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Turbulent Flow, Velocity Profiles and Friction

Turbulence: Big whorls have little whorls, that feed on their velocity, and little whorls have smaller whorls, and so on to viscosity L.F. Richardson Laminar flow is what you get if viscous shear forces are the only ones in the problem. It works well for a flow along a smooth surface at low velocities. For a rough surface at high velocities, the velocity profile looks quite different:

The difference is due to the mechanism of turbulence which transfers shear through large scale mechanical motion instead of through molecular motion. Turbulent velocity distributions are generally difficult to predict for an irregularly shaped channel, but can be readily measured in the field. (Boundary shear stress is not uniform across the channel width.) Some special cases have been studied and documented in great detail and channels are one of them (other are primarily for closed conduit flow).

Definitions: ksThe height of roughness elements on the bed. Commonly taken as D84 the 84th percentile particle diameter (also can be as low as D50 or as high as D90). In a Gaussian distribution D84 would be one standard deviation away from the mean. , (More on this later). vThe thickness of the laminar sublayer, where the flow is more or less well behaved. An empirical expression for the thickness of the laminar sublayer is: v = 11.6 , where is the kinematic viscosity, . V* V* The shear velocity, defined as V =

For a wide channel, in a region well away from the region of turbulence generation: V V y v = V + + ln d where V = cross section average, = von Karman constant ( 0.4 for clear water) and y is in the vertical direction. In this form the velocity distribution is called the von Karman velocity defect law. y 1 v = V at = = 0.368 0.4 d e

For turbulent flow where the ratio of the thickness of the laminar sublayer to the roughness height is fairly large, the flow is modeled as flow over a smooth boundary, ( v > 10 ) ks If the roughness height is large relative to v then v is usually taken as = 0 at y ks/30 and the flow is modeled as rough boundary flow. Using equivalent sand grain roughness, ks, as first developed by Nikuradse, these formulae are often referred to as law of the wall equations and written, respectively:

v 1 Vy = ln + 5.5, V
and

V k s < 35 V k s > 70 100

v 1 y = ln + 8.5, V k s

V k s < 70 is covered by transition formulae (e.g. the Colebrook-White formula which supplies a constant, C for the Vk v 1 y general equation = ln + C , based on the value of s ). V k s

The intermediate range, 5 <

Note that these are all turbulent velocity profiles, regardless of the relative roughness of the boundary. The turbulent velocity profiles show how flow over a boundary influences the observed velocity distribution. Now lets try to quantify the energy loss due to friction.

Friction in turbulent open channel flow:

Assuming hydrostatic pressure distribution, the 1-D Energy Equation is:

V2 V 2 d 1 cos 1 + Z o 1 + 1 1 = d 2 cos 2 + Z o 2 + 2 2 + H 2g 2g If all losses are due to friction, we can use a friction formula similar to that for pipe flow: x V 2 H = f D H 2g Here 1 V 2 V 2 V2 would be = 1 1 + 2 2 2 2g 2g 2g

Recall that D H = hydraulic diameter = = 4Rh, H f V 2 1 = x 8 g R H

4 (Area) Wetted perimeter (Rh = hydraulic radius)

Similarly, you would use average x-section parameters from sections 1 & 2 for RH

Approximate range of Darcy-Weisbach friction factor, f:

f:

.008 < f < .1 (see Moody or Nikuradse diagram)

Example: Lets take a typical value for f of f = .03. In a wide channel with a depth d = 2m and x-sect. average velocity V = 3 m/s, what distance (x) is required to lose 1 meter of head due to friction? (assume that = 1) H f 1 V 2 = x 8 R H g

Rh depth in wide channel

m 2 H .03 1 3 s = 8 2 m (9.8 ) m x s2
x = 580 m .6 km

= .0017 m m

frictional effects are manifested over long distances. the rate of head loss due to friction is highest for flow with high V2 velocity head, 2g , (especially super-critical flows). Some Review of Basic Concepts: Boundary Shear Stress:

Shear Force (due to friction) unit area

o = Cd 1 V 2
2 In terms of the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor, f:
f = 4C d

Cd friction coefficient

f V 2 8

Def: Shear Velocity, (V or U ), is a fictitious velocity defined by: V =

T 2 L2 T2 V is a quantity with units of velocity that characterizes flow at a channel boundary.

Mass L

L3 = Mass

L2

L T

V = Example: V = V

V f 2 f V = V 8 8

f = .03, V = 3 m s
.03 = .06 V = .18 m s 8

Def: Friction Slope , (Sf), is the spatial rate of total head loss along the channel:
H f V 2 1 = = Sf 8 g R H
f V 2 = gRHSf = 8

(also sometimes called Se, Energy Slope)

(also V =

gR H S F

)
g 6 74 R 4 8 h m } 9.8 (2m ) s2

For our example flow:

S 64 F4 7 8 o = .0017 m m

64 4 7 8 kg 998 3 m

= 33.3

kg m s2

1
m2

= 33.3

N m2

In English units: o = (.0017 ft ft ) 1.95 slugs 32.2 ft 3


ft

2 (6.6ft )

= .70 lbs 2 ft

Def: Flow eynolds number: (based on either Hydraulic Radius or Hydraulic Diameter)
e =

(kinematic viscosity)

(Velocity ) (Length )

VD H VD H VR h ( or ) =

For the whole channel: Velocity = V, x-section average velocity


4A A (or Hydraulic Radius = ) P P

Length = Hydraulic Diameter =

= for water @ ___C

Def: Shear eynolds number (also Bed eynolds number)


e = V k s

Velocity Length

= Shear velocity V = Roughness height, ks

= for water @ ___C

Estimating friction factor, f:


k f = f e, s DH

Moody diagram or Nikuradse diagram (sand)

Laminar flow:

f = f (e ) only, can be proven analytically to be


f = 64 e , for e 2000 <

Turbulent flows:

k f = f e, s Experiment data yield empirical DH formulae:

Colebrook-White (1939): 1
Ks 2.51 = 2.0 log10 3 .7 D + e f f H

(non-linear!)

Good for all ranges of turbulent flow


k For very high e: f = f s D H

only,

D = 2.0 log10 H k f s

+ 1.14

(comes from C-W, 1939.)

Example: For our example flow (wide channel) with depth 2m, m and f = .03, what are ks and e #? V=3 s
3 m ( 8m ) VDH s e # : = = 2.4 107 1 10 6 m2 s

typical value

ks = .0048 DH

Using either Moody, Nikuradse, or C-W eq. k s = .038 m = .04 m = 4 cm

How slow would the flow have to be (at the same depth and friction factor) to be laminar?
f = 64 e = 64 V ( 8m ) 1 10 6 m s
2

= .03 V = .0003 m s doubtful for laminar flow

(e-= 2133)

More friction coefficients: From the definition of Friction Slope: f V2 1 H , Solving for V: = Sf = 8 g Rh x V= 8g R hSf f

V2 =

8 gR h S f f

(Note that the D-W friction factor, f is dimensionless)

Chezy Coefficient (or Chezy C): C= 8g , f C=

L 2 Chezy C has units of T


8g f

Example: for f = 0.03

ft 2 = 92 s
1

m 2 = 51 s Our equation for x-sect average velocity in terms of Chezys C:


V = C R hSf , Manning Coefficient: In fully rough turbulent flows only! C= C=
1 (R h ) 16 , n

C = C(, ks/Dh)

SI units English units

1.49 (R h ) 16 , n

n is the Manning (or Gauckler - Manning) coefficient.

Use of Manning n is good for flows where:


n 6 R h S f 1.9 x 10 13

Note that the Manning coefficient has units of

T
1 L 3

Example: What is the Manning coefficient for our example flow with velocity of 3 m/s and 2 m depth (f = 0.03)? First make sure that the flow is fully rough turbulent: e# = 2.4 x 107 on Moody diagram friction factor no longer depends on Reynolds # f = f(ks/Dh) and (ks/Dh) << 1 should be OK to use Manning n. n=
1 (Rh ) 16 C
1 1 (6.6) 6 92

= =

.015

1 ft 3

--English units

= = Note:

1 1 (2 ) 6 51

.022

1 m 3

--SI (Metric) units

If the flow is fully rough, the Manning coefficient can be estimated in deep flows as a function of the roughness size: English n = 0.034 D50 6 n = 0.031 D75 6 (D50, D75 grain size in feet)
1 1

SI (Metric) n = 0.041 D50 6 n = 0.038 D75 6 (D50, D75 grain size in meters)
1 1

Example (again from our 2 m deep 3 m/s flow): grain sizes D50, D75 in meters for n = 0.022 (SI)? 0.022 = 0.041 (D50)1/6 0.54 = (D50)1/6 D50

What are the estimated

= 0.024 m = 2.4 cm

0.022 = 0.038 (D75)1/6 0.58 = (D75)1/6 D75 = 0.038 m = 3.8 cm If we compare with ks from the f, (D-W friction factor) ks = 3.8 cm! In general, representative roughness for a channel (flat bed) with natural sediment is D75 = ks. A Different Example (for a change): Discharge = 180 cfs Channel is lined with concrete, ks D75 1 mm What is the Darcy-Weisbach, f? Area = by + my = 12(3) + (1)(3) ft = 45 ft2 X-section average velocity, V = Q/A =4 ft/s Perimeter = b + 2y 1 + m2 = 20.48 RH = A/P = 2.2 ft DH = 8.8 ft e# =
4 ft (8.8 ft ) VDH s = = 2.5 x 10 6 5 ft 2 1.4 x10 s
2 2 2

ks = DH

(1mm )

1 inches 1 ft 25.4 mm 12 inch = 0.0033 = .000375 8.8 ft 8 .8

From Moody Diagram (transitional region of turbulent flow) f = 0.015 From Nikuradse diagram (D/ks = 2667) f = 0.015

What is the Friction Slope, Sf? Sf =


f V2 = 0.00043 8g R h
1

What is Chezy, C? C=

ft 2 8g = 130 f s

{Could also use V = C R H Sf }

What is the Shear Velocity, V*? V* = V

f = 0.17 ft/s 8

{Could also use V* =

gR h S f }

What is the Boundary Shear Stress, o? o = gR h S f = 0.059 lb 2 ft What about Manning n? Two different methods:
1.49 (R h ) 16 n
1

{Could use o =

f V 2 or o = V*2 8

( )

C=

n = 0.013

Would expect these to be a bit different since the flow

n = 0.031 D75 6

n = 0.012

is not fully rough.