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Compute the simplicial homology groups of the -complex obtained from the standard 2-simplex by identifying all its three vertices to one point. Solution: The space has a -complex structure with one 2-simplex, three 1-simplices and one 0-simplex. The corresponding chain complex is 0 Z Z3 Z 0 with 1 = 1 , 1 H2 = 0, H1 Z Z,

= 0.

The homology groups are H0 Z . 2. Construct a -complex structure on R P2 as the quotient of the -complex structure on S 2 having vertices (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1). Write down the matrix of each of the maps : Cj (X) Cj1 (X) with respect to suitable bases. Solution: Denote (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) and (0, 0, 1) by P , Q , R respectively. These are the 0-simplices of the -complex structure on S 2 , which has 2-simplices [P+ , Q+ , R+ ], [Q+ , P , R+ ], [P , Q , R+ ], [Q , P+ , R+ ] [P+ , Q+ , R ], [Q+ , P , R ], [P , Q , R ], [Q , P+ , R ] and 1-simplices [P+ , Q+ ], [Q+ , P ], [P , Q ], [Q , P+ ], [P+ , R+ ], [Q+ , R+ ], [P , R+ ], [Q , R+ ], [P+ , R ], [Q+ , R ], [P , R ], [Q , R ].

R+ Q

P Q+

P+

R

The quotient map q : S 2 R P2 identies P+ , Q+ , R+ with P , Q , R respectively, and identies the 1- and 2-simplices in pairs. One must be careful with the notation. The simplices 1

[P+ , Q+ , R+ ] and [P , Q , R ] are identied with one another, and one is tempted to denote their image in R P2 by [P QR]; similarly [Q+ , P , R+ ] and [Q , P+ , R ] are identied, and their image in R P2 would be denoted [QP R]. However, [P , Q , R+ ] and [P+ , Q+ , R ] are also identied with one another, and their image would have to be denoted [P QR] also, although it is not the same as the [P QR] already dened. So we need a better notation: [P+ Q+ R+ ], [P , Q , R ] become [P QR] [P Q R+ ], [P+ , Q+ , R ] become [P QR] [Q+ P R+ ], [Q , P+ , R ] become [QP R] [Q+ P R ], [Q+ , P , R ] become [QP R] [P+ Q+ ], [P Q ] become [P Q] [Q+ P ], [Q P+ ] become [QP ] [P+ R+ ], [P R ] become [P R] [P+ R ], [P R+ ] become [P R] [Q+ R+ ], [Q R ] become [QR] [Q+ R ], [Q R+ ] become [QR] These four 2-simplices and 6 1-simplices, and the 3 vertices P, Q, R, form bases for the chain groups C2 , C1 , C0 of R P2 . With respect to these bases, the matrices of the boundary maps C2 C1 and C1 C0 are 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 and 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 3. Construct a 3-dimensional -complex from n tetrahedra T1 , . . ., Tn by the following two steps: rst arrange the tetrahedra in a pattern as shown so each Ti shares a face with Ti1 and Ti+1 . Then identify the bottom face of each Ti with the top face of T i+1 (indices are taken mod n), in the only way possible respecting the arrows. Show that the simplicial homology groups in dimensions 0,1,2,3 are Z, Z /n Z, 0, Z respectively. Suggestion: carry out the calculation rst for n = 3.

4. If f : A B is a morphism of Abelian groups, the cokernel of f is the quotient group B/f (A). Show that there is an exact sequence 0 ker f A B cokerf 0. (ii) Show that if f : A B and g : B C are morphisms of abelian groups and g f = 0 then g passes to the quotient to dene a morphism f : cokerf C. Under what circumstances is f 2

f

injective? (iii) There is a dual version of (ii), in which coker is replaced by ker and arrows are reversed. State and prove it its very simple! Solution: (i) 0 ker f A B is exact by denition of ker, plus the fact that the map ker f A is inclusion and thus injective. The map B cokerf takes b to b + imf . Its kernel is imf . It is obviously surjective. This completes the proof of exactness. (ii) The exercise should say g not f . The map g is dened by g (b + imf ) = g(b). This is well dened provided it respects the equivalence relation implicit in the denition of quotient group, i.e. that if b1 +imf = b2 +imf then g(b1 ) = g(b2 ). That is, if b1 b2 imf then g(b1 ) should be equal to g(b2 ). Finally, this is just the condition b1 b2 imf i.e. b imf = g(b) = 0, (0.1) which amounts to nothing more than the statement imf ker g, which we are given. Injectivity of g is the statement that g(b1 ) = g(b2 ) = b1 b2 imf , which boils down to the converse of (0.1), i.e. that imf ker g. Together with (0.1) this is nothing but the condition that the sequence A B C should be exact at C. (iii) Reversing the arrows, we get the diagram Ao

f f g f

g(b1 b2 ) = 0

Bo

C.

(0.2)

The dual of coker is ker; the dual statement (in which we have to reverse the order of composition also) is If f g = 0 then g gives rise to a map C ker f . This is certainly true: f g = 0 then g does indeed map C to ker f . The dual of injective is surjective; the dual of the last part of (ii) is the fact that if the sequence (0.2) is exact at B then g maps C surjectively to ker f . Again, this is little more than a restatement of exactness. 5. The snake lemma: Given a diagram 0 0

/ A1

f1 g1

0

/ A2

f2 g2

0

/ A3

f3

/0

h1

h2

/ B1

/ B2

/ B3

/0

0 3

in which the rows are exact, show that there is an exact sequence 0 ker f1 ker f2 ker f3 cokerf1 cokerf2 cokerf3 0. The morphisms ker fi ker fi+1 and cokerfi cokerfi+1 are induced by gi and hi respectively. To dene ker f3 cokerf1 you have to use diagram chasing. The result is called the snake lemma because if you put all the cokernels and kernels in the original diagram (so that each column becomes a 4-term exact sequence as in Exercise 1), the exact sequence you have to construct in this exercise curves backwards and forwards across the page. Solution: The morphism ker f1 ker f2 is dened directly by g1 , for since f2 g1 = h1 f1 it follows that g1 (ker f1 ) ker f2 . Similarly for the morphism ker f2 ker f3 . The morphism cokerf1 cokerf2 is a passage to the quotient:

/ B2 B1 MM MMM h1 MMM MMM & B1 /imf1 / B2 /imf2

h1 h1

we have the composite map B1 cokerf2 and want to see that it passes to the quotient to dene h1 : cokerf1 cokerf2 . This is essentially the argument of the Exercise 5(ii): we need only know that h1 kills imf1 . This follows from the commutativity of the original diagram, since h1 (f1 (a1 )) = f2 (g1 (a1 )) which becomes 0 in B2 /imf2 . The morphism cokerf2 cokerf3 arises similarly. The morphism : ker f3 cokerf1 is constructed as follows: given a3 ker f3 , choose a2 A2 such that g2 (a2 ) = a3 (we use exactness of the top row at A3 here). By commutativity, h2 f2 (a2 ) = f3 (a3 ) = 0 so f2 (a2 ) ker h2 and therefore f2 (a2 ) imh1 , so there exists b1 B1 such that h1 (b1 ) = f2 (a2 ). We dene (a3 ) = b1 + imf1 . I leave to you to check that this is well dened (does not depend on any of the choices involved). I also leave you to prove that the sequence I have constructed is exact. 6.Show that if B Z is an epimorphism then there is an injective homomorphism g : Z B which is a right inverse to f . (ii) Deduce that if 0 A B Z 0 is a short exact sequence of Abelian groups then C A B. Hint: taking g as in (i), g f maps B into ker f . Solution: (i) Simply choose b B such that f (b) = 1 Z, and dene g : Z B by g(n) = nb (or g(1) = bn in multiplicative notation). The hint in (ii) was wrong, unfortunately: f maps B into ker f . it should have read Taking g as in (i), idB

f f

Because of exactness, A maps isomorphically to ker f , so we can regard the map idB g g as mapping B to A. Now map B to A Z by the map b (b f g(a), f (a)). You have to check that this is an isomorphism. 7. Can there be an exact sequence 0 Z /4 Z Z /8 Z Z /2 Z Z /4 Z 0? Solution: No: any injection Z /4 Z Z /8 Z Z /2 Z must map 1 + 4 Z to an element of order 4, i.e. to one of (2, 0), (2, 1), (6, 0), (6, 1). In each of these cases, coker is isomorphic to Z /2 Z Z /2 Z. But Z /4 Z is not isomorphic to Z /2 Z Z /2 Z. 8. Compute the relative homology groups Hn (X, A) when X is S 2 and A is a set of n points. Hint: use a deformation retraction and Corollary 2.25. Solution: Hi (S 2 , A) Hi (S 2 /A) for i = 0, 1, 2. S 2 /{npoints} is homotopy equivalent to a wedge 2 and n 1 circles. One can see this easily as follows: choose one of the n points, call it x , of S 0 and join it to the others by n 1 non-intersecting arcs which meet S 2 only at their end points. Since these arcs can be contracted, the resulting space is homotopy equivalent to S 2 /A (Hatcher Proposition 0.17). Choose a family of arcs on the sphere joining x0 to the remaining n 1 points, and contract them to a point. We obtain the wedge of S 2 with n 1 circles. Now use Hatcher Corollary 2.25. 9. Let X and A be the genus 2 surface and the circle shown in the following diagram.

A

Show by a drawing that A, suitably divided into 1-simplices, is the boundary of a 2-chain in X. Conclude that the map H1 (A) H1 (X) induced by the inclusion AX is zero. Hint: your drawing might be easier to make using the representation of the torus as the quotient of a square. (ii) Use Corollary 2.25 in Hatcher to compute H1 (X, A), and go on to compute H1 (X) by using the long exact sequence of the pair (X, A). (iii) Generalise the argument of (ii) to compute H1 (X), where X is the genus g surface.

g handles

(iii) Compute the relative homology group H2 (X, A) for the surface X shown in the rst picture. Exercise 6 may be useful here. Solution:

v r s

u r t

The left hand half of X is a torus with a hole. The chain [spq] + [stq] [tqp] + [tur] [tpr] [urp] + [uqp] + [uvq] + [vpq] + [vrp] + [vsr] + [spr] (0.3)

has boundary [st] + [tu] + [uv] + [vs], a simplicial subdivision of A, as required. Now H1 (A) is generated by the cycle (in our notation) [st] + [tu] + [uv] + [vs]. In H1 (X) this cycle represents the zero homology class, since it is the boundary of the chain (0.3). Hence the morphism H1 (A) H1 (X) is zero. (ii) From the long exact sequence of reduced homology of the pair (X, A) we therefore get the exact sequences 0 H2 (X) H2 (X, A) H1 (A) 0 and 0 H1 (X) H1 (X, A) H0 (A) = 0.

Now H1 (X, A) H1 (X/A) by Hatchers Proposition 2.22. As X/A is homeomorphic to the wedge of two tori, Hatchers Corollary 2.25 shows that H1 (X) H1 (X, A) H1 (torus) H1 (torus) Z4 .

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