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Turbulence: Big whorls have little whorls, that feed on their velocity, and little whorls have smaller whorls, and so on to viscosity L.F. Richardson Laminar flow is what you get if viscous shear forces are the only ones in the problem. It works well for a flow along a smooth surface at low velocities. For a rough surface at high velocities, the velocity profile looks quite different:

The difference is due to the mechanism of turbulence which transfers shear through large scale mechanical motion instead of through molecular motion. Turbulent velocity distributions are generally difficult to predict for an irregularly shaped channel, but can be readily measured in the field. (Boundary shear stress is not uniform across the channel width.) Some special cases have been studied and documented in great detail and channels are one of them (other are primarily for closed conduit flow).

Definitions: ksThe height of roughness elements on the bed. Commonly taken as D84 the 84th percentile particle diameter (also can be as low as D50 or as high as D90). In a Gaussian distribution D84 would be one standard deviation away from the mean. , (More on this later). vThe thickness of the laminar sublayer, where the flow is more or less well behaved. An empirical expression for the thickness of the laminar sublayer is: v = 11.6 , where is the kinematic viscosity, . V* V* The shear velocity, defined as V =

For a wide channel, in a region well away from the region of turbulence generation: V V y v = V + + ln d where V = cross section average, = von Karman constant ( 0.4 for clear water) and y is in the vertical direction. In this form the velocity distribution is called the von Karman velocity defect law. y 1 v = V at = = 0.368 0.4 d e

For turbulent flow where the ratio of the thickness of the laminar sublayer to the roughness height is fairly large, the flow is modeled as flow over a smooth boundary, ( v > 10 ) ks If the roughness height is large relative to v then v is usually taken as = 0 at y ks/30 and the flow is modeled as rough boundary flow. Using equivalent sand grain roughness, ks, as first developed by Nikuradse, these formulae are often referred to as law of the wall equations and written, respectively:

v 1 Vy = ln + 5.5, V

and

v 1 y = ln + 8.5, V k s

V k s < 70 is covered by transition formulae (e.g. the Colebrook-White formula which supplies a constant, C for the Vk v 1 y general equation = ln + C , based on the value of s ). V k s

Note that these are all turbulent velocity profiles, regardless of the relative roughness of the boundary. The turbulent velocity profiles show how flow over a boundary influences the observed velocity distribution. Now lets try to quantify the energy loss due to friction.

V2 V 2 d 1 cos 1 + Z o 1 + 1 1 = d 2 cos 2 + Z o 2 + 2 2 + H 2g 2g If all losses are due to friction, we can use a friction formula similar to that for pipe flow: x V 2 H = f D H 2g Here 1 V 2 V 2 V2 would be = 1 1 + 2 2 2 2g 2g 2g

Similarly, you would use average x-section parameters from sections 1 & 2 for RH

f:

Example: Lets take a typical value for f of f = .03. In a wide channel with a depth d = 2m and x-sect. average velocity V = 3 m/s, what distance (x) is required to lose 1 meter of head due to friction? (assume that = 1) H f 1 V 2 = x 8 R H g

m 2 H .03 1 3 s = 8 2 m (9.8 ) m x s2

x = 580 m .6 km

= .0017 m m

frictional effects are manifested over long distances. the rate of head loss due to friction is highest for flow with high V2 velocity head, 2g , (especially super-critical flows). Some Review of Basic Concepts: Boundary Shear Stress:

o = Cd 1 V 2

2 In terms of the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor, f:

f = 4C d

Cd friction coefficient

f V 2 8

Mass L

L3 = Mass

L2

L T

V = Example: V = V

V f 2 f V = V 8 8

f = .03, V = 3 m s

.03 = .06 V = .18 m s 8

Def: Friction Slope , (Sf), is the spatial rate of total head loss along the channel:

H f V 2 1 = = Sf 8 g R H

f V 2 = gRHSf = 8

(also V =

gR H S F

)

g 6 74 R 4 8 h m } 9.8 (2m ) s2

S 64 F4 7 8 o = .0017 m m

64 4 7 8 kg 998 3 m

= 33.3

kg m s2

1

m2

= 33.3

N m2

ft

2 (6.6ft )

= .70 lbs 2 ft

Def: Flow eynolds number: (based on either Hydraulic Radius or Hydraulic Diameter)

e =

(kinematic viscosity)

(Velocity ) (Length )

VD H VD H VR h ( or ) =

4A A (or Hydraulic Radius = ) P P

e = V k s

Velocity Length

k f = f e, s DH

Laminar flow:

f = 64 e , for e 2000 <

Turbulent flows:

Colebrook-White (1939): 1

Ks 2.51 = 2.0 log10 3 .7 D + e f f H

(non-linear!)

k For very high e: f = f s D H

only,

D = 2.0 log10 H k f s

+ 1.14

Example: For our example flow (wide channel) with depth 2m, m and f = .03, what are ks and e #? V=3 s

3 m ( 8m ) VDH s e # : = = 2.4 107 1 10 6 m2 s

typical value

ks = .0048 DH

How slow would the flow have to be (at the same depth and friction factor) to be laminar?

f = 64 e = 64 V ( 8m ) 1 10 6 m s

2

(e-= 2133)

More friction coefficients: From the definition of Friction Slope: f V2 1 H , Solving for V: = Sf = 8 g Rh x V= 8g R hSf f

V2 =

8 gR h S f f

8g f

ft 2 = 92 s

1

V = C R hSf , Manning Coefficient: In fully rough turbulent flows only! C= C=

1 (R h ) 16 , n

C = C(, ks/Dh)

1.49 (R h ) 16 , n

n 6 R h S f 1.9 x 10 13

T

1 L 3

Example: What is the Manning coefficient for our example flow with velocity of 3 m/s and 2 m depth (f = 0.03)? First make sure that the flow is fully rough turbulent: e# = 2.4 x 107 on Moody diagram friction factor no longer depends on Reynolds # f = f(ks/Dh) and (ks/Dh) << 1 should be OK to use Manning n. n=

1 (Rh ) 16 C

1 1 (6.6) 6 92

= =

.015

1 ft 3

--English units

= = Note:

1 1 (2 ) 6 51

.022

1 m 3

If the flow is fully rough, the Manning coefficient can be estimated in deep flows as a function of the roughness size: English n = 0.034 D50 6 n = 0.031 D75 6 (D50, D75 grain size in feet)

1 1

SI (Metric) n = 0.041 D50 6 n = 0.038 D75 6 (D50, D75 grain size in meters)

1 1

Example (again from our 2 m deep 3 m/s flow): grain sizes D50, D75 in meters for n = 0.022 (SI)? 0.022 = 0.041 (D50)1/6 0.54 = (D50)1/6 D50

= 0.024 m = 2.4 cm

0.022 = 0.038 (D75)1/6 0.58 = (D75)1/6 D75 = 0.038 m = 3.8 cm If we compare with ks from the f, (D-W friction factor) ks = 3.8 cm! In general, representative roughness for a channel (flat bed) with natural sediment is D75 = ks. A Different Example (for a change): Discharge = 180 cfs Channel is lined with concrete, ks D75 1 mm What is the Darcy-Weisbach, f? Area = by + my = 12(3) + (1)(3) ft = 45 ft2 X-section average velocity, V = Q/A =4 ft/s Perimeter = b + 2y 1 + m2 = 20.48 RH = A/P = 2.2 ft DH = 8.8 ft e# =

4 ft (8.8 ft ) VDH s = = 2.5 x 10 6 5 ft 2 1.4 x10 s

2 2 2

ks = DH

(1mm )

From Moody Diagram (transitional region of turbulent flow) f = 0.015 From Nikuradse diagram (D/ks = 2667) f = 0.015

f V2 = 0.00043 8g R h

1

What is Chezy, C? C=

ft 2 8g = 130 f s

f = 0.17 ft/s 8

gR h S f }

What is the Boundary Shear Stress, o? o = gR h S f = 0.059 lb 2 ft What about Manning n? Two different methods:

1.49 (R h ) 16 n

1

{Could use o =

f V 2 or o = V*2 8

( )

C=

n = 0.013

n = 0.031 D75 6

n = 0.012

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