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# Why Two “Books”?

## Why Did I Write This Book?

iii
Keeping Things in Perspective iv General 25
Standard Disclaimers iv Axes of the Blades 25
Political Correctness iv How Lift Gets to the Hub 26
Aim of every flight iv Drag on the Whole Blade 27
Terms Used v Blade Flapping 27
Dedication v A Brief Moment to Study Law 29
Introduction to the Second Edition
v
vi 4 More Basics of the Helicopter
Generic Helicopter 31
1 Some Fundamentals The Whole Rotor 31
Math and Physics Revisited 1 Telling the Blades Apart 31
Vectors 1 Airframe Relative Airspeed 32
Newton’s Laws 1 Relative Airflow and Disk 33
Newton’s First Law 1 Forward Flight and Dissymmetry of Lift 33
Newton’s Second Law 1 Cyclical Change of Pitch 34
Newton’s Third Law 2 Flapping to Equality 35
Other Physics and Maths terms 2 Total Lift from the Disk 36
Momentum and Inertia 2 Tip Path Plane 36
Speed 2 Drag at Different Parts of the Disk 37
Velocity 2 Total Drag on the Disk 37
Acceleration 2 Keeping the Blades Clean 37
Equilibrium 2 Flapback or Blowback 38
Vectors, Resultants and Resolving 3 Rotor Heads and Components 38
Moments and Couples 3 Fully Articulated Rotor Hub 38
Moments 3 Control of the Rotor 39
Couple 4 The Swashplate 39
Balance of Forces 4 Phasing of Control Inputs 39
Dimensional Correctness 4 Rotating Scissors Assembly 41
Distance and Time 4 So What? 41
Mass, Force, Energy and Work 4 Tail Rotors 41
Mass 4 Anti-Torque Control 41
Force 5
Energy
Work
5
6
5 Air, Wind and Weather
Introduction 43
Power 6
What Temperature is That? 43
Graphs and Such 6
Where do we Measure Vertical Distance From? 43
Putting Together Some of the Basics 7 International Standard Atmosphere 43

2 Introduction to Helicopter
Standard Day
Pressure Altitude
43
43
Aerodynamics Non-Standard Day 44
Terms Used 11 Density Altitude 44
Zero Airspeed vs. Zero Groundspeed Hover 11 Importance of Understanding Density Altitude 45
Center of Gravity (CG) 11 The How and Why of Density Altitude 46
Aerodynamic Terms 11 Relative Humidity 46
Angle of Attack 14 Wrong Information 47
Lift 17 More Wrong Information 47
More Discussion of Lift 19 Wind! 48
Formula for Lift 20 Knowing The Wind from Natural Sources 48
Drag 21 Wind Speed Change with Height 49
Zero Angle of Attack 22 Wind Direction Change with Height 50

ix
Wind Shift and Turbulence
A Lesson from the Birds
50
50 8 The Aerodynamics of
Weather 50 Autorotation
So What do We Need to Worry About? 51 Introduction 75
An Example 51
Autorotation Defined 75

## 6 Basic Helicopter Performance Conditions Necessary for Autorotation

Lift Vectors Again
75
76
Introduction 53 Effect of Forward Flight 78
Airframe Performance Defined 53 How the Blade Works in Autorotation 78
Measuring Performance 53 NR in Autorotation Descent 78
Hover performance 53 Another Use for the Autorotation RPM Chart 79
Out of Ground Effect (OGE) 54 Effect of Density 79
In Ground Effect (IGE) 54 Effect of Weight 79
How Does Ground Effect Happen? 54
Using a Crane to Lift Instead of an Engine 55 9 Instruments and Warning Systems
Power Required vs. Density Altitude 56 Airframe Instruments 81
Hover Ceilings 56
Sideslip and Side Force 81
Forward Flight Performance 56 What the Slip Ball Measures 81
Power Required vs. Airspeed 56
What is Sideslip? 82
What You Can’t Do with This Chart 57
Slip Strings 84
The ‘Backside’ of the Power Curve 57
Engine Transmission and Rotor Instruments 84
Low Airspeed Power Required 58 NR Warnings 84
Climb and Descent Performance - Simplified 59 Transmissions and Gearboxes 85
Flight Manual Charts 59 Transmission Oil Temperature and Pressure 85
V Airspeeds 59 Chip Detectors 85

## 7 Balance and Weight 10 The Piston Engine

Introduction 87
The Importance of Center of Gravity 61 Principles of Operation 87
Calculating Weight and Balance 62 Components 87
Balance 62 Basics of Carburation 88
Datum Forward of the Nose. 63 Vaporization 89
Datum At Rotor Mast 64 Piston Engine Helicopter Instruments 89
Weight and CG Diagram 65 Manifold Pressure 90
Weight vs. Loaded Moment Method 65 Starting 91
Yet Another Way to Measure CG 65
Clutches 91
Longitudinal CG 66
Centrifugal (or Automatic) Clutch 91
Lateral CG 66
Idler or Manual Clutch 91
Vertical CG 67
Free–Wheel Units 92
Balance of Forces 68
General 68 Piston–Engine Helicopter Power Control 92
Rotor RPM 92
Balance of Forces in the Hover 69
Side View Four Basic Forces 69 Power Output 92
Top View Balance of Forces - Torque Reaction 69 Measuring Piston Engine Helicopter Power 93
Rear View of Balance of Forces 69 Same Engine in a Seized Wing Airplane 93
Trim 71 Carburetor Icing 94
Balance of Forces - Forward Flight 71 Why do Carburetors Ice Up? 94
Side View of Balance of Forces 72 More Carburetor Icing Explanation 94
Top View of Balance of Forces Forward Flight 72 Effects of Icing 95
Inherent Sideslip 73 Symptoms of Carburetor Icing 95
Rear View of Balance of Forces - Forward Flight 73 Carburetor Heat 96
Prevention of Carburetor Ice 97

x
Mixture Control 97 Energy and the Rotor System 111
Throttle Handling 98 Pre-Lift-off Checks 111
Over-Pitching 98 Holding the Controls 112
Wrong Side of Torque Curve 99 Light Training Helicopters 112
Only on Some Piston Engine Helicopters 99 Control Pressure, Not Control Movement 112
Coning Angle and Over-pitching 99 Function of Controls 112
Turbine Engines and Over-Pitching 100 Effects of Controls 113
Throttle Co–relators 100 Downwash 114
Fuel Injection 100 Hand Signals 114
Piston Engine Governors
How Does the Governor Work?
101
101 13 Helicopter Flying - The Basics
Performance Rules of Thumb for Piston Engines General Introduction 117
101 Forward Flight 117
Turbochargers 101 Effects of Controls in Forward Flight 117
Other Components of the Engine 102 Cyclic stick 117
Oil and Oil Pumps 102 Collective lever 118
Generators 102 Pedals 118
Fans 102 Summary of Effects of Controls 119
Fuel Systems 102 Attitude Flying 119
Operation of the Piston Engine 103 Cruise 120
Pre-Start 103 Changing Airspeed in Level Flight 121
Fuel Draining 103 Smooth Airspeed Changes 121
Starting 103 Back Side of The Power Curve 122
Lift-Off 103 Two Airspeeds for the Same Power! 122
In-Flight 104
Climbs and Descents 122

## 11 Dear Student Turns

A Note
123
123
Instructors - What They Know and Don’t Know 105 Gentle Turns (up to 20 Angle of Bank) 123
Personality Differences 105 Nose Drop 123
The Essential Pre-Flight Briefing 106 Increased Power 123
Checklists 106 A Changed Sight Picture 123
For Those Who Make Checklists 106 Slip Ball 124
All Those Gages and Clocks! 106 Practice 124
Blindfold Cockpit Checks 106 Medium Turns (20 to 45 Angle of Bank) 124
For Both Instructor and Student 107 Steep Turns (Greater than 45 Angle of Bank) 124
Transfer of Control 107 Developing a ‘Seat of the Pants’ Sense 124
Following Through on the Controls 107
Where to Look 107 14 The Divine Art of Hovering
Outside, Mostly 107
Introduction 125
Look Around 108
To the Hover! 125
Collision Course 108
Hovering More Easily 125
Post-flight 108 Vertical References 125
Walkaround 108 Aim of Hovering 126

## 12 Before You Strap In…

Concepts of Hovering
Hover - Zero Groundspeed vs. Zero Airspeed
126
126
Introduction 109 Effects of Controls - Hover and Low Airspeed 126
Prior to Lift-off 109 Forward Flight and ‘Low Airspeed’ 127
Overcontrolling in the Hover 128
Terms Used 109
Cyclic Stick as a Position Controller 129
Pre-Flight Actions 110
Pre-Flight checks 110 NR Control 130
Walk-Around checks 110 Hovering With A Purpose 130
Start–Up checks 111 Partial Control Technique 130

xi
Lots of Things to Do 130 Running Landing 147
Specific Exercises for Learning Hovering 131 Traffic Patterns or Circuits 147
Taxing Along a Line 131 What do Traffic Patterns Teach / Show 148
Changing Height While Hovering 131 Confined Areas 148
Moving Around
Hovering with Different References
132
132
16 Lift-off and Touchdown
Introduction 151
Back to Flying 132
Flat Pitch to Light on the Skids 151
Turns in the Hover 133 How Do you Know ’Light on the Skids’? 151
No Wind 133 From ’Light on the Skids’ to the Hover 152
With Winds 133 Airborne! 152
In the Low Speed Environment 134 Lift-off out of Wind 153
Useful Training Exercises 134 Touching Down From The Hover 153
General Handling in the Hover 135 Flat Surfaces 153
Taxing to the Side or Rear 136 Don’t Overcontrol 154
Ground Taxing Skid Helicopters 136 A Neat Trick for Smooth Touch Downs 154

15
Sloping Surfaces 155
‘Twixt Heaven and Earth, Tail Rotor Side Thrust 156
While You’re On the Sloping Ground 156
Introduction 137
Wind Across the Slope 157
Slipping and Crabbing 137
Lift-off from the Slope 157
Transition to Forward Flight 137
Nose Upslope / Downslope 157
Ground Track 138
Translational Lift 138 One Last Word About Sloping Ground 157
Other Transitions to Forward Flight
Cushion Creep
138
139 17 Introducing Emergencies
Steep Climbout 139 Emergencies - General 159
Running Takeoff 139 Critical Emergencies 159
Why Running Takeoffs? 139 Dual Concurrence (or Double Checking) 159
How It Works 139 What Emergencies Can Happen 160
How to Carry Out a Running Takeoff 140 Unanticipated Emergencies 160
Cautions on the Running Takeoff 140 As a Student 160
“Maximum Performance Climbout” 140 Chip Detectors 160
An Example of Getting Caught 140 Realistic Emergencies 160
Downwind Transition 141 Where to Handle Emergencies 161

18
Turns After Transition 141
Approach and Touchdowns 141 Engine Failures for Beginners
Transition Back to the Hover 142 General 163
Learning to Judge… 142 Simulated vs. ‘Real’ Engine Failures 163
…Perspective 143 Warming-up for Autorotations 163
…Rates of Closure 144 Vertical Landings 164
‘Normal’ Approach 144 Engine Failures in the Hover 164
Suitable Rate of Descent 144 Judging Collective Lever Application 164
Adding Power 144 High Hover Engine Failures 165
Fast Approaches 145 Self-Initiated Engine Failures Hover 165
Steep Approach 145 Quick Stops 165
The Flare 166
The No-Hover Touch Down 145
So What Should You Do? 167
Downwind Approach to the Hover 146
Flare Effectiveness 167
Approaches with Turns 146
Collective Check - Why It Works 168
Line-Up 146
Coupling of Forces in Leveling Helicopter 168
Turning into a Downwind Approach 146
Power Recovery Autorotations 168
VIP Approaches - Mastery of the Machine 146
Getting Back to the Hover 169

xii
‘Real’ Autorotations 170 Is it a Limit Because Its in the Limitations Section?
Eyes Out of the Cockpit! 170 189
Autorotative Performance 171 Power Ratings and Limitations 190
Some Final words 171 The Military Flight Manual 190
Some Words on The Height-Velocity Curve 171 Visual Flight Rules (VFR) 190
V Speeds 191
19 Peculiarities of the Helicopter
21 Miscellaneous
Introduction 173
Loss of Translational Lift 173 Where the Pilot Sits 193
Vortex Ring State 174 Radios and Air Traffic Control 193
Impossible Descent Conditions 175 Negative Radio 193
Not Just in Descent 175 Safety Statistics 194
Demonstrating Incipient Vortex Ring State 175 Ground Handling Wheels 194
Uncommanded Attitude Changes 176 Safety for Others 194
Making the Situation Worse 176 Going Solo 194
Recovery 176 Cross Country Flying 195
Single Seat and Ultralight helicopters 195
The Why of Vortex Ring State 177
Inexperienced Pilots Shouldn’t Be Flying Them 195
Why The Symptoms? 177
Get A Private Pilot’s License First 196
Rollover 177 Get Experience in Several Different Types 196
Static Rollover 178
Dynamic Rollover 178
Dynamic Rollover on Landing 179 Shutdown 196
Dynamic Rollover on Takeoff
Action in Event of Dynamic Rollover
179
180 22 For the Professional Helicopter
Retreating Blade Stall 180 Pilot / Instructor
Symptoms 181 For the Professional Helicopter Pilot 199
Blade Sailing 181 Helicopter Pilots Are Different 199

20
Legal Implications 199
Flight Manuals, Rules and Maintenance 199
Service Difficulty Reports (SDRs) 200
Regulations Your Part in Safety 200
Why? 183 Experience 200
The Civilian Flight Manual 183 Care and Feeding of Passengers / Customers 200
Sections of the FM 183 Make a Decision 200
Emergency Definitions 184 Philosophy of Instruction 201
Notes, Cautions and Warnings 184 Measuring or Predicting Pilot Performance 201
Procedural Words 185 More Philosophy 201
Performance Data 185 Preflight Briefing 202
No Altimeter Correction Charts 185 Preflight Inspection 202
Flight Manual Supplements (FMS) 185 Walkaround 202
Weight and Balance Information 186
Concepts of Controls 202
Manufacturer’s Data 186
Cyclic 202
Individualized Copy of the FM 186
Collective 202
Some Philosophical Words about the Civilian FM Throttle 202
186 Pedals 202
More Philosophy… 187 Looking Outside 202
Certification Basis 187 Limitations 203
Reasons for Rules 188 Following Through 203
Two more Pet Peeves 188
Checklists 203
Reasons for Limitations 188
Questions and Tests 203
Another Way of Thinking About Limitations 189
When the Students Ask Questions 203
Side Wind, Sideward Flight and All That 189

xiii
What are you Really Trying to Teach? 203 Blade Inertia 221
Even More Philosophy 203 More Reasons for Lead–Lag Motion 221
Hook’s Joint Effect 221
Specific Exercises 204
Other Phase Angles 222
Trusting the Student 204
Space Awareness 204 Rotor Heads 223
Flying by the Seat of the Pants 204
Types of Drag Dampers 223
Written Tests 205
Droop Stops / Flap Restrainers 224

Droop Stop Pounding
Lubrication
224
225
Aerodynamics Disk Axes 225
Review 207 Shaft Axis 226
Hover 207 Control Axis 226
Review of Lift and Drag 207 Yet Another Disk Axis 226
Airfoils 207 Hinges 227
Non-symmetrical Airfoils 207 Flapping Hinge Offset 227
Lift and Drag 207 Hinge Arrangements 228
Lift to Drag Ratio 208 Delta–Three Hinges 228
Changing NR 208 Elastomeric Bearings 229
Changing Density Altitude 208 Hingeless Rotor Heads 229
AoA Changes due to Flapping 209 Stabilizer Bars 231
AoA, Lift and Center of Pressure 210 Flap or Hub Restraining Springs 232
Pitching Moments 211 Hiller Control System 233
Symmetric Section 211 Robinson R-22 and R-44 Hub. 233
Non-symmetric Section 212 MD Series Rotor Head 233
Why the Fuss about Pitching Moments? 212
Height of Hub Above the CG 233
Blade Root Cutout 212 Negative Pitch 234
Twist
Taper
213
213
Twist and Taper - Again 213 General 235
Lift to Drag Ratio Again 214 Factors Affecting Performance 235
Solidity 214 Induced Velocity 236
Why 2 Blades May be More Efficient than 4 215 Mach Number Effects 237
AoA and the Disk 215 Hover Performance and Altitude 237
Advance Ratio 215 Surface Effect on Hover Performance 237
VNE and True Airspeed 216 Vertical Drag 238
Retreating Blade Stall Again 216 Another Look at Hover Performance 238
Coning Angle Again 216 Typical Civil FM Performance chart 239
Transverse Flow Effect or Inflow Roll 216 Level Flight Performance 240
Stick Migration 217 Indicated Airspeed and True Airspeed 240
Tail Rotors 218 Collective Angle vs. Airspeed 240
Location on Fuselage 218 Power vs. Collective Angle 240
Size, Direction of Rotation 218 Peculiarities of Low Airspeed IGE 241
Aerodynamics of the Tail Rotor 219 Another Look at Power Required to Hover 241

## 24Flight Controls and Rotor Heads Rotor Efficiency

Ground Vortex Roll Up
242
242
General 221 Low Airspeed Power Required - Again 243
Tip Anhedral 221 Range 244

xiv
Range Improvements with Altitude 246 Skis 268
Headwind and Tailwind Effects 246 Full Length Skis 269
Point of No Return 247 Bear Paw Skis 269
Equal Time Point 248 Skis on Mud 269
What If Something Goes Wrong? 249 Floats 269
Endurance 249 Fixed Floats 269
Radius of Action 250 Boating! 269
How to Trick A Navigation System 250 Start-up / shutdown 269
Climb and Descent Performance 251 Taxing on Water 270
Climbs 252 Liftoff and Touchdown from the Water 270
Best Angle of Climb Airspeed 252 Following the Waves 270
Descent Performance 253 Off-Level Touchdowns on Water 270
Whizz Wheels 253 Lift-off and Touchdown from the Ground 270
Other Effects of Fixed Floats 271
Rules of Thumb 254
Emergency Floats 271

26 Other Components
Use and Problems
Fire Detection and Suppression
271
271
General 257 Heating and Ventilation 272
Fuel Systems 257 Seats 272
Fuel Valves 257
Compasses 272
Fuel Pumps 257
Windshield Wipers 273
Low Fuel Warning Systems 257
Other Parts of the Fuel System
When is the Fuel Gauge Reading Correctly?
258
Pounds or Gallons? 258 So How Do We Fly a Helicopter? 275
Fuel Quality 258 Driving a Car Explained 275
Fuel Drains and Living in the Field 259 Compensation 275
Fuel Jettison 260 Flying a Helicopter – Hovering 276
Transmissions and Drive Shafts 260 Cruising Flight Example 276
HUMS 261 Other Cue–Related Problems 277
Electrical Systems 261 Why are Helicopters Difficult to Fly? 277
External Power 261 Slow Response Explained 278
Generators 261 Cross Coupling 279
Batteries 262 Different Responses from the Pedals 279
DC–Based Electrical Systems 262 How to Hold the Controls 279
AC–Based Electrical Systems 262 Cyclic 279
Electrical Failures 263 Overcontrolling 280
Circuit Breakers 263 Collective 280
When a Circuit Breaker ‘Pops’ 264 Pedals 280
Hydraulic Systems 264 Helicopter Pilots are Easy… 280
Reasons For Hydraulics 264 Artificial Control Feel or Trim Systems 281
Typical Hydraulic System 264 Control Forces 282
Unpressurized Reservoirs 265 Collective Release 284
Hydraulic Emergencies 265 Fuselage Attitudes 284
De-Ice / Anti-Ice systems 265 Pedals Again 284
De-Ice vs. Anti-Ice 266 The Other Way ‘Round 284
Landing Gear 266
General
Skids
266
266
28 More Instruments
Wheeled Undercarriage 266 Pitot Systems 287
Retractable Landing Gear 268 Altimeters 288
Off-level Landings 268 Corrections to the Altimeter in Cold Weather 288
Wheel Brakes 268 Static Port Locations 289

xv
So What? 289 Turbine Engine Power Monitoring 313
LORAS (LOw aiRspeed System) 290 Trend Monitoring Checks 314
LASSIE 290 Automatic Relight vs. Manual Air Starts 315
RAH-66 Commanche System 290 Engine–Related Items 316
General Comment on Low Airspeed Systems 290 Intake Protection Systems 316
Another Reason for Low Airspeed Systems 291 Anti-Icing vs. De-Icing 316
Miscellaneous Instruments 292 Bleed Air Systems 316
Outside Air Temperature Gages 292 Bleed valves 317
Waves and Radar Altimeter 292 Air Conditioning 317
Vertical Gyroscopes and Attitude Indicators 292 Performance Effects of Bleed Air Systems 317
Entering the Digital Era 293 Starting Against the Rotor Brake 318
Too Much Accuracy 293 Turbine Engine Cool-Down 318
But Some Good News Too... 293 Emergency Systems 319
Fixed Shaft Turbine Engines 319
29 The Turbine Engine
Introduction 295 30 Advanced Engine Failures
Turbine Engines are Different! 295 General 321
Typical Free Turbine Engine 295 Autorotations 321
Ratings and Limitations of Engines 297 Sensory Deprived, Multi-Variable Maneuver 321
Difference between Ratings and Limitations 297 The Big Picture 321
How Long is Each Limit Good For? 297 Where to Practice Autorotative Landings 322
Cycles 297 Pre-Nominate the Landing Spot 323
Measuring Temperature 297 Autorotations ‘En–Route’ 323
Density Altitude vs. Pressure Altitude and OAT 297 Closer Look of Autorotative Performance 323
Less Power in Cold Temperatures 299 Energy and Autorotations 325
Effect of Humidity on Turbine Performance 299 Cone of Possible Areas 326
Compressor Stalls 300
Variations on the Theme 326
Two Correct Answers Don’t Make a Third… 300
Zero–Airspeed Autorotations 326
Turbine Engine Instruments 301
Reverse Cone of Energy 327
Torquemeters 302
Landing Site is Straight Ahead 328
Use of the Torquemeter 304
Three Basic Locations 329
Governing systems 304 Kinetic Energy in the Flare 330
Reasons for Installing Governors 305 Why Try the Variations? 331
Droop! 305 Other Situations with Respect to the Landing Spot
Static Droop 306 332
Oscillating Governors and Hysteresis 307 Combinations! 333
Transient Droop 307 Intervention Delay Time 333
Hydro–mechanical Governors 308 Run-Down Time of the Engine 334
Electronic Fuel Controls 309 Height Velocity (HV) Curves 334
FADEC 309 Ignoring A Part of Most HV Curves 335
What Has All This Got to Do With FADECs? 309 So What’s Missing about the HV Curve? 335
Failures of Digital Fuel Controls 310 Development of the HV Curve 336
Practical Benefits of FADEC 311 Miscellaneous Points About the HV Curve 337
Change of the Pilots Point of View 311 Another Type of Autorotation 337
Duplication of Sensors 311
Some Improvements Possible?
Manual Control of the Turbine Engine
311
311
Question Time 312 General 339
Tail Rotors, Governors and Free Drinks 312 Tail Rotor Problems 339
Differences from Piston Engine 312 Loss of Thrust 339
Transient Overtorques 312 Loss of Thrust in the Hover 340

xvi
Loss of Thrust in Forward Flight 340 Viscous Damping of Control Systems 365
Loss of Control of Tail Rotor Thrust 340 Control Mixing 366
Diagnosis of the Situation 340 Equations of Motion 366
Slip Ball Just Touching Right Side 341 Control Margin / Limitations on Controls 366
Slip Ball Fully Against Right Side 341 Head and Mast Bending Moments 366
Slip Ball Just to the Right of Center 341 Longitudinal Cyclic 367
Fires 342 Forward Cyclic 367
Fires in the Cockpit 342 Aft Cyclic 367
Not All Emergencies are in the Book 342 Lateral Cyclic 367
Some Emergencies have Other Implications 342 Up Collective 367
When to Inflate Pop-out Floats 342 Down Collective 367
To Those Who Write Emergency Procedures 343 Tail Rotor 368
Emergencies Caused by Vibrations and Noise 343 Lesser Known Effects 368
Cross–Coupling 368

## 32 Multi-Engine Helicopters Lock Number

Rotor Head Type Effect on CG Range
368
369
General Introduction 345 Solving Aerodynamic Problems 369
Terms 345 Wings 369
Other Differences 346 Rudders 370
Why are AEO and OEI Limits Different? 346 Horizontal Stabilizers 370
Power Matching - Non–FADEC Engines 347 Vertical Stabilizers 370
Left Side vs. Right Side 348 End Plates 370
OEI Performance 349 Gurney Flaps and Blunt Trailing Edges 370
Level Flight 349 Tail Boom Strakes 371
Best Angle of Climb Airspeed (Again) 350 More Aerodynamic Fixes 371
Engine Failures in Multi-Engine Helicopters 351 How We Control the Helicopter 371
Engine–Related Emergencies
351
353 34 Further Peculiarities of The
Category A or Category B? 353 Helicopter
Common Points About Category A 354 Introduction 373
Using Everything You’ve Got 355
Vibrations 373
Different Profiles 355
Types Of Vibrations 373
Approach and Landings 356
Determining The Type of Vibration 373
Use of Contingency Power 357
Sources 374
General Criteria for Takeoff Techniques 357
Solutions to Vibrations 376
Heliport Takeoff Techniques 357 Solving Track and Balance Problems 378
Vertical Climb 357
Ground Resonance 378
Back-Up Technique 358
On Start-up 379
‘Sideways Slide’ Technique 358
Resonance During Landings or Takeoff 380
Where to Practice Single Engine Techniques 358
Tail Rotor Control 380
33 Stability and Control of the Loss of Tail Rotor Effectiveness
Wingovers or Crop Duster Turns
381
382
Helicopter Rapid Rolling 385
Weight and Balance 361 Underslung Loads 385
Weight and CG Calculations 361
Knowing How Much it Weighs 385
Weight and Balance Effects 362
Why No Cargo Hook Weighing Devices? 386
Inherent Sideslip 363 Watching the Load 386
Cross–Coupling of CG Effects 363 Problems 387
Keel Area Ratio, or Weathercock Effect 364 CRAP Method of Load Obedience 387
Fixed Floats Effect on Stability and Control 364 Weird Underslung Loads 387
Flight Path Planning 388
Flight Controls 365
Friction Systems on Cockpit Controls 365

xvii
Automatic Flight Control Systems and Underslung Definitions 411
Loads 388 Why install an AFCS? 411
Uncommanded Jettison of Underslung Loads 389 Hierarchy of an AFCS 412
High Altitude Flying 389 AFCS and the Big Picture of Control 412
Icing 389 Internal vs. External Conditions 413
Why is Icing So Bad? 390 Components of An AFCS 413
Snow 391 Series Actuator 415
Parallel Actuators 416
Flying in Your Own Dust 391
Combined Systems 417
Mast Bumping 391
Types of AFCS 417
Causes for Mast Bumping 392
Rate Damping Systems 417
Too Much Sideslip 393
Stability Augmentation System (SAS) 418
Other Causes of Mast Bumping 393
Pilot Commanded Inputs 418
What to Do In the Event of Mast Bumping 393
Retrimming 419
Training to Prevent Mast Bumping 393
Stability and Control Augmentation Systems (SCAS).
Design Eye Point 394 419

## 35 Other Helicopter Types

Attitude Based Stabilization Systems
Hybrid Systems
420
421
Brief history 395 Automatic Trim Systems 421
Coaxial 395 AFCS ‘Upper’ Modes 421
Tandem 396 Definition Problems 422
Synchrocopter or Intermeshing Rotors 397 Attitude Datum Re-Adjustment 422
Coanda Effect 398 Heading Hold and Coordinated Turns 423
Main Blades 398 Hover and Low Speed 423
Tail Boom 398 Forward Flight 423
Tip Jets 398 In-between Airspeeds 423
Kaman Servo–Flap Controls 399 Autopilots 424
Replacing the Tail Rotor 400 Basic Autopilot. 424
Fenestron/Ducted Tail Rotor 400 Operational Autopilot. 424
NOTAR 401 Altitude or Height Hold 424
Speed Hold in the Low Airspeed Region 425

## 36 Night and Instrument Flying Programmed Maneuver

Complex Helicopter AFCS
425
426
Introduction 403 Automatic Transition to the Hover 427
Night Flying 403 Transition from Cruise to Hover 427
Engine Failures at Night 404 Radio Coupled Operations 428
Night Vision Goggles (NVG) 404 Advanced Concepts 428
The Myth of Night VFR 404 Side Arm Controllers 428
Instrument Flying 405 Failures of the AFCS 429
IFR Flight Envelope 405 Minimum Height for Engaged AFCS 429
Why is Helicopter IFR Difficult? 405 AFCS Disconnect Switches 429
Disorientation 406
Useful Instrument Flying Exercises
406
407
38 Miscellaneous Musings
Autorotations at Night, in Clouds, etc. 407 Type Ratings 431
How To Survive 431
Instrument Flying Rules (IFR) 408
Technical Examinations 431
GPS and IFR 408
Helicopter Only Approaches 409 Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL) 431
Using GPS Intelligently 432
37 Automatic Flight Control How Best to Use the Magic
Myths of the Helicopter
432
433
Systems ’Tail Rotor Stall’ 433
Introduction 411 ‘Pendulum Effect’ 433

xviii
’Stick Reversal’ 433
Torque Limiters 434
Health, etc. 434
Smoking 434
Fluids, Bodily 435
Stress 435
Glasses 435
Safety General 435
Personal Equipment 435
Helmets 435
Immersion Suits 436
The Helicopter is Not a Winch or Bulldozer 436
Good Examples vs. Bad Examples 437
What Good Pilots Do 437
Simulators 438
Learning to Say No 438
Noise 439

Definitions

1 Bibliography

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