostalgia felt by its people. In the second part, I analysed the case study of San Frediano (SF), an old, popular and tradesman neighbourhood in Florence where, the selection process of habitants has been occurring for many years now. SF displays an initial stage of marginal residential gentrification combined with a more intensive use gentrification. The second one is transforming this neighbourhood to the point in which it is becoming the citys recreational and diversion district. Using the concept of gentrification to analyse the distribution of social classes in the city and their way to appropriate them, its possible to understand how the consumption in SF represents one of the transformations haziness regarding the neighbourhoods pattern and way of life. Several studies show that the consumption is increasingly related to lifestyles as an expression of identity and belonging. We are thus moving from a home based aesthetic to a retail based aesthetic (Bridge, 2001). The consequences of change, which are currently in progress in SF could however be different depending on political governance and on local societys reactions. In this step, it is still difficult to measure the impacts. In fact, one of the first things to consider is that older residents are not fleeing but rather losing their visibility. Secondly, we can see a double opposite discourse, the first based on urbanitys nostalgia on the neighbourhood. This is the discourse of new residents with a high cultural capital, who contribute to the filtering process (eg. I chose SF because it is still a popular neighbourhood with a specific ambience). The second discourse is that of a popular class of established residents who resist and who no longer perceive a continuity between their social and emotional status and the spaces of residential life (eg. Maybe Im going to leave SF because it no longer a really popular neighbourhood). In the last part of the paper, I try to put into prospective the social consequences of this process in SF highlighting two types of possibility: loss of socio-diversity and of the self-innovation capacity of SF, and, on the other hand, a collective appropriation of cultural proprieties of SF and its history.

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Understanding segregation: the relationship between urban form and social exclusion
Nadia CHARALAMBOUS
Department of Architecture, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus charalambous.nadia@ucy.ac.cy This paper aims at a rigorous re-examination of the complex relationship between the physical, functional and social space in the city, in relation to the notions of segregation and social exclusion. Social segregation, inequalities in living conditions and accessibility to resources, are considered as major social problems and have been the focus of research work related to sustainability. Social cohesion strategies and anti-segregation initiatives have been the subject of many far-reaching political decisions. Interpretations of segregation have often been formulated purely in terms of social and economic factors, without invoking space. Social initiatives rarely address urban design and prevailing methods of analysis provide few analytical insights from a spatial perspective. The paper posits that segregation has a significant physical meaning over and above its social meaning. The manner in which patterns of spatial integration influence the location of different social groups in the city is discussed, suggesting that spatial form needs to be understood as a contributing factor in forming patterns of segregation. However, the notion of segregation is bad, integration is good and vice versa seems to be a simplistic view of the city. The fact that in many cities immigrants and minorities choose to live in localized clusters, yet at the same time maintain a variety of social ties outside of their immediate neighbourhood, is growing in recognition. Recent research work even suggests that when such areas are located close to economically active, well integrated streets, such spatial patterning can actually serve as a necessary mechanism enabling social integration in the urban environment and questions the proposition that the mixed neighbourhood is the perfect solution for segregation. The paper concludes that segregation needs to be considered as a complex and multi-dimensional process.

After the Boom: Social Housing Regeneration and Sustainability in Dublin


Declan REDMOND
School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy University College Dublin, Ireland declan.redmond@ucd.ie During the years of the Celtic Tiger boom many existing social housing neighbourhoods in central Dublin were set to be demolished and regenerated via Public Private Partnerships (PPP). Most of these estates were in areas where land values were high. Consequently, the local municipality sought bids from private developers to regenerate these neighbourhoods as mixed tenure estates. Using the value of the land as leverage, the developer would receive for free part of the site to develop private housing and in return would construct some social housing on the remainder of the site, with the regeneration costing the municipality nothing. This arrangement was predicated on strong demand for private housing and high house prices. In the end, because of the collapse of the property market in Ireland only one such neighbourhood was regenerated. Private developers who were about to regenerate a number of these estates withdrew and, with no prospect of significant state finance being made available, the hopes and expectations of these communities for regeneration vanished. Using a case study Dolphin Estate in central Dublin, this paper examines the aftermath and consequences of the failure of these Public Private Partnerships to deliver regeneration. Following the initial anger and frustration at the end to any short-term prospect of regeneration, the paper traces the response of the community and community activists to the challenge of maintaining community confidence and stability in the future. Faced with no prospect of regeneration, significant anti-social behaviour and the possibility of deep cynicism on the part of residents, community activists focused on maintaining the social sustainability of the estate through continuous organising on the estate and through pressurising the municipality to continue engaging with the community on the prospect of long term regeneration.

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Changing uses and values over time. Potentials and problems of Swiss post 1950s residential housing estates with regard to their cultural and social sustainability
ETH Wohnforum ETH CASE Centre for Research on Architecture, Society & the Built Environment, ETH Zrich Departement of Architecture, Zrich, Switzerland glaser@arch.ethz.ch The presented research project is a continuing research project funded by the Swiss national science foundation. It is an indepth study of the sustainable performance of large post 1950ies residential housing estates in Switzerland with specific regard to the appraisal of different groups: the users, the owners and the public. The residential building stock from the construction boom period in Switzerland has now to undergo renovation or deconstruction/ reconstruction measures. Since it forms the major part (60%) of Swiss housing stock, innovative knowledge is necessary to find and develop future strategies for sustainable practices in handling these buildings. The project follows a case study methodology and combines architectural and social as well as cultural analyses of the selected case studies in an interdisciplinary way, using physical analysis of the built and the surrounding spaces, qualitative research interviews with different actor groups as well as an analysis of public discourse of the time until present. The emphasis in the analyses is always put on the process of change over time. This interdisciplinary research instrument of the newly developed so called House-biographies method, allows to write a thick description (Geertz) of these estates by combining quantitative and qualitative findings on the built space and on the lived space, not as a static evaluation, but as a dynamic narrative of meaning, values and use over time. This allows following cultural, technological and social change along the history of use, appropriation and maintenance of the chosen examples. By exploring the user perspective in combination with the expert view and the public discourse, the aim is to de-ideologize the analysis and rather point to specific potentials and problems of large Swiss housing estates of the time period from 1950 to 1980 from a qualitative position.

Marie Antoinette GLASER

Reflections on integrated sustainability in housing


Heidrun FEIGELFELD
Vienna, Austria hf@srz-gmbh.com

Brussels, Belgium and Delft, The Netherlands

Darinka CZISCHKE

Currently, various dimensions of sustainability are discussed in relation to housing both on the scientific and on the policy and practice level of European cities and regions. However, discussions tend to address the issue in a fragmented way, i.e. focusing on just one or two of the three pillars of sustainability. In addition, the debate is characterised by a wide diversity in terms of data comparability and of geographical and cultural contexts. Thus, 'integrated sustainability', namely the simultaneous consideration of all three dimensions of the concept, lacks a coherent theoretical framework that can be applied to policy and practice. This paper aims to address this gap and to bring thought-provoking insights from policy and practice initiatives from the urban and housing fields to the scientific discourse. To do this, the paper will draw on empirical findings, conclusions and recommendations from a recent project involving local authorities from nine European cities. The main aim of this project, carried out in the framework of a EU programme, was to cooperate among partner cities to optimize sustainability in housing by means of affordable supply of housing, social cohesion and high environmental standards. Methods of data collection included: structured surveys amongst the cities on each of the three pillars of sustainability (social, environmental and economic) and one on the synthesis of the three; outcomes of discussions held at workshops with representatives of each partner city and other experts and stakeholders; and review of secondary data about the cities and about the issues under discussion. These findings were systematised and conceptualised by both authors. In addition, by means of so-called 'Local Action Plans' findings have been tested with the view to achieving 'integrated sustainability' at city level.

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The end of social housing, the beginning of co-housing?


Enkeleda KADRIU
Urban and Regional Planning, TU Berlin, Germany eda_kadriu@yahoo.com

Michael LaFOND
id22: Institute for Creative Sustainability, Berlin, Germany Europe-wide policy changes linked to shrinking economies and populations as well as neo-liberal planning approaches have meant drastic cuts in public expenditures. The development and maintenance of social housing is weakened and increasingly people are not finding access to the housing qualities they seek. Affordable, energy-efficient, barrier-free, intergenerational and other housing forms are not adequately being provided, while scholars, professionals and politicians as well as the larger public continue debating possible solutions. Such supply shortages are increasingly motivating people to work locally to meet their own needs with a diversity of co-housing types: self-organized, collaborative and community-oriented housing. These projects are often ecologically innovative and constructive complements to social housing, contributing to a sustainable urban development. A new housing culture of citizen self-organisation is emerging: expressions of local identity which can assist with urban social integration and the stabilisation of distressed neighbourhoods. Whereas social housing is often problematic regarding questions of management and maintenance, co-housing offers the advantages of reduced bureaucracies and more participatory structures as well as creative, locally-adapted responses. Co-housing reflects general trends towards further democratisations of European cities, through which citizens expect their rights to the city to include the opportunity to help design and manage the local environment. Id22 in cooperation with the Berlin Senate and other partners with decades of experience regarding co-housing are initiating, supporting, networking and publicizing such co-housing projects both regionally and internationally. This paper presents the recent history as well as significant developments especially from the Berlin region, highlighting innovative best practices from which many lessons can be learned. While social housing practices are not likely to be terminated in the near future, co-housing cultures as expressions of a new collaborative housing movement do offer a variety of sustainable strategies across Europe. Having built up a body of knowledge over the last decades and a joint communicative infrastructure, the challenge now is to link these initiatives to housing policy and financing, without endangering their potential for innovation and self-organisation.

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Impacts and Improvements developing a qualitative tool for assessing scenarios contributions to sustainable urban development: examples from Stockholm city districts
rjan SVANE
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Environmental Strategies Research, Stockholm, Sweden orjan.svane@abe.kth.se

Margrit HUGENTOBLER
ETH Wohnforum ETH CASE, Faculty of Architecture, Zurich, Switzerland,

Josefin WANGEL
KTH Environmental Strategies Research Stockholm, Sweden Let us assume that the target of a two-generation transformation of a city such as Stockholm is a city that can sustain the good life of its citizens without depleting nature. We argue, that innovative planning and governance approaches including scenario building can enable such transformation. How can scenarios of city district transformation be assessed as to their contributions to sustainable urban development? Quantitative indicator systems abound, the literature describes systems founded in science and practice, suggested by international bodies or local authorities, focusing on outcomes or participatory development. Often, drivers, pressures, impacts and responses are mixed in different ways. For our purpose a qualitative, conceptual system is needed, indicating which areas are affected by the scenario. Such a framework was developed at ETH; now development continues in collaboration with KTH as part of a joint project. In it, scenario building is guided by counterfactual questions such as: What if ICT were innovatively applied to reduce energy use in buildings and transport through automation, information and persuasion, in the city district of Sdermalm, Stockholm? In this example, energy use and its impacts are quantified through computerised modelling. The tool further formulates guiding questions at different levels e.g. Does the district sustain or improve the functioning of social systems and the development of social justice and fair exchange? Literature on neighbourhood sustainability indicators will be reviewed to inform the sustainability assessment system at different levels. Analysis of the chosen scenario will then be performed in a matrix, identifying which aspects proposed in the literature apply and contribute to a sustainable development while preserving existing qualities. To emphasise the process dynamic of transformations, the agents of change are identified for each aspect. Focus groups with students and practitioners will provide feedback on the proposed outcomes and processes.

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Brokering Affordable Housing and Social Sustainability in Land Use Planning: the case of Jaffa- Tel Aviv
Technion, Israel Institute of Technoogy, Haifa, Israel emilys@technion.ac.il Land-use planning often privileges economic and physical issues - such as historic preservation and infrastructure - over social concerns, such as housing affordability and community cohesion. What interventions can help to bring the social sustainability issues back onto the agenda? This paper profiles one extreme case, set in the socially mixed city of Jaffa, in Tel Aviv, Israel. Urban land-use plans from the 1980s set out to transform a neglected neighborhood into a sea-side haven for the citys wealthiest residents. The plans made no attempt to address complex social issues, including, most strikingly, the potential displacement of low-income residents, primarily Palestinian Israelis (among the twenty percent of Israeli citizens who are Muslim and Christian Palestinians). This paper profiles the strategies employed in the past decade to mitigate the social impacts of the Jaffa land-use plans, focussing on new policies for affordable housing. The strategies have included community organizing, action research on housing policy, and facilitated roundtables with participation from local and national agencies alongside community leaders. The interventions appear to have had some unexpected successes. Leaders in the municipal and national agencies have recently announced a set of new affordable housing policies for Palestinian Israelis in Jaffa. The announced policies include a campaign to encourage protected tenants to purchase their homes, land subsidies for low-cost new homes and an effort to provide community loan guarantees. Local civil society has cautiously welcomed the new policies, while noting that implementation has yet to be tested. The paper explores the change in policy that led to re-introducing social considerations into the land use plan. Which strategies were most influential, and what lessons might be relevant to other cases? The paper concludes with thoughts on ensuring that social concerns are more adequately incorporated into land-use planning.

Emily SILVERMAN

A question of social sustainability: Urban interventions in critical neighbourhoods in Portugal and Norway
Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo, Norway

Susanne SHOLT Marit Ekne RUUD Einar BRAATHEN

Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo, Norway marit.ruud@nibr.no

Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo, Norway

Social sustainability is one of the main discourses in urban intervention programmes, and urban interventions in disadvantaged neighbourhoods are high on the agenda in European countries. In this paper we ask what aspects of urban intervention programmes involve and value people during the intervention process in such a way that they are motivated to continue to take care of and develop their area afterwards. But how can the programmes succeed to attend social sustainability in the disadvantaged neighbourhoods? Social sustainability raises the question about the linkages and the interplay between urban interventions, participation and governance. To deal with the complexity of challenges and objectives as well as actors vertical and multilevel coordination, new ways of approaching critical urban areas are needed. Our methodological approach is two cases of urban intervention programmes in the Lisbon and Oslo regions. The critical city districts and neighbourhoods in the Portuguese and the Norwegian cases are compared to analyse how such processes impact on local social sustainability. The comparison builds on a most different approach. The important similarities, motivating this paper was that both cases included physical changes of peoples homes, neighbourhoods and ownership rights. Such extensive physical interventions implied that people got involved, regardless of how they valued the improvements. The combination of extensive physical changes, change of ownership and an intention to intervene and improve the area for the existing residents is the inspiration for this paper.

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Planning for social and environmental sustainability how to find the right balance?
NTNU, Department of Architectural Design and Management, Norway eli.stoa@ntnu.no Social sustainability is emphasized as a vision for many urban development and regeneration projects as well as in planning and design guidelines. The concept is mainly regarded as important in its own right and has to do with securing a societys social and cultural viability in a long term perspective on both a collective and individual level. It is moreover regarded as part of a holistic understanding of sustainable development where it is seen as essential to balance social, environmental and economic dimensions. Often it is more or less taken for granted that the dimensions are mutually supportive although there are also potential conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to identify important elements of the negotiation between social and environmental sustainability and to discuss how planning issues and design solutions may contribute to finding the right balance. Furthermore it aims to explore the potential interplay between social and environmental sustainability. The discussion will be based on the documentation from an ongoing planning process in the city of Trondheim, Norway. The ambitions for this area are very high when it comes to both environmental and social issues. The objectives and main focus areas are defined in a planning program approved by the City Council in April 2010. Through a parallel commissioning process carried out during Fall the same year, four interdisciplinary teams were selected to propose ideas for environmental solutions, neighborhood design, housing typologies, integration of non-residential spaces and uses and processes for involvement of future residents in the further planning of the area. Since the development project still is in an early stage it is too early to conclude when it comes to fulfillment of the objectives. What can be learnt at this point is however how conceptualizations of various dimensions of sustainability are transformed into design proposals and how understandings are developed through negotiations of the planning process itself.

Eli STA

Contextual Modernism and Sustainable Urbanism as New Housing Strategies - A way for better understanding the phenomena of concentrated poverty
KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden

Alazar EJIGU Tigran HAAS

KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden tigran.haas@abe.kth.se The growing alienation of modernist public housing estates and their ethnically and socially excluded people, and the neglected human potential they symbolize, is a grotesque expression of the failure of a system driven by the profit motive and failed planning policy, rather than by the requirement to satisfy sustainable urbanism. The modernist concept of urban planning, which emerged in response to a very particular time and set of regional circumstances, spread throughout the Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The result, where the idea was simplistically accepted was a disaster. In contrast however, cities of Northern Europe, among others, are mentioned for their successful revision of modernist principles to meet local conditions. Paying particular attention to housing, this paper discusses the contrasting results of modernist planning approaches in industrialized verses low-income countries and welfare verses market driven economies. What local conditions were central for the success /or failure of modernist housing models in different contexts? This context question will be used to identify practical principles that might guide the design of modern housing; each principle responding to architectural and urban paradox posed by local and modern-contemporary condition. This paper also looks at the Sustainable Urbanism paradigm and the possibility that it might offer as an alternative to the failed modernist satellite-suburban-monolith-alienated type of living in most major European cities. Turning isolated public housing towers into typical mixed-income city neighborhoods under the Hope VI and under New Urbanism principles has been done in the US, but not without a plethora of problems. Is the idea in the solution which seeks to demolish thousands of units of the citys modernist public housing areas and create new mixed-use units or is it in refurbishing and retrofitting the existing stock? Empirical evidences are drawn from review of studies of the Swedish Million Homes Program of the 60s and 70s, observation and introspection studies of selected cases in the American Social Housing Program HOPE VI, and from ethnographic survey of the ongoing Grand Housing Program in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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A mixed city Achievable in practise or a utopian goal?


Institute for Housing and Urban Research (IBF), Uppsala University, Sweden. zara.bergsten@ibf.uu.se

Zara BERGSTEN

Institute for Housing and Urban Research (IBF), Uppsala University, Sweden. emma.holmqvist@ibf.uu.se The notion of residential social mix has during the late 1900s become an important public policy in Sweden as well as in many other European countries, Australia and North America. The aim of these policies has foremost been to counteract residential segregation through the regeneration of urban neighbourhoods. The Swedish social mix policy provides an interesting case as the policy differs in important aspects from similar policies in other countries. The base for the Swedish social mix policy has been to, not only change the social and physical structure of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods, but to create socially mixed cities in their entirety. Since the 1970s it is foremost the construction of neighbourhoods with a mixed tenure structure that, by urban planners and policy makers, has been seen as the main instrument to enhance a mixed population. This implies both the construction of new tenure mixed neighbourhoods but also the regeneration of existing neighbourhoods with a homogeneous tenure structure. However, the question is if this universal aim of achieving socially and physically mixed cities has been translated into urban planning and the actual construction of mixed neighbourhoods. Is the Swedish social mix policy a policy for the entire city or only a rhetorical goal? In this paper we aim to analyse if and to what degree there has been changes made to the housing structure of Swedish neighbourhoods and cities (through new construction and tenure conversions) during the last decades. Are cities becoming more tenure mixed? What is the nature of these changes and are these sustainable? Is there any visible differences between different types of neighbourhoods, both in the measured used and the motivation for these changes?

Emma HOLMQVIST

The significance of public open space for social integration and neighborhood life - social separation and the de-spatialization and de-materialization of space
Architecture Department, University of Nicosia, Cyprus zippelius.e@unic.ac.cy

Eleonore ZIPPELIUS

Cities are complex systems of interconnected physical and non-physical urban layers constantly changing and adapting to new settings and needs. Contemporary cities are moreover a spatial construct of a diversity of concurrent urban manifestations. They are shaped by the interaction of society with space. Social categories of race, class, gender, nationality, sexuality, disability and age, understood as spatially separated and constructed, need to be re-thought, as human identities are hybrid identities which cannot be unambiguously allocated to a single category, but might contain multiple facets or be allocated in-between. To provide mixture in cities may therefore almost be seen as contradiction in terms. Yet it is a fact that the functional city model of the modern age - still mostly practiced in peri-urban areas and based on the segregation of land-use and the car as primary means of transport - is de-spatializing the urban environment constantly producing isolated environments The physical world of public urban life is moreover challenged by the virtual, dematerialized world of the internet. We therefore need to ask if de-spatialization and dematerialization affect social behavior and social mixture. The abstract notion of space in peri-urban living environments has erased the spatial relation of public open space and the buildings surrounding it. The functional bands of public open space within a dispersed, mono-functional building structure can no longer be read as in-between spaces nor used for informal encounter in in-between times. People have responded to this development through withdrawing from street and neighborhood life. This social and spatial development influenced all classes but particularly affected the more vulnerable and depending social groups. Public open space needs to be reconsidered as a key component of social integration and community identity. It needs to be re-conceptualized as a social space of human activities and interaction, re-designed as an attractive space encouraging social encounter, and re-integrated into every daily life.

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Affordablty Issue in Urban Mxt


Istanbul technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul-Turkey yukselyu itu.edu.tr

Yurdanur DLGEROGLU-YKSEL

The mass-housing projects dominate the major cities in Turkey implemented to meet the annual housing need in the nation. 14% of Mass-housing projects aims to solve squatter housing problem, but most housing units can only be purchased by average or high income urban groups, usually as a second house. The Mass Housing Administration, the highest authority which determines the annual national house production, serves the 80% in the formal sector, leaving out the remaining 20% which is constituted by the lowest income groups. From the view of city architecture, mass-housing projects is giving the form to the Turkish cities for the last 25 years, and it seems that this trend will continue in the future. It offers a uniform housing typology in the major cities. As architecture without architects and as organic developments, squatter housing produced in the informal sector, contributes to the urban growth both economically and spatially. Lately, nations having more poor in their urban population, are seeking measures to focus on affordable housing as their main goal. The trade off between economic gains, and sustainablerounded community is being made to favor the second. Can mixit be affordable, therefore economically sustainable under the conditions of mixed income neighborhoods? Can mixit share the same urban facilities and public spaces? The paper will attempt to provide some answers to these questions in view of recent developments called urban transformation projects in Istanbul. In comparison to what is gained and what is lost in the form of lost social networks, displaced citizens in the squatter settlements, the costs may be higher in a uniformly scattered mix-mass housing projects.

Residential Quality, Housing Improvements and Psychosocial Wellbeing: Evidence from the Social Rented Sector in Glasgow
Urban Studies, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom julie.clark@glasgow.ac.uk

Julie CLARK

Urban Studies, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow Following a ballot of tenants in 2003, Glasgow City Council undertook the largest stock transfer in Europe, passing responsibility for the municipal housing stock to the Glasgow Housing Association (GHA). In the midst of an ongoing programme of demolition, building and refurbishment, GHA has spent 887 million on improving the quality of housing stock, with plans to commit a further 330 million by 2013. This research investigates the impacts of this state-sponsored housing improvement programme on residents quality of life by analysing the relationships between residential quality, housing improvement works and the psychosocial benefits offered by home. The term psychosocial has been a focus of growing interest in relation to health and wellbeing over the past decade. Psychosocial theory provides a framework that understands personal development as a product of tensions between wider cultural or social expectations, and the needs and capabilities of the individual; psychosocial risk factors, in respect of an individual, community or environment are amongst the most powerful influences on negative health behaviours, poor physical and poor mental health. Recently available data, based on a large-scale survey of social renters in Glasgow, has offered the opportunity to explore psychosocial benefits of home in previously unavailable detail, over a range of property types and housing interventions. Findings offer an insight into the degree to which home improvements influence residents ratings of home quality, and evidence that these improvements can contribute to enhanced levels of status and control. However, landlord relations and the quality of the wider neighbourhood are shown to be important qualifying factors.

Ade KEARNS

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Sustainable Urban Regeneration: The Case of Fevzipasa District, Canakkale, Turkey


Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Architecture Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey gokcerokumus@gmail.com

Gker OKUMU

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Architecture Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey Sustainable urban regeneration is one of the approaches which is related to create sustainable built environment after introduction of sustainability concept in Brundtland Report in 1987. Urban regeneration was applied with the purpose to sanitize decayed areas, to rise the quality of life and to create economic vitality. Recently the concept of sustainability will become the main issue of urban regeneration projects. Sustainable urban regeneration projects are based on the components of social, economical and environmental sustainability. In this paper Fevzipasa District which is located in the historical city center of Canakkale, will be analysed in terms of sustainable urban regeneration approaches. Among the characteristics of Fevzipasa district where Romani population lives, unemployment, low education, bad health condition and bad condition for the built environment can be mentioned. All of these characteristics have potential to create social problems in the area. A participatory planning approach is executed to get detailed information about the district. At the end of the investigation a district report will be prepared. Based on this situational assessment the possible solutions will be discussed with the community representatives and the other NGOs and local government departments. In this paper, a methodological approach for socially sustainable regeneration will be developed on the basis of Fevzipasa district report and feedbacks from the discussions and the projects outcomes will be presented.

Handan TRKOGLU

Place-based social cohesion: comparing dimensions of social cohesion at neighbourhood and administrative level
School of Economics, University of Reading, Whiteknights, United Kingdom c.a.b.nygaard@reading.ac.uk

Christian A. NYGAARD Ellie FRANCIS-BROPHY

Institute of Education, University of Reading, Whiteknights, United Kingdom e.francis-brophy@reading.ac.uk

Under the social cohesion agenda a recent focus on preventing the radicalisation of disenfranchised sections of the population is connected with more traditional policy concerns such as persistent spatial deprivation, mixed communities and unequal access to public services and education. A key question for UK (and EU) policy makers is the extent to which place-based intervention is likely to generate the place-based improvement in neighbourhood relations or whether self-organising and market based urban dynamics may cause spatial leakage. This paper analyses dimensions of social cohesion (social connectedness, economic processes, democratic processes and historic processes) identified in the literature (Kearns and Forrest, 2000; Forrest and Kearns, 2001; Stone and Hulse, 2005; Barca, 2009) at neighbourhood level and at aggregate administrative levels. A main aim is to establish the extent to which neighbourhood level social cohesion mirrors cross-sectional administrative processes. Reconciling divergence in the dimensions of social cohesion at different levels of aggregation underpins the effectiveness of place-based cohesion strategies and the ability of policies grounded in local self-government (or in the UK the Big Society) to deliver improvements in long-standing social goals. Examining a deprived area in South East England with high ethnic diversity reveals that policies targeting social connectedness and trust may be crucial for place-based cohesion strategies to alter neighbourhood relations. The paper utilises insights from economic geography on the role of history and expectations (Krugman, 1991) and social interaction models (Parekh, 2000; Modood, 2007; Durlauf, 2003) to explain observed patterns and draw policy inferences. The paper draws on interview material and survey data from a recent cohesion audit as well as national indicator and socio-economic indicators at LA level. A mixed method approach is employed for fuller exploration of data and social cohesion dimensions.

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WORKSHOP 11
Housing Regeneration and Maintenance
Co-ordinators: Nico Nieboer, Sasha Tsenkova, Andr Thomsen and Vincent Gruis

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What determines decisions for building renovation: The case of Slovenia


Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia andreja.cirman@ef.uni-lj.si

Andreja CIRMAN Jelena ZORI

Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia jelena.zoric@ef.uni-lj.si

Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia Housing policies in the Central and Eastern European countries face a challenge of the deteriorated housing stock and urgent need of extensive renovations. Moreover, building renovation of existing buildings is also key factor of energy efficiency which is increasingly gaining importance in recent years. Directive 2006/32/EC on energy end-use efficiency and energy services requires EU member states to achieve a 9% saving in final energy consumption in the period from 2008 to 2016. In line with this, Slovenia prepared the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 20082016 where a set of measures which will be supported by substantial public funds are proposed in order to achieve the efficient use of energy. One of the adopted instruments also aims at promoting energy-efficient renovation and sustainable construction of residential buildings. Statistical data on the existing housing stock in Slovenia show that over 70 percent of residential buildings are more than 30 years old and 71 percent of these buildings have never been refurbished. However, the Slovenian housing sector is facing a range of maintenance and renovation problems that have been hindering interventions. In our paper we identify relevant factors affecting the renovation decisions of Slovenian households. Using Slovenian Housing Survey data and multinomial logit model we test a model for the individual house owners and for the renovation decisions in multi-apartment buildings. In particular, we focus on renovations of roof and faade since they hold the largest potential for energy savings. Four sets of variables are examined as potential determinants of household renovations, namely the location of dwelling, dwelling characteristics, socio-economic characteristics of households and relationships with neighbours. Results of the analysis will provide a better insight into relevant factors affecting the renovation decisions and may prove to be valuable for policy making in the area of facilitating building renovations.

Srna MANDI

Green and Affordable Housing in Canada: Investment Strategies of Social Housing Organisations
University of Calgary, Faculty of Environmental Design, Calgary, Canada tsenkova@ucalgary.ca

Sasha TSENKOVA

University of Calgary, Faculty of Environmental Design, Calgary, Canada

Karim YOUSSEF

Recognising the high impact of energy savings in the residential sector, the government has introduced The Renewable Energy Initiative in 2009 providing $70 million for energy efficiency upgrades of existing and new social housing with another $2 billion in Canada's Economic Action Plan. In the context of this new political commitment this research paper will focus on the following objectives: i) to review of national and provincial policies and programs to implement energy efficiency retrofits in social housing; and ii) to identify preferred investment strategies and policy responses by different social housing providers - public, private non-profit and community (cooperative) in select case studies. The research will investigate the implementation of energy efficiency programs in the social housing sector in Ontario and British Columbia where federal programs are complemented by provincial ones. This research is exploratory in nature and is designed to provide the first systematic evaluation of energy efficiency residential programs in Canada using an interdisciplinary framework of analysis. At the project level, attention will be paid to results achieved in the implementation of energy efficiency retrofits such as: quality, technical and financial aspects, technology (types of energy efficiency measures), financial risks and cost recovery.

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Sustainable neighbourhoods in Brussels. An analysis of the difficulties for the (re-)development of sustainable neighbourhoods and suggestions of possible methods and solutions
Sophie GHYSELEN
La Cambre Horta, Facult dArchitecture, ULB, Brussels, Belgium

Caroline NEWTON
Sint-Lucas school of Architecture, Hogeschool voor Wetenschappen en Kunst Brussels & Ghent Partner in the K.U. Leuven Association caroline.newton@mac.com

Nicolas PRIGNOT Bernard DEPREZ


La Cambre Horta, Facult dArchitecture, ULB, Brussels, Belgium

Judith LE MAIRE
La Cambre Horta, Facult dArchitecture, ULB, Brussels, Belgium

Isabelle PRIGNOT
La Cambre Horta, Facult dArchitecture, ULB, Brussels, Belgium In 2008 the Brussels-Capital Region, together with Brussels institute for the environment (BIM / IBGE) created the facilitator service sustainable neighbourhoods (quartiers durables). This service is taken on by Urbs, a collective of experts from two Brussels schools of Architecture in Brussels (La Cambre and Sint Lucas). In 2010 a report was presented regarding the search for an experimental site in the Brussels-Capital Region where a sustainable neighbourhood could be developed. However, the research project showed that this one perfect experimental site didnt exist, instead one can find, within the Brussels region, several locations, that could prove to be ideal candidates for a sustainable redevelopment. This contribution will discuss the findings of this research project and will elaborate on the specific scenarios that were developed for each of the characteristic neighbourhoods. In a second part specific attention is paid to high-rise developments and the possibilities and challenges for their sustainable (re-)development. Eventually these different scenarios are examined through the lens of the Memento and the sustainable check-up, two tools developed by Urbs that allow the assessment of housing projects regarding their sustainable character (on the three dimensions ecological, social and economical). At the end some conclusions are drawn with regard to the possibility of realizing the sustainable city of tomorrow not via new developments but using the existing urban fabric and turning it (redeveloping it) sustainable.

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How do housing cooperatives in German housing market address the energy saving issue?
Enkeleda KADRIU
Urban and Regional Planning, TU-Berlin, Germany eda_kadriu@yahoo.com

Gabriele WENDORF
TU-Berlin, Germany vp3@tu-berlin.de Germany is well known for its long history and importance of housing cooperatives. These organizations have and continue to play a crucial role in the housing sector. According to statistics there are around 3.000 housing cooperatives with over two million apartments and over three million members in Germany (Cecodhas, 2008) providing housing to communities and people. Unfortunately, there is little information about the current approach and position of housing cooperatives in achieving a significant reduction of energy consumption to meet the EU emissions targets in housing. We also lack precise information on the place that energy efficiency takes in the statute of these cooperatives. The Solidarity City project started by TU-Berlin in cooperation with specialized partners coming from different disciplines will, among other issues, identify the problems and challenges that these housing cooperatives face in terms of organization and management, resources and capacities regarding energy efficiency. Also an analysis of the degree of awareness of both management and communities, as well as the extent to which people and communities in housing cooperatives are informed, motivated to get involved or participate in decision-making processes regarding energy-efficient renovations and maintenance, will be carried out. In this study facts about the current condition in the region of Berlin through case studies that represent both old and newly established cooperatives of different sizes will be presented. We hope that this paper will bring some new insights to the significant role that the housing cooperatives can play in energy-efficiency in housing, aiming to fill the existent gap in the literature in this field.

Housing Maintenance and Mixed Tenure: Issues in the English Social Housing Sector
Jim KEMPTON
Coventry University, United Kingdom Jim.kempton@coventry.ac.uk There has been an on-going debate in England and the broader United Kingdom regarding the development of mixed tenure housing estates. The author defines these as comprising any mix of social housing tenants with: Private renting tenants (who therefore have private landlords), Shared owners (i.e. those who buy a part share in their home, the remaining share is typically retained by a social landlord), Owner occupiers (brought outright, or those paying a mortgage on 100% of the property value at purchase) The term asset management will be used to describe the physical management of estates, including maintenance, repair and other investment. But does mixed tenure really have different asset management needs compared to mono tenure estates? This idea forms the thesis of this paper. The research methodology is based on a case study of a social housing provider, supported by semi-structured interviews. The analysis has shown that there are differences in asset management needs between mixed and mono tenure estates. A literature review and interviews with RSL personnel are used to inform the discussion contained in this paper. Little work has been undertaken in this specific area, and the research should be of interest to a wide audience including social housing, developers and central and local Government.

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Integral and Temporal Scenario Approach


Department for Housing and Design, Faculty of Architecture and Regional Planning, University of Technology, Vienna, Austria lorbek@wohnbau.tuwien.ac.at This paper will present the integral scenario approach for modernisation of 20th century housing stock. Crucial processes currently affecting existing housing stock are some of the following: partially reversed process of function outsourcing social and material infrastructures decentralisation process the anti urban character of energy self-reliance Traditional refurbishment practices are mostly one sided, there is no procedure to learn from actual usage and they also do not take into account the temporal dimension of interventions. The objective of the proposed integral approach is to combine data on material, spatial and temporal potentials of the building stock, gather knowledge on usage and behaviour and critically evaluate new requirements. The next step is to define integral scenarios for modernisation. The temporal component of the scenario approach also allows taking into account currently unknown construction possibilities in addition to open options for future use. One further essential procedure is to identify sustainable features of the original architectural concept und to preserve and integrate these features into integral scenarios. Redesign in a true sense should also include additional measures, such as functional reorganisation, hybridisation of use, outsourcing of functions, additional collective services and infrastructures, re-programming of amenities, changes in density and so on. Specific art of the building stock will be used to demonstrate the principles of integral and temporal approach. The particular building stock chosen for demonstration is the Austrian social housing of the pre war era build between 1918 and 1934, i.e. the residential apartment blocks (Gemeindebau) and the settlements (Siedlungen) of Red Vienna. Three main characteristics of these type of housing is: minimal and sufficient housing units, added common facilities and the principle of future additional space (Kern house principle) are in themselves sustainable.

Maja LORBEK

Neighborhood Energy Retrofits and the Role of Communities


Institute for Housing and Urban Studies, Rotterdam, The Netherlands melisvarkal@gmail.com

Melis VARKAL

Growing urbanization puts more and more pressure on the creation of built environment. The demand for resources in urban areas is continuously increasing and energy is relatively prominent. So far, the focus for energy efficiency has often been on new constructions. This is obviously crucial and inevitable; however, the majority of the existing building stock continues to function unsustainable. Cities need to find innovative ways to fulfill the increasing demand and energy retrofitting is one of those approaches. During the last decades, energy efficiency has been linked to the development of new technologies. Today, energy retrofitting, which refers to improving the existing built environment with energy efficiency equipment, requires approaches that are beyond the technicalities. Community participation is an important aspect and by participation it is more likely to understand the local context, address fundamentals, get over the resistance and implement necessary measures. This paper looks into the concept of energy retrofitting in todays urban context and puts in perspective the issue of community participation. The paper investigates how community can participate and demonstrates three important determinants. Community participation is often disintegrated into the overall program and remains as an add-on. The new and innovative retrofitting approach should look for integrating the concept to the process and this can be done through the analysis of different elements. Therefore, the first objective in this study is to look into these elements and develop a framework for community participation in neighborhood energy retrofits. Later, by using the developed framework the research analyzes potentials and limitations for participation in a selected neighborhood located in Izmir, Turkey. This research is a descriptive and exploratory type, making analyses through in-depth interviews with the community, local government, non-governmental organizations and the community-based organization in the selected area.

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The Carbon-Reduction Challenge in Cambridge, UK


Nicky MORRISON
Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research (CCHPR), Department Land Economy, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom mm10001@cam.ac.uk In response to the global challenge of climate change, the UK governments ambition is to decrease carbon emissions by 80 per cent on 1990 levels by 2050. Domestic housing represents around 27% of the total carbon dioxide emissions, of which 73 per cent comes from space and water heating in the UK. The aim of this paper is to explore whether this national target is capable of being achieved at the city level, focusing on the city of Cambridge as an exemplar. The potential to reduce carbon emissions to existing housing stock depends on the nature of the stock in terms of its age and quality; the degree to which the energy efficiency of the dwellings can be improved; as well as the capacity and willingness of existing households to take up renewable energy and energy efficiency measures. The paper draws on a series of focus group meetings with the providers (actors who bring technologies and practices required for decarbonisation into the market), the adopters (actors who adopt the low carbon technologies and practices) and the regulators (actors who define the parameters within which others operate). Summarising the findings from these city-wide forums, the paper highlights the key constraints on delivering the carbon-reduction challenge to Cambridges existing housing stock and how, through productive dialogue and mobilised action between these different actors, many of the obstacles can be not only overcome but also innovative practices transferred to other locations nationally as well as internationally.

Strategies for Housing Rehabilitation in the search for mixing generations and family types. An approach based on a transformation grammar
Sara ELOY
Department of Architecture and Urbanism, ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal sara.eloy@iscte.pt This abstract describes a Ph.D. research that is currently being developed on the subject of Methodology for the integration of Information, Communication and Automation Technologies in Housing Rehabilitation. The Ph.D. thesis sets off with the premise that the future of real estate market in Portugal will require the rehabilitation of existing residential areas and that it will be of utmost importance the incorporation of Information, Communications and Automation Technologies (ICAT) as well as the transformation of dwellings to respond to the new demands of dwellers. Nowadays dwellers demands incorporate the rising of different forms of co-habitation that are having a great expression in Portuguese cities. Elderly people, single-parent households and single-person families represent co-habitation groups in expansion. The INE classification of classic families according to size reveals that in Lisbon the most representative families consist of two individuals (31.01%), followed by 1 individual (30.55%) and, in third place, 3 individuals (19.58%) (INE 2001). For this new population reality it is necessary to define different models of housing that could be integrated in the existing residential areas through their rehabilitation and conversion. The study focus on a specific building type (rabo-de-bacalhau) built between 1945 and 1965 in Lisbon, mainly because their topology is very representative of the period and its presence in the city is large. The final research objective is the definition of design guidelines to support architects in the adaptation of existing residential areas with the purpose of ICAT incorporation and the creation of diversity within the building and the sorrowing residential area. The goal is to use Shape Grammar and Space Syntax as tools to identify and encode the principles and rules behind the adaptation of existing houses to new requirements. With these tools we have reached to several strategies for rehabilitation that respond to different family needs.

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Towards an environmentally sustainable private housing stock: Municipal governance for quality improvements in seven Dutch cases
Milly TAMBACH
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands m.tambach@tudelft.nl

Frits MEIJER
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands f.m.meijer@tudelft.nl

Henk VISSCHER
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. h.j.visscher@tudelft.nl Dutch municipalities are faced with an ageing private housing stock, of which parts show a diversity of quality backlogs, including their energy quality. They are in the process of developing a combination of communicative and economic governance tools to seduce private homeowners to invest in their dwellings quality. Homeowners willingness and capability to invest, and their level of organization play key roles here. This paper investigates, whether the municipal governance and tools, applied to improve the quality of private housing stock, including their environmental sustainability, in seven Dutch cases, have been both effective and cost-effective. First results indicate, municipalities are marketing quality improvements to private homeowners by support and communication organizations, and are seeking cooperation with parties such as housing associations, contractors, brokers, but yet it seems without the hopedfor large-scale improvements. However, support and communication organizations may have a positive effect on investment decisions for quality improvements by private homeowners. Short-term subsidies and low-interest loans from municipal revolving funds are applied to trigger investments in private dwelling improvement. Although so-called multiplier effects are ascribed to municipal investments in such funds, municipal governments need to run and cover risks, if they need to stand surety for the total loan amount of a homeowners association (HOA). Additionally, municipal governments still lack enforcement possibilities and sanctions (fines) as integrative part of Dutch energy certification regulation, and regarding this, their legal and operational framework is studied. With regard to limitations of short-term subsidy schemes and possible risks for municipal governments in case they stand surety for a HOAs total loan amount, the question arises, how sustainable and robust the local and national financing system for quality improvements of private housing stock really is. More lasting instruments, such as tax rebates, in case private (energy) quality improvements are carried out seem, necessary.

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Obsolescence as a threat for life cycle extension of residential property


Andr THOMSEN
OTB Research Institute, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands A.F.Thomsen@tudelft.nl

Kees VAN DER FLIER


Faculty of Architecture, Dept. Real Estate & Housing, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands C.L.vanderFlier@tudelft.nl Obsolescence is a serious threat for built property. As an often used demolition motive, obsolescence can be regarded as the last phase of the life span of buildings. From a sustainable viewpoint, life cycle extension is necessary to minimize waste. But there are more considerations to carefully maintain the existing stock. Knowledge about the prevention, the diagnosis and the treatment of obsolescence is therefore of growing importance. Our paper defines obsolescence, describes its meaning, inventories the available knowledge, proposes a conceptual model for further research, discusses its influence on the decision making about demolition and concludes with recommendations for property management and further research. Since evidence based theoretical research references on obsolescence are scarce rare, the paper has inevitably an explorative character.

The merger of interests in sustainable public housing


Anke VAN HAL
Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands j.d.m.vanhal@tudelft.nl and Nyenrode Business University Center of Sustainability, Breukelen, The Netherlands a.vanhal@nyenrode.nl Many housing associations in the Netherlands are struggling with the same problem. They have signed voluntary agreements regarding a sustainable retrofitting of their housing stock, but in practice it is hard to reach the goals set. One of the reasons is that they need collaboration of a good part of their residents to be able to get a substantial return on their investments. A recent study focused on new ways to reach this collaboration. Instead of convincing residents of the necessity of sustainable retrofitting or creating enthusiasm for plans, another approach is explored. Is it possible to use existing enthusiasm of residents as a starting point, searching for sustainable measures that are in congruity with that enthusiasm? The following questions have been answered in this research. Which (conscious and unconscious) needs, wishes and desires of residents of social housing projects can be distinguished? And how can sustainable measures help to fulfill those needs? The research was based on literature research, a workshop with residents, a brainstorm session with sustainable building specialists and a workshop with coworkers of a housing association. The result was a format for a new approach for housing associations and suggestions of practical combinations of sustainable measures.

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A study into the sustainable system of rural housing in Rincon de Ademuz, Spain A case study into the transformation of the public space and the private space in the villages
Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain wenhao.ji@gmail.com People say that Rincon de Ademuz is from Roma period, it means the history has more than 2000 years. The purpose of this study is to clarify the sustainability and the system of the transformation in the village of Rincon de Ademuz. At first, I focus the way of using in the public space. The electricity, the water and the car are changed the public space using. It is possible to say that the inhabitants changed the public space and keep up their life in the village. It was changed in each period. The transformation means the adaptation of the new civilization. And second, I focus the way of using in the private space in the house. It is also change the using in the each period. For example, there is one telephone shop in one village before. But each house have the phone in own house. This is why the change the shop for the living space. Some houses change the space to invite the family who live in the city during in the summer vacation. Some barns also changed as second house for the city residents. It is mixed the civilization and the culture, the city life and the village life. I think this mix is one of the sustainability. I analyze this situation from the fieldwork research.

Wenhao JI

Why is it so difficult to create really good places? Recently built affordable housing in England
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom sm23@cam.ac.uk

Sarah MONK

London School of Economics, United Kingdom r.tunstall@lse.ac.uk Affordable housing policy in England has for some time emphasised careful site choice, design and layout, as well as quality, with the intention of avoiding past problems in some social housing and standards for new affordable housing are claimed to be higher than those for housing built by private developers. Recent research on affordable housing delivery in England explored the extent to which affordable housing policy outcomes are actually shaped by policy, whether planning/regeneration policy or housing policy per se, as opposed to physical, financial, or other constraints. This paper looks at the outcomes in five local authority areas, exploring aspects such as resident satisfaction and scheme popularity, Building for Life assessment, whether built on previously developed or greenfield sites, housing tenure mix, home sizes and types, internal space and layout, private outdoor space, parking, playspace for children, the environmental impact of the new homes and potential problems. It finds that while all the schemes examined were popular and had no significant management problems, what has been built in recent years has been less than ideal. The paper goes on to examine the processes whereby this can happen despite the best of intentions and tracks when and how compromises are made that have lasting impacts.

Rebecca TUNSTALL

From this evidence the paper concludes that recent new build schemes have been severely constrained by the experience on the ground both of delivering policies aimed at increasing densities and regenerating city centres and by the delivery of affordable housing as an adjunct to market development. So it is not so much the operation of housing policies as the combination of a range of factors working against the originally planned outcome. The result has been a range of location, design layout and quality vulnerabilities which in the future could become quite serious.

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Energy efficiency in housing management conclusions from an international study


OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands n.e.t.nieboer@tudelft.nl

Nico NIEBOER Vincent GRUIS

Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands v.h.gruis@tudelft.nl

Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands j.d.m.vanhal@tudelft.nl

Anke VAN HAL

Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Canada tsenkova@ucalgary.ca Energy efficiency has gained a lot of prominence in recent debates on urban sustainability and housing policy due to its potential consequences for climate change. At the local, national and also international level, there are numerous initiatives to promote energy savings and the use of renewable energy to reduce the environmental burden. There is a lot of literature on energy saving and other forms of energy efficiency in housing. However, how to bring this forward in the management of individual housing organisations is not often internationally explored. An international research project has been carried out to find the answers on management questions of housing organisations regarding energy efficiency. Ten countries have been included in this study: Germany, the United Kingdom (more specifically: England), France, Australia, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Slovenia and the Czech Republic. The state of the art of energy efficiency in the housing management of nonprofit housing organisations and the embedding of energy efficiency to improve the quality and performance of housing in management practices have been investigated, with a focus on how policy ambitions about energy efficiency are brought forward in investment decisions at the estate level. This paper presents the conclusions of the research.

Sasha TSENKOVA

Energy use and household characteristics in Flemish social housing


Research Institute for Work and Society (HIVA), Catholic university of Leuven, Belgium kristof.heylen@hiva.kuleuven.be

Kristof HEYLEN

The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between household characteristics and energy consumption, more specifically the use of electricity and gas (for heating) in Flemish social housing. In a second phase of the research the discovered patterns will be used to identify groups that consume too much energy given their composition. This analysis is part of the CEM project, which is co-financed by the Flemish social housing agency Zonnige Kempen and the Dutch housing cooperation Woonwel. The eventual goal of this project is to draw a communication tool aimed at changing the energy consumption behavior of social tenants. For social tenants in Flanders and the Netherlands, the energy cost is a major part of the monthly housing cost. A more energy efficient consumption behavior can significantly reduce this cost. The data sources are a face-to-face survey of about 200 social tenants of Zonnige Kempen, an administrative dataset of the energy consumption and a dataset containing the dwelling characteristics. Both descriptive and explanatory statistical techniques are used to explore the link between household attributes and energy consumption. The results of the regression analysis are strongly different for the use of electricity and gas. Regarding gas consumption the effects of the dwelling features are ceteris paribus much stronger than the effects of the household characteristics. The latter such as the age of the head tenant and the number of children/adults - are more important for explaining the consumption of electricity than the dwelling features.

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Gentrification and Hong Kongs Inner Urban Areas


Adrienne LA GRANGE
Department of Public and Social Administration, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong saalag@cityu.edu.hk

Frederik PRETORIUS
Department of Real Estate and Construction, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong fredpre@hkucc.hku.hk Hong Kong is a somewhat paradoxical city in many ways. Together with high levels of economic development, a vibrant urban economy, and socially and economically vibrant inner city areas, the pace of physical redevelopment of the inner city areas has been slow compared to the pace of economic development particularly over the last three decades. A significant proportion of inner city building stock could objectively be characterized as functionally and physically obsolete when considering the aspirations and changed circumstances of society compared to as little as one generation ago. Unlike conventional urban economics would predict, however, there appears to be very little systematic upgrading, renovation, refurbishment, or rehabilitation of older buildings, even of those buildings with excellent locations and good potential. The slow pace of redevelopment to modern standards is most frequently presented as the result of high costs associated with obtaining agreement from highly fragmented ownership rights in older inner-city multi-storey buildings. To increase the pace of and overcome problems associated with the redevelopment of Hong Kongs inner city areas, the Hong Kong Government has tasked the Urban Renewal Authority (URA) to complement private sector urban redevelopment activities. Since its inception, the URA has undertaken projects of varying sizes, but appears to favour very large-scale inner city (re)development projects. Perhaps through the forced constraint of high transaction costs, the private sector generally appears to have undertaken comparatively smaller scale inner city redevelopment projects. The objective of this paper is to present early research findings of an ongoing project into gentrification in Hong Kong. We consider an initial assessment of the impact of the different forms of redevelopment on the host neighbourhoods, and consider two inner city neighbourhood case studies: first, Kennedy Town, an area that has seen significant redevelopment almost exclusively private sector-led; and secondly, (East) Mong Kok, another inner city precinct that hosts a very large-scale URA mixed commercial redevelopment project with significant economic gravity, Langham Place. Early observations suggests that the gravity of Langham Place has transformed the immediate neighbourhood into a regional retail destination, and appears to have facilitated very little spontaneous urban redevelopment or conventional neighbourhood social activities. Kennedy Town, on the other hand, appears to have remained economically and socially relatively mixed, with continued steady smaller-scale redevelopment, and with the extent of gentrification not particularly acute. We view this as early neighbourhood-specific evidence to support our intuition that massively scale-intensive redevelopment projects have quite distinct social and economic impacts on surrounding areas, and have the potential to render dysfunctional normal urban redevelopment processes.

23rd

Toulouse
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WORKSHOP 12
Migration, Residential mobility and Housing Policy
Co-ordinators: Roland Goetgeluk and Maarten van Ham

23rd

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Linking integration and housing career. A longitudinal analysis of some immigrant groups in Sweden
Institute for housing and urban research, Uppsala University, Sweden lina.hedman@ibf.uu.se

Lina HEDMAN

Institute for housing and urban research, Uppsala University and NOVA - Norwegian Social Research, Norway lena.m.turner@nova.no This study will investigate the extent of structural integration of immigrant households in Sweden into the local housing markets through an analysis of their housing careers. Housing conditions are linked to many important life-course events, as well as to resources and preferences of each individual household. Housing conditions can also influence integration, as well as integration can be a cause of housing conditions. In the study, we take a truly longitudinal approach to housing careers by exploring differences in timing of career-related events between immigrants and native Swedes. The objective of the study is threefold. First, we explore the occurrence of systematic differences in housing careers between households with different ethnic background with respect to housing tenure, and socio-economic and ethnic characteristics of their neighbourhood of residence. Second, we explore whether the housing careers of immigrant households follow the family and work careers in a similar way compared to the native population. Third, we explore the relationship between the housing, family and work careers and the national housing, integration, and welfare policies. The data are derived from a longitudinal individuallevel register-based data set maintained by Statistic Sweden; native population is used as a control group. The analysis is carried out by means of statistical multivariate methods. Multi-level logistic regression is applied when the probability of being in certain state in the housing career is modelled, and survival analysis is applied for analyses of duration of progression in the career.

Lena MAGNUSSON TURNER

Innovative tools in the study of residential trajectories: an interactive website to map residential pathways and housing biographies
ISCTE- Instituto Universitrio de Lisboa, DINMIA-CET, Lisbon, Portugal s.marquespereira11@gmail.com

Sandra MARQUES PEREIRA Paulo MARQUES

ISCTE- Instituto Universitrio de Lisboa, DINMIA-CET, Lisbon, Portugal pmarques1@gmail.com

This paper presents an innovative website (www.trajectorias-residenciais.com) that was created in the scope of a research project called Residential Trajectories and Metropolization: continuities and changes in the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon (MAL). The website has two main functions: 1) collect individual testimonies about this issue to be complemented with two other more systematic and orthodox methodological tools a representative survey to the population of MAL followed by in-depth interviews; 2) disseminate de results of the project. As regards the first of these two functions, the one we are going to focus on, the information collected has two main purposes: an exploratory and qualitative approach of the theme and the purpose of building an archive of the history of Lisbons metropolization. In this sense, the website menu has an item called Tell us your Story. Within this item, there are three main steps: 1) fill in with your personal data, such as gender, type of family, age, education, profession, etc.; 2) mark your houses in the map and tell your story here the respondent are invited to mark each house in the map where he lived along his life story; the respondent is asked to describe each residence and can upload the images with the same purpose; 3) submit your data and save your trajectory here we offer the respondent a map with his own residential trajectory as well as its complete housing biography. The data is publicly available, except when not allowed by the respondent. Besides presenting the website as well as it functions well also present and reflect upon some of the testimonies that have already been collected in the project.

23rd

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Households in the residential mobility process: Family structure and housing characteristics in the metropolitan region of Barcelona
Departament de Teoria Sociolgica, Filosofia del Dret i Metodologia de les CCSS, University of Barcelona, Spain clopez@ub.edu

Cristina LPEZ i VILLANUEVA Isabel PUJADAS i RBIES

Departament de Geografia Humana, University of Barcelona, Spain ipujadas@ub.edu

Departament de Geografia Humana, University of Barcelona, Spain jordibayona@ub.edu Household structure is one of the main explanatory variables of location choice in the residential mobility process. In large metropolitan areas, such as the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona (RMB), there is a clear divergence in the new residence location, with familiar households moving to new suburbs, and single-person households and couples with no children going to urban centers or remaining in them. As residential change reasons are closely linked to family life course, residential location choices are therefore strongly influenced by household structure. The consequence of these processes is a demographic differentiation of metropolitan municipalities. Residential mobility is one of the most important factor in the metropolitan municipalities growth, and household structure directly affects the characteristics of the demanded housing. While the individual perspective of residential mobility has been widely studied, the familiar one has not been sufficiently addressed despite their importance in predicting housing characteristics and residential choice. The papers main goal is, firstly, to analyse family and housing characteristics of the 190,719 households which in the 2001 Census can be identified as 1991-2001 intra-metropolitan migrant households (defined through reference persons data), and then to compare them to those households which did not move. The decade studied was characterized by a slow population growth (3%) although the household increase was higher (18%). At the same time residential mobility increases from a rate of 5 to 35, with an intense growth of small and outlying towns. In this context, the work includes the analysis of: 1) households intra-metropolitan migration dynamics, paying attention on their composition, municipality size and distance to the central city; 2) housing characteristics of these households; and 3) the impact on population dynamics and housing demand.

Jordi BAYONA i CARRASCO

Migrants and Residential mobility in Marseille: an impossibility?


Centre Norbert Elias, EHESS, Marseille, France leesjohanna@gmail.com Using anthropological data and ethnographical research work undertaken in the urban area of Marseille (France), we will try to demonstrate how the housing market creates a form of house arrest for people who have migrated. Taking the example of the inhabitants of the rundown condominiums, native in their majority of the Comores or Mayotte, we will describe their residential processes. This will permit us to show that by the time they arrive in the suburban condominiums the possibility of housing mobility is getting more and more limited. Of course, access to housing and residential mobility is difficult in France because of a lack of affordable housing and of the housing crisis, but it is more difficult for migrants. Demonstrating why the situation of migration reinforces the difficulties of residential mobility, we will also address the theme of tactics and strategies of the migrants in this context to accede to housing. Retracing their residential mobility from the moment they arrived in Marseille to the time of the ethnographical research, we will reveal how the migrants manage to inhabit in spite of the housing difficulties and thanks to their social network.

Johanna LEES

23rd

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Living near highways: a higher relocation chance?


Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen (RUG), The Netherlands c.b.m.maloir@rug.nl

Catherine MALOIR Taede TILLEMA Jos ARTS

Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen (RUG), The Netherlands t.tillema@rug.nl

Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen (RUG), The Netherlands E.J.M.M.Arts@rug.nl In this paper we assess the effects of highway proximity and related road nuisances on the residential mobility of households in the Netherlands. We expect higher relocation rates in the close vicinity of highways because of higher noise and air pollution. On the one hand we used revealed preference data about actual residential relocations in more than 18,000 Dutch postcode zones near highways in the period 2005-2009. However, the data set does not contain any socio-economic characteristics. To gain greater insight into the contextual factors we therefore also conducted, a survey about the relocation intention of households in three specific Dutch highway neigbourhoods. Both data sets suggest that actual or intended relocations are higher in the close vicinity of highways (i.e., 0-300 airline distance). However, the relocation intention itself is rather modest. Approximately 3% of the respondents indicated a high likeliness of relocating within 2 years. Regarding personal characteristics, relocation behaviour seems to depend on households current residential satisfaction as well as on the importance that households attach to different constituents of the neighbourhood. Moreover, we found some first indications that negative effects can be compensated for by certain benefits, such as accessibility gains. 50% of the respondents living in noisy areas indicated, for instance, that accessibility gains due to the proximity of the highway compensate for the higher traffic noise annoyance. Nevertheless, more specific research on the way households trade off both positive and negative effects related to road infrastructure would seem to be necessary in order to increase our understanding of the current problems along highways.

Differentiation in lifestyles and residential choices of families in Switzerland


Laboratory of Urban Sociology, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, EPFL, Switzerland marie-paule.thomas@epfl.ch Our paper presents the main results of a four years comparative and interdisciplinary research on families residential choices in Switzerland. This research is based on the observation that the individualization of society that is taking place today has led to new differentiations within the domains of lifestyle and residential choice. What connections are there between lifestyles, residential preferences and localization? Theoretically, we adopt a lifestyle-orientated approach within a framework taking into account the large arrays of ways people relate to the built environment and evaluate its qualities (through body experience, rational and social evaluation). Residential choice and residential mobility are considered here as an process through which families evaluate over time the relative qualities of a given context in relation with their mode of living, that is the various activities (dwelling, development of social relations, mobility practices, and so on) shaping their everyday life. Methodologically we opted for a comparative approach, examining families residential choices in different locations and within the two metropolitan areas Lausanne and Bern. We used a mixed-methods design, including quantitative methods (a quantitative telephone survey of 500 households in each agglomeration), and qualitative methods (40 semi-directive interviews). As a result, we highlighted six axes of differentiation for residential preference and seven major residential lifestyles. Two main groups stood out, highlighting as such the contrast between ways of living typical of (modern) industrial society and those originating from (post-modern) postindustrial society. The groups identified are products of the historical sedimentation of the different ways of relating to the environment that have appeared over time. By comparing our analysis of residential lifestyles and the structural/cultural differences between the two metropolitan areas we were able to highlight the impact of context on the spatial distribution of lifestyles at different scales. The principle functional conclusion of this study is that urban planning and housing policies should be adapted according to the diversity of lifestyles.

Marie-Paule THOMAS

23rd

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On the relationship between residential mobility and processes of neighbourhood change


Urban Geographies, Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands a.b.teernstra@uva.nl The population composition of a neighbourhood changes continuously. Partly, these changes are the result of processes of birth and mortality, but most often, they can be attributed to processes of selective migration and ageing of the population. Changes in the population composition of a neighbourhood may impact social upgrading and downgrading processes, since social upgrading and downgrading refer to a rise or decline of the socio-economic status of residents of a neighbourhood (Bassett & Short, 1980; Ley 1986; Musterd 1991). A distinction can be made between internal upgrading and downgrading (changes in the socioeconomic status of sitting residents of a neighbourhood) and external upgrading and downgrading (changes in the socio-economic status as a result of migration processes). Although some authors acknowledge this distinction (e.g. Clay 1979; Lupton and Power, 2004), few authors actually identify whether neighbourhood change is caused through internal or external processes. This study addresses this caveat in literature by examining residential mobility in relation to processes of social upgrading and downgrading in three Dutch cities between 1999 and 2008. The paper will disentangle these internal and external processes by examining income development and characteristics of households moving in and out and households staying in these neighbourhoods. In addition, the relation between residential mobility and neighbourhood characteristics will be examined. The paper will provide tentative explanations for the observed patterns and trends. Of particular interest is the role of the Dutch government and other non-market led institutions in residential mobility and neighbourhood development. The study uses data from the Social Statistical Database of the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics, containing data on income, individual and household characteristics from 1999-2008. Preliminary results show that social upgrading and downgrading is in some neighbourhoods caused through migration movements, but in other neighbourhoods through changes in the socio-economic status of sitting residents.

Annalies TEERNSTRA

A longitudinal analysis of moving desires, expectations and actual moving behaviour


Centre for Housing Research, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom rcc28@st-andrews.ac.uk

Rory COULTER

Centre for Housing Research, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom maarten.vanham@st-andrews.ac.uk

Maarten VAN HAM Peteke FEIJTEN

Longitudinal Studies Centre-Scotland, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom peteke.feijten@st-andrews.ac.uk

Residential mobility theory proposes that individuals express a sequence of moving desires, intentions and expectations prior to moving. Much research has investigated how individuals form these pre-move thoughts, with a largely separate literature examining actual mobility. Only a few studies have attempted to link pre-move thoughts to subsequent actual moves, but these often do not explicitly distinguish between different types and combinations of pre-move thoughts. Using 1998-2006 British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) data, this study investigates whether moving desires and expectations are empirically distinct pre-move thoughts. Using multinomial regression models we demonstrate that moving desires and expectations have different meanings, and are often held in combination: the factors associated with expecting to move differ depending upon whether the move is also desired (and vice versa). Next, using panel logistic regression models, we show that different desire-expectation combinations have different effects on the probability of subsequent moving behaviour. The study identified two important groups generally overlooked in the literature: those who expect undesired moves and those who desire to move without expecting this to happen.

23rd

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Residents perception of their regenerated community


Iris ALTENBERGER
School of Applied Social Science, Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom iris.altenberger@stir.ac.uk The study focuses on a historically, predominantly working class area in the UK which is currently going through the process of regeneration. In the regeneration process part of the council housing estate has been demolished and rebuilt by a private-public partnership. The social mix of the area has changed considerably through the rebuilding of sections of the new development as owner-occupation housing, rather than rented as it has been traditionally. Even though residents, and individuals who have a connection with the area, were given priority to buy new houses, data taken from the census of 2001 shows a limited potential for this to happen due to high unemployment, disability and sickness. Therefore, it could be argued that the regeneration has a gentrification agenda. From a policy perspective this gentrification is seen as a positive development, changing an area of deprivation and high crime. To get an insight into how the community perceives these changes the views of established, as well as new residents of the area, were sought. A visual research method was used in which residents made photographs of their new environment, and at a later stage were interviewed about these. This qualitative research tool allowed a complex insight into the residents perceptions about their changing environment, as well as capturing the changing sense of this working class community.

Searching for Islands of Renewal in Belgian cities


Isabelle PANNECOUCKE
Center for Social Theory, Department of Sociology, Ghent University, Belgium isabelle.pannecoucke@ugent.be The continuing economic transformation of major Western cities from manufacturing centers to centers of business services and the creative and cultural industries, with consequent changes in occupational structure, income distribution, gender relations, the housing market and cultural tastes, led to gentrification (Hamnett, 2000). The expanded postindustrial middle class has replaced/displaced the industrial working class from desirable inner-city areas in cities where the financial and business and financial services sector has grown rapidly. Although the change of an industrial to a post-industrial city is a global development, gentrification is a local phenomenon. Ley (1996: 12) for instance portrays the geography of gentrification as a consequence of processes of international scope (post-industrialism and post-modernism) working in association with local conditions. Hamnett (1991) states that gentrification is relatively small scale, a geographical concentrated phenomenon compared to post-war urbanization and inner city decline. Berry (1985) refers to it as Islands of renewal in seas of decay. Gentrification is the translation of the economic restructuring in space, an element in the relation between the social and the spatial position. So the more local spatial contexts become important in the study of gentrification, for example the neighbourhood. When we linked this with the definition of gentrification, we can ask ourselves if the gentrifies really fill up the pockets of poverty or does their movement result in new pockets of gentrification? Is gentrification indeed an counter-example of the assumption that filtering is a uni-directional downwards process in which lower income groups move into progressively deteriorated housing? It is also a local phenomenon on the city level because not every city has the same opportunities. So we suppose that the process of gentrification will be different in Antwerp and Brussels (a more European orientation). Using the census data (1960-2001) we try to find answers on these questions.

23rd

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Neighbourhood change as a self-fulfilling prophecy


PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague, The Netherlands marnix.koopman@pbl.nl

Marnix KOOPMAN

ABF Research, Delft, The Netherlands roland.goetgeluk@abf.nl A modification of Schellings Tipping model for residential segregation is presented in this paper, in which some agents harbor a positive or negative bias towards certain areas. The bias against or in favor of an area acts as a self-fulfilling prophecy: the make-up of the area changes according to the bias that a minority of agents harbor towards it. This variant of the Tipping model illustrates how mere expectations about neighborhood change lead to actual neighborhood change. It provides a partial explanation for real-life processes such as white flight and gentrification.

Roland GOETGELUK

Figures of Proximity: from Representations of Inhabitants to Territorial Anchorage. The exemple of Nassim in the southwestern outskirts of Casablanca
ARCDEV, University of Montpellier III, France

Isabelle BERRY-CHIKHAOUI Sinda HAOUS-JOUVE

LISST-Cieu, University of Toulouse II Le Mirail, France sinda.haoues-jouve@univ-tlse2.fr

Drawing on the example of a newly established residential district in the southwestern outskirts of Casablanca, this paper examines the construction of figures of proximity in urban peripheries. The periphery studied here is one of the city's emerging centralities. Important urbanization processes are underway, including the construction of new mixed housing clusters and large-scale facilities suited to the city proper. Within the district, we will focus on Nassim, a socially heterogeneous, planned housing scheme. Its construction began in the late 1990's as part of a resettlement program for the displaced inhabitants of the peripheral zone outside of Casablanca's medina, which has undergone vast urban renewal. This construction project was undertaken to develop the Avenue Royale, a new central route through Casablanca. The relocated inhabitants belong to the working classes and represent the vast majority of residents in Nassim. Here, they live alongside young, middle class families, who are housed in more recent mid-range private property development schemes. They have settled into a new form of collective housing as part of a drive towards home ownership. The choice of this new residential location is generally motivated by lower land prices as compared to those in the older and more central areas of Casablanca. In this context of emerging urbanization, characterized by a certain degree of social diversity, the construction of figures of proximity takes on a singular nature. In this new housing area, we start with the hypothesis that the local anchoring of emerging figures, through both political and social interactions, takes on the form of a conquest of a still virgin area. In this conquest, incomplete urban renewal, particularly in terms of facilities, challenges these processes. It therefore becomes a breeding ground to promote the construction of new local legitimacies. However, this hypothesis must be nuanced. Indeed, even though we are dealing with the creation of a housing district from scratch, the history of Nassim is nevertheless rooted in the collective history of its original inhabitants - a history marked by the forced displacement from the hyper-center to the periphery. So, the construction of figures of proximity in this particular area strongly revolves around the recomposition or the "recycling", within this new context, of the figures of proximity from the original neighbourhood. We will also examine the interferences between the construction of these proximity figures and the coexistence between two socially differentiated populations.

23rd

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Migration, occupational mobility, and regional escalators in Scotland


Maarten VAN HAM
Centre for Housing Research, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom maarten.vanham@st-andrews.ac.uk

Allan FINDLAY
Centre for Applied Population Research, School of Social and Environmental Sciences, University of Dundee, United Kingdom

David MANLEY
Centre for Housing Research, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom

Peteke FEIJTEN
Longitudinal Studies Centre-Scotland, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom This paper seeks to unpick the complex relationship between an individuals migration behaviour, their place of residence, and their occupational performance in the Scottish labour market between 1991 and 2001. We investigate whether Edinburgh has emerged as an occupational escalator region and whether individuals moving there experience more rapid upward occupational mobility than those living and moving elsewhere. Using country of birth we also control for an individuals propensity to make long distance moves during earlier periods of their life course. Using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study, linking 1991 and 2001 individual Census records, and logistic regressions, we show that those who migrate over long distances within, or to Scotland are most likely to achieve upward occupational mobility. We also found that Edinburgh is by far the most important regional escalator in Scotland. This is an important finding as most literature on escalator regions focuses on international mega cities.

Population turnover and perceived neighbourhood disorder


Hanneke POSTHUMUS
Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands h.posthumus@geo.uu.nl

Gideon BOLT Ronald VAN KEMPEN


The social inequality between neighbourhoods in cities is a long-standing concern to policy makers. Many scholars argue that one of the most fundamental causes of social inequality is perceived disorder. Perceived disorder is most common in highly dynamic neighbourhoods. Gentrification literature, however, shows that a high population turnover does not always result in stronger perceptions of disorder. The different effects of population turnover may be explained by the influx and outflow of different types of residents. Insight in the effects of changes of the neighbourhood composition on perceived disorder is however still lacking. Using survey data from five Dutch cities we therefore examine how the perceived in- and out-migration of different types of residents relates to the development of the perceived disorder in neighbourhoods. Special attention will be paid to the influx of ethnic minorities and outflow of natives since previous research showed that the ethnic composition of neighbourhood is an important determinant of the evaluation of neighbourhoods.

23rd

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How displaced residents experience their search process


Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands H.Posthumus@geo.uu.nl

Hanneke POSTHUMUS Reinout KLEINHANS Annelien MEERTS

OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

Each year, thousands of Dutch social renters have to deal with forced relocation from their dwellings slated for demolition. This is an essential part of Dutch urban restructuring policy in early post-war neighbourhoods. Usually, these relocatees have to find a new dwelling by themselves, facilitated with a priority status and an allowance for relocation costs. Their search process is quite different from regular house seekers in the social rented sector. On the one hand, the initial trigger is a top down force (i.e. a pending notice to quit by the housing association), although these residents may already have latent moving intentions. On the other hand, the priority status and other legal compensatory mechanisms may strongly favour their position on the housing market above regular, non-urgent house seekers. Additionally, several specific regulations further affect relocatees search process and outcomes in ways that are (potentially) different from regular house seekers. It is much debated whether the specific situation of forced relocatees affects their dwelling search in a primarily positive or negative way. Earlier studies on forced relocation mainly focused on either positive or negative outcomes of the search process. Moreover, most studies are of a quantitative nature, and the available qualitative research is often very small-scale. As such, the search process itself and relocatees personal experiences in this context are still under-examined. This especially applies to the trade-offs between opportunities and constraints with regard to dwellings and neighbourhoods. In this paper, we aim to reveal how the specific context and regulations of forced relocation (in urban restructuring) affect relocatees search process, choices and their perceptions of this process. We draw from a Dutch dataset of 150 in-depth interviews with relocatees in five cities. The interviews focus primarily on respondents relocation choices and the perceived opportunities and constraints.

Disabled persons and persons with migration background in social housing Possibilities - challenges - problems - chances
Housing Research Unit, The Scientific Academy of Lower Austria, St. Poelten, Austria georg.schoerner@noe-lak.at In living together between handicapped and non-disabled persons certain difficulties can arise (mostly for technical reasons). Something similar problems occur (however more from the social point of view) between humans with and without migration - background. Two studies (register numbers F-2167 and F-2187 of the Lower Austrian Housing Research Funds) partly examined the phenomena on empirical basis, pointed out solutions and suggested criterias, how - by different measures improvements could be done. Which approach has to be carried out to achieve a satisfying situation for all? From the questionnaires in the first study best practice models have been developed (2009). The presentation of the advantages of barrier-free buildings for all humans in the life cycle was discussed. Conversion - strategies pointed out possibilities and it is being considered to modify changes in the system of subsidies. In the paper the details of the final results will be discussed. The second study (still in work at present) deals with the fact that in the housing sector in Austria 18% and in Lower Austria 11% of the inhabitants has a so-called migration - background. In three municipalities in Lower Austria in social housing buildings it was examined, which problems could arise and how these can be solved. Also the role of the social housing companies and organizations were discussed and which improvement of the situation (e.g. with inter - ethnic conflicts) could be realizable. New activities like e.g. administrators in the housing management, who have knowledge or are native speakers with the mother-tongue of the persons with migration - background, furthermore the organization of house festivities, welcome meetings and garden parties, the promotion of the understanding among all people, the organization of German courses uvm brought great successes. In addition a detailed evaluation of the questionnaires was done, whereby the return quota reached nevertheless approximately 50%. In the context of the lecture the details and the recommendations derivable from the study will be presented in more details.

Georg SCHOERNER

23rd

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WORKSHOP 13
Poverty Neighbourhoods
Co-ordinators: Jrgen Friedrichs and George C. Galster

23rd

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Behind the front door: a new approach in urban renewal


OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands w.doff@tudelft.nl

Wenda DOFF

OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

Reinout KLEINHANS

Recently, Dutch urban renewal policies have witnessed a change in approach. Alongside physical upgrading, urban restructuring should deal with encountered individual/household problems to ensure that problems are not simply dispersed to other areas and promote the upward social mobility of residents. At the same time, the forced relocation of households gives housing associations and other urban renewal actors the opportunity to get behind the front door of their clients and offer them supportive services beyond basic relocating counselling. While the literature stresses the importance of such social assistance, little research has been done on the practice of this approach and the experiences of concerned households. In this paper we discuss two cases in which the new approach has been applied, namely the Experiment Integrative Relocation in Rotterdam Pendrecht and Taloir Made Care in Breda. We have interviewed both professionals and residents in order to study the ways in which integrative service delivery affects (former) residents of poverty neighbourhoods. By doing so, we also try to find out whether the new approach lowers the risk of the occurrence of negative spill-over effects, the so-called waterbed effects (i.e. the relocation of social problems connected to relocated households).

Neighborhood Effects on Secondary School Outcomes for Latino and Black Youth
Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA george.galster@wayne.edu

George C. GALSTER,

Mandel School of Social Science Case, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

Anna M. SANTIAGO

Department of Sociology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA

Jackie M. CUTSINGER

Despite the rapidly expanding social scientific literature that focuses on neighborhood effects on an array of child outcomes, numerous questions remain as to the magnitude of such effects and the mechanisms by which these effects transpire across developmental stages, gender and ethnicity. In this paper, we contribute to this literature by using a natural experiment in Denver to quantify the relationships between various measures of neighborhood context and secondary educational outcomes. Our analysis is based on a sample of 1,926 black and Latino children who resided in Denver public housing for a substantial period during their childhood. Data analyzed come from a large-scale survey of current and former residents of the Denver (CO) Housing Authority (DHA). DHA has operated since 1969 a large number of scattered-site public housing units located throughout the City and County of Denver. Because the initial assignment of households on the DHA waiting list to either scattered-site or conventional public housing developments mimics a random process, this program represents an unusual natural experiment holding great potential for overcoming selection bias in the measurement of neighborhood effects. The study collected information from: (1) 745 telephone surveys with current and former DHA tenants and (2) US census and local Denver administrative databases related to the characteristics of neighborhoods. The first source provides retrospective information on outcome variables and family characteristics. The second source provides a variety of neighborhood indicators measured at two spatial scales, so that neighborhood context can be richly operationalized in our multivariate statistical models. We find that a variety of outcomes at secondary-school ages are associated with several contemporaneously measured aspects of neighborhood environment, though relationships differ substantially by gender and ethnicity. We will discuss the implications of our findings for research and housing policy.

23rd

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Neighborhood Income Sorting and the Effects of Neighborhood Income Mix on Income: A Holistic Empirical Exploration
Lina HEDMAN
IBF, Uppsala University, Sweden lina.hedman@ibf.uu.se

George GALSTER
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI george.galster@wayne.edu We specify an econometric model in which an individuals income and the income mix of the neighborhood in which the individual resides are endogenous, thus providing a holistic model of phenomena that previously have been fragmented into neighborhood effects and neighborhood choice literatures. To overcome the biases from geographic selection and endogeneity, we estimate parameters of this model using instrumental variables in a fixed-effect panel analysis employing annual data on 90,438 working-age males in Stockholm over the 1995-2006 period. We find evidence of both neighborhood effect and neighborhood sorting, but more importantly, we find that the magnitudes of these effects are substantially altered when taking selection and endogeneity biases into account. When taking endogeneity into account, variations in income become more strongly positively associated with percentage of high-income neighbors chosen but less negatively associated with percentage of low-income neighbors, though both associations are stronger for higher-income individuals. The apparent effect of percentage low-income neighbors on personal income is not only altered (although still negative) but we find evidence of a non-linear relationship that is not seen when not controlling for endogeneity. Our results suggest that no negative effect exists when the share of lowincome neighbors is below 20 percent but becomes more substantial when it exceeds 50 percent.

Flourishing Together: Integrating Community Strategies into Youth-Violence Prevention in South-East Washington D.C.
Gerard MCCARTHY
Department of Government, University of Sydney, Australia gerard.tj.mccarthy@gmail.com In the context of diminished budgetary funding for social services in cities across the US, new models of funding community services are being explored that seek to revitalize high-crime areas whilst utilizing minimal financial resources. In this research paper, the utility of a coalition of non-profits for delinquency prevention in two large public housing projects in south-east Washington D.C is assessed using comparative data from various community stakeholders. Through a combination of qualitative content analysis of interviews, focus groups and assessment of available quantitative data, the paper provides insights into the impact of the community coalition on local youth behaviors, how the initiative has facilitated the development of new community leaders, and the impact of the grant upon local inter-stakeholder coordination. In the process, key issues emerge related to the management of grants for community-led transformation through collaboration between multiple stakeholders, providing lessons for public policy makers, non-profits, businesses and resident groups seeking to utilize local assets for social revitalization of large low-income housing estates.

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At home in the oasis. Sense of home and belonging in a middle class complex in a poor neighborhood
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands e.m.bosch@tudelft.nl

Eva BOSCH

OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands a.l.ouwehand@tudelft.nl

Andre OUWEHAND

In many deprived urban neighbourhoods in the Netherlands strategies are deployed to attract higher income groups from outside the neighbourhood. However, various ethnographic studies conclude that these higher income households moving to poor urban areas often remain symbolically and practically disengaged from the wider neighbourhood and its residents (Savage e.a., Watt). This paper focuses on the ways in which residents of a recently constructed middle class semi-gated community in a poor Rotterdam neighbourhood experience, value and perform boundaries between their dwelling domain and the neighbourhood around it. Survey data and in-depth interviews with the residents of the complex are used to investigate their place attachment, sense of home and sense of belonging in their new environment. Understanding how people can feel connected and disconnected to a neighborhood where income levels are much lower than their own, will help to assess the effects of mixing strategies.

Understanding selective mobility into and out of deprived neighbourhoods


Centre for Housing Research, University of St Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom d.manley@st-andrews.ac.uk

David MANLEY

Centre for Housing Research, University of St Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom

Maarten van HAM

There are a number of literatures that would benefit from a better understanding of selective mobility into and out of disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The first is concerned with housing choice: there is a large body of literature examining how households make housing choices in terms of what types of dwellings they access, but less is known about choice in relation to neighbourhoods. The second is concerned with socio-economic and ethnic segregation of neighbourhoods. And the third investigates neighbourhood effects. One of the greatest challenges in this literature is the identification of causal effects, which is seriously hampered by the impact of selective mobility on how individuals access certain neighbourhoods. This study will focus specifically on mobility into and out of disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Scotland. Those households who enter deprived neighbourhoods have little choice over the neighbourhood that they enter, either because of limited resources or other constraints, and once in a deprived neighbourhood many households find it difficult to leave. Using individual level data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS), we will describe mobility into and out of disadvantaged areas. We then model mobility outcomes to identify which individuals are most at risk of entering and which individuals are most likely to leave disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We contribute to our understanding of mobility in two ways. Firstly, using the importance of scale in neighbourhood outcomes we will use two conceptualisations of neighbourhood. Secondly, the study acknowledges the different ideas of disadvantage by proposing two measures: The first measure uses absolute disadvantage for outcomes across the whole of Scotland. The second uses relative disadvantage for outcomes within local housing markets. We demonstrate how neighbourhood selection plays a large part in increasing our understanding of apparent causal pathways behind neighbourhood effects, and suggest how the results of selective mobility studies can be integrated into neighbourhood effects estimation.

23rd

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A Social And Spatial Re-Structuring In Inner-City Residential Areas: The Case Of Istanbul
Archis Interventions SEE Network, Istanbul, Turkey demet.mutman@gmail.com

Demet MUTMAN Hulya TURGUT

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey. turguth1@gmail.com Urban environments have become the prime reflectors of social and economic change in the world today. Many investments are being done to reshape the cityscapes in means to increase the quality of life and to expand the opportunities for higher socio-economic uses. Either mixed-use residential areas or business zones did easily became gentrified spaces. Old town centers serve for the main tourist attraction, and the waterfronts are turned into modern gates of the cities. The projects are targeted to boost the economy and to help cities compete internationally. These changes surely exposes that the economics brings the rapid urbanization as well as the transformation processes. Consequently as the planning policies and the missions of decision makers appear to overlap, social segregation and spatial fragmentation is often exposed on sites. Like the cases elsewhere, globalization, internationalization, and the rapid flow of information have had a significant effect on the city of Istanbul and its people. In Turkey over the last twenty years, the disruptive quality of such restructuring processes has been exacerbated by the governments decision to embrace urban transformation as a tool to speed the countrys integration into the global economy. This article examines the process of social and spatial restructurings as called by the authors in inner-city housings of Istanbul as part of a larger phenomenon. Its particular focuses are gentrification and the process of regeneration by which historical housing districts are reclaimed through rehabilitation. The paper begins by developing a theoretical framework to highlight the multidimensional quality of urban transformation and gentrification. Dealing with this framework, this paper examines different implementation processes between two different projects in the city of Istanbul. It compares the approaches of two such efforts in Istanbuls Fener-Balat and Suleymaniye neighborhoods, both that are located at the historic peninsula of the city.

Neighbourhood Effects, Social Segregation and Social Mix: Assessing the Evidence in Australian Urban Renewal Policies
Southgate Institute for Health Society and Equity, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia Kathy.arthurson@flinders.edu.au

Kathy ARTHURSON

[g]ovts cannot make people like, talk with, or help their neighbours (Johnston 2008: 17). This seems a pertinent statement to start this paper with as the opposite rationale often underlies current support for urban renewal initiatives in Australia that are linked to the idea of neighbourhood effects. In this milieu policy makers and planners argue that there are benefits in thinning out spatial concentrations of impoverished tenants through lowering concentrations of social housing and developing mixed income communities with greater heterogeneity of residents across different housing tenures and income levels. This situation is touted as more beneficial for disadvantaged groups than where homogeneity dominates. This paper provides an overview of neighbourhood renewal policies in Australia, exploring the rationales underlying these policies, and the links made with the neighbourhood effects literature. It is argued that there are also some key implications of changes to housing tenure and socioeconomic mix that have been given little consideration in current debates. Revising the mix, for instance, may force residents with different lifestyles into closer proximity within the neighbourhood. The research findings suggest that such polices need to be implemented carefully if conflict between residents is to be avoided. Thus, the second half of the paper turns to a discussion of some of the more practical and unexpected consequences of the implementation of renewal policies at the local neighbourhood level, which have thus far received limited attention, especially in policy debates.

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Young Peoples Aspirations in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods: Evidence from three British cities
Urban Studies, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Keith.Kintrea@glasgow.ac.uk This paper aims to explore the relationship between young peoples aspirations in relation to education and employment, and the contexts in which they are formed. It seeks to explore how parental circumstances and attitudes, schools as institutions, and local opportunity structures come together to shape aspirations in deprived urban areas. It builds on a conceptual paper which was presented at ENHR Prague 2009. The idea that aspirations are a key to higher achievement and can be raised by public policy was a theme of many Labour government policy papers in the 2000s and has been continued by the Conservative-led coalition elected last year. The study was based on the premise that if there is a desire to incorporate aspirations into public policy there is a need to understand better the circumstances in which they are shaped. The paper presents data collected in a two-stage survey in three secondary schools in London, Glasgow and Nottingham, plus surveys of their parents and semi-structured interviews with school staff. The schools were used as a point of access to young people living in disadvantaged areas, set within three distinctive labour markets. We find that, contrary to expectations, aspirations among young people in the three locations are very high. The aspirations for education are generally to stay on in school education, take a clutch of exams and go to university, in far greater proportions than the number who are ever likely to attend. The aspirations for jobs are generally to get professional and managerial jobs, again in proportions far greater than actually exist in the labour market, especially in the local authority areas on their doorsteps. However, there are also important differences between the three contexts, with the lowest aspirations being found in white working class Nottingham and the highest among a largely migrant community in London. The findings are a challenge to the picture that has often been drawn by politicians and policy makers of a problem of low aspirations among young people from disadvantaged areas. But at the same time they raise important questions, in one of the developed worlds least socially mobile societies, about whether and how such high aspirations can be achieved.

Keith KINTREA

Are poor educational and employment outcomes related to poor accessibility of schools and jobs? Reanalyzing MTO results in Chicago
GeoDa Center for Geospatial Analysis and Computation, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA julia.koschinsky@asu.edu

Julia KOSCHINSKY

Emily TALEN
Promoting affordable housing in sustainable communities that are accessible, walkable, connected, dense and diverse to help improve tenant outcomes has become a central urban priority of the Obama Administrations housing agencies. At the same time, research on sustainable urban form and neighborhood effects has been conducted in parallel with little overlap. This paper starts to close the gap between these literatures by reanalyzing data from the largest federal randomized control trial on neighborhood effects in recent years, the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment. It addresses the question whether the lack of improvement in job and school outcomes in this experiment is related to a lack of accessibility to jobs and schools in low-poverty neighborhoods. We apply 1994-2000 Tier 1 MTO data for Chicago and focus on several interesting aspects of the initial 2000 MTO outcomes: 1) neither employment nor education outcomes improved as a result of a move to low-poverty neighborhoods; 2) many tenants frequently moved from their initial low-poverty neighborhoods back into higher poverty areas; and 3) a potential mismatch between higher socio-economic status and lower school and job accessibility, especially in outlying areas. We conduct the analysis in two parts: One, an exploratory part that assesses the extent of accessibility of schools, jobs and other key destinations across MTO tenants moves. We then extend this analysis through a statistical model that builds on Clampet-Lundquist and Masseys (2008) specification and takes into account how long tenants resided in different neighborhood environments. We regress employment/education outcomes in 2000 on baseline results, individual characteristics, and accessibility subscores for neighborhoods tenants resided in until 2000. By helping to identify a broader set of neighborhood measures related to tenant outcomes, this analysis has policy-relevant implications, e.g. for housing voucher counseling, the siting of affordable housing, and place-based initiatives.

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Tenure mix, neighbourhood characteristics and crime rates: Evidence from Glasgow
Urban Studies, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom mark.livingston@glasgow.ac.uk

Mark LIVINGSTON Ade KEARNS

Urban Studies, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

Urban Studies, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

Jon BANNISTER

Policies on social mix are wide spread across Britain and Europe where mix is perceived as having a number of benefits, especially for those in lower socio-economic groups. In Britain policy in this area has been focused on increasing social mix in the most deprived areas. The mechanism which has been used to affect this change in social mix has been changing tenure structure. One of the benefits of increasing mix is thought to be a decrease in crime and antisocial behaviour as a result of increasing collective efficacy and positive peer influence. However, there is little evidence, as yet, of the benefits of tenure and social mix on crime or antisocial behaviour. This paper aims to add to this debate and reports on research which examines the association between neighbourhood and structural characteristics (including tenure) crime rates in Glasgow. The research used data on tenure from the census and the council tax register from two years (2001 and 2008) and crime rates from the same time period at a neighbourhood level (datazones: average population of 600 people). The study models crime rates with a number of area structural variables including: population composition, tenure structure, built form and area deprivation. The results have number of implications for policy on social mix and for neighbourhood policy in general.

The New Stigma of Relocated Public Housing Residents: Challenges to Social Identity in Mixed-Income Developments
Naomi BARTZ
Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, USA mark.joseph@case.edu

Mark JOSEPH

Robert CHASKIN
Mixed-income housing is an urban revitalization strategy that is being increasingly implemented across Europe and the U.S. The strategy of mixing incomes and tenures on the footprint of large public housing estates is meant to attract residents with higher incomes back to neighborhoods that have been socially and economically marginalized while maintaining affordable and public housing for lower income residents. It is hoped that, through this strategy, social mobility can be promoted among former public housing residents and the local neighborhood economy and infrastructure can be revitalized. Public housing residents have long experienced stigma as members of a social underclass. By deconcentrating poverty and integrating residents into developments in which their residences are indistinguishable from neighbors, mixed-income housing seeks to reduce the stigma associated with residency in traditional public housing. Through in-depth interviews with relocated public housing residents and observations at three mixed-income developments in Chicago, we find this is not the case. Stigma associated with living in public housing is ameliorated, yet residents report that their experience of stigma has intensified in other ways. The negative response of higher-income residents, along with stringent screening and rule enforcement, amplifies the sense of difference that many residents feel in these contexts. We demonstrate that this new form of stigma has generated a range of coping responses as relocated public housing residents seek to maintain eligibility while buttressing their social identity.

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Physical activity and mental wellbeing in deprived neighbourhoods


Philip MASON
Urban Studies, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom phil.mason@glasgow.ac.uk

Ade KEARNS
Urban Studies, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom ade.kearns@glasgow.ac.uk Many studies indicate that people who do regular physical activity have better mental health and wellbeing than those who are inactive. Additionally, relatively low levels of both physical activity and poor mental health are found in areas of high deprivation. The relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing specifically in deprived areas has been less thoroughly studied, however. This is of particular relevance in circumstances where urban regeneration programmes offer opportunities for creating environments that may enhance both physical activity and mental health. We address these interrelationships using data from around 4,500 respondents living in 15 deprived neighbourhoods of Glasgow, UK areas that undergoing different types of restructuring. Measures of physical activity were obtained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ), while mental wellbeing was measured on the Warwick-Edinburgh Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS). We examine these outcomes against a background of personal, residential, neighbourhood and community characteristics and perceptions.

Neighbourhood effects on school achievement mediated by problematic behaviour and parenting


Jaap NIEUWENHUIS
Urban Geography department, Utrecht University, the Netherlands j.nieuwenhuis@geo.uu.nl Neighbourhood research on social outcomes often comes to the conclusion that not all the neighbourhood level variance was explained, and that the included individual and family characteristics explain more than the included neighbourhood characteristics. This leads to the proposition that important characteristics are missing in current analyses, and that these characteristics perhaps should be found on the individual and family level. It is possible that the remainder of the neighbourhood level variance can be explained by including the individual and family level characteristics, on the condition that the neighbourhood has an indirect effect on educational outcomes, trough these characteristics. We propose two mediating factors: parenting strategies and problematic behaviour. First, using the family stress model, we predict more stress and poorer mental health for parents living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, which influences their child rearing behaviour in such a way that it is less supportive, consistent, and involved, and more hostile and coercive. And second, a lack of social control in disadvantaged neighbourhoods and the influence of deviant peers, may lead to more problematic behaviour, such as aggression and substance use. Both poor parenting and problematic behaviour may create vulnerability of youth in accumulating the social capital needed to achieve social mobility. In this paper we predict the effect of the neighbourhood on high school achievement to be mediated by parenting and problematic behaviour. We test this using the HBSC data of 2009 (N=2991), in which adolescents are surveyed about their behaviour and relationships with friends and parents, and additionally, their parents are interviewed about their child and their parenting. This data is combined with the Real Estate Monitor, which includes information on a wide variety of topics on the neighbourhood level, such as neighbourhood resources, institutions, real estate value, and demographics.

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Limited diversity? Representation and reputation of diversity in a disadvantaged neighbourhood


Andre OUWEHAND
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands a.l.ouwehand@tudelft.nl

Eva BOSCH
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands e.m.bosch@tudelft.nl Social mixing, although a contested concept, has a prominent position in strategies to enhance the quality of life in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. But how is this policy being implemented when developing houses for better of households under market conditions in a neighbourhood with a weak reputation? What kind of social mix or diversity is being expressed? What is the role of branding in these processes and which lifestyles are being addressed? In this paper we focus on a project in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, developed to attract a higher income group from outside the neighbourhood using ethnic diversity as an asset of the architectural and spatial characteristics of the project as well as an asset of the neighbourhood. Which assets of the project have been most convincing for buyers to take the risk of investment in a neighbourhood with a weak reputation, which guarantees have been offered by the developer to make the risks acceptable for them? What is the impact of homogeneity in class for the heterogeneity in ethnic characteristics? What is the impact of lifestyle and what are the limits to diversity? We use survey data, interviews with professionals and in-depth interviews with the residents of the complex to analyse how diversity is being represented, constructed and perceived.

Evaluation of Urban Regeneration Policy: the case of Neighborhood Law in Catalonia (Spain)
Montse SIM
Department of Sociology, University of Barcelona, Spain msimo@ub.edu Poverty and social exclusion are related terms. Although both concepts have different meanings, in some neighborhoods, people who are living there have a risk of social exclusion. This risk is not only provoked by economic factors, such as low incomes, unemployment, high dependency of social subsidies, etc. but also other social, physical and environmental factors. Neighborhood Law (la Llei de Barris, 2004) is an urban regeneration policy that promotes an integral regeneration process in these areas to avoid urban deterioration and improve the conditions of life of residents. The main objective of this communication is to present an evaluation of the results achieved through the implementation of this policy in Catalonia (Spain). Moreover, evaluation could be a good instrument to test the changes in well-being of the residents after these interventions program. In particular, the proposal aims to analyze if the policy has provoked a turning point in the deprivation process to which the neighborhood was affected. The methodology has a global and integral character due to the complexity of the problem, multiple actors and actions involved. Summarizing, the paper shows up to what extent the policy has contributed to slow down social and spatial segregation of these places.

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The Effects of Urban Restructuring on Social Contacts and Leisure Activities of Youth. A case study in Utrecht, The Netherlands
Kirsten VISSER
Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands kirstenvisser@geo.uu.nl

Gideon BOLT
Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

Ronald VAN KEMPEN


Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands In many Dutch cities urban restructuring policies are adopted aimed at creating a social mixed population in deprived neighbourhoods. Low-cost, social rented dwellings are demolished and new, more expensive housing is constructed. As a consequence residents of these neighbourhoods are forced to move. While research generally shows that the households that were forced to move report improvements in dwelling conditions and to a lesser extent in neighbourhood conditions, little is known how moving affects the social contacts and leisure activities of youth. Did they loose friends or did they have to quit their leisure activities after moving and were they able to make new friends and adopt new activities again in their new neighbourhood? Therefore, this paper provides insight in the programme effects of urban restructuring on the social contacts and leisure activities of different categories of youth and will look at whether these effects prevail in the long run. The research has taken place in Utrecht, the Netherlands. We compare the situation of forced movers over the last ten years with a control group of voluntary movers and non-movers. The findings indicate that in the short run after moving the youth that was forced to move experienced a loss of social contacts and decreased their leisure activities but that in the long run they were able to catch up again with the control group that was not forced to move.

Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation: What is the concern for poverty neighborhoods?
Scott BAUM
Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia There has been a long understanding between notions of well-being and human security and the lives of people and households in deprived communities. As a growing area of inter-disciplinary research, climate change and understanding how communities might adapt to change will become one of the increasingly important research areas for those interested in understanding the place of poverty neighborhoods in contemporary times. Like all social, economic and environmental issues the impacts of climate change are not evenly shared within and between urban areas. Indeed, many of the social and economic characteristics associated with disadvantaged neighborhoods are closely implicated with understanding the potential negative impacts of climate change. The work by Clark et al. (1998, 62) captures the importance of understanding the social dimensions of climate change: The crux of vulnerabilityis as follows: people stand to experience impacts from hazards of global change in varying degrees that fall along a spectrum from positive to negative, based on their position in the social and physical words. It is within this context, in which this paper is based. It presents contextual and empirical findings from a case study of the South East Queensland region in Australia focusing on the importance of understanding the implications of climate change vulnerability for poverty neighborhoods

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Attitudes between residents of five distinct ethnic groups: the impact of neighbourhood disorder and ethnic neighbourhood composition
Esther HAVEKES
Department of Sociology / ICS, Utrecht University, The Netherlands e.a.havekes@uu.nl

Karien DEKKER
Department of Sociology / ICS, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

Marcel COENDERS
Department of Sociology / ICS, Utrecht University, The Netherlands In times of growing ethnic diversity and ethnic tensions there is a need for a better understanding of ethnic attitudes within urban neighbourhoods. Studies on ethnic relations have investigated the influence of the share of ethnic minorities in a neighbourhood on prejudicial attitudes of majority residents (e.g., Pettigrew et al 2010; Wagner et al 2006). However, they disregarded the deprived socioeconomic and physical environment in which residents commonly interact. The social disorganization theory (Shaw & McKay, 1969) states that particularly these visible elements of neighbourhood disorder affect residents attitudes. Research, indeed, indicates that residents of disorderly neighbourhoods report lower levels of trust, satisfaction and feelings of safety (e.g., Ross et al, 2000, 2001). Previous attempts remain inconclusive, though, on the influence of neighbourhood disorder for attitudes between members of various ethnic groups in a neighbourhood. This paper examines the relationships between neighbourhood disorder, ethnic neighbourhood composition and attitudes between members of five ethnic groups in the Netherlands, i.e., Turks, Moroccans, Surinamese, Antilleans and native Dutch. We perform multilevel analyses on the 2005 survey Life Situation of Ethnic Minority City Residents (LAS 2005; N=4,097), covering 1,435 neighbourhoods in the 50 largest cities in the Netherlands. Outcomes contribute to existing literature in two ways. Firstly, we analyse the relative impact of the ethnic composition and neighbourhood disorder for ethnic attitudes. Particularly, we test the argument of the racial proxy thesis (Harris, 2001), which states that unfavourable ethnic attitudes may derive from the frustration with local problems in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, rather than the actual presence of other ethnic groups. Secondly, we differentiate between various ethnic subgroups inhabiting a neighbourhood. We examine to what extent the relationship between neighbourhood disorder and ethnic attitudes depends on the particular structure of a neighbourhoods ethnic makeup, e.g., the relative size and type of ethnic groups. We argue that the response to bad neighbourhood conditions may include aversion to neighbourhood residents of other ethnic groups in general, and to specific subgroups in particular.

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WORKSHOP 14
Welfare Policy, Homelessness and Social Exclusion
Co-ordinators: Isobel Anderson, Evelyn Dyb and Joe Finnerty

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Routes to safety for homeless victims of domestic violence in England


Anna CLARKE
Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge, United Kingdom acc44@cam.ac.uk

Gemma BURGESS
Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge, United Kingdom Domestic violence is a major cause of homelessness in England. Many victims approach a local authority for help with housing. The paper discusses the homelessness legislation in England, which requires local authorities to assess whether people without children who lose their homes as a result of domestic violence are vulnerable in order to be considered to be in priority need for housing assistance. The research found that the vulnerability legislation is ambiguous and local authorities often find it difficult to apply in relation to domestic violence. Housing Options services have been developed extensively in the UK over the past five to ten years with a focus on preventing homelessness and addressing it with a wider range of solutions, including greater use of the private rented sector. The research explored the impact of the use of Housing Options services on the way victims of domestic violence who become homeless are assisted by local authorities. It found that Housing Options services have had mixed results. In some local authorities the service has improved the assistance provided; in some it has simply meant that cases that would previously have been recorded as homeless acceptances are reclassified as homeless preventions, even though the same help may in fact be provided; and in some areas the service has had a negative impact for domestic violence victims and has been used by local authorities to gatekeep and avoid meeting their legal duties.

Changes in Irish Homeless Policy: What next for homeless people with a high level of needs?
Niamh MURPHY
Respond! Housing Association, Dublin, Ireland. niamh.murphy@respond.ie With the aim of ending long-term homelessness and the need to sleep rough in Ireland, a range of policy documents and evaluations on homeless services have been published over the last number of years, culminating in the publication of the Pathway to Home implementation plan in 2009 and the Pathway to Home: new configuration of homeless services in Dublin 2010. This paper sets out to analyse the change in policy direction in the context of homelessness models ranging from linear or staircase to the housing first model and places Ireland as best it can within the framework. The new Irish policy will be critiqued in relation to the international research on these models and their positive and/or negative effects on shortening the homeless careers of the most vulnerable homeless people. At first glance Ireland seems to be moving towards a housing first model of provision. However, a closer look at the Support to Live Independently (SLI) scheme shows that it is only aimed at those with a low to medium level of needs. Therefore, it appears that those with the highest level of need, such as active drug users and people with significant mental health difficulties, are still using a service that is more closely aligned with a staircase model rather than housing first. As the reconfiguration of homeless services is still underway, the full effects will not be felt for a number of years. However, it is possible to make recommendations in relation to the Pathways approach currently being implemented, in order to ensure that the most vulnerable benefit from the reconfiguration of services in terms of obtaining and maintaining independent homes.

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Evaluating homeless service interventions: towards an integrated framework for linking processes and outcomes
Sharon PARKINSON
Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia sharon.parkinson@rmit.edu.au

Guy JOHNSON
Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

Y. TSENG
Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, University of Melbourne, Australia Greater emphasis on evidence-based practice within social policy interventions has increased the need for programs aimed at preventing and alleviating homelessness to demonstrate their overall benefit in terms of cost-effectiveness and the difference they make to the lives of those participating. The Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT), most traditionally associated with a medical model of evidence-based practice, has long been considered the benchmark for determining the overall effectiveness and efficacy of a particular treatment. While the RCT is becoming increasingly applied to the evaluation of complex social interventions, including homeless service responses, many studies relying on this approach have neglected to explain how the various service elements and activities implemented in these programs bring about positive outcomes for clients. This paper presents the evaluation methodology of the Journey to Social Inclusion (J2SI) pilot program which provides long-term (3 years), intensive support to 40 people experiencing chronic homelessness. Our aim is to illustrate how some of the weaknesses inherent in studies focusing on outcomes alone can be minimised through the application of a well integrated process-outcomes evaluation framework. In the paper we first outline the J2SI model. We then discuss the approach and ethical implications associated with the random assignment of 88 chronically homeless clients to either the J2SI program or a service as usual study control group whom are both followed longitudinally over the duration of the three year trial. Some preliminary baseline data are presented on the profile of participants in the J2SI and study control groups. The paper concludes with a discussion of how service process elements will be matched to the longitudinal study of client outcomes.

Irish homelessness policy at a crossroads


Joe FINNERTY
School of Applied Social Studies, University College Cork, Ireland j.finnerty@ucc.ie Irish homelessness policy currently stands at a crossroads: the ambitious national policy targets set for 2010 in relation to rough sleeping and use of hostels have not been achieved, and the deepening fiscal crisis of the Irish state threatens to undermine policy achievements to date. This desk-based policy review will explain the evolution of Irish homelessness policy, review relevant theory and research, and assess the prospects for directions in policy, provision and population impacts going forward.

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Public spaces development in Lyon (France) and Barcelona (Spain): a successful strategy against social exclusion and urban poverty?
Universit de Lyon / ENTPE (CNRS 5600), France fatiha.belmessous@entpe.fr

Fatiha BELMESSOUS

Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, Spain Teresa.Tapada@uab.cat Todays main focus on urban renewal projects has been partly on creating and managing the public spaces of cities. They have been at the centre of debates concerning the privatization of space, the disputed nature of public spaces and the various ways in which they can be designed and developed. Barcelona and Lyon, both European metropolises, have been concerned by the interventions in public spaces as a cornerstone of urban revitalization strategy. The experience in Barcelona has been taken up as a successful example by the municipal government of Lyon. Some parallels can be drawn in the light of these cities focusing on the interventions on public spaces at different levels within the city centre and peripheral large scale housing estates: On a city-wide level intervention: In Barcelona the goal is to regenerate the urban core through esponjament through selective demolitions, combined with a monumentalisation of the periphery. In Lyon the so-called dveloppement social urbain is about the interventions in the large scale housing estates combined with the improvements of the city centre spaces. As for the political discourse: In both cases the interventions are implemented to reach social justice and inclusion through urban development tools. On the level of people: their use of the public spaces as well as their involvement in their design are taken into account. The paper is based on a research in progress about the effects of the urban renewal in Lyon and Barcelona. We suggest opening a critical debate by questioning some concepts (social mix, social cohesion, gentrification and segregation) in order to tackle the nature and the meanings of public space policies referring to them.

Teresa TAPADA BERTELI

Homeless Resocialization Policy in Russia


National Research University High School of Economics, Protvino, Moscow Region, Russia akollegova@mail.ru This paper will attempt to describe the main changes in the resocialization policy which was implemented during the last 3 years (from 2008 to 2010). There are two key issues on this way. First of all, there is no official strategy or support program which could be approved by authorities on the national level. The "Prevention of vagrancy and social rehabilitation of persons with no fixed abode, occupation and livelihood" draft bill had been prepared by 2008 and still has not been approved, keeping the state care system for the homeless still just within the realm of discussion. Secondly, Russian society is faced with the growing problem of homeless stigmatization and violence to them. In fact, mass media form the distorting image of BOMZH and extrapolate their imperfections, in affect appealing to character defect as a justification of their condition. The homeless are generally faced with indifference and hostility from ordinary people. However, organizations which help the vulnerable and at-risk do exist and work in practically every major Russian city. We can point to a wide range of such organizations: NGO, charity funds, religious organizations, municipal and territorial state bodies. Due to these and other factors, the main challenge now for public authorities is the reanimation of the process of legal regulating the homeless status on the national level. The design and implementation of complex programs that will promote tolerant attitude towards vulnerable and homeless people is also important. NGOs and other organizations in Russia which take part in nongovernmental care of the homeless have rich experience not only in formulating effective policies of rehabilitation (documents renewal, employment assistance, food service, etc.) but also in overcoming peoples hostility. Therefore official policymakers are well advised to engage in close dialogue with such organization as experts in solving this very serious problem.

Anna KOLLEGOVA

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Housing quality and affordability in Flanders (Belgium) compared internationally


Sien WINTERS
HIVA - Research Institute for Work and Society, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium sien.winters@hiva.kuleuven.be

Marja ELSINGA
Belgium is a federal state with three regions. Since 1980, housing policy belongs to the responsibilities of the regions. Flanders is the largest of the three Belgian regions and one of the most prosperous regions of Europe. From former research we know that housing quality and affordability in Flanders are good on average, but that for a significant fraction of the population the constitutional right to decent and affordable housing is not realized. In this paper we add to this research an international perspective. By making use of EU-SILC data and available housing statistics we compare housing quality and affordability in Flanders to other regions and countries. The paper concludes with some hypotheses that aim at explaining the observed discrepancies. Of major importance is that owner-occupied housing in Belgium already for a long time is a pillar of the welfare state. However, a large number of households that do not have opportunities or do not want to invest in own housing, are left out in the cold.

Is informal housing promoting social mixit? French poverty squats


Florence BOUILLON
Centre Norbert Elias, Centre de la Vieille Charit, Marseille, France florence.bouillon@gmail.com This communication aims to analyze the dynamics of socio-spatial mixit through the prism of poverty squats. Several hundred squats of this kind can be found in large French cities. They are buildings occupied by homeless people and new immigrants without authorization from the owner. Whereas cultural and artistic squats have often been described in the sociological literature as promoting gentrification, we shall question the effects of the presence of poverty squats on socio-residential variety. We shall proceed in three steps. We will first argue that squats, following the example of the other forms of interstitial housing, are hospitable housing environments. They allow poor populations to live in the valued parts of big cities and therefore improve social mixit. We will then discuss the impacts that public policies concerning urban rehabilitation and insalubrity have on squats. Based on examples drawn from two large French cities (Paris and Marseilles), we shall show that these urban policies lead to the removal of squats to the suburbs and therefore promote segregationist dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss the squatting actions led by right to housing associations. By illegally occupying prestigious buildings located in the richest neighborhoods of big cities, these collectives emphasize the political character of the squat, and the link between the fights for housing rights and for the right to live in the city.

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Housing First: A new approach?


Guy JOHNSON
Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia guy.johnson@rmit.edu.au

Sharon PARKINSON
Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

Cameron PARSELL
University of Queensland, Australia In 2008 the Australian Federal Government set out a policy framework to end chronic and street homelessness. The Government white paper emphasised the importance of bold new ideas and evidence based approaches to achieve that goal. The US Housing First model was widely seen by Australian policy makers and practitioners as an innovative means to provide sustainable housing solutions for people experiencing chronic homelessness. Principles of the Housing First approach are now being widely implemented in Australia. Although Housing First has been credited as an evidenced based practice, to date there has been little critical scrutiny of its overall efficacy. Further, Australian advocates and policy makers have given insufficient consideration to matters of transference or to implementing the model true to its evidence-based form. We have two aims in this paper. First, to critically examine the literature and assumptions that support the Housing First approach. Secondly, we consider the applicability of a Housing First approach to the Australian context: Australias housing, welfare and health systems differ in profound ways from those in North America. Focusing on national housing and homelessness policy, we demonstrate some of the opportunities and barriers that implementing Housing First principles to Australia represents.

Awareness of European processes to promote social inclusion


Heidrun FEIGELFELD
Vienna, Austria hf@srz-gmbh.com Within the broad fields of policy and measures to be taken for combating poverty and social exclusion in Europe, securing a socially sustainable housing situation remains key. European Union level social policy targets represent a commitment of the Member States to integrate their national policies into this wider framework, to provide good practice examples for other countries, but also to test national programmes and achievements in this European context. Increasingly, housing issues are included into those targets. For this goal, the EU provides a common process the 'Open Method of Coordination' (OMC). The responsibility to communicate this context to the national to local fields responsible for social and welfare policies and to raise awareness lies with national institutions. However, the level of awareness and acceptance of this process itself is widely unknown. This paper aims to address this gap by presenting results from a survey carried out among policy responsible and people working in the field on an administrative or NGO level in Austria in 2010. An Austrian EU-funded project (AURORA plus) has provided the framework for this activity, especially the access to the relevant groups, and the opportunity to publish the results in a broader context. Also, in Austria the past 2010 European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion has increased visibility for these European aims. The paper will show the level of awareness of various current EU and related national activities, of inclusion of Austrian national actors into the processes, and their support for policy recommendations given by the EU to the Austrian government. In addition, it will discuss the framework of the new 'Europe 2020 Strategy', the 'European Platform against Poverty and Social Exclusion' and first policy recommendations addressed to these levels, e.g. via the European Consensus Conference on Homelessness.

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Comparing homelessness policy and provision in Europe: evidence from Ireland, Scotland and Norway
Isobel ANDERSON,
School of Applied Social Science, University of Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom Isobel.anderson@stir.ac.uk

Evelyn DYB Joseph FINNERTY


School of Applied Social Studies, University College Cork, Ireland While many European countries have developed national homelessness strategies, comparative empirical studies of homelessness policy and practice across European countries remains relatively rare. This paper examines developments in homelessness policy and provision in a comparative context with a view to assessing how effectively different national approaches to tackling homelessness can be compared from available evidence. The introduction reviews comparative approaches to theorizing European welfare states and homelessness, and explains the papers focus on Ireland, Scotland and Norway. The main body of the paper compares homelessness across the three countries in relation to: (a) the definition and measurement of homelessness (b) the profile of homeless people in the three countries (c) changing homelessness policy and housing options for homeless people and (d) available evidence of the effectiveness of national homelessness strategies. The concluding section provides a comparative analysis of progress in tackling homelessness in relation to the approaches to welfare in Ireland, Scotland and Norway. It also reflects on the quality of the available evidence base for comparison and identifies possibilities and challenges for future empirical research and for the potential for wider comparisons across Europe.

Homeless people in urban public space of Lithuania


Vita KARPUSKIENE
Vilnius University, Lithuania Vita.karpuskiene@ef.vu.lt The main goal of this paper is to assess the public space accessibility by homeless in Lithuania, and especially to find out if the main areas where homeless people concentrate and spend most of their time are changing in time. The first part presents an historical overview of inherited attitude from XIX to XXth century of Lithuanian people to the homeless, beggars and other marginal groups. The second part is devoted to the national and local legislation of public space. It concluding that officially homelessness is tolerated everywhere, except certain representative areas of bigger cities, where special regulations outlawing homelessness sometimes exist. This chapter also lists certain penalties and measures that can be applied against homeless if they disturb public order, or cause danger because of health reasons. The third part describes the pilot survey Unwelcome people in the Public Space insights from. The results of the survey show that different places are preferred by beggars, vagrants and homeless. The forth part looks into agents of control and mechanisms of deterrence. It finds that main agents of control police, security guards, workers of specific businesses or private citizens are most active in different locations. Police is dealing with homeless in the most public places squares, railway stations. Security guards and workers are taking care of their company spaces, and private citizens are most active in their apartment buildings. This chapter also discusses such deterring mechanisms as fencing and locking, as well as, video surveillance.

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Economic transfers among homeless migrant workers in Brussels and Oslo


Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Warsaw, Poland mmostowska@yahoo.com In the first part of the paper I look at the various definitions of informal, black, parallel or street economy. I distinguish between the formal economic definitions and anthropological definitions that are grounded in the experience of the studied societies or groups. Next I depart from a concept proposed by Karl Polanyi (1957), who distinguished three main forms of economic integration: reciprocity, redistribution and market exchange, to analyze how different forms of economic integration acquire unity and stability of various groups. I argue that economic definitions of informal economy are not suitable for the description of transfers, mutual help and gifts homeless persons engage in. Monographs of homeless and deprived groups show that the boundaries between the formal and informal sectors are constantly negotiated in daily practices of various actors (Duneier 2000; Venkatesh 2006; Hjdestrand 2009). The informal is often ascribed to the members of stigmatized populations rather than because of the nature of the economic acts themselves. The problem is not only with the distinguishing between formal and informal economies but also with the distinction of economic and non-economic activities (Morales 1997). In the second part of the paper I focus on the material gathered in the course of fieldwork among Polish migrants living on the streets in Brussels and Oslo. The economic transfers they engage in may be seen as adaptation to the conditions in which they had found themselves. I focus especially on the daily practices, the different ecology of the street and institutional context in the two cities studies (for instance price and availability of alcohol and drugs) to show how those economic practices may be viewed as adaptations to the local context. The economic transfers homeless migrants take part in enable them to get by on the streets but at the same time make it more difficult to extricate from homelessness.

Magdalena MOSTOWSKA

Tensions in Care and Containment: Amsterdams homeless policy against an international perspective: a historical and contemporary overview
Vu University Amsterdam, Faculty of Social Sciences & City of Amsterdam, Department of Housing and Care, The Netherlands N.F.Boesveldt@vu.nl A study of existing literature and public administrative documents on the Dutch and Amsterdam Homeless Strategy has led to hypotheses for a further study of the 2011-2014 period. This paper provides an overview of the contemporary field of Amsterdam Social Relief, the administrative responses to homelessness developed from 1979 until the present day and its policys theory (a set of normative and empirical positions). Early findings show that, remarkably, the successes of the Dutch Strategy on homelessness, are recognized and shared broader than in the Sector of Social Relief itself. In introductive publications on Governance and Chain collaboration, I actually found references to the Homeless Strategy as being an example of effective administrative intervention, a solvable social problem and an area in which professionals succeed in working together. The different phases that describe policy processes (such as agenda setting, Bovens e.a., 2007) are integrated into a model for Chain collaboration (Van Delden, 2009), so that the underlying political and social dynamic, preceding the current strategy, is reconstructed. In the 2011-2014 period further refinement of the policy takes place. For example; Medicalization of the Sector of Social Relief, before, brought in welcome National Health Insurance funding. This provided for the expansion, differentiation and improvement of services. These are available to homeless persons with considerable Public Mental Health Needs. Lighter cases with social work instead of care needs, should be able to organise their own support, which can be obtained from different municipal windows. This is in line with current cut backs in funds for the guidance of lighter psychosocial needs. However, in order to get help, the homeless person is required to acknowledge his/ her individual support need, whilst this challenges an important trigger for homelessness; withdrawal from helping professions. Does this pose a serious threat to the success so far?

Nienke BOESVELDT

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The tackling against the homelessness in Japan has not lead the preventive measures but invited cruel and heartless business for the homeless people
Yoshihiro OKAMOTO
School of Business and Public Policies, Chukyo University, Nagoya, Japan yokamoto@mecl.chukyo-u.ac.jp The homeless provisions in Japan is only a tackling against rough sleeping at the public spaces such as parks, river banks, streets and stations. Although the formal number of rough sleepers is decreasing in 2003 and afterwards, those who live in temporary accommodations, such as those who pass by the Internet cafe, 24-hour stores (a restaurant, a bookstore, etc.), trains and so on, and the number of free or low fee lodgings is increasing. Although the number of public assistance receipt household is increasing every year, socially vulnerable groups' occupancy status has not improved. Although the focus of the homeless policy in the UK has shifted to preventive measures from the tackling against homelessness, the measure against the homeless in Japan did not bring about a radical effect, but the poverty business which used social security benefits as the guide overran it, and the homeless persons are content with the miserable life. Precious social resources are the present condition which was not utilized effectively but has repeated waste. This cause is considered through comparison with the homeless policy in the UK from the view point of cooperation with the homeless policy, the housing policy, and other policies, or cooperation of social resources.

Housing accessibility versus housing affordability: Introducing universal housing care


Richard SENDI
Urban Planning Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia richard.sendi@uirs.si The events of the last five years, sparked off by the global financial crisis which broke out in the US in 2007, have shown that housing affordability policies that have been popularly promoted in many countries in the past, may no longer be adequate to guarantee housing accessibility. Key questions are arising, for example, on how to solve the housing problems of a growing number of young people who cannot, or find it very difficult to find employment after completing education (recent studies show a steady growth in the so-called hotel mamma phenomenon in several European countries). There is also a search for efficient measures to deal with housing problems that arise after people lose employment and, not being able to find a new job quickly, become incapable of paying housing rent or servicing their mortgage. In the paper, we argue that the issue of housing accessibility is increasingly becoming acute as a consequence of the gradual abandonment of welfare state policies that occurred in many European countries during the last two decades or so. Against the background of a review of the major housing provision policies, we propose that the welfare state housing care system needs to be urgently resuscitated. We suggest that the resuscitation of the welfare state requires primarily shifting the emphasis from housing affordability (the catchword of recent neoliberal housing policies) to housing accessibility. We argue that affordability does not necessarily guarantee accessibility. In conclusion we also propose that the resuscitation of the welfare state should be complemented by the introduction of a universal housing care system along the principles of the universal health care system, which many developed countries take pride in.

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Taking our houses: Perceptions of the impact of asylum seekers, refugees and new migrants on housing assistance and availability in Victoria, Australia
Angela SPINNEY
Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia aspinney@swin.edu.au

Amy NETHERY
Faculty of Arts and Education, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia Homelessness is a large and pressing issue in Victoria, Australia, which is largely caused by a shortage of affordable accommodation. This paper examines one explanation for the housing shortage put forward by research participants of a qualitative Australian Research Council funded study. These interviewees were mainly single parent headed families who were, or had recently been, homeless. Some raised concerns that asylum seekers, refugees, and migrants score higher than themselves on welfare agencies priority lists for housing assistance. Others felt that these groups of people generally compete unfairly with them in a very tight housing market. Associated with these perceptions were discourses concerning migrants taking our houses; accommodation they felt should rightfully be made available to Australians. These were unexpected and unintended results which arose from semi-structured interviews intended to explore perspectives on identity, as clients and citizens, during the families periods of homelessness. Views on immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees were not specifically sought, and were therefore an unexpected research finding. This has led the authors to seek to understand the reasons for their comments. To this end, discourse analysis of the interview data is used in this paper to illustrate how public and political discourses circulating at the time of the interviews, may have influenced their views. The paper also discusses to what extent xenophobia in the Australian community has links with feelings of economic insecurity.

Housing: the deviant pillar of the welfare state


Mark STEPHENS
Urban Studies, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK mark.stephens@glasgow.ac.uk

Guido VAN STEEN


This paper examines whether the distributional consequences of contrasting welfare regime types are enhanced, replicated or countered by housing systems in England and the Netherlands. We adopt the monetised concepts of net housing income and resources, which are commensurable with disposable income and income-based measures of poverty. Both housing systems exert a poverty-reducing impact compared to disposable income alone. The absolute reduction is greatest in England suggesting that its housing system counters the high levels of income poverty produced by the welfare regime, though the comparative levels of poverty between the two countries remain unchanged suggesting replication. Our synthetic concept of housing poverty powerfully reveals that the poverty-reducing impact of housing income occurs because housing poverty falls predominantly among those who are not income poor. Welfare and housing systems therefore combine to reduce overall poverty in an act of progressive dissonance. The housing system thus emerges as a deviant and independent pillar of the welfare state.

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Housing and social exclusion in a comparative perspective (Hasec)


Harald STOEGER
Institute for Social and Societal Policy, University of Linz, Austria harald.stoeger@jku.at The paper outlines the framework and (preliminary) results of a comparative research project on social exclusion in the realm of housing. Referring to current theoretical discourses on housing systems/regimes and social exclusion we analyse the process of social exclusion itself. This requires the examination of housing biographies that are defined as the sequence of dwellings a household occupies during life. Exclusion is understood as a process of deterioration of the housing conditions during housing biographies. Furthermore, exclusion is structured, since the direction of housing biographies depends on the interference of macrostructural and individual factors. Hasec hypothesizes that individuals become particularly prone to social exclusion processes in the housing markets, if they are affected by economic and labour market crisis, household breakdown, shrinking social networks and health problems. Related to the macro-level, the type of housing provision presumably influences the way in which these risks shape housing biographies. This macrostructural hypothesis is tested by varying the housing market context. We selected three housing systems (conservative, universalist, liberal type), which differ according to the tenure structure and the housing policies. In particular, a strengthening of the market forces (e.g. through privatisation, the promotion of home-ownership and the deregulation of rents) is expected to increase the risk of social exclusion in the realm of housing. Since housing systems have strong repercussions at the local level, field work is conducted at the city-level in selected neighbourhoods. Methodologically, it is intended to conduct observations, a survey and expert-interviews with housing politicians and gatekeepers in the housing markets. Data is analysed by various quantitative and qualitative methods.

The Socio-spatial Transformation of Yeni Sahra Squatter Settlement in Istanbul


Aytanga DENER
Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, stanbul, Turkey aytanga@gmail.com The informal housing issue was included into the agenda of Turkey in the second half of the 20th century. In late 60s and 70s, squatter (gecekondu) settlements became a great problem for the big cities. The outskirts of cities were crowded with the houses built by their owners -mostly the people migrated to the cities because of socioeconomic factors pushing them out of their villages and towns whereas job, health and education possibilities appealing towards- with substandard materials and without sufficient infrastructure on either state or private lands. This paper focuses on the socio-spatial transformation in Yeni Sahra Squatter Settlement occurred in 40 years in regard to the changes in Istanbul. Today, 20 000 people including the pioneer groups from Black Sea Region, settled in 60s and the newcomers live in this area. The neighborhood is composed of low quality buildings along the curved, narrow streets which grew vertically and horizontally in years. I argue that the squatters cover an important amount of the low cost housing demand while their residents provide cheap labor force for the city industry in this way. The inhabitants are content of living together with their relatives and being able to sustain their cultural values. However, these settlements constitute the base of the socio-spatial duality and conflicting life situations in Istanbul. The current situation of the poverty neighborhoods versus governmental housing policies and urban transformation projects needs to be examined from an alternative view point. This paper is based on direct observation, photographic and cartographic documentation, technical measurements, interviews and published materials, relevant articles in local newspapers and websites.

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WORKSHOP 15
Housing & Living Conditions of Ageing Populations
Co-ordinators: Marianne Abramsson, Camilla Ryhl, Siri Ytrehus and Sarah Hillcoat-Nalltamby

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From suburb to central location residential mobility among elderly


Marianne ABRAMSSON
NISAL, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linkping University, Sweden marianne.abramsson@ivs.liu.se

Eva ANDERSSON
Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Sweden eva.andersson@humangeo.su.se In Sweden an assumption is that older people today, and in particular the baby boomers, are more willing to change residence to accommodate for changing life-styles and poorer health when ageing, than was the case for earlier generations. Often this will include a move from a suburban location to a central location. In interview studies and the popular debate this would suit the idea of modern older people taking part in the culture of the city centre, such as museums, concerts and theatres. There are qualitative and survey studies pointing to such a residential mobility trend among seniors but quantitative tests are to a large extent lacking although increased mobility rates among young seniors has been shown. The aim of this study is to examine, in three case municipalities, if older people leaving owner occupation in the suburb move to apartments in more central locations. The analysis is made using a register database, Geoswede, comprising the total Swedish population. Moves of the cohorts born in the 1920s, 1930s and the 1940s are followed between 2001 and 2006. Most elderly in Sweden are stayers (75%). However, it can be concluded that in three municipalities a centralized mobility pattern can be observed. Mobility and residential patterns of the studied cohorts will impact planning issues as they constitute two out of nine million people in Sweden.

The residential changes during old age; how life transitions affect the timing of relocation choice?
Celia FERNNDEZ-CARRO
Centre dEstudis Demogrfics, Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, Spain cfernandez@ced.uab.es Traditionally, the emotional attachment that elderly feel about their homes and the economic and health burden that suppose a residential move for older people has provided disincentives to mobility. Even though this static general trend, almost 15% of older Europeans change their residential location after 65. Moreover, some studies point out that this percentage will increase in the coming decades with the onset of baby-boom cohorts reaching older ages. Thus, using some Life Course Approach concepts as theoretical framework, this proposal aims to explore how extent some later life transitions as retirement, widowhood or changes in health status can unleash a residential movement on later life stage. The main objective of this paper is measure the risk of a residential move during old age taking into account other events in different life domains as family, work and health. This analysis will enable the identification of different trends by sex and possible international differences of how later life transformations push elderly to adjust their residential context to their living needs. Under the question what life domain transformations trigger residential mobility at older ages? this proposal aims to deepen the knowledge of the causes of relocation choices at older ages. The data for the analysis will be drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE project). Due to this source provides longitudinal and retrospective data an event history analysis in planned. At the same time, the different modules of this survey provide the necessary information to link the life events offering a wide view about the timing of the elderly residential changes.

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Growing old in urban environment - cities and neighbourhoods in older people narratives
Lucie GALANOV
Institute for research on social reproduction and integration, Faculty of social sciences, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic galcanov@fss.muni.cz The paper is based on the research project Ageing in the environment: regeneration, gentrification and social exclusion as new issues in environmental gerontology (2010-2012) which strives to understand how nowadays urban processes shape the experience of growing old and how ageing of population influences urban environment. Here we present results from focus groups discussions and individual in-depth interviews with older community dwelling residents of central parts of three biggest Czech cities: Prague, Brno and Ostrava. These cities in Central Europe went through major changes in last two decades that shaped not only social, economic, and political environment, but deeply influenced also their built environment. In our presentation we focus on how do the participants of our research perceive and experience these changes and how do they cope with the changes in their neighbourhoods. The city is by the communication partners considered a good place for growing old, as important services, like shops, GPs/hospitals and transportation are usually available in the vicinity. At the same time older people are aware of profound changes in the lived environment of their cities in the last 20 years and they are very heterogeneous in perception of those changes, and reaction to them based on their postcodes, socioeconomic and health status or mobility. One of the main issues emerging from the transcripts is disparity between feelings of growing otherness of their living environment (the city is not ours, [the new neighbours are] strangers, complete strangers; they have nothing in common with us) with persisting willingness to stay put expressed in individual life strategies. The concluding discussion raises question whether and how different forms of regeneration of the cities create risks of real as well as symbolic exclusion of older people and how these are heterogeneously incorporated into older people narratives.

Developing Seniors Housing through Joint Ventures


Arto HUUSKONEN
School of Engineering, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, Finland arto.huuskonen@tkk.fi Seniors housing has attained an increasing attention during the 21st century. Both the public sector authorities as well as private companies in the European countries aim to develop new housing solutions for serving the growing number of elderly citizens. While the public sector aims to cut down expenses of municipal social and health care services, including geriatric services, the private sector housing and service producers aim to occupy new businesses by offering housing concepts appointed to the elderly. However, little standardized models have so far been introduced for offering public or private seniors housing concepts, or a mixit of these. Particularly, the modes of cooperation within and between the public and private actors have remained unclear. This paper studies cooperation practices when producing new seniors housing concepts. The paper presents three recent seniors housing joint ventures, one public, one private, and one mixed, in the Finnish housing sector. The cases are analyzed with a network management framework, including formation of cooperative relations, relationship structure and governance, as well as alliance performance. Empirical evidence for the study was collected from the participating public and private sector actors with open-ended and semi-structured interviews during winter and spring 2009 and 2011. The findings suggest that seniors housing concepts are build on close cooperation, or alliances between housing and service producers. Alliance performance, in terms of the extent of service offering and actor satisfaction, is promoted by mutual goalsetting, concept design, and decision-making, as well as continuous interaction between the actors during the implementation of the development project. Contradictory, lack of mutual understanding on the actors goals and unilateral decision-making may impede the performance of an alliance. The paper discusses managerial implications about conditions and procedures in housing joint ventures, and offers implications for future research concerning network management in the housing sector.

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Changing housing schemes for an ageing society: Emerging issues and design solutions
National Research Council, Construction Technologies Institute, Roma, Italy l.biocca@itc.cnr.it

Luigi BIOCCA

National Research Council, Construction Technologies Institute, Roma, Italy a.morini@itc.cnr.it The increasing ageing population in the EU brings along new demands in the housing stock. Solutions meeting social changes are continuously under development as regards to home layouts, tools and linked services for enhancing independence. This paper illustrates some emerging and innovative housing schemes that better suit the purpose of ageing-in-place. Some selected case studies will point out at: - neighbourhoods impact on the older persons lifestyle; - innovative design solutions; - indoor design quality (safety, accessibility, usability, adaptability); - smart technologies, tools and devices for home routines, independence in daily activities performance and services packages. In particular, an overview on the Italian situation will disclose new housing programs and measures for accommodating older tenants more safely and comfortably.

Annalisa MORINI

Cities and demographic change: space reconsidered and the future of social housing estates in Trieste
Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione, Politecnico di Milano, Italia massimo.bricocoli@polimi.it

Massimo BRICOCOLI

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Architettura, Universit degli Studi di Trieste, Italia emarchigiani@units.it

Elena MARCHIGIANI

Significant ageing processes are affecting many regions across Europe and are significantly changing the social and spatial profile of cities. In Italy, the increase of the elderly population is highly remarkable in urban areas and specifically in council housing estates. In these significant parts of our cities, the effects of those dynamics seem to be more visible then elsewhere in terms of growing and changing demand for social and health support and services and in new needs and expectations with reference to the spatial organization of the indoor and outdoor living spaces. Very often indeed the proposed solutions reveal the difficulties in tackling the complexity and extensiveness of the problem in terms of re-orientation of public action at the local level. The Trieste case represents an exception in the Italian context and is closer to some more frontline international experiences,. Supporting the autonomy of the elderly and allowing ageing at home has been set as a policy objective in opposition to institutionalization of the elderly in specialized nursing homes. The arguments for this orientation are grounded in the impoverishment of social quality and to the effects in terms of reduction of individual capabilities produced by institutionalization, as well as in the excessive costs that institutionalized nursery homes imply for public finance. In Trieste, targeting conditions that allow people to age at home has been stressing the need of redesigning and reorganizing living environment. Based on intensive field work and on the outcomes of several graduate students workshops and research projects we developed, we intend to contribute to the discussion with the original and innovative hints that the case study is offering to the Italian and European debate on housing and urban change.

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Characteristics of an age-friendly neighborhood built environment: comparing age-friendly community models with empirical evidence
Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Tcnica de Lisboa (FA-UTL), Lisbon, Portugal ccachadinha@netcabo.pt

Carla CACHADINHA Joo PEDRO

Laboratrio Nacional de Engenharia Civil (LNEC), Lisbon, Portugal jpedro@lnec.pt Over the last years the concept of an age-friendly community has raised significant interest among international organizations and governments who have set ageing in place as a policy goal. These organizations have developed age-friendly community models that incorporate aspects of the natural, built, and social environment and aim to optimize opportunities for quality of life in old age. According to these models, mixed-land use increases older persons independence, social interaction, safety and physical activity and is therefore an important attribute of an age-friendly neighborhood. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the characteristics of an age-friendly neighborhood built environment, providing a review of the literature and identification of empirical evidence in this area, with an emphasis on the importance of urban diversity (mixed-land use). To achieve this goal, the physical characteristics of an age friendly neighborhood were identified and their importance for older neighborhood users discussed through literature review of different models of age-friendly communities. These characteristics, based foremost on the experience and opinions of older residents, were then compared with empirical research that investigated the role of the neighborhood on older persons independence, social participation, mobility, physical activity and health. Although the models that represent an age-friendly community had some differences, there was congruence regarding the following physical characteristics of an age-friendly neighborhood: 1) diversity, namely variety of appropriate housing options and a wide selection of services, retail, recreation and transportation options within convenient proximity to older persons home; 2) accessibility of buildings and outdoor space; 3) safety; 4) familiarity and sense of place; 5) comfort and pleasantness. These characteristics can serve as principles to set out recommendations for the design of age-friendly urban neighborhoods.

The Social Migration Effect Toward Population Aging The Application of Perstons Rate of Change of a Populations Mean Age Improvement Model in Taiwan
Department of Urban Planning, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. chingyichen@alumni.ccu.edu.tw

Ching-Yi CHEN

Department of Urban Planning, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. yj_chen@mail.ncku.edu.tw

Yen-Jong CHEN

Population aging is one of the most serious demographic issues that Taiwan faces. Therefore, we explored the causes of population aging in regions and the effect of those causes on aging. Then we employed Prestons rate of change of a population's mean age to analyze the demographic structure from 1996 to 2009 in Taiwan and discovered that low birth rate was the main contributor to population aging in Taiwan. However, social migration does lead to lowering of mean age in some regions. Further, we applied panel data regression model to discuss the effect of social migration on rate of change of a population's mean age and found that social increase rate, percentage of employment of service industry, number of profit-making business, and average housing area are significantly negatively correlated, meaning that socio-economic development in some regions stimulate the immigration of young people or emigration of the elderly people, resulting in the decrease of mean age. As results suggested, the government should encourage childbirth and foster local socio-economic development to balance changes in demographics.

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Housing asset-poor older Australians


Val COLIC-PEISKER
Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI), RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia val.colic-peisker@rmit.edu.au

Gavin WOOD
Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI), RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia gavin.wood@rmit.edu.au In an ageing society the economic wellbeing and housing of older people are becoming increasingly pressing issues. As the caring role of family has diminished, and the welfare state has retreated over the past decades, the wealth accumulated during working age has growing importance to the wellbeing of older Australians. Australia has an extremely dynamic housing market and homeownership is the primary wealth-accumulation method for a majority of people. Therefore, those who are asset-poor in later middle age (55+) and retirement age (65+) are typically life-long renters or those who dropped out of homeownership. The transition out of homeownership is usually precipitated by events such as divorce and unemployment, which erode housing equity accumulated over peoples housing careers. Our quantitative analysis of panel data shows that those who have recently lost homeownership have a much higher likelihood of subsequently needing housing assistanceeither in the form of social housing or rent assistancethan long-term renters, which is an important policy consideration. Our qualitative analysis, based on in-depth interviews, explores various current or anticipated housing solutions of older Australians, the ways they cope with asset poverty and their views on existing housing policy.

Enclave or engage? Mixity and housing choices in an ageing Society


Bruce JUDD
City Futures Research Centre, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia b.judd@unsw.edu.au

Catherine BRIDGE
City Futures Research Centre, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Like Europe, Australia has an ageing population with the percentage of people 65 and older expected to double, and those 85 and older to quadruple, in the first half of the 21st Century. Appropriate housing for older people is often stereotyped as the retirement village or the residential aged care institution (popularly referred to as nursing homes) when in fact the vast majority of older people remain living in regular single storey, detached, 3 or more bedroom housing in the general community until death or the very late stages of life. This is encouraged by government policy which over recent decades has progressively stepped up support services for older people in the home to include even those with dementia. This raises questions as to how well current housing and neighbourhood environments are able to support ageing in place, facilitate health and wellbeing, and encourage social and economic participation. Recent metropolitan urban policy and strategic planning in Australia are also advocating transit-oriented development with a hierarchy of mixed use centres mixed in terms of land use as well as social characteristics presumably inclusive of an increasing number of older people. Healthy planning principles are also being advocated with the aim of increasing participation for a wider range of the population. There is evidence also that the post war baby boomers who are now entering the aged cohort are less disposed toward age-specific housing enclaves. In the light of these trends, this paper will explore the perspectives of older people concerning the merits of age specific enclave living versus integration in the general community based on two recent studies funded by the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. The implications of these findings for future ageing, housing and planning policy, and for the development industry, will then be discussed.

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Discussing the emergence of alternative housing in Japan


German Institute for Japanese Studies, Tokyo, Japan godzik@dijtokyo.org In the last few years alternative forms of housing have emerged in Japans cities being based on sharing parts of the living space between a number of people not (only) related by family ties. These houses are home to e.g. different generations with older people and nuclear families being only two possible subgroups within the larger number of residents. Similar developments can be observed in the field of elderly day care and homes for people suffering from dementia: Being organized partly outside the official welfare system (which is perceived as being not flexible enough) these small scale, personnel-intensive homes are tailored to the individual needs. In stark contrast to opulent pricey senior residences offered by commercial providers as well as to conventional institutions such as old peoples homes, the emergence of these alternative housing although still small in number seems to respond to a growing desire of residents and organizers to escape (perceived) isolation and to form small size communities which gives them a feeling of security. It reflects a particular social development, which is characterized by the declining role of the traditional family as well as the lack of welfare provision by the state within in a situation of rapid demographic change and increasing social inequalities. Based on onsite research and interviews with residents and organizers of communal forms of living the paper discusses the emergence of alternative housing in Japan against the background of recent social and urban developments.

Maren GODZIK

Getting old in a gentrified area: the cases of Minimes and Marengo neighbourhoods in Toulouse
Sociology, LISST (CNRS), University of Toulouse II-Le Mirail, Toulouse, France

Monique MEMBRADO Marc PONS

Sociology, Maison de linitiative, Toulouse, France

Geography, LISST (CNRS), University of Toulouse II-Le Mirail, Toulouse, France rouyer@univ-tlse2.fr This paper draws on a comparative survey on the situation of older people in inner-city neighbourhoods affected by gentrification in Toulouse and Montreal. The common research question was: how and to what extent do the process of gentrification enhance or decrease social exclusion of older people? Our paper is organized in two parts. First, we will show how the research question requires in the French context -echoing a current debate in France- to clarify the description of the socio-spatial process at work in the studied neighbourhoods (Marengo, Minimes). We will give a quick overview of the dynamics of urban revitalization that these neighbourhoods have experienced in recent years as well as of the public policies that frame them. INSEE statistics are used to describe the nature of the social change observed in the studied areas. We shall then demonstrate that in many aspects, the elderly do not entirely fit the image of the "excluded" population generally associated with gentrification processes This doesnt mean, however, that older people in those neighbourhoods do not suffer from exclusionary practices or do not feel excluded. Sociology of Aging invites us to consider both sides of urban experiences of elderly: perceptions of older people are shaped by concrete changes in the city, but also affected by their individual aging. The paper focus on this aspect in the second part of our presentation.. This work is based on the analysis of a corpus of interviews conducted with older people (over 70 years) living in the two Neighbourhoods.

Alice ROUYER

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Adapting the home or adapting to the home?


Sylvie RENAUT
Direction des recherches sur le vieillissement (DRV), Caisse nationale dassurance vieillesse (CNAV), Paris, France

Jim OGG
Direction des recherches sur le vieillissement (DRV), Caisse nationale dassurance vieillesse (CNAV), Paris, France jim.ogg@cnav.fr The planning of effective policy measures that promote ageing in place depends in part upon good quality data on the existence of housing adaptations, accessibility and new technologies among older populations. Many large scale surveys include questions that aim to measure the needs of older people in terms of housing adaptations, the knowledge they have of the help that is available to them, and the use of technologies in the home. This paper reports the results of a French research project designed to explore the validity and reliability of closed questions in surveys that deal with these issues. A small sample of participants in a national health and disability survey (HSM/HSA 2008) living in Northern France and in Paris were re-interviewed in 2010 (n=32). Using a semi-directive questionnaire, the qualitative interviews were designed to explore extensively the respondents response to changing life situations in the context of their home and locality. The results show the large gap between needs and equipment available, the process by which older people with disabilities adapt to their home surroundings, and the limits of closed survey questions designed to measure the existence and use of adaptations, aids and new technologies.

Ageing in place and independent living in question


Sarah HILLCOAT-NALLETAMBY
Centre for Innovative Ageing, College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Wales, United Kingdom S.Hillcoat-Nalletamby@swansea.ac.uk

Jodie CROXALL
Centre for Innovative Ageing, College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Wales, United Kingdom European policy makers increasingly emphasize the importance of facilitating ageing in place for older people as a means of ensuring their wellbeing and preservation of a sense of personal independence. This policy drive stems partly from research showing that older peoples preferred option is to live at home for as long as possible rather than moving to other types of supported or assisted living environments. It therefore becomes increasingly difficult to question the premise that the home environment is best suited to meeting later life needs. This paper offers a critical perspective to the ageing in place paradigm by questioning its cornerstone the notion of later life independence. We undertake this by examining how the notion of independence can have diverse meanings and represent quite different experiences for older people living in three different residential settings in Wales (UK) - extra-care facilities, residential homes and private dwellings in the community. We present a conceptual framework informed by literature about the meanings older people attribute to independence which we then use in the analysis of qualitative interviews (N = 184) completed as part of the Welsh study: Extracare: meeting the needs of fit or frail older people?. The study focused on older peoples care needs in each of the three residential settings. We interpret findings in relation to theories of structured dependency and humanist, post-modern perspectives which argue for the diversity of meanings and experiences in later life.

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The relationships of living arrangement and the life satisfaction for the elderly people A discussion for four regions in Taiwan
Department of Real Estate Management, Kunshan University, Taiwan mayc2110@mail.ksu.edu.tw

Shu-Mei CHEN Pei-Shyuan LIN

Department of Land Economics, National Cheng Chi University, Taiwan 98257503@mail.nccu.edu.tw For the coming of aging society, the issues of the life satisfaction for the elderly are very important. The extended family was the traditional family type which the senior parent and their children can live together and have reciprocal relationships between the two generations. Are the seniors still satisfied with living with their children, no matter in urbanized or rural region? Based on the unbalanced development among four regions in Taiwan, this study intends to explore the life satisfaction degree for the elderly among the four regions in Taiwan. The gaps of social resources and local economy performances between the urbanized region and rural region would make different social support systems, and then the environments affect the living arrangement decisions for the elderly. Further the life satisfaction would be the results of the interactions between the living arrangement, health condition, economic status, social support and their childrens economic status. The data of elderly Situation Survey by the MOI in Taiwan is analyzed, and this study estimates the life satisfaction regression model in the empirical study. Six hypotheses are examined. This results of this paper show that if the existing living arrangement is living with children and matching the ideal one for the elderly, the seniors are healthier, got more sufficient living expense and more social supports, they will have higher life satisfaction degrees. Some urban and rural differences issues are discussed. The policy implications can provide some useful suggestions on the relative family and welfare policies for the elderly.

Housing an ageing population: more of the same or something different?


The Urban and Regional Studies Institute (URSI), Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, The Netherlands P.A.de.Jong@rug.nl

Petra A. DE JONG Aleid BROUWER

The Urban and Regional Studies Institute (URSI), Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, The Netherlands

In the year 2011, 16 percent of the Dutch population will be aged 65 and older. By the year 2040 this figure will rise to approximately 25 percent. As the population ages, it will have a profound impact on much of life as we know it. One of the biggest challenges is to provide proper housing conditions that correspond with the diverse housing preferences of the elderly. In order to respond accurately to this challenge we need to develop a further understanding of demographic trends and the growing diversity within the older population. The aim of this research project is twofold. The first aim is to provide more insight in the behaviour of elderly on the housing market. The second aim is to contribute to a better grounding of housing policy with respect to the growing diversity within the older population. In the research project a quantitative and qualitative approach is combined. The growing diversity in the behaviour on the housing market of elderly is analyzed by using data of the WoON survey. The analysis of housing preferences of elderly is based on a carefully constructed survey in which several residential profiles are formulated. The results of this survey will be analyzed by using a conjoint analysis. This should result in the identification of different segments within the elderly market. The qualitative analysis focuses on the housing preferences of the different elderly market segments. By re-examining the housing preferences of elderly in focus groups it should be possible to match housing products to each of the mature housing market segments.

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Older peoples experiences of social exclusion in two changing Montral neighbourhoods: The case of Petite-Patrie and Lower Notre-Dame-de-Grce (NDG)
Centre de Recherche et dExpertise en Grontologie Sociale (CREGS), Montreal, and McGill University, School of Social Work, Qubec, Canada victoria.burns@mail.mcgill.ca

Victoria BURNS

Centre de Recherche et dExpertise en Grontologie Sociale (CREGS), Montreal, Quebec, and McGill University, School of Social Work, and Universit du Qubec Montral, cole de Travail Social, Montral, Qubec, Canada jean-pierre.lavoie.cvd@ssss.gouv.qc.ca

Jean-Pierre LAVOIE

Institut National de Recherche Scientifique, Centre Urbanisation, Culture et Socit, Montral, Qubec, Canada Damaris_Rose@UCS.INRS.Ca

Damaris ROSE

Immediate environment becomes increasingly important with age because older peoples social networks and daily routines are more restricted in space (Oswald, et al., 2005). Also, aging in a familiar environment increases the feeling of security and sense of self among older people. Consequently, Aging in Place has become a burgeoning topic in gerontology. Yet few studies have considered what occurs when neighbourhoods undergo change. Although some studies have explored aging in deprived neighbourhoods, little is known about the daily lives of seniors aging in gentrifying neighbourhoods (Phillipson, 2010). Drawing on concepts of social exclusion, displacement and place, this qualitative study sought to fill this gap in the literature. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 autonomous seniors aged 60 years and above and 10 key informants, in two contrasting neighbourhoods: 1) Petite-Patrie, a rapidly gentrifying neighbourhood; 2) Lower Notre-Dame-de-Grce (NDG), a disadvantaged neighbourhood. Our study revealed complex and unexpected impacts of neighbourhood change. Gentrification triggered processes of social exclusion among older adults, while some changes in a disadvantaged neighbourhood reinforced social inclusion. The results stress the strategic importance of spaces dedicated to seniors. In Petite-Patrie the loss of senior clubs led to social disconnectedness, invisibility and loss of political influence on neighbourhood planning. In NDG, despite reports of increasing deprivation, the recent construction of a community centre was unanimously recognized as a positive addition, and brought forth feelings of inclusion and cohesion. Recommendations include the necessity of maintaining spaces dedicated to seniors in order to promote their visibility and inclusion.

Moving in time: is this a recommendable concept? - the study on the composition of the timing to move into elderly housings
Tokyo Kasei University, Department of Humanity and Science, Tokyo, Japan matsuoka@tokyo-kasei.ac.jp The purpose of this paper is to explore the composition of the timing to move into elderly housings and to investigate whether the action of moving in time contribute the subjective well-being of older persons. One-to-one interviews were carried out towards 88 residents in 6 elderly housings in Japan, and the 4 elements which compose the timing to move into elderly housings were extracted; 1) The occurrence of accident which caused the disability 2) Having alternative housing option or not 3) Active consideration for best housing 4) Strong confidence in the housing Following these 4 elements, the interviewee were divided into 4 groups; too late group, late group, preventive group, well considered group. The subjective well-being score of these 4 groups were counted by PGC morale scale, which showed a significant difference among these 4 groups. Moving in time to the elderly housings was verified as a recommended concept. In Japan, however, this concept is not yet familiar among older persons. Moreover, we do not have enough elderly housings for moving in time in Japan. I would like to think about how we can make this concept popular and develop the place for moving in time.

Yoko MATSUOKA

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WORKSHOP 16
Minority Ethnic Groups and Housing
Co-ordinators: A. Sule zekren and Gideon Bolt

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Making american public housing revitalization succeed: preventing and countering neighborhood negative spillover effects
University of Cincinnati, School of Planning, Cincinnati, USA david.varady@gmail.com

David VARADY

OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands r.j.kleinhans@tudelft.nl

Reinout KLEINHANS

In recent years, the United States and several European countries have witnessed substantial public/social housing revitalization programs, which attempt to improve the prospects of distressed communities and their residents. Where there is ample research into the effects of such programs on both target neighborhoods and individual residents, far less attention has been devoted to unintended program (negative neighborhood spillover) effects outside target neighborhoods. For example, does crime increase and school test scores go down? This issue is especially relevant for revitalization programs which require substantial relocation of residents from public or social housing slated for demolition. The most notable American example is the HOPE VI program. Many American politicians, policymakers and citizen activists fear that the relocation of public housing residents, with housing vouchers, simply moves social problems and nuisance to other areas. Relocatees often recluster in already fragile neighborhoods where they continue to struggle with poverty and deprivation and to cause nuisances and conflict in their new living environment. This paper aims to review the literature concerning negative neighborhood spillovers connected to four voluntary housing mobility programs: Gautreaux (Chicago), Thompson (Baltimore), Walker (Dallas), and the Moving to Opportunity Demonstration (five cities). Our conceptual framework for examining negative neighborhood spillovers in receiving neighborhoods draws from George Galsters work on poverty concentration thresholds. Although these four programs involve voluntary moves - in contrast with involuntary relocation in HOPE VI - a great deal may be learned from them because of (1) efforts in the voluntary programs to forestall resistance in destination neighborhoods of program movers and (2) special counseling and supportive programs provided to ease adjustment into low-poverty and low-minority areas. The present paper builds upon our forthcoming International Journal of Housing Policy article which reviews the literature on neighborhood spillovers associated with forced moves resulting from HOPE VI and the Urban Restructuring Policy in the Netherlands. Our review suggests that screening out multi-problem families, limiting the number of housing voucher families moving into particular neighborhoods, and providing both pre- and post-relocation counseling to displacees can minimize negative neighborhood spillovers. Whether these strategies could be implemented given Americas fiscal crisis and fragmented metropolitan governmental structure remains uncertain.

Explanations for inter-ethnic differences regarding immigrants' preferences for living in ethnic enclaves or in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods
Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Horsholm, Denmark hsa@sbi.dk

Hans SKIFTER ANDERSEN

There are large differences between the settlement patterns of different ethnic groups. One explanation for this is that different groups have been more or less successful immigrants resulting in differences regarding their economic integration and resources, which have lead to differences in their housing and neighbourhood preferences and options. Another is that some immigrants, especially the less integrated, for different reasons have specific preferences for living in neighbourhoods with an ethnic network they can rely on, so-called ethnic enclaves. It has earlier been shown that different immigrant groups in Denmark to a different extent have preferences for living close to family and countrymen or for living in so-called multi-ethnic neighbourhoods, where there are few Danes but many other ethnic groups. In this paper It is examined how variation in preferences and neighbourhood choice between different groups can be explained by their ethnic background, their social integration, their resources and the strength of their feelings of belonging to their country of origin as described by the concept of diaspora.

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The meaning of contact between ethnic groups in the context of ethnically mixed neighbourhoods
Aafke HERINGA
Department of Human Geography & Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands a.heringa@geo.uu.nl Many policy makers and researchers emphasize contact between residents with different social and ethnic backgrounds as one of the many benefits of social mixing in neighbourhoods. It is believed that this inter-group contact leads to more social cohesion in society, ethnic integration and bridging ties and social capital for marginalised groups. However, what is meant by contact is rarely defined. What does this contact with neighbours and members of other (ethnic) groups consist of? Contact has many shapes and sizes, ranging from intensive to extensive, formal to intimate, non-verbal to verbal, physical to non-physical, from positive to negative and therefore may not always bring all the social benefits ascribed to it. In this paper we try to clarify the meaning of contact in the context of ethnic mixing in neighbourhoods by presenting results from qualitative fieldwork, consisting of focus group and individual interviews in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Developing integrated estates in Northern Ireland


Florine BALLIF
Institut dUrbanisme de Paris, Universit Paris-Est Crteil, France florine.ballif@u-pec.fr Northern Ireland bears high levels of segregation, even stronger in the public sector housing. The Northern Ireland Housing Executive is a Non-Departmental Public Body, established by the Housing Executive Act (Northern Ireland) 1971. Under this Act, the NIHE took over the housing responsibilities of 65 separate authorities and became Northern Irelands overall housing authority. The NIHE is a major actor in the Northern Ireland housing market; and policies concerning its stock can have a significant impact on communities, even if, its ability to control its housing stock has diminished because some of its housing has passed into private ownership under the right-to-buy initiative. During the Troubles, as it was for public bodies, the search for neutrality resulted in a lack of accountability and a quasi non existent participatory process involving local communities in housing issues. Nevertheless, since the Peace Agreement signed in 1998, the NIHE policies have been developed towards communities on housing services and the issues that affect local neighbourhoods. Through the Housing Community Network, the NIHE is developing the Community Involvement Strategy, to take on board communities aspirations. The Community Re-imaging Programme funds local and individual initiatives, the Community Safety Strategy is a three year strategic plan established to address crime. The new Community Cohesion Unit implement Race relations and Good relations (i.e. towards the 2 main conflicting identities, Catholic and Protestant). The Building of Good Relations through Housing policy supports the wider Shared Future agenda for Northern Ireland through a community led approach, the Shared Neighbourhood Programme. This paper aims at assessing these new strategies of mixing in the NIHE policies, after decades of conflict which hindered the development of such processes.

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New housing development, selective migration patterns and the segregation of minority ethnic groups in the Netherlands
PBL, Netherlands Environmental Assesment Agency, The Hague, The Netherlands sanne.boschman@pbl.nl

Sanne BOSCHMAN

Dutch policymakers perceive concentration and segregation of minority ethnic groups as a problem. Urban restructuring programmes try to achieve more mixed neighbourhoods in terms of income and ethnicity by building more expensive and owner occupied dwellings in deprived concentration neighbourhoods. At the same time large scale new housing estates are built with mostly expensive and owner-occupied dwellings. In this paper the focus is on the effect of newly built dwellings, both in restructuring areas and in new housing estates, on the selective migration patterns of minority ethnic groups and the consequences of these patterns on ethnic residential segregation. Newly built dwellings attract high income households, therefore building new dwellings in deprived neighbourhoods decreases income segregation, while large scale new housing estates increases income segregation. The effect of newly built dwellings on ethnic residential segregation is, however, more ambiguous. Newly built dwellings in deprived concentration neighbourhoods attract relatively high shares of native Dutch from elsewhere. At the same time, however, these newly built dwellings keep people from minority ethnic groups within concentrated neighbourhoods who otherwise would have left these neighbourhoods to newly built dwellings elsewhere. The effect on ethnic residential segregation is therefore mixed. The share of ethnic minorities among the people that move to large scale new housing estates does not deviate much from the city level average share of minorities. Therefore the effect of new housing estates on ethnic segregation is relatively small. Policymakers striving for less segregated cities should take into account the impact of new housing development on selective migration patterns and residential segregation both in terms income and ethnicity.

Should I stay or could I go?: Exploring the relationship between households characteristics and their propensity to live in areas of Birmingham where minorities are highly concentrated
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom sm725@cam.ac.uk

Sanna MARKKANEN Miguel VARGAS

Universidad Diego Portales, Chile Spatial concentration of minority ethnic populations within English cities is nothing new. In recent years, however, it has been increasingly evident that areas of minority ethnic concentrations are not segregated enclaves or ghettoes as much as ethnically diverse areas also inhabiting by large numbers of white Britons as well as often a mix of ethnicities. Census migration data from 2001 shows that, especially in diverse cities, such as Birmingham, minority ethnic households have been moving away from the areas of high concentrations of minority ethnic populations at a faster pace than white Britons living in these areas. This finding is in line with qualitative and anecdotal evidence, which suggests that the housing aspirations of minority ethnic households are largely in line with those of white Britons, with the importance of living in close proximity to other people from their ethnic group being superseded by the desire to live in nicer neighbourhoods with good schools and services. An important question in this context is the extent to which different groups face different constraints on mobility as well as different opportunities to move. Building on a framework used by Bayer and others (2002) in the United States, this paper analyses 2001 census data using an econometric model to explore the impact of selected household characteristics on the propensity of minority ethnic households to live in areas of high concentrations of people belonging to their ethnic group in Birmingham, UK. The impact of these household characteristics are analysed by ethnic group of the household reference person, also taking into consideration differential geographical patterns of tenure and ethnicity across the city.

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Living in an ethnically-mixed neighbourhood in Dubai: The Greens


Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University and Faculty of Business, The British University in Dubai oneyel@itu.edu.tr ela.yazici@buid.ac.ae.

Ela ONEY-YAZICI

Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey ozuekren@itu.edu.tr

Sule OZUEKREN

Faculty of Business, The British University in Dubai mohammed.dulaimi@buid.ac.ae. Dubai is a unique global city where migrant workers/expatriates constitute about 85 percent of its population. Contrary to the cities in Europe, immigrants in Dubai altogether do not only form the majority population but mostly live in ethnically-mixed neighbourhoods, mostly work for transnational organizations, and frequently use same shopping centres or restaurants. This unique characteristic of Dubai provides a highly relevant geographical space to study Mixit. This paper presents the preliminary findings of a qualitative research project on transnational lives of expatriates in Dubai. The Greens, one of the oldest neighbourhoods in the new Dubai is selected for the study. The research project on which the paper is based aims to understand and explain the relevance of different factors in establishing a meaningful interaction among different ethnic/national/religious groups. Therefore- although the study is limited to The Greens- the analyses include the perceptions of expatriates about their neighbourhood but go beyond where they actually live in. Thus, the study also focuses on their daily lives and practices (both spatially and virtually) outside the neighbourhood to understand how and where do they develop and expand their social contacts, and also their willingness or reluctance to develop intercultural social contacts.

Mohammed F. DULAIMI

Always the last? Housing market integration of Moroccans in Spain


Universitt Potsdam, Institut fr Geographie, Potsdam, Germany sarah.meier@uni-potsdam.de In the mid of the 1980s, immigrants from Morocco were the first important group to come to Spain as labour migrants. Once they arrived to the new place, one of their first necessities was to access to accommodation. However, available flats for renting barely existed, especially in the rural areas where an important number of Moroccans lives. Furthermore, prejudices of the natives against them hindered their access to an adequate shelter. As a consequence, migrants had severe problems to get access to housing. Since then, immigrant groups in Spain have largely diversified and, simultaneously, the context of housing market integration has significantly changed. In the course of the real estate boom, the number of accommodation either for renting or for owner-occupying augmented. At the same time, the resources of the Moroccans improved, and their preferences increased gradually. Nonetheless, their difficulties to access to a shelter as well as to satisfy their housing necessities persisted, even when compared to other recent migrant nationalities. This scenario has been even more accentuated since the beginning of the recent economic crisis. By developing a theoretical approach to explain the integration of immigrants into the housing market, this paper aims to show the dynamics and processes of housing market integration of migrants in Spain. To accomplish this, housing careers of Moroccan immigrants in the Spanish Region of Murcia were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative data. In doing so, the varying situation on the local housing market, the changing profile of the competing demanders as well as the migrants resources and preferences were taken into account. Special emphasis is drawn on the manners of acting of both the offering and the demanding individuals, when it comes to rent or sell a flat. Thus, it is shown how embeddedness of the Spanish landlords in the local neighbourhoods leads to disadvantages in the housing market integration, especially of Moroccans.

Sarah MEIER

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Determination of the strategies for the urban rehabilitation in the Romani settlement (Canakkale City, Turkey)
Arzu BASARAN-UYSAL
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Engineering & Architecture Faculty, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey basaran@comu.edu.tr

Gokcer OKUMUS
Architecture Faculty, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

Ipek SAKARYA
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Engineering & Architecture Faculty, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey Fevzipasa District is one of the central and first historical settlements of Canakkale in which Romani people live. The research area which is called as Fevzipasa District was also approved as a special project area with the conservation plans made in 1996. Unfortunately, since then, there is no project which has been developed for the area. Generally, the district has disordered housing pattern and two or three storey buildings. The quality of life and housing standards are so inadequate. Romani people can not accord with the change of the socio-economic conditions and day by day unemployment and poverty has increased. The neighborhood they live in became ghettoized. This research aims to determine the problems of the district and consists of the analytical works about the area to be the basis of the future physical and social rehabilitation of the district. It is obvious that besides the rehabilitation of the physical conditions, the most important approach is to develop long term policy which consists of providing health, education, and job opportunities for the Romani People living in there. First of all, up to date and trusty information about the housing area is required, but generally, the Romani People perceive this kind of analytical research as a threat for their living space because of the experiences about the other Romani districts which brought about regeneration projects and related to this resulted in forced displacements. Therefore, this study has begun with the support of Romani People of the district and it is aimed to develop the study with collective effort. The participation of the people from the district is accepted as a basis of the study. Moreover, in the end of this collective work, it is aimed to come up with some suggestions and solutions for the rehabilitation and the development of the district.

Social cohesion in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods


Gideon BOLT
Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU), Faculty of Geosciences, The Netherlands g.bolt@geo.uu.nl

Reinout KLEINHANS
Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU), Faculty of Geosciences, The Netherlands The idea that there is a negative link between ethnic heterogeneity and social cohesion dates back to the Chicago School in the early 20th century. Recently, there is much debate on this issue following Putnams paper E Pluribus Unum (2007). Putnam argues that people in diverse communities are likely to hunker down. Ethnic heterogeneity negatively affects the number of friends and acquaintances and the willingness to do something for the neighborhood or to work with voluntary organizations. Moreover, diversity does not only lead to less trust in the so-called out-group (for example people with a different ethnicity), but also to distrust in the in-group. On the basis of an extensive research in two Dutch cities (Amsterdam and Rotterdam), we conclude that there is indeed a negative link between ethnic diversity and social cohesion, even if we control for a number of other neighbourhood characteristics (like economic status and the presence of facilities). However, we found that this link only applies for native Dutch residents. For members of minority ethnic groups, there is no association between the experienced social cohesion and ethnic diversity.

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Is ethnic segregation in primary schools a relevant factor in explaining high school dropout? The case of Amsterdam
Maastricht University, The Netherlands cheng.ong@maastrichtuniversity.nl The Dutch school system places a strong emphasis on parental choice of schools (Dronkers 1995; Ritzen et al. 1997; Dijkstra et al. 2002; Karsten et al. 2003; Karsten et al. 2006; Ladd et al. 2009). On the one hand, equalised state funding for private and public schools which is additionally weighted according to students socioeconomic and foreign background have mediated the financial factor in school choice (Ladd & Fiske 2009). On the other hand, non-socioeconomic school segregation has been institutionally permissible and sustained as parents choose according to other considerations such as religious denomination, educational philosophy, and student ethnic composition. The latters salience in school choice has been exacerbated by secularisation and the growing population of inhabitants with a foreign background (allochtonen) since the 1960s. Contextual effects (Manski 1995) or compositional effects (Coleman et al. 1966; Thrupp 1999) of schools posits that the distribution of background characteristics - in this case, students non-western background influences individual behaviour, e.g. the propensity to dropout from high school. This could be in the form of peer effects, but student composition could also influence instructional and school organisation and management processes (Thrupp 1999; Thrupp et al. 2002). In a wholecountry study of the Netherlands, Skyes and Musterd (2010) find a strong and significant effect of schools socioeconomic composition on educational outcome, mediating to a large extent, initial residential neighbourhood effects. We expect a stronger effect for Amsterdam, an ethnically diverse city with the average primary school having more non-western minority students than native Dutch and western minority student. In 2000, one in four non-western primary school pupils is enrolled in a school with its non-western student composition approaching ninety percent. We obtained administrative school data for Amsterdam from 2000 to 2009 and sampled students aged five to thirteen who were enrolled in primary schools in 2000. Our outcome variable is the event of dropping out from high school. For each primary school, various ethnic segregation measures were calculated at the school identifier, BRIN-level (Basis Registratie INstellingen). The main segregation measures rely on the two-group, native Dutch/western minority versus non-western minority distinction since the latter is considered to be less socio-economically integrated, especially with the exclusion of non-western groups considered to be well-integrated (i.e. those of Japanese and Indonesian background). With relevant block- and neighbourhoodlevel information from CBS Statline, we have detailed and valuable neighbourhood control variables, e.g. average housing price and ethnic composition (up to the six-position postcode-level), in addition to the individual and (limited) household information available in the school records. Our exploratory results so far indicate that ethnic segregation in primary schools loses its initial effect on high school dropout once we account for socioeconomic factors at both the school- and neighbourhood-levels.

Cheng Boon ONG

Immigrant population and housing in Barcelona


Centre de Poltica de Sl i Valoracions, Barcelona, Spain blanca.gutierrez@upc.edu

Blanca GUTIRREZ VALDIVIA

Centre de Poltica de Sl i Valoracions, Barcelona, Spain pilar.garcia.almirall@upc.edu The arrival of immigrants to Spain is a relatively recent phenomenon, which did not begin until early 2000 and has produced deep social and physical changes in Spanish cities. Nevertheless, different studies have dismissed the existence of segregation in Spanish cities, at least conceptualizing segregation as it is found in other European and American cities. This means that at present, there is no public policy repertoire of mixit or socio-spatial integration of immigrant population in Spain. In the case of the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona, the immigrant population is distributed throughout the territory although is especially concentrated in areas of the city where the residential stock is more dilapidated. This paper examines the residential and urban characteristics of immigrant population through the study of cases in neighborhoods with high concentration of immigrant population. The technique participant observation has been used to study how immigrants use public space and what kind of interaction is established with autochthonous population. Moreover, in-depth interviews were conducted to know the residential characteristics of their housing and how they access to them.

Pilar GARCA ALMIRALL

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Stay or Leave? Turkish Home owners in segregated neighbourhoods in Germany


Heike HANHOERSTER
Institut fuer Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung, Dortmund, Germany heike.hanhoerster@ils-forschung.de Current studies reveal an increasing differentiation of social milieus of migrants living in German cities. On the housing market this can be documented by an increasing home ownership level of Turkish migrants. But is this good news for disadvantaged ethnically segregated areas? The study is looking at residential relocation processes of Turkish homeowners in German Cities. It is based on the assumption that increasing home ownership of migrants in disadvantaged neighborhoods contributes to the socio-economic stabilization of these areas. Information from the property evaluation board and the electronic land registry is used to document the quantitative relevance of ongoing processes of property acquisition for the City of Duisburg. The information shows that Turkish home owners still concentrate in ethnic neighbourhoods but also reach out to non-segregated neighbourhoods. The qualitative part of the research focuses on the motivations and decision-making processes of Turkish households and asks which households opt to remain in ethnically and socially segregated neighborhoods, and which households choose to leave. The results of the study reveal a more differentiated picture than assumed at first: For instance, many home owners who have moved to non-segregated areas still identify with and remain engaged in their former, ethnic neighborhoods. Thus, since residential locations and personal spheres of action do not necessarily overlap a single neighborhoods development potential needs to be assessed from a city-wide perspective.

Housing, cohesion and integration: differences in policy and practice


Harris BEIDER
Futures Institute, Coventry University Technology Park, Coventry, UK Harris.Beider@coventry.ac.uk This paper will critically review approaches to support cohesive and mixed neighbourhoods in England. It will suggest that policies such as community cohesion and integration have not connected with the reality of the lived experiences of people or communities. Housing organisations should focus on meeting the different needs consumers promoting cross cutting issues and improving the housing 'offer'. Community cohesion, which was introduced as government policy in 2001, was based on the premise of shared norms and common values between different groups. Housing organisations were viewed as being problematic in securing cohesive neighbourhoods. They were seen as implementing allocation and lettings policies that embedded difference rather than common values. In particular, community cohesion was critical of the role of black led housing associations. The group had previously been supported by government to meet the needs of minority communities. Ten years after community cohesion the evidence shows increased intolerance towards immigration, rising levels of support for far right parties and confusion on shared values.. Debates on cohesion have now been replaced by integration with the focus on minority groups needing to demonstrate support for 'British values'. This paper will suggest that community cohesion and integration are weak policies because they are government led and' top down', take no account of differences and the multiplicity of identities in communities, and are fixed responses to dynamic neighbourhoods. As a public resource, social housing has been the basis of conflict between different groups and cohesion. Policy has not helped housing organisations to created mixed neighbourhoods. In conclusion, the paper will suggest that the role of organisations should focus on the lived reality of communities rather than being premised on a flawed government social construction.

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Fostering social mixit without ethnic diversity ? Case study in a French suburban private housing estate
Ecole normale suprieure, Paris, France anne.lambert@ens.fr In France, the recent economic crisis has dramatically slowed down the marketing and sales of private housing estates in suburban areas. At the same time, it has led to an ethnic diversification of residential suburbs. Indeed, using a case study in the north of the Isre district, we will show how local authorities have tried to mobilize urbanistic and public financial policies such as ZAC (zone damnagement concert) and Pass foncier to foster home ownership on their territories while controlling modes of settlement specifically on social and ethnic criteria. Nevertheless, the effects of such a policy remain ambiguous: whereas the objective of social mixit has to be revised downwards, ethnic diversity has developed de facto in private housing estates, generating new neighbourhood conflicts. Indeed, whereas local authorities wished to organize social mixit by attracting newcomers belonging to the middle class, public policies which were implemented to face the economic crisis, combined with the temporary fall in property prices, seduced ethnic minorities eager to move out of damaged social housings. If the marketing of houses and building timetables were under the control of local authorities as well as of the builders, spatial and social organization of suburban private housing estates were not. Two main consequences can be distinguished. First, on a micro level, the ethnic minorities who were not expected by local policy makers, aroused criticism on the side of the majority of residents. Low earning households just moving out social housings could think that their residential promotion was counteracted by arrivals of ethnic minorities, often associated in their minds with poverty and social disorder. The development of ethnic solidarity can be noticed, especially on the side of the more visible ethnic minority (black people) who is the most stigmatised group. Secondly, on a macro level, mixed ethnic neighbourhoods lead to the moving out of the richest of these areas; it arises side-effects for ethnic minorities, who partly lose local resources linked to social mixit.

Anne LAMBERT

La Mixit Ethnique The English Way An examination of innovative initiatives for housing im/migrant and ethnic minority population in England
Department of Urban Development and Regeneration, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom rosenfeldornas@yahoo.com

Orna ROSENFELD Judith ALLEN

This paper examines architectural and urban adjustments in social housing made to accommodate the needs of the im/migrant and ethnic minority population in England. Architecture and urban design are material expressions of a culture. They are an integral and defining part of an ethnic identity. In mundane terms, architecture and urban design are made to support social relations of a cultural group and service their everyday needs. However, the increased population mobility and ethnic mixing raises questions about the fitness of social housing and its potential to accommodate the needs of new-in-migrating cultures and their social relations. Since the beginning of its provision social housing in England has been designed and built for, what were assumed to be, the needs of English working class. However, with the influx of im/migrant population the English working class social housing has been increasingly allocated to provide shelter for population coming from as far as Indian subcontinent, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, African states and many others wishing to make UK their home. While this uneasy fit between the design of the dwellings and their users has been a subject to research and criticism, much less is known about the attempts to adjust the interior, dwelling and urban spaces to fit the needs of the im/migrant population and the ways to achieve this. This paper is based on the research conducted between December 2009 and May 2010 in eleven local authorities in England with the highest percentage of ethnic minority population. It examines nouvelle architectural and urban solutions created to address and accommodate the needs of the im/migrant population. The focus is on examination cultural design typology, design and learning process, especially the challenges related to understanding housing needs of a foreign culture and provision of culturally adjusted housing types.

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Assimilation and social capital of mixed ethnic neighborhood in South Korea: a case study of Wongok community
Seong-Kyu HA
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Chung-Ang University, South Korea ha1234@cau.ac.kr

Eun-Jin CHOI
Chung-Ang University, South Korea ejchoi85@gmail.com The number of non-Korean residents has surged since the 1990s as a result of rapid economic development and social democratization. South Korea had 1.25 million foreigners, or 2.5 percent of the total population, residing in the country at the end of 2008. And illegal aliens (illegal immigrants) living in South Korea amounted to 200,489 which still make up 17.3 percent of the total foreign population. There are numerous immigrants and foreign workers, and illegal aliens are growing. Immigrants who are unfamiliar with Korean language and society are vulnerable to discrimination and human rights abuses, and they have difficulty in educating their children. Immigrant assimilation is a complex process in which immigrants and foreign workers fully integrates themselves into a new country. In this study, three major questions being posed are: (1) how do immigrants and foreign workers assimilate with local population in the mixed community? (2) What is the relationship between the perception of the level of social mix and the strength of social networks in the ethnic group community? (3) What kinds of differences exist in terms of the perception of the level of social capital and the reputation of the area in different neighborhood context? In order to address these questions, this paper is to explore a mixed community (Wongok) through questionnaire and field survey. Wongok is a typical mixed neighborhood which about 35% of total community population is immigrants and foreign workers. Using the results of 260 questionnaires, we assess a commonly recognized element of social mix, assimilation process and social capital. Major findings are as follows: (1) some important obstacles for immigrants and foreign workers face in Korea are cultural differences in daily lifestyle, language, food and interpersonal relationships. (2) Social network of immigrants and foreign workers have different path and process in line with their nationality and background of native countries. (3) In terms of housing tenure, most ethnic group of people have Wolse (monthly rent) rather than homeownership or Jeonse (one of the most popular tenure in Korea), and they are suffering from high housing price and rent. (4) Their social networks have developed mainly through religious organizations (groups). The authors suggest the necessity of programs and policies for the improvement of immigrants well-being and community development based on assimilation process and social network dimensions.

Adapting strategies impacts for immigrants housing situation


Susanne SHOLT
Department of Planning and Housing Research, Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research, Oslo, Norway susanne.soholt@nibr.no Immigrants are moving not only from one country to another, but to different kinds of housing systems. How they succeed as newcomers and overtime rely on among other things opportunity structures in the housing market, individual qualities of the household and ethnic belonging. An important question is whether the immigrants view themselves as victims of structures and potential discrimination or agents in their own life. Based on a study among three ethnic groups in Norway, I have explored different trajectories of immigrants adaption strategies to the housing market. The result is a typology of ideal types of adapting strategies, developed from the experiences of the households. The kinds of strategies are interpreted as expressions of how people are able to connect structures and resources from their country of origin with perceived constraints and possibilities in new contexts. The study shows that kind of adapting strategies have consequences for how the immigrants perform in the housing market and their new society.

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Housing careers of immigrants in the Helsinki metropolitan area


Department of Social Research, Sociology, University of Turku, Finland timo.kauppinen@utu.fi

Timo M. KAUPPINEN Katja VILKAMA

Department of Geosciences and Geography, University of Helsinki, Finland katja.vilkama@helsinki.fi The objective of the paper is to find out, what kinds of differences in housing careers there are between different immigrant groups and between immigrants and the natives in the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. Housing careers are analysed in terms of housing tenure and overcrowding. Links between events in family and work careers, on one hand, and housing careers, on the other, are assessed and compared between different ethnic groups. The main question is: do the housing careers of minority groups follow the family and work careers in a similar way compared to the host population? Discrete-time survival analysis is applied as the statistical method. The individual-level register-based data set represents the native and immigrant populations in the Helsinki metropolitan area between 1990-2005 and the follow-ups continue until 2008. The results will give indications on whether increased resources brought to immigrants especially by labour market integration lead to similar housing circumstances as in the native population, or whether additional explanations, such as ethnically discriminating constraints in the housing market or different preferences, are needed in the explanation of housing market careers of immigrants in the Helsinki metropolitan area.

To what extent does the level of segregation vary between different urban areas? Introducing a scalable measure of segregation
Department Human Geography, Stockholm University, Sweden bo.malmberg@humangeo.su.se

Bo MALMBERG

Department Human Geography, Stockholm University, Sweden

Eva ANDERSSON John STH

Department Human Geography, Stockholm University, Sweden In most disciplines, scientific progress has been linked to the development of shared conceptual frameworks and standardised systems of measurements. This is the case also for the social sciences. In demography, standardised measures were developed already in the 19th century. Internationally standardised of systems of national account were developed during the 20th century. In urban research this process has, for different reasons, been somewhat slower. Measures of residential segregation is a case in point. Although there exists widely acknowledged measures such as the index of dissimilarity, this measure is not embraced by everyone in the field. Moreover, the sensitivity of this measure to the modifiable area unit problem can interurban comparisons using this index difficult. In this paper, we propose an approach to the measurement of segregation that would solve many pressing problems. The basic idea-taken from isolation/exposure types segregation measures--is that segregation can be measured by the probability that members of a certain subpopulation will be exposed to member of their own (or a different) subpopulation given that contacts are established at random within an appropriately defined neighbourhood. The innovation is that the neighbourhood is defined for each individual as the k nearest nearest neighbours, where k can take on any value depending on how neighbourhood is defined (and data availability). The resulting measure will be inherently scale dependent since measured levels of segregation will depend on the value of k. Thus, researcher must specify for which scale level the segregation measure has been computed. This make comparisons of between different urban areas possible. The properties of the proposed segregation index is demonstrated using data for Swedish municipalities. One major finding is that the segregation levels of Gothenburg, Sweden second largest city, have been wrongly assessed to be higher that the segregation levels in Stockholm.

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WORKSHOP 17
Gender and Housing
Co-ordinators: Christiane Droste and Karin Grundstrm

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Changing the docent background. The exhibiton: On stage! Women and men in (landscape) architecture and planning in low saxony region. Hannover 2011
BARBARA ZIBELL
Institute for History and Theory in Architecture and Planning, Department for Planning and Architecture Sociology, Faculty for Architecture and Landscape Sciences, Urbanism Leibniz University of Hanover, Germany b.zibell@igt-arch.uni-hannover.de Forum for GenderCompetence in Architecture Landscape Planning (gender_archland) www.gender-archland.uni-hannover.de

EVA M LVAREZ ISIDRO,


Architectural Projects department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain ealvarez@pra.upv.es

KATJA STOCK
Institute for History and Theory in Architecture and Planning, Department for Planning and Architecture Sociology, Faculty for Architecture and Landscape Sciences, Urbanism Leibniz University of Hanover, Germany k.stock@igt-arch.uni-hannover.de On March, 25th 2011 the exhibition On stage! Women and men in (landscape) architecture and planning in low saxony region was opened in Laves Haus (Chamber of Architects) in Hannover. The exhibiton was produced on the former work done at University with a group of five students on the same theme, during the fall-winter semester 2010-2011. One reason for organizing this exhibition was concerned that different exhibition on womens work as architects may obscure existing sexism patterns without rendering up clear new equitable ones. Up to where we were informed, exhibitions often show that women architects are able to do good architecture -as men do- or even try to show that women are also able to belong to the Star System in architecture often sawn as a middle-high class mens club. On the contrary, we guess that in the majority of Star System architects offices, women are the staff main part although not always in relevant positions and that the majority of the actual produced and famous architectural works are already produced by women. On the other side, we wanted to point that architects usually do several things not only buildings or landscape or planning; some of them also teach, theorize, write, paint, design furniture We proposed to reveal the intersectional relation among topics as we think a global vision is needed to understand professional affairs. And finally, we wanted to discuss the social relevance of taking care of domestic affairs, because we experience when one is involved in taking care of persons (children, elderly) the vision of architectural procedures is more pragmatic, more equitable and more sustainable. The first time the term sustainable was employed was in 1987 UN report Our common future directed by Ms. Brundtland where she described sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need. That is to say sustainability is closely related to the needs of different generations present and future- very clearly expressed when you take care of children, for example.

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An inclusive mix? Identity, equality and participation in planning for new developments
Gemma BURGESS
Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research, Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom glb36@cam.ac.uk

In order to incorporate the views and needs of marginalised groups into planning for new housing and developments, the UK has different ways of enabling citizen participation. One means is through discussion of planners with civil society groups which are focused on increasing equality in the built environment, such as Womens Design Groups, Disability Access Groups and Inclusive Design Groups. Politically there is now even greater emphasis on facilitating citizen participation and including the voices of local people in the planning process. There has also recently been a shift towards a single equalities focus in UK legislation. Rather than separate legal duties for issues such as gender, race and disability, all different types of inequality have been brought together through the single Equality Act, which came into force in 2010. This paper draws on research exploring the success of equality-related initiatives in planning for housing and the built environment more generally. In particular, the research is examining how the recent shift to a single equalities focus in legislation is stimulating the development of Inclusive Design Groups and how it is impacting on existing Womens Design Groups and Disability Access Groups. It considers the way different identities are constructed and negotiated in the participation process. The paper questions the theoretical underpinnings of the single equalities and inclusive design agenda, as within this notion of designing spaces for everyone, it potentially loses the capacity to address the disadvantage experienced by particular groups.

The Relationship between Divorce and Housing in Japan: A Gender Perspective


Nahoko KAWATA
Faculty of Education and Welfare Science, Oita University, Japan kawata@oita-u.ac.jp

Yosuke HIRAYAMA
Faculty of Education and Welfare Science, Oita University, Japan The housing system in post-war Japan has explicitly been oriented towards family household home-ownership. However, the changing social values related to families, increased participation of women in the labour market, and an uncertain economy have encouraged an increase in the number of divorces over the past few decades. This paper explores the relationship between divorce and housing in Japan, with particular reference to gender. The findings in this paper are mainly drawn from a survey conducted in Japan in 2009, wherein the respondents were divorced men and women between 30 and 59 years of age. The results of this survey demonstrate that this trend of divorces has brought about significant disadvantages in terms of housing conditions. Divorced people are more likely to move into smaller and lower quality private rented housing, or they are likely to move in with their parents. Moreover, differences based on gender and socioeconomic status have also been observed in housing issues following divorce. Women with lower education, non-regular employment, or low-income are in particular placed at a noticeable disadvantage. This paper concludes by examining the implications of an increase in the number of divorces on housing and social policies.

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UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II

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WS - 17

Intentional communities: methods for reviewing the rise of citizens housing initiatives in a European perspective.
Ir Lidewij TUMMERS
Chair of Spatial Planning and Strategy, Delft University of Technology The Netherlands and research team CITERES, Maison des Sciences de lhomme, Tours, France l.c.tummer@tudelft.nl Intentional communities, cooperatives de logement, Genossenschaften or Cohousing are types of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their own neighbourhouds. Cohousing residents are consciously committed to living as a community. The physical design encourages both social contact and individual space. Cohousing differs from gated communities in that it is usually more outreaching to its environment. While the characteristics of these projects varies and can be classified in different sets of typologies, they all strive for collaborative ways of building and design, in which housing is used to develop new ways of living, community practices, new forms of ownership, social economy and ecology. Particularly interesting is the rupture with boundaries such as private-public, labour-domestic, consumer-producer that these communities present as a design model for accomodation. Collectivity, together with the new energy networks and sustainability demands, necessitates renewal of land-use, finance and legislation. In the process of design and build, intentional communities face the consequences of converging or clashing with national housing and spatial policies and regulations. Studying cases from the European countries where the trend to co-housing is mostly increasing (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France), a wide range of contexts linked to the specific (planning) history of the country can be observed. For this (ENHR) meeting the focus of the presentation llies on methodology: the bottlenecks and benefits of international comparison, reviewing differences in planning systems, energy networks and housing law. The paper raises issues such as a how to assess the innovative value of the initiatives in social and gendered housing models, their contribution to emancipation, accessibility of the housing market, urban and environmental quality, the role of professionals, obstacles in planning law and so on.

Housing, Gender and Space


Karin GRUNDSTRM
Department of Urban Studies, Malm University, Sweden k.grundstrom@mah.se

Irene MOLINA
Institute of Housing and Urban Research (IBF), Uppsala University, Gvle, Sweden irene.molina@ibf.uu.se This presentation gives a brief overview of the theoretical points of departure for research on housing, gender and space. Even though a number of anthologies have been presented during the last decade and the field of research on gender and space has expanded the focus particularly on housing has declined. The theoretical base of research on housing, gender and space is to be found in a cross-disciplinary field of spatial theory, gender studies, feminist and critical studies in geography, sociology and architecture. In this presentation, it is primarily the spatial-theoretical grounding we want to emphasize. The presentation first introduces theoretical approaches to the research area through the perspectives of private and public space, everyday space and urban, dialectical space. Secondly examples of research within two themes related to the spatialtheoretical point of departure are presented. The first theme relates to the reinterpretation and reshaping of private and public space and the second theme relates to the transgression of boundaries towards performative and fluid space. Finally, we conclude that the complexity of the recent theoretical development is a possible explanation of the fact that research specifically on housing has declined. A more complex conceptualization where gender and space are constituted through continuous action implies that an increasing amount of places, scenes, passages and spaces are included in a perspective where also the geographical limitation of the dwelling and neighbourhood is questioned.

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UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II

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WS - 17

Local politics and economic viability in rural Catalonia: a gender perspective


Antnia CASELLAS
Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, Spain antonia.casellas@uab.cat

Antoni F. TULLA
Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, Spain antoni.tulla@uab.cat

Marta PALLARES-BLANCH
marta.pallares@gmail.com

Ana VERA
Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, Spain ana.vera@uab.cat The present paper explores womens contribution to rural/local development strategies in a mountainous area. The study based on the analysis of gender political and economic roles in rural Catalonia has twofold. First, addressing the fact that Catalonia has a surprising low participation on womens political appointments compared to Spain, it explores the push and constraints factors that affects rural womens political appointments. The paper reviews the evolution of womens participation during last decades in local authorities connecting womens participation rate with the existence of equal opportunity programs or gender policies in Spain. It further analyzes the features and impacts of womens political appointments and the links of their policies to civil society demands. Second, the authors investigate gender approaches to local economic development exploring to what extend womens decisions can be significantly different to mens entrepreneurial approaches. It is presented a brief view of the economic characteristics of the High Pyrenees region in order to understand main initiatives on local development. If further analyzes womens participation in decision-making investigating if they have capacity to involve innovative stakeholders in local policy making. The research applies qualitative and quantitative methodology, including in-depth interviews and information from elaborated databases. The research concludes with a discussion of womens influence in the new rurality and governance in rural areas, particularly in territory and management fields.

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Housing issues and a new kind of poverty


Francesca Zajczyk
Department of Sociology and Social Research, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy francesca.zajczyk@unimib.it

Francesca Crosta
Department of Sociology and Social Research, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy francesca.crosta@unimib.it

In recent years housing issues have increasingly been discussed both in academia, the media and political circles, and particular attention has been paid to those problems experienced by certain social groups, as the impact of economic, social and demographic processes and the lack of appropriate measures to tackle the problem mean that the "housing question" is now a real social issue. This is particularly true for women. who increasingly have to handle difficulties in a society becoming more and more insecure and precarious, a situation which policies seem unable to deal with: a decrease in social networks on which people may rely; the spread of new ways to "make a family", with the steady rise in single-parent families; the huge growth of foreign immigration and especially the phenomenon of family reunification, with the resulting increase in the percentage of foreign children and families; the spread of irregular contractual situations in the labor market. These are the factors associated with the poverty path and the social exclusion of men and women, but more and more affecting women in certain conditions and at certain periods of their life cycle. In such a framework, the housing issue is increasingly creating pathways to poverty and social exclusion, more and more involving women, especially if they are single parents with young children. Therefore, in addition to job loss or irregular employment, the trauma of separation from a family or social isolation, and difficulties in maintaining or finding a suitable home become the factors most likely to lead to a process of impoverishment and marginalization. Even in a "rich" city like Milan, strong imbalances in the housing market, the gradual reduction of the stock of private rented dwellings and the rising costs of those still on the market, and the continued failure of the public housing system to meet the growing demand from a different kind of population,make access to housing a very complex and uncertain issue, fraught with obstacles.

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WORKSHOP 18
Innovative Methods in Residential Environments and People Studies
Co-ordinators: Henny Coolen and Hlne Blanger

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Methodological complementarities between visual documentation and peoples discourse: uses and perceptions of small houses in Lisbons center
Sandra MARQUES PEREIRA
ISCTE- Instituto Universitrio de Lisboa, DINMIA-CET, Lisbon, Portugal s.marquespereira11@gmail.com This paper presents the results of a study on the uses and perceptions of a specific new housing model located in Lisbon. This is a housing model with three specific characteristics: i) the size of the apartments, which are very small; ii) the location within the historic area of Lisbon nearby one of the most popular nightlife neighbourhoods; iii) the vocation towards a transitional domestic space. In methodological terms the research was innovative and complementary by following these procedures: i) indepth interviews with residents; ii) photographs of the interior of the apartments; ii) the respective layouts as well as the objects that were identified inside the apartments. Besides the common feeling shared by all the individuals that this was a transitory housing solution, the main aspect that differentiates the ways of living in these very tiny houses rest in the household type. Single man, young adults, live it as an extension of the teenager room, a functional support to enjoy the citys downtown . In turn, young childless couples in cohabitation make a very intensive use of these apartments, especially in comparison with the previous household type: these houses are seen by them as the ideal scenario to test and consolidate their (still informal) conjugal relation.

Representations and appropriation of public spaces in residential environments: a qualitative methodological assessment
Hlne BLANGER
Dpartement dtudes urbaines et touristiques, cole des sciences de la gestion, Universit du Qubec Montral, Montral, Qubec, Canada The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a qualitative methodological approach in the investigation of the impacts of revitalization of residential public spaces to their representations, appropriation and identity construction. In this case study the (revitalized) linear park and its canal located in a working class neighbourhood in the city of Montreal (Canada) gave the stimulus for the rehabilitation of a brownfield site for luxurious housing. Three different methodological tools were chosen for this exploratory study of the reciprocal relationship between this open space and the new or more traditional residents/users. In situ observation, semi-structured interviews and sketch maps were chosen and results first analysed separately in order to extract preliminary basic information different types of narratives each tool could provide. As such, in situ observation was used to study the interaction of users of the park and potential conflicts about uses and appropriation of the space; semi-structured interviews were used to explore residential satisfaction among different types of residents, their use of the neighbourhood spaces (including the park) and their perception of the transformation of their living environment; and sketch maps were used to explore the cognitive maps of residents living environment, its scale and major components. Separately, these tools gave valuable but rather incomplete information. However, we believe that a mix of tools can address biases, inconsistencies or a lack of information. The codification and triangulation of these three different narratives was made with NVivo software. Well known for the analysis of verbatim, NVivo is also a powerful tool in the analysis of visual contents such as sketch maps, pictures, or synthesis observation schemata. This paper concludes with a critical assessment of the potentials and limits of these three qualitative tools, taken separately or in conjunction with each other.

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The way things could have been An exploration into Stalnakers possible worlds concept and its relevance for housing studies
Sint-Lucas school of Architecture, Hogeschool voor Wetenschappen en Kunst Brussels & Ghent and Faculty of Applied Engineering Sciences, University College Ghent, Belgium

Pascal De DECKER

Sint-Lucas school of Architecture, Hogeschool voor Wetenschappen en Kunst Brussels & Ghent Partner in the K.U. Leuven Association, Mechelen, Belgium caroline.newton@mac.com The aim of this contribution is to rethink the path dependency approach in housing studies, using the insights from Stalnakers possible worlds concept and consequently to put together a more complete framework of this approach in the study of housing policies and spatial planning. I start from Stalnakers possible worlds concept and briefly answer the question in what way possible worlds contribute to the way people are trying to understand the world in order to make decisions in a given situation. Additionally the concept of path dependency is introduced. Path dependency is often used in economics and the social sciences, but it proves especially useful when studying housing policies and spatial practices. If Stalnakers possible worlds are The ways things could have been, maybe path dependency is about the way things can no longer be (because of..). In order to do this I will first explore the concept of possible worlds, and the way it is used by Stalnaker. In a second part Stalnakers motivation for using possible worlds is discussed, then the concept of path dependency is introduced in a third section. A fourth section illustrates how combining both approaches can provide a clearer understanding by briefly examining housing policies in Flanders. Finally the concluding section brings everything together and formulates some final remarks.

Caroline NEWTON

A spatio-temporal interpretation of domesticity


Department of Architecture, UCY, Nicosia, Cyprus charalambous.nadia@ucy.ac.cy

Nadia CHARALAMBOUS

This paper is interested in the ways in which the home, as a built form, responds to or even contradicts cultural/social characteristics, building on the perception of the home as a spatial and social entity. An understanding of how individuals and families establish relationships between themselves and their environment is considered important, given the increasingly divided, complex and differentiated experiences of contemporary life. We suggest that the approach of the notion of the house as a complex structure, both a social and a spatial entity, enriches our knowledge and understanding of the relationship between humans and their residential environments and strengthens our perception of the diversity and complexity of domestic life. The paper explores the range of factors involved in the residential environment (individual needs and routines, household activities, parents/children and family/visitors relationships) drawing attention to the inability of the quantitative method alone (study of large sample plans) to capture the increasing complexity of family life. Drawing on data from 80 houses in a rural area in Cyprus, this study argues that a methodology which combines crosscutting variables, bringing together both humanistic and technical viewpoints, through the incorporation of social concerns in spatial analysis, provides a more holistic approach to the interpretation and understanding of family life and its relation to the residential environment. The studys main focus is the micro-use of space in the domestic environment, in an attempt to relate household activities with the daily pattern of domestic routines. Consequently, data includes the retrieval of spatial, social and temporal information of the nature of domestic activities throughout a day, in relation to family members and visitors. Analysis is carried out at two levels: a) the way families live, concerning who does what, with whom, how often, and where b) the configuration of the house plans in relation to the activities observed, using quantitative methods of analysis. The paper suggests the presence of spatiotemporal genotypes in traditional houses, which identify with three types of families found in contemporary Cyprus society.

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UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II

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WS - 18

Network analysis of relational data


Henny COOLEN
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands h.c.c.h.coolen@tudelft.nl In housing research we often study personal attributes, for instance we may have measured the preferences individuals have for different features of dwellings. For the purpose of analysis these data are organized in a person-by-attribute matrix in which the persons are seen as cases and the attributes as variables. Subsequently, this data matrix may be analyzed by standard data analytic or statistical techniques. Sometimes, however, data in housing research involve relations with respect to environmental features, for instance when we have measured the meanings people attach to their preferences for different dwelling features. In this case we not only have a set of individuals and a set of dwelling features but also a set of meanings and the relationships between the set of features and the set of meanings. Of course, the set of dwelling features and the set of meanings can be analyzed separately, but in that case we ignore the relational aspect of the data. The relational data may be arranged in a features-by-meanings matrix. This is a two-mode adjacency matrix with either 1/0-entries indicating the presence/absence of a relation, or with valued entries measuring the strength of a relationship. Both types of matrices can be analyzed in several ways. Techniques that have been proposed are correspondence analysis, multidimensional scaling, and more recently network analysis. This paper presents and discusses ways of applying network analytic techniques to relational data encountered in housing research. It covers both the display and the analysis of these data and illustrates both aspects with examples from my own research.

Structural equations of modeling in creating defensible spaces of residential complex, Case study: LALE & MILAD complexes in Ardabil province, Iran
Hassan FERIDONZADEH
Sama technical and vocational training college, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch, Iran h.feridonzadeh@gmail.com The main purpose of the research was to study the role of defensible of residential complex spaces in Structural Equations of Modeling (SEM). Nowadays, increase in number of population and the genesis residential complexes in cities, the peoples from different races, income levels and education are forced together to living. In the meantime, access the largest source for crime prevention, done is defensible space design to strengthen the control of sense the environment in the people. The idea that was presented in 1972 by Oscar Newman, In addition was to being caused higher self esteem of low-income families, gave the opportunity that are important part of mainstream society. 28 family (14 family from the LALE residential complex and 14 family from the MILAD residential complex) in Ardabil city were selected by random cluster Sampling. They were asked to their own beliefs in complexes included in the 26 questions. Validity of the instrument calculated by content validity and the understudying construct showed that the instrument had proper validity. Direct and indirect effects of variables on defensible of space complexes were calculated through path analysis and regression tests. The results of the present study with use the Lisrel 8.5 revealed that; Variables such as neighborhood relations, SociEconomic Status (SES), and apartments rules have direct effect on defensible of residential complex spaces. In the above components, the apartments rules have significant effects on defensible of space complexes with regression coefficient=0.83( ) and neighborhood relations with Beta coefficient=0.07 have the lowest effect in among observed variables. Moreover, other variables of research consist of building height, total units with shared hallway and units density have inverse effects on defensible of space complexes that with increase in amount of them, is reduced degree of defend the space. Too, findings showed that factors such as education, income levels, age the resident people have direct effect on the defensible spaces of the residential complex.

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UNIVERSITY OF TOULOUSE II

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When residential environment affects: anthropology of the inhabiting functions in a stigmatised urban environment
Johanna LEES
Centre Norbert Elias, Marseille, France leesjohanna@gmail.com In this paper, I will address the theme of residential environment and health. The paper will try to demonstrate how residential environments through an analysis of inadequate housing, affects the inhabitants towards the inhabiting function. The overall aim of this submission is to describe how such housing in a deprived residential environment context negatively affects the inhabiting function and in this way creates social suffering. Living in decent conditions affords access to intimacy, privacy and hospitality, avoids outside threats and creates the conditions for a social subject to interact with the social world and his environment. The notion of inhabiting is to be considered as a relational process between oneself and the social body, between oneself and his environment. What happens then when dwellings and residential environment do not assure those functions? What happens when the residential environment being stigmatised depreciates the inhabitants? How do the inhabitants see and understand themselves? What are the expressions of social suffering? What kind of skills and tactics do the inhabitants develop to face up and deal with this environment? Using anthropological data and ethnographical research work undertaken in the urban area of Marseille (France), in rundown suburban condominions, private housing, inadapted homes, we will describe how energy deprivation, damp, lack of running water, overcrowding, malfunctioning lifts, insalubrity have consequences on everyday life and on mental health, and how residential environment is felt to be stigmatising and depreciating for the inhabitants and affects the relation process to themselves.

What is the use of lifestyle research in housing? A case study from the Netherlands
Andr OUWEHAND
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands a.l.ouwehand@tudelft.nl

Wenda DOFF
At the turn of the century the supposed change from a supply oriented to a demand oriented housing market and the increasing complexity of the multicultural society have boosted the development and application of lifestyle research in the domain of housing. Lifestyle is expected to provide a surplus value compared to more traditional housing indicators such as socio-demographic and socio-economic variables. But lifestyle is also a contested concept in housing research. The validity and reliability of the concept have been questioned and housing scholars are critical about the necessity of lifestyle as an added value for housing research and housing practice. Nevertheless we see an increasing interest of housing professionals in lifestyle methods developed by different agencies, although in the field of practitioners and administrators it is a contested concept as well. In this paper we want to fuel the discussion about the added value and necessity of lifestyle research for the domain of housing. We will compare the lifestyle methods used in the Netherlands and present the results of case studies, i.e. projects in which these methods have been applied in the housing domain. In order to assess the surplus value of lifestyle research we use interviews with involved agencies and professionals.

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The added value of lifestyle variables: the search continues


Sylvia J.T. JANSEN
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands s.j.t.jansen@tudelft.nl Introduction: Peoples preferences for residential environments have long been predicted on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics alone. Recently, however, some researchers argue that these variables no longer suffice to explain and predict preferences and that they should be supplemented with lifestyle variables. The current study explores this assumption for a number of housing preferences. For this purpose, a lifestyle typology has been developed that is based on universal requirements of human nature and interests (individualistic versus collectivistic), conform Schwartz (1987) and Schwartz and Bilsky (1990). Methods: Data were collected though telephone interviews in January and February 2010. Respondents were asked to indicate the importance of 29 values, such as pleasure, as a guiding principle in housing. These values form six value domains, which were used to distinguish four lifestyle categories: 1) neither individualistic nor collectivistic oriented (n = 595, 38%), 2) mostly individualistic oriented (n = 221, 14%, 3) mostly collectivistic oriented (n = 171, 11%), and, 4) both individualistic and collectivistic oriented (n = 563, 36%). Results: The four lifestyle groups differ statistically significantly with regard to age, income, education, gender and household type. Current housing characteristics (in respondents who are not willing to move) and preferred housing characteristics (in respondents that are willing to move) are compared between the groups. A number of statistically significant differences in housing preferences between the four groups are observed. However, after correction for socio-demographic variables most of these differences disappear, indicating that they are a result of differences in socio-demographic variables and not of differences in actual housing preferences between the four groups. Conclusion: Values may have some additional worth for explaining and predicting housing preferences, especially in cases where socio-demographic variables alone fall short. However, their impact on housing preferences seems to be rather limited.

Urban density and perceived affordances of workplaces


Urban and Regional Studies, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden ingabritt.werner@abe.kth.se There is a consensus among planners and politicians that dense cities are better for the environment than sprawling urban landscapes. The aim of the project is to analyse how urban density affects peoples actions and choices of residential location. The study employs theories and concepts from planning research and environmental psychology. Urban density is a key concept. Range and variety of urban functions are then important additions to measurement of physical densities. Another key concept is affordance. Affordance is a quality or asset within a specific environment, which can be perceived and used by an individual for carrying out a certain activity. The main method is a survey covering a stratified randomised sample of 4 500 individuals in stratified within the Stockholm area. The stratified study areas were selected on criteria of physical density, mix of functions and accessibility within the region. The survey covers important affordances inherent in the physical environment of the household, such as place of work, shops, schools and social networks. The data are analysed with statistical methods. The paper concentrates on perceived affordances regarding workplaces. Preliminary results show that respondents perceived number of alternative workplaces within 1 kilometre from home has significant positive and strong correlations to physical density as well as to mix of urban functions. Any further away from home than 1 km, increasing numbers of perceived affordances had a stronger correlation to accessibility. Suggested conclusions are that physical density as such seems to increase the amount of perceived affordances only within a very close environment of the home. The range of affordances widens considerably with increasing accessibility. Thus, accessibility may outweigh physical density as an influence on choices of residential location.

Inga Britt WERNER

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The study of consumers satisfaction and the willing to pay and purchasing intention for the smart kitchen
Kunshan University, Department of Real Estate Management, Taiwan City, Taiwan R.O.C. mayc2110@mail.ksu.edu.tw

Shumei CHEN

Department of Business Administration, Far East University, and Department of Business Education, National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan

Shwuhuey WANG

Department of Business Administration, Kunshan University, Taiwan R.O.C. (Thanks for the financial support from NSC97-3114-E-168-001, Taiwan, R. O. C.)

Tzai-Zang LEE

The objective of this study is to examine the co-relationship between consumers satisfaction, the willing to pay and purchasing intention for the smart kitchen. In conducting the questionnaire survey, the author invites the kitchens main users to experience the functions of the smart kitchen, a stimulated lab in KSU, and then to finish the questionnaire with stated preference. The empirical study will constructs a linear structure relation model to explore the co-relationships between the satisfaction, the willing to pay and purchasing intention. In addition, this study employs independent sample t-test to examine the variance of consumers satisfaction toward the smart kitchen by different family type, technology acceptance and sustainable environmental awareness. The analysis of users satisfaction would help to offer the designer some useful revised suggestions based on users feedback. Furthermore the willing to pay and the purchasing intention for the smart kitchen products are the key factors affect on the market feasibility. The results not only highlight on the concept of user- centered design, but also guide the product improvement toward market orientation. It strengthens the market feasibility of smart kitchen, and makes it possible to carry out excellent residential environment.

Neighbourhood satisfaction among diverse groups of inhabitants: findings from Famagusta area study
Department of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Mersin, North Cyprus, Turkey derya.oktay@emu.edu.tr de.oktay@gmail.com

Derya OKTAY

Robert W. MARANS
In the person-environment relationship, there is often a need to assess how well a residential environment meets the requirements, goals, and expectations of its inhabitants that is how satisfied they are with it (Francescato, 1998). In general terms, any such assessment may be viewed as an indicator of residential satisfaction. This study examines relationships between neighbourhood satisfaction and selected measures of perceived neighbourhood quality among two different groups of inhabitants, local residents and international students, residing in Famagusta, North Cyprus, a rapidly growing Eastern Mediterranean city. Considering the mixed demographic composition of Famagusta and the lack of well established norms of service and maintenance we postulated that satisfaction with the neighbourhood to vary along with perceived quality of the attributes of the city. In this context, we expected satisfaction among local residents to be higher than that of students because the former have lived in the city longer and have stronger ties to their neighbourhoods. The neighbourhood attributes considered were attractiveness, appropriateness as a place to live, availability of things to do, accessibility, environmental maintenance, traffic, noise, and sense of neighbourhood as home. A probability sample of 302 local residents and 96 international students from different households were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. The results of the analysis indicate significant differences among local people and the international students in environmental factors contributing to neighbourhood satisfaction. Although both groups were satisfied with their neighbourhoods, regression analyses demonstrated that appropriateness of the neighbourhood as a place to live and sense of neighbourhood as home were most important for local residents while attractiveness and environmental maintenance were most important for the students.

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WORKSHOP 20
Provision of Land for Social and Affordable Housing
Coordinators: George de Kam and Willem Korthals Altes

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Key players in the Social and Affordable Housing provision in Italy


Laura POGLIANI
Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione DiAP, Politecnico di Milano, Italy laura.pogliani@polimi.it The question discussed in this paper is to what extent the so-called Third sector (not-for profit and limited profit) and the private operators can become effective partners for addressing the issue of housing needs. Housing demand in Italy has transformed over time, becoming more complex and diversified and is currently characterized by the presence of atypical housing demand (strong increase in singles, single-parent families, immigrants, temporary workers, off-campus students and others) and the extension of the housing emergencies into intermediate segments of the population who until recently were untouched by such difficulties. It is a condition stressing the need of a multidimensional approach and asking for convergent public, social and private resources. The Cooperatives of householders contribute in providing housing and services has become essential in the past 50 years, since the Italian legislation offered relevant tools for the development of affordable housing (mainly for sale with limitations) and limited public social housing. The initiatives of some Bank Foundations have grown in the past 5 years in order to promote ethical investment (not free grants), and in particular, real estate funds dedicated to social housing. In both cases, the main mission is to produce and manage affordable, and, as far as possible, social housing, but in few cases, worth studying, the challenge relies in a process of community building, able to address issues of integrated accommodation needs, such as inclusion, social mix, functional mix, sense of identity and membership, playing an important role in greenfield as well as in brownfield areas. On the other side, the private sector is being captured through negotiations and bonus incentives or by inclusionary obligations, rooted in planning tools, but its involvement arises more shadows than lights. In most recent urban practices, which will be illustrated along the paper, the overall result of public-private partnership consists mainly in the construction of housing buildings rather than in the creation of a public domain of land and properties.

Local Politics and the Regional Distribution of Land and Housing related Welfare; A Dutch Case Study and some suggestions for International Comparative Research
George DE KAM
Institute of Management Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. g.dekam@fm.ru.nl In several developed countries there is a tendency not only to reduce the level of involvement of government in planning and housing, but also to shift the remaining tasks in this policy domain from central to regional or local tiers of government. An important aspect of planning and housing policies is the redistribution of welfare in a broad sense, including not only income but also access to job opportunities, to public amenities and leisure facilities, and other aspects of the location of housing. So, as a consequence of the shift of responsibilities to the local level, the impact of the decisions of local government on the distribution of housing related welfare has increased. This paper investigates the distributive effects of this type of local discretion in the Dutch institutional context. After a theoretical assessment of the potential variance in these effects between local jurisdictions, this will be confronted with the findings of our empirical research into the relationship between local political attitudes towards housing associations and some outcome measures of housing related welfare. It will be argued that greater awareness of this relationship is important not only for designing and implementing policies (both at the national as well as the local level), but also for citizens in (re)considering their political preferences, and for providers of social housing to re-assess their stakeholder management in the local civil and political community. In international comparative research, more attention to local (political) discretion could substantially improve our understanding of how national housing systems really work.

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Supply of Land for Housing: Policy, Policy Change and the Roles of Markets and Institutions
Berit NORDAHL
Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning, Norwegian University of Life Science, Aas, Norway Berit.Nordahl@umb.no This paper addresses the changing role of the local authority in the supply of land for housing. In Norway the evolvement of municipal land tenure policy can be characterised as a pendulum swinging from a policy where local authorities are active and privileged purchasers of land for development to local authorities being active sellers of publicly owned land. Nowadays the pendulum swings towards the emerging new role where the local authority orchestrates private landowners. In this policy the local authority seeks influence over the land supply but without having to purchase the land. The paper analyzes the of the evolvement of the policy changes in the light of the housing market fluctuations as well as light of policy changes at central level. The paper presents the juridical and financial elements which constitute local land tenure policy. It separates elements that are locally controlled and elements that are centrally controlled. Thus it illuminates the room of manoeuvre for the local authorities for establishing a local land tenure policy and to tailor this policy to housing market fluctuation.

Sharing living spaces: towards alternative forms of ownership Housing


Sylvette DENEFLE
University of Tours, France sylvette.denefle@univ-tours.fr The recent French experiments of cooperative of inhabitants will be used as a way of approaching the complex issue of the right of ownership, which was recognized as a basic human right and which has recently been thrown into question. Up to the end of the 20th century, we consider that economic development gave almost everyone access to housing, varying in form from country to country. But the western socio-economic model collapsed at the beginning of the 21st century, and it is highly symbolic that the global awareness of these profound social changes arose from a property crisis which started in the USA. We will examine the emergence of these new ways of living, community practices, demands for sustainability and renewal of legislation. We will be attentive to new forms of shared rather than individual home ownership and study its possible consequences and how these converge or clash with relative policies, in France, Europe and beyond. In Europe and elsewhere (notably North and South America, and North Africa), legislation is less restrictive than in France, and there have been many experiences, within a very wide range of contexts linked to the specific history of the country. Cooperative ownership constitutes a central issue around which cross-cutting questions can be raised at multiple levels: daily living arrangements; the relationships between private and public spaces, and between uses and responsibilities, raising questions about a third sector in the relationships between institutions and individuals; innovations in the law, in architectural possibilities, in citizenship. We will present a work issued of a research program ALTER-PROP (funded by the French National Agency for Research) in which housing is used to study new forms of ownership based on social economy and ecology.

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The Capacity of Land Readjustment for Social Housing : An Analysis for Turkey
Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey turkss@itu.edu.tr

Sevkiye Sence TURK

OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Geo-information and Land Development Section, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands w.k.korthalsaltes@tudelft.nl Land readjustment (LR) is perceived by many urban planners as an essential tool for creating a healthy, livable, and organized urban development. It may play a role in the provision of basic urban infrastructure, such as, public service areas (on-site and offsite) such as roads, squares, car parks, sewer systems and public green areas, which can be utilized by the inhabitants of the city. The provision takes place through various LR mechanisms in different countries (Doebele 1982; Archer, 1999; Larsson, 1997). Although the benefits and significance of LR methods have been highlighted by many country studies, the capacity of land readjustment for social housing has not been examined sufficiently. However, it is established that LR has a capacity for the provision of land for social housing and for or social housing financing (Archer, 1999; Hong, 2002; Turk, 2008; Turk and Korthals Altes, 2010). The first aim of this paper is to explore the capacity of LR for the provision of social housing in an international context. The second aim of the paper is to analyze the Turkish LR system in relation to the provision of social housing. Discussing the capacity of LR for social housing in Turkey is relevant. Firstly it is relevant, because there is an important housing shortage for low and middle income groups. That is, Turkey has to produce enough quantity and quality of housing at a reasonable price. The second reason why the Turkish is relevant is that Turkey has a long tradition of using LR. Currently, the LR method within the framework of the applicable law can be implemented both in built-up and new development areas. However, the relationship between social housing and LR has not been taken into consideration so far. Therefore, the discussion about the capacity of LR for the provision for social housing in Turkey provides a contribution to the international literature.

Willem K. KORTHALS ALTES

Varying approaches to affordable housing from a common base Australia , New Zealand and the UK compared
London School of Economics, United Kingdom

Patricia AUSTIN

London School of Economics, United Kingdom

Nicole GURRAN

London School of Economics, United Kingdom

Christine WHITEHEAD

The 1947 Town and County Planning Act introduced a comprehensive system of urban planning based on individual site permissions in the UK. This has survived almost unchanged in the UK until today. The big changes have been the introduction of local plans from 1990 which are seen to have reduced the responsiveness of the planning system to increases in demand for appropriate residential land while enabling affordable housing and now the introduction of incentives to local authorities to ensure provide both market and affordable housing. Australia and New Zealand have taken different paths from a common legal base. In Australia the emphasis has been far more towards a zoning system. This has provided greater certainty to developers but has undermined the capacity to negotiate affordable housing without compensation and has therefore entrenched the need for direct subsidy for new affordable housing supply. New Zealand also has strong rights to develop within a zoning system but has used other legislation, notably with respect to environmental damage and distributional externalities to support affordable housing provision. All three systems have faced particular challenges over the last few years. This paper compares and contrasts the three systems, their successes and failures to draw lessons for the future about how the three systems might better enable adequate housing both market and affordable.

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WORKSHOP 21
Legal Aspects of Housing, Land and Planning
Co-ordinators: Sergio Nasarre Aznar, Jane Ball and Julio Ponce Sole

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European Union Property Law in Development


Sjef VAN ERP
Maastricht European Private Law Institute (M-EPLI), Faculty of Law, Maastricht University, The Netherlands

Bram AKKERMANS
Maastricht European Private Law Institute (M-EPLI), Faculty of Law, Maastricht University, The Netherlands B.Akkermans@maastrichtuniversity.nl There is a clear movement towards the development of European Union Property Law. This movement exists in increased activity at a European Union level, as well as an increasing influence of EU law on national law as we work towards the further completion of the EU Internal Market. This does not only concern property law relating to movables, mostly focused on personal property security rights, but also land law. Developments include the new inclusion of the work towards a Euro-mortgage in the EU 2020 Internal Market strategy, but also case law of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) relating to free movement of capital and services and the acquisition and financing of such an acquisition of land in other Member States. National property law systems are finally also in development. Increasingly these national legal systems are struggling with developments in society that they cannot immediately cope with. This includes new objects of property law, such as the well known problems with the legal status of bank accounts and the more recent problems concerning virtual property, but also increased pressure on property law systems because of European Union developments. When an optional instrument in European private law is made, which is based on the DCFR, that includes rules on the transfer of ownership, security rights and trusts, the pressure for modernisation on national systems increases. Even though the DCFR concerns mostly movables, it is in most systems undesirable to recreate a separation between personal property and land law at a national level. Property law in both common and civil law systems uses a doctrinal system of reasoning at its foundation. These developments force the need to rethink this doctrinal system of reasoning. This paper takes account of these (policy) developments and seeks to highlight common thought patterns both at Member State and at an EU level to build foundations of an EU property law doctrine on which a future European property law, and therefore also land law, can be created.

Empowering House Purchasers: A Focus on Malaysian Tribunal for Homebuyers Claim


Azlinor SUFIAN
Private Law Department, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws, International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia sazlinor@iiu.edu.my Being one of the developing countries, to have a proper and structured mechanism in relation to land, housing and property development is something that can be proud of. This is considered as part of the mechanism that will support the growth of land, housing and property development. This is also related to the confidence that public will have towards the property developers. In Malaysia, the Tribunal for Homebuyers Claim has been established in the year of 2002 to enable house purchasers to file a claim against property developers for any problem related to housing development. It is the objective of this paper to discuss the provisions, rules and procedures relating to the Tribunal for Homebuyers Claim that is specifically regulated by the Housing Development (Control and Licensing) Act, 1966 and the Tribunal for Homebuyers Claim Regulations, 2002. It is hoped that the Malaysian government will improve the laws and regulations governing this tribunal and thus need to study the experiences and practices in other jurisdictions.

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Public-Private Partnerships in America for an Urban Mix Regeneration Site Development: The Case of the Polluted Gates Rubber Plant in Denver
University of Denver Sturm College of Law, Denver, USA eziegler@law.du.edu

Edward ZIEGLER Jan G. LAITOS

University of Denver Sturm College of Law, Denver, USA The old Gates Rubber Company is an abandoned and contaminated 50-acre site in the heart of Denver, Colorado. This paper will discuss how this site was the subject of a community benefit agreement signed in 2006, which was intended to demolish the plant, clean up the contaminants, and then create there a perfect blend of high-density mixed uses, combining employment, affordable housing, and new commercial development in a transit-oriented environment. This redevelopment would have been the product of a public-private partnership, where private investors would buy the site and engage in the cleanup and building efforts. Government agencies would assist by providing financial subsidies in the form of sales and property tax reimbursements, as well as other financial help such as bond issuance, and also legal assistance in the form of rezoning classifications and relaxed environmental standards. Unfortunately, these high hopes became a victim of the financial collapse plaguing the American real estate industry after 2009. When the private developer became unable to obtain financing to continue environmental remediation, the redevelopment was halted. Now the toxic, abandoned rubber plant still remains, while the prospect of the exciting mixed use redevelopment there is uncertain. This paper will use this case study in Denver to consider how (1) such polluted sites ( brownfields) are common in urban areas, (2) there is vast potential in redeveloping and regenerating these sites so that they become centers with mixed uses, affordable housing, near sustainable green transit, (3) a combination of private investment and public assistance can be deployed to create new mixed-use urban centers, and (4) there are always financial risks associated with such ventures.

A Litany of Disaster for UK Housing


London South Bank University, United Kingdom bakerf@lsbu.ac.uk

Francine BAKER

On the 14 February 2010, the Minister for Housing and Local Government (The Rt Hon Grant Shapps) announced the publication of the Framework for the Government's Affordable Homes Programme for 2011-15 (1). In the past, certain funding in the UK has been available for social rent and various intermediate affordable homes. That funding will now mainly concern Affordable Rent properties (2). For planning and housing purposes the definition of affordable housing is being revised to refer to Affordable Rent. This paper will consider the impact of this document on planning and the housing market. For example, as a result of this document, many tenants will pay more rent because social landlords will offer fixed-term tenancies at up to 80 per cent of local market rent. This is far higher than the highest rent at present. The paper will discuss the problems associated with the use of the anticipated extra income. The paper will discuss the problems associated with the requirement that relevant tenancies must be for a minimum period of two years. This paper will discuss the connection of this document with provisions of the UKs Localism Bill which will decentralise planning decisions concerning the allocation of affordable housing requirements in the UK, and the effect of the accompanying reductions in housing benefit allowances, and further reductions in legal aid. It will conclude that the government gives little consideration to mixed housing in the UK; and that it has passed responsibility for the provision of affordable housing to inadequately prepared and inadequately funded local councils, which may result in a housing and welfare crisis for many vulnerable people in the near future. 1. viewed 27 February 2011 at http://www.homesandcommunities.co.uk/public/documents/Affordable-Homes-Framework.pdf 2.http://www.homesandcommunities.co.uk/affordable-homes

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A condominium regime within one dwelling (sub-condominium)


University Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain hector.simon@urv.cat Both ownership and lease are the most common property tenures in Spain, which involve either the purchase of a dwelling (which usually takes place through a mortgage) or a lease contract. We have to bear in mind that the former is sometimes so expensive for people with low income (since 2007 have taken place 176.000 evictions), and with regard to the latter some problems arise with its legal nature (it does not create a property right). Sometimes there is no other option that sharing the dwelling with other people. The organization of several people within the same dwelling usually takes place through the rent of one specific room to each one, which is governed by general dispositions of the Spanish Civil Code (which do not give to the tenant the same protection as the lease foreseen at the Urban Leases Act of 1994, which entitled the tenant to use all the surface of the dwelling). Other alternatives, such as the property right of habitatio, are not attractive for landlords because it is controversial their right to demand the payment of any rent. Nevertheless, both rights are clearly insufficient to meet the current social needs. Thus, a social phenomenon which has been exacerbated by the credit crunch is the fact that more than 20% of the immigrant population lived in an insalubrious situation in 2007, and almost 50% in shared flats under a lease, paying a rent for a room or even just for a bed. From the private law perspective we have another way to promote the access to affordable housing: the constitution of a condominium inside a dwelling (sub-condominium). It could be a way to organize the coexistence of several people, who are true holders altogether of property rights and would have as a consequence more security and stability in their tenure. This paper tries to show who could this scheme be structured in our legal system.

Hctor SIMN MORENO

Integrated Territorial Planning in Chile. Extrapolated experiences approach from specific Public Services in the O'Higgins Region faced with the political administrative division.
School of Architecture, University of Santiago de Chile, Chile carlos.munoz.p@usach.cl

Carlos MUOZ

Matas DZIEKONSKI
Santiago, Chile. In Chile, the Public Administration has incorporated the territorial planning process - which includes multi-sector variables as a relevant part in a whole geographic topic - only recently, and primarily for the implementation of development programs and not as a norm. Historically, it has insisted on treating the problem from the perspective of some specific disciplines such as economics, geography or other and specific Ministry, planning as a whole regardless of territorial space. In the Region of O'Higgins, on information collected between 2001 and 2006 at regional public services, concluded that all used a territorial approach, specifically in the implementation of its products, which in one form or otherwise benefited the users in the territory of the region. However, each institution was not clearly using the territorial concept, and thus could infer that they used the traditional method, which is the political administration fragmentation of the territory with its highest expression at the community level. Viewing the history of political-administrative division that developed this country, it is possible to check the consistency (or not) who have had these with the dynamics that actually make it up. This becomes more complex with the introduction of electoral districts created in the electoral law that exist in Chile since the late 80's, and a vital influence in the processes of management and financing of investments in the territories involved. It must be possible from this background, extrapolated into an abstraction as a working methodology for other territories. On the basis of these characteristics of the territorial configuration, it is possible to propose a score of relevant topics to be considered for a possible instrument of Sustainable Land Management.

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Protecting the Attorney-Client Privilege in Advising Local, State and NGO Entities Administering Federally-Funded Housing and Development Activities
Otto J. HETZEL
Wayne State University Law School, Detroit, Michigan, USA otto@hetzelesq.com Support for housing and development programs in the United States generally involves local and state government as well as by various non-profit non-governmental organizations use of federal program funds. Along with those federal funds come certain requirements for documenting and justifying the use of those funds to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and its Office of Inspector General which monitors and audits the permissible use of those funds and also whether such funds were used unlawfully and with criminal intent. One role of lawyers advising and representing state, local, and NGO entities that carry out these federally-funded programs has been to provide legal representation of these entities, especially when disputes arise regarding proper uses of these funds. One of the bedrock principles of U.S. jurisprudence is the protection of what is termed the attorney-client privilege that was established so lawyers could effectively represent their clients. Protection of the attorneys thoughts, impressions, legal theories, and strategy including communications with their clients are considered essential on public policy grounds to ensure clients will fully and effectively communicate with their attorneys and their statements to counsel not be revealed. In the quest for factual information, sometimes government investigators have attempted to invade this privilege to obtain more information regarding the facts and actors motivations. This paper describes the importance of preservation of the privilege while still permitting funding sources to ensure that the funds have been used consistent with federal restrictions on their use and discusses recent issues that have arisen in contests for access to information between the federal government and attorneys representing entities that have been administering housing and development activities using federal funds.

Seeking a methodology to compare tenures or residential occupancy rights in Europe


Jane BALL
School of Law, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom jane.ball@sheffield.ac.uk This working paper seeks a methodology by which national tenures or residential land rights can be compared. There is ample international work on property, but neither much legal comparison of typologies of other residential land rights and residential security. One EU study makes a start, but tries to compare tenancies, which is not entirely a common European legal concept. The general legal characteristics of all residential tenures need to be compared. Most countries have a continuum of residential rights from the insecure to the very secure. In Europe, fragmentary tenures cast light on some common origins of land rights. The extent to which Roman or mediaeval fragmentation hangs around everywhere is surprising. There are also insecure occupancy rights everywhere, such as hotels and hostels. Some basic legal comparisons can help. Firstly the available national types of occupancy right in one country should be looked at by listing these by the national description of type, not as tenancies or property. This includes rare tenure types connecting to the past. It cannot be assumed that the Roman law vocabulary describes the same thing in different countries. Tenures can then be grouped into European families. Whether national occupancy rights are secure is essentially an empirical question. The national legal bases for residential regulation and protection should be examined, whether property law, contract law, social law, statute or consumer law. Then effective rights and their limitations can be ascertained from statutes, case law and national empirical work. Elements of residential security increasingly arise from generic anti-eviction laws, or indeed any type of legislation. This is not a small job.

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Squatters and municipal policies to reduce vacancy


Hugo PRIEMUS
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands h.priemus@tudelft.nl Squatting has been considered since many decades as a strategy to prevent and to reduce vacancy. In 1914 the highest Dutch Court decided that entering a vacant dwelling is not punishable by law. Domestic peace can only be disturbed when furniture (table, seat, bed) is present in the dwelling. In 1964 the first squatting actions took place in Amsterdam, with a high publicity profile. For Dutch government this was a reason to propose an Anti-Squatting Act which would make squatting illegal. This proposal did not reach a political majority. In the meantime the squatting movement in Amsterdam developed strongly, sometimes with heavy violence since 1974, which culminated in the squatter riots during the coronation ceremonies of queen Beatrix and prince Claus on April 30, 1980. In 1994 a Vacancy Act was enacted: vacant properties were protected legally during the first six months. After that period squatting was allowed to prevent structural vacancy. Later the period of protection was adapted to one year. In 2010 Parliament supported a proposal for a squatting prohibition. Since October 2010 the Squatting and Vacancy Act is valid which makes squatting illegal but doesnot offer a solution for an effective reduction of vacancy. The paper presents a historical overview of squatting and policies for reducing vacancy in The Netherlands and evaluates the current legal arrangements.

Selective Licensing under the 2004 Housing Act and their effects on Resident Satisfaction and Community Engagement: A Case Study
Julian SIDOLI DEL CENO
Birmingham City University, United Kingdom julian.sidolidelceno@bcu.ac.uk The Housing Act 2004 (Sections 79-81) introduced a scheme of selective licensing of private landlords in a local housing authoritys area. The Act came into force in April 2006. Selective licensing was introduced as an attempt to address two distinct but arguably related issues: poor quality private housing (often coupled with indifferent management) and anti-social tenants. It had been primarily developed with the need to tackle problems in areas of low demand and many of the provisions bear similarity to those relating to the mandatory and discretionary licensing of Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs) which were also introduced by the 2004 Act. In an area subject to selective licensing, all private landlords must obtain a licence and if they fail to do so, or fail to achieve acceptable standards of management, the authority can take enforcement action. The aim of this paper is to examine the reality behind one such scheme that was implemented in Neath-Port Talbot in South Wales in an area of some depravation. It focuses on examining the perceptions of the actual residents in the designated area - both private tenant and home-owner rather than landlords or policy-makers. It was found that many tenants were unaware of the actual operation of the scheme confusing it with a much wider regeneration scheme. Others commented that whilst the actual scheme had, as of yet, brought little actual changes it had created what might be termed a perception of value resulting a positive sense of change.

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Legal decisions of the Council of State of The Netherlands in 2010


H.B.M. VAN DULLEMEN
Attorney at law in The Hague, The Netherlands info@vandullemenadvocaten.nl A summary of important developments in the jurisprudence relating to the fields of housing, planning, and environmental affairs by the Administrative Court of the Council of State of the Netherlands in 2010. Focus is also given to subjects and doctrines of general administrative (procedural) law affecting judicial decisions in these areas of significance to European and International law. The selection includes decisions relating to administrative procedures, impact of legal time restrictions, and the scope of jurisdiction of government bodies, commissions, and other governmental bodies on local, provincial and state level. The paper also includes a topical classification of important developments in the past years jurisprudence. References will be provided to the selected decisions that are all published at: www.raadvanstate.nl.

The Impact of Legal Regulations on the Squatter Housing (Gecekondu) Phenomenon in Turkey
Yasemin ALKISER
Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey alkiser@itu.edu.tr The squatter housing phenomenon appeared in Turkey after World War II and has increasingly continued up to now. During the period 1945-1960, urbanization resulting out of development attempts had led to the generation of illegal squatter settlements. Thus, the illegal settlements (called gecekondu in Turkey) became a major point of interest in housing. Until the first Gecekondu Law was passed in 1966, a lot of other legal arrangements regarding prevention, rehabilitation, renewal, construction and demolition or forgiving had already been engaged in. The first serious and formal attempt embodied in the Gecekondu Law is still in use, despite some amendments to it and its implementation regulations. After the Gecekondu Law was passed, until quite recently, many squatter housing solutions have centered on forgiveness, which was considered to be linked with renewal and rehabilitation. Recently, squatter housing solutions are focused on urban transformation which includes mostly regeneration much more than renewal or rehabilitation. This approach creates many conflicts and contradictions about property/tenure rights, public benefits, unearned income (rentier), environmental quality and the livable environments for everyone among squatters, investors, planners, architects, sociologists, NGOs and local/central governments. Since the appearance of squatter settlements, there have been many legal steps like the Gecekondu Law and the Urban Transformation Law which both intend to solve the squatter housing problem. The aim of this paper is to discuss how legal arrangements affects both now and in the past the squatter movement and urbanization in the big cities of Turkey. The method of this study is based on literature, research, statistical data, relevant laws and the legal framework on housing and squatter settlements.

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WORKSHOP 22
Private rented markets
Co-ordinators: Aideen Hayden, Julie Rugg and Bob Jordan

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Are housing costs higher for homeowners or for renters? How is their income burden? Does social housing policy work?
Karin WAGNER
Oesterreichische Nationalbank, Vienna, Austria Karin.Wagner@oenb.at One of the targets of social housing policy is to keep housing costs affordable for lower-income households. The paper analyses whether this works and compares therefore housing costs of homeowners with those of renters. This is done by using data of the household survey on housing wealth 2008 (HSHW 2008) conducted by the Austrian central bank. It can be shown that the share of housing costs on income (debt service plus operating costs) for the median homeowner is 6% (mean 15%). It is much lower than the respective value for renters (rents plus operating costs) with a median value of 22% (mean 26%). The median housing cost burden in Vienna with an income share of 22% is lower than the housing costs as percentage share of income for renters in the other Austrian provinces (26%). With the lowest income quartile this difference is more pronounced than with the upper income quartiles. Renters of subsidized homes (public housing apartments - Gemeindewohnung, housing association apartments - Genossenschaftswohnung, company housing, rent-free homes) show a median housing costs share in income of 36%(mean 49%) in the 1st income quartile compared with 43% (mean 57%) for renters of private homes. The differences get lower with higher income quartiles. It is shown that when moving to another home renters estimate their future housing costs much better than homeowners do After all, one third of renters (32%) is forced to cut back their expenses for being able to pay their housing costs (for the homeowners those forced to cut back expenses are 27%). Finally the paper analyses the sociodemographic characteristics of renters of public housing apartments and of renters of housing association apartments.

Private rented market in Ankara: legal aspects and physical attributes


Gulsun Pelin SARIOGLU ERDOGDU
Department of City and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Mersin University, Turkey pelincp@gmail.com Turkey is characterized with high home ownership rates (71% in 2003). Public renting never existed in the country. Instead, a large proportion of housing stock is privately rented especially in the big cities (26, 4% in Ankara, 28% in Istanbul in 2003). Physical differences between private rented and owner occupied dwellings have not been much to lead tenure discrepancies when compared to countries with social housing. Governments did not develop social rented housing and pro-owner laws have been followed. Rent levels were never controlled by administrations. Landlords had monopolistic powers to determine rent levels and increases and households were forced to accept these amounts. This trend was broken only in 2000, when rent increases (not rent levels) were fixed at a maximum of 25%. There is still no government control in the setting of initial rents. Renters could face eviction under certain situations determined by the Law on Property Rents, however these were subject to misuse by homeowners, leading to easy evictions, followed by new tenant agreements with new tenants at increased rent levels, bringing more profit to the homeowners. In this paper, position of private rented market in Turkey is analyzed firstly on general by providing legal aspects that determine the context and secondly by physical attributes of renting in Ankara, the capital city.

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The Impact of Integrated Resort Schemes (IRS) on the population


Yashwaree BAGUANT-MOONSHIRAM,
University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius k.baguant@uom.ac.mu

University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius mnowbuth@uom.ac.mu

Manta NOWBUTH

Suhail Ahmad AHMADI


Municipal Council of Rose Hill suhail4ever@gmail.com The purpose of this study is at making an impact analysis of development implemented under the Integrated Resort Scheme (IRS). It seeks to clarify the misconceptions behind the IRS and has for objective to determine the benefits and drawbacks of such schemes within the parameters of Town and Country Planning. The promotion of IRS by authorities as an essential component of the investment strategy in Mauritius is justified by the economic importance that such development reaffirms. The works target at determining the impacts of the development within neighbouring settlements, the environmental impacts, the social impacts and the economic impacts. The profits incurred by promoters and Government under the IRS are in no way contested. Furthermore, social benefits incurred under the Corporate Social Responsibility are encouraging. However, it is feared on the long term whether the cost of such massive investment will bring end result if no solution is foreseen to prevent massive disruption of native and natural fauna and flora and the eventual negative environmental consequences and the local population. This study will analyse ways in which there would be more efficient management of land use, and if the prevailing planning policies need to be reviewed and if new criteria need to be introduced to assess land value in order to prevent further isolation of low social classes. Finally, this study will analyse whether development patterns need to be controlled so as to prevent segregation between the different social classes and the population.

The transformation of the urban private rental housing market in early 20th century Britain
Oxford Institute of Social Policy, Oxford, United Kingdom peter.kemp@spi.ox.ac.uk

Peter A. KEMP

During the early 20th century, the previously dominant private rental housing market in Britain began a process of long-term decline that continued up to the late 1980s. Yet the origins of this decline have not been subject to in-depth scrutiny, at least when compared with the research on the early origins of council housing, and housing associations or the growth of owner-occupation. Previous historical scholarship on private renting in Britain has tended to focus on the 19th century or on particular episodes such as rent strikes and the 1915 Rent Act. The private rental housing market between the two world wars, by contrast, has been neglected and yet this was a transformative period during which the long-term processes of decline became embedded in the political economy of housing in Britain. The paper will present a theoretically-informed account of the transformation that occurred in the urban private rental housing market in early 20th century Britain. In looks in particular at the origins of the decline of the structure of housing provision (Ball, 1986) associated with private renting that had dominated the urban housing market in the late 19th century. Focusing on the period from the Edwardian housing slump in the 1900s through the interwar years up to 1939, it charts and analyses the developments and processes that undermined that structure of provision.

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The role of policy in determining the size of the private rented sector: international comparisons
Michael OXLEY
Centre for Comparative Housing Research, Faculty of Business & Law, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom moxley@dmu.ac.uk

Tim BROWN
Centre for Comparative Housing Research, Faculty of Business & Law, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom

Marietta HAFFNER
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

Joris HOEKSTRA
OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands The size of the private rented housing sector (PRS) varies markedly between countries. The paper explores the effect of policy on the size of the PRS relative to other tenures in recent years in several countries with emphasis on the evidence from France, Germany, the UK and the USA. The definition and measurement of the size of the sector in each country is considered. A key issue that is explored is the effect of policies on the demand for private renting and investment in the sector. The roles of subsidies, taxation and regulation are considered in the context of the housing systems of particular countries. The analysis is important in understanding current tenure distribution and is relevant to evaluating policies that seek to increase the size of the sector. The paper draws on some of the evidence in the authors research report for the English Department of Communities and Local Government: Promoting Investment in Private Rented Housing Supply: International Policy Comparisons (November 2010). See: http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/housing/investprivaterentedhousing

Economy and legal aspects of private rental housing and the importance of proper adjustment of market rents
Tomislav IMECEK
International Union of Property Owners (UIPI), Praha, Czech Republic simecek@fzu.cz Rental housing as well as any other business in order to attract investors has to offer reasonable security of investment and reasonable return on invested capital. At the same time, housing attracts often heavy political interference of governments because of the very spread socialist or even communist doctrines and public pressures calling for the provision of housing as a cheap or nearly free service for the electorate public. In Europe we have adopted after the end of the second-world-war the Convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, which became an obligatory part of constitutional law of all EU member states. This convention in its first protocol guarantees in its article No. 1 the peaceful enjoyment of every persons possession, including also rental housing units. Based on this it seems that all countries should obey this binding law and that the governmental interference should be kept within reasonable limits to allow peaceful enjoyment of everyones property. The reality is unfortunately much worse. Many countries are still keeping in force legal and economical regulation of rental law and rents far beyond the acceptable limits. We will concentrate in this contribution on setting the limits of interference that is still admissible in private rental housing in Europe

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Housing policy tools supporting young families and their possible applications in the private rental sector in the Czech Republic
Institute of Sociology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic

Jana VOBECK

Institute of Sociology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic tomas.kostelecky@soc.cas.cz The paper has two objectives. The first objective is to compile descriptive overview of housing policy tools used to support young families in European and selected non-European developed countries. The second (the main) objective is to discuss possible tools of housing policy aimed at supporting young families that would be suitable for the situation in European states with transitive economies, in which housing market has not developed fully. We pay special attention to young people who have not enough income to afford purchase of their own flat or house and who are at the same time denied access to (municipal) social rental housing where regulated rents are still relatively affordable. For such people, private rental market could serve as an affordable housing alternative provided that suitable housing policy alleviates potential problems between private landlords and potential tenants. On the basis on empirical research (workshops with representatives of private landlords and focus groups with young people who cannot afford housing ownership) a new housing policy tools are being proposed and tested, that would improve relationships between private landlords and young tenants and decrease both perceived and real risks of the two sides of the possible rental contract.

Tom KOSTELECK

Private rented regulation and the shift towards tenure neutrality in the Republic of Ireland
University College Dublin, Ireland

Aideen HAYDEN, Bob JORDAN


Threshold, Ireland bob@threshold.ie

This paper argues that Ireland has moved in recent years to a more tenure neutral position in the context of social housing policy. While Ireland demonstrates some of the characteristics of countries in the retrenchment phase (Doling, 1997), Irish housing policy has operated in part to limit the housing risk of the citizen. OSullivan and De Decker have suggested that the privatisation of risk has involved making the PRS fit for purpose. We suggest instead that measures to achieve this have reduced risk for more vulnerable members of society and increased the extent of social commitment. Traditionally a home owner society, rates of homeownership in Ireland have fallen in tandem with substantial growth in the private rented sector (from 7% to 12% in less than a decade). A more tenure neutral stance is manifested in the extension of rights previously associated with social housing tenants to those in the private rented sector (PRS), including hybrid rental tenancies with features of both social and private rented tenancies, better security of tenure for private rented tenants, statutory dispute resolution outside of the courts, and improved PRS accommodation standards. Tenant purchase (right-to-buy) has been extended to those assessed as in social housing need but who demonstrate a capacity for subsidised home ownership. This is a departure from the previous policy which applied only to sitting local authority tenants. It represents a decoupling of social housing supports from tenure and extends these benefits to low income tenants in the PRS. In developing structures which attach particular housing benefits to the individual, on the basis of need rather on the basis of tenure occupied by the individual, Ireland has moved to a more tenure neutral position. We examine this proposition by reviewing various measures taken by the Irish State over the last decade.

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WORKSHOP 23
Housing and Cities: Changing Social and Spatial Boundaries
Co-ordinators: Glin Pulat-Gkmen, Renaud Le Goix, Ahsen zsoy

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Private neighbourhoods in Southern African cities (South Africa, Namibia, Mozambique): Security, identities and competing legitimacies. The cases of gated communities and City Improvement Districts
LISST-Cieu (UTM, CNRS, EHESS), Universit de Toulouse II - Le Mirail, France elisabeth.peyroux@univ-tlse2.fr

Elisabeth PEYROUX

School of Architecture and Planning, Wits University, Johannesburg, South Africa Claire.benit@wits.ac.za The past decades have witnessed the rapid expansion of private security in Southern African cities, particularly at neighbourhood level. Two models have gained momentum: while gated communities have became emblematic of the heightened protection of residential suburban areas, the North-American model of Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) have gained popularity in both suburbs and inner cities, business and property owners being keen to protect their assets and secure a clientele in commercial and business areas, but also in low-income residential neighbourhoods. The spatial spreading of these two models at the metropolitan scale has brought up significant shifts in the way urban space is being controlled, used and shared. Significant changes are also underway in the organization and governance of these neighborhoods: the involvement of private sector and non-profit organizations in security provision and urban management challenges the role of the state and blurs the boundaries between public, community-based and private stakeholders. Drawing on a collective research program conducted on the privatization of security and new forms of governance in South Africa, Namibia and Mozambique, this presentation explores the nature and impacts of gated communities (in Cape Town, Maputo and Windhoek) and City Improvement Districts (CIDs) (in Johannesburg and Cape Town) on urban forms, spatial practices, but also and especially on social relations, the internal dynamics of communities and the relationship between citizens and state. The comparative analysis shows how the control over local space, heavily linked to security matters, and community identities, is an object of competing legitimacies.

Claire BNIT-GBAFFOU

Conflicts around gated communities


ELTE University, Centre for Urban and Regional Research, Budapest, Hungary csizmady@tatk.elte.hu Gated communities, symbolizing social transformation, gained ground as both a home and a status symbol for the ambitious nouveau riche or for the members of those social layers who were able to adapt dynamically to post-socialist market conditions. Eastern European investments generate unique systems of conflict, which are in a certain sense similar to, but in another sense very different from those experienced in the countries of Western Europe. The investor must first reach an agreement with the local government. This step is followed by the long process of official authorisation. In more than one case, investors have become fed up with fighting inconsequential officials and have simply moved on to another country. Besides local governments and authorities, the third major source of conflict is local inhabitants and civil organisations, which are still weak, but are beginning to raise their voices. Besides potential conflict between investors and local inhabitants, conflict also frequently arises between those who live in surrounding areas versus those who are moving in. Due to the nature of gated communities, conflicts are likely to arise not only with those living in the surrounding areas, but also among those living inside the development itself. As far as there are substantial differences according to status and interests there are potential sources of conflict within the relatively homogenous community as well. The presentation will be based on analyzing these conflicts on the example of Budapest. Surveys providing data as well as interviews will support the argumentation, where emphasis will be put on examining the motives of investors and flat owners in parallel.

Adrienne CSIZMADY

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Neighborhooding betwen barrieres and etendue witch place for the social links
Abdelhalim BENBOUAIJILI
University Hassan II, Casablanca, Maroc haliminternet@yahoo.fr Structural foundations of neiberhooding Be neighbor or neighborly ? This question engage the presupposition of disjunction which in turn uses one or the other expression: Should we conclude so far to cleavage of postures? Indeed, the current state of urban research appeals to different disciplines such as sociology and anthropology. I lead a thesis entitled neighborliness between extended and gates at the direction of the anthropologist Mr. Hassan Rachik. The land on which I work is a newly formed district, which allows a certain homogeneity of the inhabitants of that district multiple concepts as distance, proximity and first coming , deserves special attention both in methodological and theoretical levels. the approach takes into account the sociology, anthropology, urban planning and land planning. The area in question consists of three segments: the first is a new building lived by a people coming from the slums, the second segment is populated by newcomers and the third is a large gated communities. The study area has a similarity with Chicago since the early 20th century, some authors have focused on the question on our theme, as the Professor Louis Wirth who examined the concept-distance proximity. In Morocco, the academic, political and urban planning interest give a particular focus on housing sector. The new city have seen the day, a new form of neiberhooding appears, public spaces become a surface of multiple interaction. In conclusion, I am a member of the CM2S actor in the field of urban planning.

Open Spaces, Walls and Housing. The Aesthetics and Politics of Social Order
Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione, Politecnico di Milano, Italy massimo.bricocoli@polimi.it

Massimo BRICOCOLI Ota DE LEONARDIS Paola SAVOLDI

Dipartimento di sociologia e di ricerca sociale, Universit di Milano Bicocca, Italy ota.deleonardis@unimib.it

Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione, Politecnico di Milano, Italy paola.savoldi@polimi.it

Whether open public spaces play a role as catalysts for change in the sake of the common good this is very much depending on the quality of governance and society. In Italy, deep changes are affecting the design and use of open spaces in new housing developments within the central core of the city. Our contribution focuses on the city of Milan. In a phase of re-urbanization and of so called urban renaissance, the physical and symbolic features of the new open spaces being produced under the pressure of the real estate market are expressing new conditions and forms of social and spatial re-organization which seem to correspond to the expectations of suburban dreams within the city. Field research reveals that more and more, the design and of urban transformation is using open space to organize separation and our interpretation is that the spatial character of urban change in Milan is endangering some fundamentals which made the European city renown as a place of emancipation and democracy. Trends in a new aesthetic of open green spaces will be discussed as an exemplary device of separation together with the development of a new geometry of socio-spatial arrangements in which the production of walls raises as a diffuse trend in the new spirit of capitalism and as a representation or choreography of a new social order. With reference to intensive research work rooted in the analysis of contemporary social and urban policies and change, we jointly put under observation the spatial and architectural dimension of walls as well as the individuals and populations they define, construct and govern. Our central hypothesis is that open spaces and walls are often theatrical artifacts that transform inequalities into distance.

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Suburban morphologies and contextual effects on property values time patterns in the western suburbs of Paris
UMR Gographie-cits 8504 (CNRS Univ. Paris 1, Univ. Paris 7), Department of Geography, University of Paris 1 Panthon-Sorbonne, France rlegoix@univ-paris1.fr

Renaud LE GOIX

UMR Gographie-cits 8504 (CNRS Univ. Paris 1, Univ. Paris 7), Department of Geography, University of Paris 1 Panthon-Sorbonne, France The proposed paper aims at analyzing the intricate interactions between the production of suburban residential patterns, pricepatterns across time and social change. By doing so, we wish to introduce an analysis of the local contexts of production of suburban residential subdivisions. This will be achieved by the means of quantitative analysis (multilevel spatial analysis of income patterns and morphological typologies of subdivisions) and qualitative data. In this aim, we study a representative sample of subdivisions in the western suburban areas of Paris metropolitan region (78 Yvelines). We analyze property values and seller-buyer profiles of single family houses (1996-2006, database BIEN, Chambre des Notaires / French Office of the Registrar), matched to a database of enclaved subdivisions provided by the Greater Paris Region Planning Agency (from now on IAU-IdF). The paper will first introduce the typology of residential subdivisions according to street patterns and public vs. private street structure (gated vs. non-gated ; loops, lollipops, dead-ends, hierarchized street patterns). We will the focus on two main issues: (1) how the different types of street patterns correlates with the housing price structure over time (1996-2006); and (2) to what extent dominant street patterns and residential morphologies connect to social change, analyzed in terms of seller-buyers characteristics, at the municipal level. Indeed, we push the argument that analyzing morphologies in the production system of suburban residential areas requires to investigate several dimensions that underlies the theoretical and methodological choices the paper will discuss and justify: first, an analysis of subdivision morphological fragmentation; second, a comparative study of socio-spatial fragmentation (based upon properties data) and interactions between actors and suburban sprawl.

Alexandre HUET

From mixed residential compounds to gated communities in Chinese cities: Transition to sustainable housing forms?
Department of Urban Planning and Design, The University of Hong Kong rlhchiu@hkucc.hku.hk

Rebecca L. H. CHIU

Residential development in Chinese cities since the 1990s has been commonly organized in the form of housing estates targeted for different socio-economic groups, replacing the former cellular residential compounds built for employees of all ranks in the same organizations. Residential districts also emerged as a result of the urban policy of segregating work places and domicile places. The planning and design of most of the post-1990 residential clusters are adapted from Hong Kong, where semienclosed housing estates have long existed and have been regarded as the most common and accepted form of residential organization. They also resemble the gated communities proliferated in American and European cities since the mid-eighties. This paper investigates the causes and the sustainability implications of this newly emerged residential models in China. It first traces the scale of gated residential communities in the leading cities such as Shanghai and Guangzhou. It then attempts to explain this new residential trends by investigating factors pertinent to urban Chinas marketizing land administration and governance systems, and urban planning and transport policy. It finally explores the livability of this new type of residential organization and its implications for Chinas urban sustainability. The analysis will draw on the concepts and debates in the gated community and urban sustainability literature, and uses field data collected in 2010 and 2011.

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Typological Analysis of Spatial Organization: Gated Communities in Istanbul


Housing Production and Building Management Department, Faculty of Architecture, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey fusuncizmeci@yahoo.com

Fusun CIZMECI

Architectural Restoration and Conservation Department, Faculty of Architecture, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey banu.celebioglu@gmail.com Gated communities, being produced synchronously in many metropolises all around the world, offer a new housing concept to the upper-middle income groups. The basic idea of this new concept is to developed spatial borders which seperate the inhabitans from the rest of the city. Gated communities are surrounded by some sort of barriers such as walls, doors or fences, etc. and in these delineated boundries the residential settlements are constructed. However, it is not possible to identify the gated communities only as some kind of residential settlement areas. In fact, these settlements are large-scale projects which include a large number of housing units and social amenities that serve only the gated community inhabitants. The social amenities in the concept of gated community diversify among to theirs functions such as sports, shopping, entertainment, religous facility and education. This diversification enables the inhabitants to meet the daily necessities without leaving the gated community but it also causes an isolated lifestyle for them. On the other hand this diversification is the most important factor for preference of the gated communities by upper-middle income groups. In this study the diversification of the spatial organization of gated communities offering a functional diversification and beneath causing a social segregation has been explicated. In the scope of the study, 90 gated communities in different locations of stanbul have been analyzed and their site plans have been categorized typologically. It has seen that the urban location of gated community, and depending on it the land size and developement plan conditions affact significantly the typology differentations of gated communities. It has been also predicted that these factors formulate the spatial and functional design of social amenities in gated communities. As the analysing method of study, the Relational Stratification model developed by Lebart is used. The results of the analysis are presented by the generation of relational maps and by Bertin graphics.

Banu CELEBIOGLU

Quality of new enclosed/ gated housing developments realized by public and local authorities in Istanbul
Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey ggokmen@itu.edu.tr

Gulcin PULAT GOKMEN Ahsen OZSOY

Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey ozsoya@itu.edu.tr

This paper aims to discuss the developments of the housing supply by government in terms of urban housing transformation processes in Istanbul since 2000. Therefore types of housing supplies by central and local government emerging after the year 2000 will be examined, such as the applications of the Housing Development Administration, local authorities and public-private partnerships. The applications of the Housing Development Administration has begun to transform unplanned squatter areas to new enclosed urban housing settlements or made built to private construction firms some new vertical gated housing projects in Istanbul. The local government has also produced and marketed housing settlements in various parts of the city by means of a firm established for this purpose. Public-private partnerships have created various housing projects on the unplanned areas near motorways, forests and water dams with the new development plan proposals. Common points in all these applications are a promising new lifestyle and increasing quality of life, building high density/vertical gated housing settlements, constructing high rise buildings to save space for social, cultural, sport and recreational areas, with secure, gated borders and well-controlled entries. In the paper, we will try to answer the following questions: How was this supply realized and why was it supported and encouraged by both local and central governments? Why does the central government support this process by providing very attractive credits? Who are the residents? Is there a real demand for these types of dwellings by the target users? Why are those tall housing blocks constructed with such a high density and do they provide a better housing quality in the urban environment?

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Housing forms and rural functionality within the urban macro region of Chile: toward a social mixity in peri-urban?
Alejandro SALAZAR
Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Santiago, Chile asalazab@uc.cl

Rodrigo HIDALGO
Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Santiago, Chile rhidalgd@uc.cl

Pablo OSSES
Institute of Geography, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Santiago, Chile posses@uc.cl The key elements to analyze the social mixity of suburbs or inter-metropolitan areas are mobility -within the context of the social territorial transformation process in the peri-urban space at the Metropolitan Region of Santiago and Valparaiso (Chile)- and the form of a new extended urban region. This research looks for establishing the existing relationships between the social-economical conditions of population, finding the different forms of housings (social, gates communities, social-rural spaces), and the demographic density; the transportation time to its respective regional capitals (rural functionality) The relations between these two variables are obtained through GIS, overlapping and crossing layers of information at the scale of census detail (2002). A cluster analysis of the social-economic and social-professional classifications is added in order to determine the spatial conditions of social mixity in this inter-metropolitan border. These results confirm dissociation among the use of land, the kind of inhabitants, and public policies, which can be understood as the expression of inter-territorial changes and the formation of an inter-metropolitan space within the urban macro region of Chile. The existence of a social structure and a functional use of the space are recognized as the result of subjects like the expansion of the regional central crowd, the pressure of property development and the transformation of border agriculture on last decades. The research shows the results of project Fondecyt n 1100999 (2010) The new functional rurality (density and travel time); relation to economic activities, natural resources and poverty in the metropolitan areas of Chile. Comparison of Valparaso Region, Bo-Bo and Metropolitan Santiago; Fondecyt n11060310 (2006) The new metropolitan rural areas: resizing, periurbanization and impacts on rural territorial development of the Santiago Metropolitan Region 1992-2002; and Fondecyt n1095222 (2010) The transformation of the CBD: business restructuring and residential elitism (gentrification). The case of Santiago, Valparaiso and Via del Mar.

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WORKSHOP 25
Reviewing architecture and the residential design in the urban context a critical inventory
Co-ordinators: Birgit Jrgenhake, Jana Zdrahalova, Ahsen zsoy

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Mixed-use development
Banafsheh MAHOUTI
Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran banafsheh.mahouti@gmail.com Mix use as a traditional life style, existed prior to the advent of modernism. However many residential areas have been developed without any attention to their environment, nowadays. This approach is the legacy of issues such as functionalist approach to urbanism, Zoning, and Garden City movement in modern times. Being influenced by industrial revolution deterioration, urban life faced with a tendency to find a solution based on separation of residential areas from the other urban activities. Nowadays, the social adverse and economic impacts which are created by the single operation of urban spaces, is considerable. This way of thinking which is developed before 1950, was based on the ideas of 19th century, namely assumed the urban environment a combination of pollution-belching factories and poverty-stricken slums; with a should to be being modified. Mixeduse re-emerged in 1960-70s, as a security providing tool, and urban revitalization process to restore life to the city, while the urban life has been dismantled in the past. The main goal of mix use approach, is to place various people in several hours in urban space, therefore, cities would be addressed the various needs of the life by experiencing a diverse range of different species in such a way. On the other hand mix-use could be expanded in different scale, including : - mix-use buildings -mix- use parcel or sites - mix-use walk able or transit areas And loft units,( live and work )are smallest scales for organization. This article reviews the brief history of mix-use benefits and Represents the use of this knowledge in residential environment designing method.

The social aspects of small innovations in housing units


Karl Heinz KAHLIG
TU, Graz, Austria Kahlig@student.tugraz.at Following the sociological discussions, there is no tendency to increasing social mixit. On the contrary: the rise of social divergences is manifesting in highly segregated spaces. If they have the possibility to do so, people try to avoid the physical proximity of distanced social groups. On one hand, social diversity and density can be argued as the characterizing fact of urban conditions, on the other hand they result in conflicts. Because it is the place of essential stay, it is mainly the residential sphere, where this conflicts take place. The architecural planning cant solve the essential divergences. In best case, architecture can try to enhance the possibilities of the inhabitants to negotiate the social limitations. This approach tries to ask for the conditions of social mixit within the small focus on the housing unit and its developement: If it is right, that contemporary architecture is condensing the social interactions, the social progression has to become visible in the floor plan. Comparing floor plans of the last decades it seems that only particular aspects of the dwelling were adapted to new circumstances. In a first step I will try to find out, which elements of living space remained unchanged or how they changed, and the way they correspond to the aspects of work, family, hygiene and security. Based on this aspects, maybe it is possible to identify social groups or habits, that are underrepresented due to the selective immutability of the living conditions. Although there are no physical interventions capable to guarantee the improvement of social mixit, I will try to propose some innovations in the dwelling, to make it habitable for a wider community. This innovations should reinforce the inhabitants to negotiate the social limits, and increase their possibilities to act and to communicate.

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Densification through a revisited urban form of the modern: Swiss residential complexes of triangular morphologies
Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, Switzerland antigoni.katsakou@epfl.ch In Zurichs urban environment, one of Europes metropolitan cities with the highest standards of living quality, important changes have taken place during the last fifteen years. Changing living modes and altered urban conditions have been seriously taken into consideration by the citys administrative authorities in a series of urban transformation programs set up in this particular time lapse. Such measures, effective as so far demonstrated particularly in the housing construction domain, with the production of a considerable number of housing units, represent a particularly active political will operating in close collaboration with notfor-profit housing promoters. Among the States primary objectives have been controlling the phenomenon of urban sprawling and families exodus towards the suburban periphery, as well as the densification and revival of certain urban areas and city districts. Residential complexes serving as condensing nucleuses with their necessary infrastructure have been systematically promoted, replacing outdated whether for the hosted typologies or for their urban forms and energy consuming characteristics existing ensembles. New solutions, both on the urban scale as on that of the unit have been consistently searched through the organization of numerous housing competitions promoting the quality of architectural design. In this background and amidst a sort of eclecticism diffused in contemporary architectural conception that borrows morphologies from previous historical periods without apparent distinction, a series of specific case studies issued from residential competitions of recent years has been for several architectural teams the occasion to revisit design patterns of the modern. In the district of Zurich-Schwamendingen, where the citys urban planner Albert Steiner applied for the first time in the nineteen forties the principles of the ville verte, contemporary architects reinterpret triangular urban forms and apartment typologies of the part, searching to create new and attractive ambiances in the urban tissue. Density characterized by strong quality traits seems to be their priority. Which are these typologies and what are the subtle differences with their precedents manifesting their innovative character? Which other conceptual priorities are fixed by the designers in terms of urban forms and of the isolated unit, and what kind of parallels may be found with the utilization of similar building types in differentiated contexts? This article proposes to examine in detail a series of case-studies designed for recent housing competitions in Switzerland; it is question to apprehend a contemporary design approach to the cloverleaf or star-shaped plan associated in the after war period with large-scale residential projects (from Sweden, France to Switzerland and the United States), either of elevated (Y-towers) or medium building height.

Antigoni KATSAKOU

Renovating houses, neighborhood change and mixit. A case study in Ghent, Belgium
Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Planning, Heverlee, Belgium michael.ryckewaert@asro.kuleuven.be Upgrading housing quality increasingly implies transforming existing housing and neighborhoods. But neighborhood change can lead to gentrification, pushing out low-income groups and replacing them by urban elites (Berg, Kaminer et al. 2008). This paper explores this problem on the basis of a case study in one urban neighborhood in Ghent, Belgium. A 2005 housing survey showed that physical housing quality in Flanders (the northern region of Belgium) has improved in recent years (Heylen 2007). Rather than buying new homes, more households buy existing homes and subsequently renovate them. Architects have eagerly taken up the renovation challenge, adapting town and row houses to present-day housing standards, both in technical and aesthetic terms (De Decker, Ryckewaert et al. 2010). Some inner city neighborhoods characterized by urban blight and degraded housing in the 1990s, have thus become more attractive, leading to a process of gentrification (Vandermotten 2007). Based on a thorough neighborhood survey, interviews with inhabitants who renovated homes as well as an architectural analysis of their dwellings, this paper investigates the impact of this house-by-house process of neighborhood change, comparing it to larger-scale transformation projects that also occurred in the area. It concludes that the step-by-step renovation process results in a mild gentrification. High-income households have not pushed out all low-and middle-income households, resulting in a truly mixed neighborhood. A stock of small dwellings (large town houses split up in apartments, small workers houses) assures that lower income groups still find affordable housing in the neighborhood. Large projects have a more disrupting impact in terms of mixit, creating closed off sub-communities within the neighborhood. These findings suggest that more thoroughly pursued transformation strategies of old housing might have a more disruptive impact and lead to a more intense gentrification. A downside of the process is that, while individual renovations do improve overall housing quality, energy efficient measures are not applied in a systematic way.

Michael RYCKEWAERT

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Urban dialog: strategies for soft renewal of Skopjes historic district


Ognen MARINA
Faculty of Architecture, University Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia ognen.marina@arh.ukim.edu.mk

Goce ADJI-MITREVSKI
Faculty of Architecture, University Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia

Dominika BOSKOVA
Faculty of Architecture, University Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia

Jovan IVANOVSKI
Faculty of Architecture, University Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia

Bojan KARANAKOV
Faculty of Architecture, University Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia

Ana IVANOVSKA
Faculty of Architecture, University Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia

Ivana TOPALOVSKA
Faculty of Architecture, University Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia In the context of a debate that examines the transformations, the continuities and the discontinuities in urban space, this paper focus to the architectural strategies, tools and social meaning of urban change. Historic cycles in urban development of Skopje and different level of realization of planned and real transformation within the urban fabric of Skopje resulted in fragmented plan of the city. These series of diverse fragments of urban form coexists in time and space as a collage of complex urban strata that creates its unique image. Skopjes historic district is an example of such a social and spatial mixture of shapes, programs, cultures, practicies and people. Programs for preservation of the historic district in Skopje has led to a separation and isolation through fixing in time the physical structure of the city. This approach does not recognise the distinctive qualities of the place and petrifies the otherwise dynamic phenomena of the city. The study explores a series of architectural tools that excersise the complex analisys of urbanity within the Skopjes historic district and proposes a strategy for soft renewal. It requires paradigmatic shift away from an idea of urban development as a series of successive deterministic events towards a perspective that allows for the continous transformations of morphological, cultural and social relations and figurations, stressing contact and influence, and mixture and diversity over the deterministic and fixed concepts of the urbanity. Through series of case studies that introduce the urban dialog between typologies, programs, spatial and functional configurations and explore the issue of dwelling within the citys historic district, the study presents an effort through a bottom up approach to reconstitute once existing qualities of complex relations between the public and private, between different cultures, ethnicities, religions and good neighborhood practice in urban context of Skopje historic district.

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Reading housing with proximity in lefkoa through oikodomos learning activities


Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagosa, North Cyprus, Turkey

Beril ZMEN MAYER

Proximity refers to a set of distances between multiple parties interact to each other in the built environment as people and as their homes. These components create a complex mechanism in housing configurations and layouts in multiple layers consisting of physical, psychological, social and cultural levels. There are a number of aspects can be evaluated in this conceptual framework in different scales as well; from the unit scale to housing groups and to the neighborhood and to urban / suburban areas. Proximity can be perceived in a housing unit with its interconnectedness with the others in several ways. On one hand, a social mapping can be readable through the household members perception, behavior and lifestyles. This may decode the relationship in certain family structure and its neighbors and how this character links and configure in certain environments and in cultures. On the other, the territories around home conveys a holistic understanding and interpretation with the concept of proximity; through recording the public, private and in-between zones in and around home environments, and the neighborhood can be evaluated terms of interfaces, which reflects as boundaries and thresholds in different housing typologies and neighborhood patterns and various urban / suburban densities. The paper is aimed to apply this conceptual framework into selected residential areas, which have been significant effects in the timeline of the city of Lefkoa; and mapping proximities in the different scales (from the unit to the urban patterns) and levels (physical, social, etc.) and also recording different housing typologies to create an understanding and interpretation of these specific housing quarters and the overall objectives might be reached for this specific city. This study is a part of the learning activities, which are led by the Research Project Oikodomos; the virtual campus to promote the study of dwelling in contemporary Europe.

Housing in the former periphery of Barcelona: Towards the finding of criteria for urban renewal
Departament d'Urbanisme i Ordenaci del Territori, Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya Sant Cugat del Valls, Barcelona, Spain sotoca.upc@coac.net

Adolf SOTOCA

rea dUrbanisme UIC-ESARQ, Barcelona, Spain carracedo@cir.uic.es

Oscar CARRACEDO

The Eixample Cerd in Barcelona is worldwide known as a paradigm of modern-planned city. Despite its conceptual clearness, the pattern didnt succeed in urbanizing some areas of the so called Pla de Barcelona. The foothill of Collserola and the middle hills of Tres Turons were so sloppy that they were set apart from an erudite project such as Eixample Cerd. Instead of it, they became the first periphery of Barcelona, the result of non-planned urban processes. During the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century nothing prevented the low income and immigrant population from building their informal slums on this non-regulated territory. Illegal plots were rapidly developed without considering essential urban infrastructure. This process of informal urbanization resulted into a first sloppy periphery of the city, which was physically contiguous to the Eixample but discontinuous to it in terms of urban quality. Demands for urban improvement and social justice have been explicitly expressed by dwellers since then. More recently, in 2009, a common approach to all sloppy neighborhoods appeared to be necessary, since the lack of Barcelona standard urban conditions was more and more obvious. The Planning Department of the city commissioned the authors of the paper with the Strategic Plan for Sloppy Neighborhoods in Barcelona. The Plan proposes a morphological approach and tries to find links between social problems and morphological deficiencies. The main research lines of the Plan are: Urban fabric, architecture, residential typologies and socio-demographic disjunctions. Basic living conditions. Accessibility and integration in the metropolitan net of flows. Mixed and collective uses of civic sphere. The extended paper will describe Barcelonas sloppy periphery and will provide some more general strategies and criteria for the refurbishing of residential areas located in former peripheries that have become fully urban environments.

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Ambitions of Residential Houses in Dutch cities The interface of the building as a research object Discussing two highlights of Dutch residential houses and their changes through time
Birgit JRGENHAKE
Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands B.Jurgenhake@tudelft.nl The architecture of residential buildings has always being related to social conditions and political tendencies, to new techniques, new materials and contemporary popular taste. Dwelling in the urban context makes it very necessary to deal with the aspect of privacy next to the public domain. Dwelling is an activity that takes place in both, the private and the public, the interior and the exterior spaces. The interface of the dwelling is the place where the transition from interior to exterior (and vice versa) takes place. The Netherlands has a long history of collective residential houses - especially social houses. The last century has brought several highlights in residential housing projects which pretended to show a new an better way of design. Different architectural tendencies can be found at the residential interface, telling more about the inner life of the house or hiding it behind a mask that tells us a different story. Some design attitudes pretend to create a fluently transition from inner life to the public, some pretend to protect the home from it. All these tendencies and ideas show a discussion about how to design residential buildings in the urban context, how to give identity to a building which hosts several families in one building and at the same time how to communicate with the city. In this paper first the highlights of residential housing design the last century will be shown very briefly. Then a method to analyse the interface with its function as a mediator and a protector between public and private will be elaborated and discussed. The design of the interface will be analysed on two case studies of residential houses from the inspiring idea behind it up to their condition today.

Spatial Characteristics and Semantic of Urban Environment


Jana ZDRAHALOVA
Department of Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic zdrahjan@fa.cvut.cz This paper presents the results achieved in first 5 months of a three-year research project. The project objectives are to develop methodology that helps to identify the relationship between semantics of the city space and its spatial characteristics. Understanding the semantics of townscapes and the impact of townscape on peoples behavior may increase our comprehension of how different city structures influence peoples cognitive space. The results can be used in similar localities to support the development of a stronger relationship of people to the place and community. The methodology will be demonstrated on 4 different localities in Prague, Czech Republic. The townscape semantics will be analyzed from interviews of a population sample defined as women with at least one child younger than 10 years who live in the evaluated locality. We assume that these interviewees have spent a lot of time in their neighborhoods and therefore they have deep knowledge of the place. Correlations between the spatial attributes of the locality and its semantics will be investigated. We expect to identify important characteristics of the townscape that have the key impact on its semantics. This paper focuses on the initial phase the spatial analysis of localities. For the analysis Space Syntax and GIS tools will be used. The research will be done in three steps. First, localities with similar 2D data will be analyzed using Space Syntax. Then, 3D data will be included, to describe building heights and landscape. The greenery index, built-up area index and the buildings volume will be also used as descriptors. Finally, the localities will differ in additional features such as the building surface, material, expression or architectural design, while their 2D and 3D characteristics will be similar. For these data sets peoples perception of space will be evaluated.

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Updating the masterpiece: A 1930-1970 garden-city versus urban evolution


Ecole Nationale Suprieure dArchitecture de Toulouse, France vanessa.fernandez@toulouse.archi.fr The Butte-Rouge garden-city located 10 miles away from Paris is among the first and the biggest social mass-housing districts built in France in the 1930-1970 period. Commissioned by Henri Sellier, the general layout of the 4000-dwelling district broke away from the traditional fabric of the city. Designed as a healthy and decent environment for the underprivileged workers, it displayed small collective housing plots in a green landscaping. Paying tribute to the E. Howards concept, the district also integrated vegetable-gardens and deliberately rejected any form of workshop or office to the surrounding area. The development of the urban layout during 40 years remained relatively faithful to the first intents, thanks to the permanence of the architectural firm and of the commissioners office. Conceiving the district as a self-contained urban piece, the planners did not catch the opportunity to connect the garden-city to the expanding Chtenay-Malabry village. Today, the neighborhood still entirely belongs to the Affordable Housing Office of the Hauts-de-Seine. The tenants of this unattractive district are among the poorest of the region. The urban enclosure, the isolated location remote from public transports, the surface of the apartments that do not allow family living lead to a general disaffection, attested by the schools the gardencity has 2 elementary and 2 secondary schools with only half enrollment in all of them Recently, the region decided the creation of a tramway that would remedy the 80-year-old problem of lack of public transport and would increase the attractiveness of the site. Meanwhile, the garden-city rewarded the 20th century Heritage distinction by the Ministry of Culture, for its architectural and environmental quality as well as its integrity. The school of architecture of Paris-Belleville was then entrusted a study that explored solutions of adapting the dwellings to our current lifestyle, mixing uses and types of housing having respect to the architectural and landscape qualities. The conclusions of this research will be discussed in this paper. NB: this study was integrated in the exhibition created by the School of Architecture of Paris-Belleville titled Le grand ensemble: entre prennit et dmoliton (The mass-housing district: between permanence and demolition) that will be displayed at the School of Architecture of Toulouse in June and July 2011.

Vanessa FERNANDEZ

(re)Mapping Sleymaniye
Urban and Regional Planning and Architecture Department, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey seker.fi@gmail.com

Firat EKER

Representation is powerful cultural work in a wide variety of forms to produce and maintain, but also to challenge common notions of the urban existence. Different sources like; literature, cinematography, architecture, tourist guides, postcards, photography, city plans and other provide selective representations of the urban frames and reshape the metaphors and narratives which are widely used to desrcibe the experience of urban living. The aim of this theoretical project in it's present form is to be able to explain the 'Housing Transformation of Sleymaniye District' in Istanbul starting from early 1900s. Sleymaniye is one of the unique Ottoman places that could preserve own original shape after the last big fire in 1918. Though it is on UNESCO list, Slyemaniye is still trying to get rid of enemies who are rapturously waiting its end. The area itself was one of the most popular housing locations in the historic zone of Istanbul. Unfortunately, it became an abandoned district in a few decades because of the local government policies during the 1940's. Atatrk Boulevard which separated Zeyrek and Sleymaniye districts in a savage way was constructed from 1941 to 1942. Afterwords a lot of new buildings (as if they are a concrete curtains) were located along the Boulevard without any care for space or considering the design. Moreover the mass migration to Istanbul in 1950's deepened this transformation process in one of the last unique Ottoman places. With it's monuments, narrow streets, brick roofs, faades, different people living and events happening there Slyemaniye was an astonishing place to experience. It was possible to see a lot of architectural elements in a unique form. With the help of all these urban operations, the area now seems to be like a bomb waiting for the end. Nowadays, not only an architectural laboratory, but also some frames that belong to urban development process are still available to be seen in Sleymaniye.

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New Housing in Istanbul : An Urban Palimpsest


Faculty of Architecture and Design, Istanbul Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul, Turkey turguth1@gmail.com

Hulya TURGUT

Demet MUTMAN
Istanbul, Turkey demet.mutman@gmail.com The rate of change of housing environments in urban areas is continually increasing as the effects of globalization impact in multiple ways on the contemporary city. Such dynamic processes create what has sometimes been described as an urban palimpsest, a layered construction created over the course of time. Many of the changes relate to the movements and energies of low income groups whose activities are becoming increasingly dominant in rapidly growing cities throughout the world. There are numerous interrelated factors. Rural migrants and national immigrants create pressures on existing urban housing stock and frequently to the development of new informal settlements. Natural growth of urbanised groups leads to ever large populations seeking affordable accommodation. In some cities historic or older central areas deteriorate through excessively high densities of tenant populations, and in others high density multi-storey constructions replace older settlements and change the social and economic relations of the area. In recent years, it is also seen especially in metropolitan cities that under the umbrella of urban regeneration, the informal settlements or deteriorated housing stock has been replaced with high-rise housing / gated communities geared toward the high-income populations. In a case of stanbul, One of the key factors in the creation of this palimpsest/layers is the new developments that replace existing stock such as the informal settlements, detorieted housing stock creating a new chaotic/mixed development that forces different demographic groups to live side by side. In the paper , various examples of new housing developments in stanbul that examine the social and spatial dynamics of this palimpsests will be presented providing and creating a platform for discussion and debate.

The role of open space in the social security area Case Study: Jamal Abad district. Tehran Iran
Department of Architecture & Urbanism, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran marzieeh.s@gmail.com

Marzieeh JAFARI

Department of Architecture & Urbanism, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

Hamid GHANBARAN

Considering the direct impact of urban spaces on offensive behavior its crutial, to identifying and acting to resolve the factors that led the threats. For having secure cities they had to be designed and built safe for all age groups, gender and according to population and social class. To build sustainable city development in urban areas should be appropriate user in this neighborhood have per capita are standard. Neighborhood Jamal Abad is located in northern Tehran, leading to the Alborz Mountain range. In this neighborhood, "Jmalabad" Due to high land prices, the user is mostly residential and open spaces of social existence possible comfort and leisure of citizens creates, in this neighborhood its not available. Half-public spaces like the space around buildings, residential, office, service centers and business sites are not there. Where the land price is higher, the user has less variation. General users as cultural, sport, green space and educational needs of many local retail is having underlying price or no more or less per capita. High land prices in neighborhoods is prevent the formation of desirable and proper neighborhood center. Theories of urban planners can study concluded that creation of calm area and needs of neighborhood residents is more important than creating shelter. So in trying to redesign the neighborhood has been on creating the diverse users and needs of neighborhoods, public green space and the existence of different shops in the street which they are the eyes of security and consider the public facilities and infrastructure requirements in a neighborhood, peace and vitality, by providing residents and answer their needs.

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The policy of demolition: Urban renewal and social housing in France and Colombia
Juan Carlos ROJAS ARIAS
Ecole Nationale Suprieure dArchitecture de Toulouse, France juan-carlos.rojas-arias@toulouse.archi.fr This paper is based on a doctoral thesis in geography and urban planning, held at University of Toulouse, France and defended in June 2007. This thesis is dealing with a strong symbolic object, the demolition of the habitat as an object, a framework and urban renewal policies, and with its numerous dimensions. This thesis develops a transdisciplinary methodology articulating social sciences and architectural practices, and exploring interactions between the inhabitants of the city, urban policies and the built framework. This paper presents some theoretical elements on urban renewal, followed by a physical observation of various case studies in France and Colombia. The observation of the residential moving of the inhabitants makes it possible to reveal some contradictions generated by demolition in the life of the inhabitants. Confronting these various sources leads to produce both, an assessment, through the analysis of stakes of the demolition, and above all recommendation based on the paradigm of sustainable urban development.

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WORKSHOP 26
Toulouse special workshop (in French)
Co-ordinators: Marie-Christine Jaillet and Fabrice Escaffre

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Sociologie de linnovation et des usages dans le btiment


Dpartement conomie et Sciences Humaines, Laboratoire Services, Process, Innovation (DESH-LSPI), CSTB Universit Paris-Est, France aurelie.tricoire@cstb.fr Le Grenelle de lEnvironnement a confirm que le btiment constituait un gisement considrable de diminution des missions de gaz effet de serre. Or, de nombreuses tudes font aujourdhui apparatre que les critres purement techniques sont insuffisants pour sengager sur une trajectoire effective de Facteur 4 tant les questions de performance globale et dusages dun btiment sont fondamentales. Nous posons donc que les enjeux Facteur 4 vont transformer profondment les pratiques et les systmes de rfrence de lensemble du cycle de vie des btiments (conception, construction, exploitation, dmolition, recyclage), ainsi que les modalits daction, les relations et les reprsentations des diffrents acteurs. Cest pourquoi nous menons un travail de recherche interrogeant la rception et ladaptation des comportements des usagers des btiments face aux innovations que les actuels objectifs de performance nergtique, environnementale, sanitaire, etc. contribuent introduire dans les btiments et ce, quel que soit le degr de complexit technologique des dispositifs installs. Nous prenons ici le terme dusagers dans un sens large, incluant la fois les occupants des btiments, les propritaires et bailleurs, les matres douvrage mais galement ceux qui contribuent leur conception, ralisation et exploitation c'est--dire les matres duvre, les bureaux dtudes, les entreprises de la filire du btiment, etc. Ce travail de recherche se dcline autour de plusieurs projets portant aussi bien sur le neuf que la rhabilitation, le logement que le tertiaire : ECOTER, financ par lADEME, concerne les performances nergtiques des tablissements scolaires (Catarina, Tricoire, et Bichet 2010) ; E3SoHo, financ par lUnion europenne, porte sur le logement social (Tricoire 2010) ; Surinvestissement, financ par le CSTB, est relatif aux btiments neufs basse consommation (Laurenceau et Tricoire 2010) ; et GerHome, financ par la Rgion PACA et la ville de Nice, concerne le maintien domicile des personnes ges (Anfosso et Tricoire 2010). Il sagit de rduire par quatre les missions de gaz effet de serre dici 2050 par rapport aux missions de 1990.

Aurlie TRICOIRE

Les demandeurs de logements sociaux : une comparaison europenne des ingalits daccs au logement
Pascale DIETRICH-RAGON
INED, Paris, France En France, depuis le dbut du XXIe sicle, la question du logement est au cur des proccupations des habitants des grandes villes. Les personnes les plus dmunies sont confrontes une prcarit rsidentielle croissante, lie laugmentation des loyers et des cots du logement mais aussi aux discriminations qui sexercent sur le march immobilier. la recherche de meilleures conditions de logement et dune plus grande scurit cet gard, de plus en plus de mnages sont conduits se tourner vers le logement social. Ce choix seffectue aussi couramment certains tournants de la vie (rupture conjugale, naissance dun enfant, en prvision de la retraite). Ma recherche vise tudier les parcours rsidentiels des demandeurs de logements sociaux. Il sagit de comprendre les motifs et les logiques dans lesquels sinscrivent les demandes. Quelle est l exprience vcue de ces personnes de leurs diffrentes situations rsidentielles et leur rapport aux institutions en charge des attributions ? Comment les individus essaient-ils de se protger sur le march immobilier, mais aussi socialement, grce au logement ? Les attentes face au parc public sont probablement htrognes. Dans un premier temps, la recherche porte sur lIle-de-France. Aprs une premire analyse partir de lenqute logement de lINSEE de 2006, des entretiens qualitatifs seront raliss. Une enqute quantitative longitudinale sera ensuite mise en place auprs dun chantillon de demandeurs de logements franciliens. Laccord de la Mairie de Paris a dj t obtenu pour laccs la base rpertoriant lensemble des demandeurs de la rgion. Dans un deuxime temps, lobjectif est deffectuer une comparaison avec plusieurs autres grandes agglomrations europennes correspondant des conceptions diffrentes du logement social ( gnraliste , rsiduelle et universelle ). Ceci permettra danalyser les tensions lies lattribution dun bien rare et soumis des procdures dallocations diffrentes, et de saisir leffet du contexte local. Plus globalement, il sagit dtudier les ingalits en matire de logement dans ces contextes caractriss par des systmes de prise en charge des problmes de logement diffrencis, et de saisir leffet de ces politiques sur la cohsion sociale. Dans cette communication, les premiers rsultats issus de lanalyse de lenqute logement de lINSEE pourront tre prsents. Ceux-ci fournissent de solides lments de cadrage sur les demandeurs de logement en Ile-de-France. La situation sociale et rsidentielle de cette population pourra tre dcrite ainsi que son htrognit. Une premire typologie des demandeurs de logements sera prsente, ainsi que les perspectives de la recherche.

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Le logement informel favorise-t-il la mixit ? Lexemple des squats de pauvret franais


Florence BOUILLON
Centre Norbert Elias, Marseille, France florence.bouillon@gmail.com Lobjet de cette communication est danalyser les dynamiques de la mixit socio-spatiale au prisme du squat de pauvret. On trouve dans les grandes villes franaises plusieurs centaines de squats de ce type, cest--dire des btiments occups sans autorisation du propritaire par des personnes prives de domicile. Si les squats culturels et artistiques ont souvent t dcrits par la littrature sociologique comme favorisant la gentrification, il sagira ici dinterroger les effets de la prsence de squats dhabitation sur la diversit socio-rsidentielle. Nous procderons en trois temps. Nous soutiendrons dabord lide selon laquelle les squats, linstar dautres formes de logement interstitiel, sont des habitats hospitaliers. Ils permettent des populations dsargentes dhabiter dans les centres valoriss des grandes villes et en cela, favorisent la mixit sociale. Nous voquerons ensuite les effets des politiques de rnovation urbaine sur les squats. A partir dexemples puiss dans des grandes villes franaises, nous montrerons que ces politiques conduisent dporter les squats dans les priphries urbaines et favorisent les dynamiques sgrgatives. Enfin, nous voquerons pour terminer les actions de squattage menes par des associations de dfense du droit au logement. En occupant des btiments prestigieux situs dans les quartiers les plus riches des grandes villes, ces collectifs mettent laccent sur le caractre profondment politique du squat, et sur le caractre indissociable des luttes relatives au droit au logement et au droit la ville .

Catgorie daction publique et objet du chercheur, des objets divergents : le cas de la prcarit nergtique pour une anthropologie de lhabiter
Johanna LEES
Centre Norbert Elias, EHESS, Marseille, France Lobjectif de cette proposition sera de prsenter un travail de thse en cours. Portant sur la prcarit nergtique, et lorigine finance par le PUCA, nous partirons de lide dune ncessaire dconstruction des catgories institutionnelles comme pralable llaboration dun objet scientifique, qui puisse alimenter de manire critique laction publique. Ainsi, nous montrerons comment le chercheur partir dune catgorie daction publique construit son objet de recherche et dfinit des terrains pertinents. Ainsi, pour construire ses terrains il sest agi de substituer la catgorie daction publique prcarit nergtique, celle plus subjective dun point de vue empirique d inconfort dans le logement . Dans le cas de la prcarit nergtique, lenjeu de la dtection des publics est un enjeu fort. En effet, si une catgorie daction publique a pour effet de visibiliser certains publics, cest le cas notamment ici des propritaires occupants, par l mme elle en invisibilise dautres, mettant jour tout lenjeu des publics invisibiliss par laction publique. Ainsi, le recours la notion dinconfort dans le logement a amen le chercheur travailler pour ses terrains en squats, en coproprits dgrades ainsi que dans lhabitat insalubre de centre ville ancien de Marseille. Portant plus largement sur la question de l habiter , cette thse se donne pour objectif la fois de dcrire la multiplicit des situations de prcarit nergtique, mais aussi les effets que celle-ci produit sur les occupants en termes de rapport soi, de rapport lautre et de rapport lhabiter.

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Laccession la proprit des mnages issus de limmigration : le rle des lotissements priurbains
Anne LAMBERT
Ecole normale suprieure, Paris, France anne.lambert@ens.fr A partir dun travail de thse men dans des lotissements priurbains dIle de France et de Rhne-Alpes, nous nous proposons dexaminer les conditions sociales et les modalits de laccession la proprit des mnages issus de limmigration. Quelles ressources conomiques, sociales, familiales cette mobilit sous-tend-elle ? Comment sinscrit-elle dans leur trajectoire sociale et migratoire ? En effet, la question de laccession la proprit est rarement croise avec celle de limmigration, en particulier non europenne, parce quelle se heurte la question des statistiques ethniques et constitue sans doute un fait social minoritaire (Lelvrier 1995). Dun ct, alors que les quartiers dhabitat pavillonnaire ont fait lobjet de plusieurs grandes enqutes sociologiques depuis les annes 60, seuls les auteurs de la France des petits moyens (Cartier et al. 2008) se sont intresss la diversification ethnique des pavillons, en soulignant laccs rcent des enfants de cits la proprit. Dun autre ct, la plupart des tudes sur les populations immigres se concentrent sur les lieux historiques dhabitat - taudis, bidonvilles, cits de transit et HLM (Simon 1998, Lvy-Vroelant 2004, Blanc-Chalard 2006) - en lien avec leur surreprsentation dans ces segments du parc. A partir dune enqute ethnographique, nous distinguerons ds lors trois types de mobilit rsidentielle selon le sens quelles revtent pour les mnages : les mobilits de proximit lies une immigration ancienne et ouvrire, le plus souvent maghrbine ou dEurope du Sud ; les mobilits rsidentielles des mnages en ascension sociale issus de la 2me gnration , souvent lies une promotion professionnelle ; les mobilits plus atypiques de migrants de premire gnration issus dAfrique subsaharienne ou dAsie. Plus urbaines, ces migrations lies aux tudes ou des contextes politiques spcifiques semblent davantage entraner des situations de dclassement. En dfinitive, loin de rpondre des logiques communautaires, laccession la proprit des mnages issus de limmigration dans le priurbain revt des significations contrastes, entre sortie du parc HLM dgrad et projet dinstallation durable en France, auxquelles correspondent des modalits spcifiques daccession.

Problmatique de la violence urbaine et de lorganisation spatiale


Lamia Khadidja BEGHDOUD
Universit des Sciences et de la Technologie Mohamed Boudiaf Oran (USTO), Algrie beghdoudlam@gmail.com Le phnomne des violences urbaines et le sentiment dinscurit qui en dcoule sont au cur des dynamiques urbaines contemporaines. Pour rpondre la demande de scurit qui mane des citoyens, des moyens publics, privs et communautaires servent les nouvelles politiques urbaines des grandes mtropoles. Si la violence sociale fabrique du territoire, les politiques urbaines de scurit ont leur tour un vritable impact territorial et sont parfois prtextes la transformation de lespace urbain, par les habitants eux-mmes. En Algrie, depuis quelques dcennies, larchitecture a entam un certain virage, basculant dans le cycle infernal du tout scuritaire. La peur exacerbe par les nombreuses agressions (vols, viols, meurtres) a amen l'tat mais aussi les particuliers se protger et cela en construisant autrement. Nous nous proposons de faire le point de la situation travers le cas du quartier Es Seddikia qui a subi de grandes mutations. Les mutations de la structure sociale de l'habitat urbain ainsi que l'inadaptation de ce dernier aux nouvelles exigences des nouveaux occupants, ont cre des contradictions quant la qualit du cadre bti. Face cet tat de fait nous assistons, au dclenchement d'un processus acclr de dgradation de l'espace urbain avec des rpercutions irrmdiables sur l'espace public. On construit des habitations dites modernes, mais peu importe la forme de la btisse, pourvu quelle soit scurise. Nous nous sommes rendu compte travers la zone dtude retenue comme champ d'investigation pour notre travail de recherche, que le sentiment dinscurit et de peur est entrain dinfluencer la production architecturale et urbanistique autrement dit, la violence urbaine a gnr un nouveau type darchitecture et par consquence un nouveau type durbanisme. Mais aussi quil peut y avoir une relation de cause effet sur les rapports interactifs de lespace et de la socit.

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La dmolition dun grand ensemble en coproprit : un nouveau regard sur la rnovation urbaine ?
Sylvaine LE GARREC
Institut dUrbanisme et dAmnagement Rgional dAix-en-Provence, France sylvaine.le.garrec@gmail.com Tandis que la dmolition simpose au sein de lintervention publique sur le parc HLM des annes 1950-1970, ce mode daction commence aussi tre utilis en rponse aux problmes rencontrs par des tours et des barres en coproprit. On peut cependant se demander si les difficults dun grand ensemble en coproprit sont assimilables celles dun grand ensemble HLM et si la dmolition ne prend pas un sens diffrent dans ce contexte particulier. Cette communication sappuie sur mon travail de thse men sur lune des premires coproprits des trente glorieuses qui a fait lobjet dune action publique et doprations de dmolition : Les Bosquets Montfermeil en rgion parisienne. Lexploration de lhistoire de cette cit prive offre des pistes de lecture originales du problme des grands ensembles. Elle montre que les problmes qua connus cet ensemble immobilier ne sont pas d, en premier lieu, aux caractristiques du bti ou de lenvironnement mais des difficults de gestion internes la coproprit, propres ce systme juridique et lies aux financements publics qui sont lorigine de sa construction, lclatement dune bulle spculative au moment de sa livraison et des malfaons juridiques . En privilgiant depuis 1981 les interventions sur la forme architecturale et la diversification du peuplement, laction publique a aggrav ces dsquilibres de gestion et les dmolitions ont constitu un nouveau facteur de fragilisation des trajectoires des mnages. Alors que les politiques actuelles proposent de rpondre aux problmes des quartiers HLM en difficult par la dmolition, la reconstruction de logements privs et laccession sociale la proprit, lexemple de la coproprit des Bosquets montre que la proprit nest pas toujours un vecteur de mixit et quelle est parfois loin de constituer un gage de scurit et la manifestation dune ascension sociale.

Tafilelt, un projet communautaire pour prserver le MZab


Mounia BOUALI MESSAHEL
UMR Lavue (CNRS, 7218) Ecole Nationale Suprieure d'Architecture de Paris-Val de Seine, Universit Paris 10 Nanterre, France mouniaboualimessahel@gmail.com La morphologie urbaine de la valle du MZab Ghardaa (sud algrien), connait un paysage qui ne cesse de se dvelopper ; dabord une croissance au-del des enceintes de ses ksour (singulier Ksar, ville fortifi du Sahara), ensuite lintrieur des palmeraies, qui au dpart accueillaient un habitat secondaire, mais au fil dune croissance urbaine incontrle se transforme en habitat permanent. Aujourdhui, Tafilelt ; un projet communautaire de logements, initi et conu par des mozabites, pour les mozabite, financ en partie par ltat, est en train de donner lexemple dune implantation ingnieuse et responsable, des mozabites avertis du danger des crues, qui occupent de faon continue le lit de loued souvent au dtriment de palmiers , mais aussi aux politiques de logements ainsi qu une planification urbaine qui ne tiennent pas toujours compte du contexte local. Les logements de Tafilelt, sinspirent trs largement de la maison traditionnelle, soit un logement sexu, introverti sorganisant autour dun lment central le patio qui assurait son clairage ainsi que son aration, mme si aujourdhui son rle principal est plutt lclairage, car lintroduction de lair conditionn a boulevers une organisation ancestrale des pratiques spatiales, cependant ce logement est trs intressant tudier dans le mesure o il allie la tradition au confort moderne. Nous tenterons de montrer dans cette communication comment intervient cette communaut traditionnelle dans la production de lespace et comment les autorits locales essayent den tenir compte.

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