Navjyoti Research Work Final | Substance Abuse | Substance Dependence

INTRODUCTION

Founded Location About by Dr. Kiran Bedi in the year 1987 Khasra No 99, Majri Karala, Near Sector-22 Rohini, New Delhi, India 110081 Education, Women Empowerment, Vocational Training, Healthcare, Environment & Rural Development Navjyoti India Foundation has been working with underserved communities ever since its inception in 1987. Presently, the organisation works in Resettlement Colonies of North West Part of Delhi namely Bawana and Jahangirpuri, and an urbanized rural area called Karala and Villages in Gurgaon district, Sohna Block, Haryana. Education, Women Empowerment and Vocational Training have been the primary areas of intervention by the organisation in these communities. Besides, health care, environment interventions and community participation are also run for promoting integrated community development services. To mobilize and harness the power of children, youth, women and people at large to combat illiteracy, ignorance, gender discrimination and the evil of addiction with an ultimate aim of crime prevention and social development. NGO of the Year award by Public Relation Council of India An award by Education Quality Foundation of India [EQFI] for excellent contribution in Education for the North Zone category Best NGO award for providing DOTS services in North West district under MCD Chest Clinic through Community Development program. Email Phone Website support@navjyoti.org.in 011-47100706/713 ; 011-25963056/95 http://www.navjyoti.org.in

Description

Mission

Awards

Our Organization
Navjyoti Delhi Police Foundation is a voluntary organization registered under the Society Registration Act, 1860, in the year 1987. A seventeen year old organization formed under the leadership of Dr Kiran Bedi has been running several interventions in the areas of child education, women empowerment, health care, vocational training, protection, shelter, rural development, de-addiction treatment and counselling and environment.

Our History
Navjyoti Delhi Police Foundation was founded by Dr Kiran Bedi and 17 other like-minded Officials of Delhi Police, as a result of the inextricable link that existed between crime and drugs. The objectives were to work for correction, de-addiction and rehabilitation of the drug addicts as a crime prevention measure. Realizing the need to adopt an integrated approach, the organization started to reach out to other left out sections of society as well including women, children, youth and general community.

Our Vision
To challenge the social inequalities and empower the vulnerables by enabling them to help themselves.

Our Mission
To mobilize and harness the power of children, youth, women and people at large to combat illiteracy, ignorance, gender discrimination and the evil of addiction with an ultimate aim of crime prevention and social development.

Our Objectives
• To ORGANIZE services for individuals, groups and communities to enable them to learn and act towards community development. • To INITIATE correctional and rehabilitative measures for the criminals and drug addicts. • To PROVIDE preventive, corrective and rehabilitative services concerning drug and alcohol abuse at primary, secondary and tertiary levels and promote temperance. • To PROMOTE formal and non formal education for empowerment of women, children and youth. • To UNDERTAKE projects for development of education, vocational, training and self help groups in rural areas. • To CONDUCT research on social issues and problems of development. • To DISSEMINATE information on the same through print and audio visual media.

Our Target Groups

Our Project Sites
Navjyoti is operational in three resettlement colonies of Delhi located in the North and North West Part of Delhi and in rural areas in Sohna Bolck of Guragon District in Haryana. Besides, a Drug Demand Reduction Training Institute is running in Karala Majri in North West Delhi.

Our Strategic Interventions :Education interventions Preparing Children for the mainstream Balwari – A total of seven Balwaris in Bawana are offering early childhood care and education to more than 100 children in the age group of 3 to 5 years. Gali schools – More than 4000 Children in the age group of 4 to 8 years are offered education at their doorstep in different project areas with a view to increase their inclination towards education. Learning Centres – A s p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ’ s programme for Universalization of Elementary Education, Navjyoti is running 50 learning centers in Bawana and 15 in Jahagirpuri in order to reach out to drop out and out of school children to prepare them for mainstream education. A total of 2600 children are covered through this intervention. Bridge Education – Bridge education is an endeavor to offer tutorial assistance to children studying in government and private schools especially at the secondary level in order to ensure their continuity andretention and enhance their performance. Eight centers catering to 320 children in HolambiKalan and 13 Centers catering to 200 children in Bawana are running presently. These children are also provided with career counselling and life skill education.

I am doing my Final ETA on ‘DRUG ABUSE’. NAVJYOTI INDIA FOUNDATION also look after the abuse case on that i choose drug abuse, because it is the main problem seen on the present context of INDIA, so i think that to find the root of any abuse we should start from the drug abuse.

DRUG ABUSE
drug abuse, refers to a maladaptive pattern of use of a substance that is not considered dependent. The term "drug abuse" does not exclude dependency, but is otherwise used in a similar manner in nonmedical contexts. The terms have a huge range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. All of these definitions imply a negative judgment of the drug use in question (compare with the term responsible drug use for alternative views). Some of the drugs most often associated with this term include alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (particularly temazepam, nimetazepa m, and flunitrazepam), cocaine, methaqualone, and opioids. Use of these drugs may lead to criminal penalty in addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, both strongly depending on local jurisdiction. Other definitions of drug abuse fall into four main categories: public health definitions, mass communication and vernacular usage, medical definitions, and political and criminal justice definitions. Public health definitions

Source: A Public Health Approach to Drug Control in Canada, Health Officers Council of British Columbia, 2005

Public health practitioners have attempted to look at drug abuse from a broader perspective than the individual, emphasizing the role of society, culture and availability. Rather than accepting the loaded terms alcohol or drug "abuse," many public health professionals have adopted phrases such as "substance and alcohol type problems" or "harmful/problematic use" of drugs. The Health Officers Council of British Columbia — in their 2005 policy discussion paper, A Public Health Approach to Drug Control in Canada — has adopted a public health model of psychoactive substance use that challenges the simplistic black-and-white construction of the

binary (or complementary) antonyms "use" vs. "abuse". This model explicitly recognizes a spectrum of use, ranging from beneficial use to chronic dependence (see diagram to the right). Medical definitions In the modern medical profession, the two most used diagnostic tools in the world, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), no longer recognize 'drug abuse' as a current medical diagnosis. Instead, DSM has adopted substance abuse as a blanket term to include drug abuse and other things. ICD refrains from using either "substance abuse" or "drug abuse", instead using the term "harmful use" to cover physical or psychological harm to the user from use. Physical dependence, abuse of, and withdrawal from drugs and other miscellaneous substances is outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) ). Its section Substance dependence begins with: "Substance dependence When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed. Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance to the effect of the drug and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped. These, along with Substance Abuse are considered Substance Use Disorders...." However, other definitions differ; they may entail psychological or physical dependence, and may focus on treatment and prevention in terms of the social consequences of substance uses. Drug misuse Drug misuse is a term used commonly for prescription medications with clinical efficacy but abuse potential and known adverse effects linked to improper use, such as psychiatric medications with sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, or stimulantproperties. Prescription misuse has been variably and inconsistently defined based on drug prescription status, the uses that occur without a prescription, intentional use to achieve intoxicating effects, route of administration, coingestion withalcohol, and the presence or absence of abuse or dependence symptoms. Tolerance relates to the pharmacological property of substances in which chronic use leads to a change in the central nervous system, meaning that more of the substance is needed in order to produce desired effects. Stopping or reducing the use of this substance would cause withdrawal symptoms to occur.

Drug Abuse in India
June 26 is celebrated as International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking every year. It is an exercise undertaken by the world community to sensitize the people in general and the youth in particular, to the menace of drugs. The picture is grim if the world statistics on the drugs scenario is taken into account. With a turnover of around $500 billions, it is the third largest business in the world, next to petroleum and arms trade. About 190 million people all over the world consume one drug or the other. Drug addiction causes immense human distress and the illegal production and distribution of drugs have spawned crime and violence worldwide. Today, there is no part of the world that is free from the curse of drug trafficking and drug addiction. Millions of drug addicts, all over the world, are leading miserable lives, between life and death. India too is caught in this vicious circle of drug abuse, and the numbers of drug addicts are increasing day by day. According to a UN report, One million heroin addicts are registered in India, and unofficially there are as many as five million. What started off as casual use among a minuscule population of high-income group youth in the metro has permeated to all sections of society. Inhalation of heroin alone has given way to intravenous drug use, that too in combination with other sedatives and painkillers. This has increased the intensity of the effect, hastened the process of addiction and complicated the process of recovery. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Cannabis products, often called charas, bhang, or ganja, are abused throughout the country because it has attained some amount of religious sanctity because of its association with some Hindu deities. The International Narcotics Control Board in its 2002 report released in Vienna pointed out that in India persons addicted to opiates are shifting their drug of choice from opium to heroin. The pharmaceutical products containing narcotic drugs are also increasingly being abused. The intravenous injections of analgesics like dextropropoxphene etc are also reported from many states, as it is easily available at 1/10th the cost of heroin. The codeine-based cough syrups continue to be diverted from the domestic market for abuse Drug abuse is a complex phenomenon, which has various social, cultural, biological, geographical, historical and economic aspects. The disintegration of the old joint family system, absence of parental love and care in modern families where both parents are working, decline of old religious and moral values etc lead to a rise in the number of drug addicts who take drugs to escape hard realities of life. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict's immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life. The fast changing social milieu, among other factors, is mainly contributing to the proliferation of drug abuse, both of traditional and of new psychoactive substances. The introduction of synthetic drugs and intravenous drug use leading to HIV/AIDS has added a new dimension to the problem, especially in the Northeast states of the country. Drug abuse has led to a detrimental impact on the society. It has led to increase in the crime rate. Addicts resort to crime to pay for their drugs. Drugs remove inhibition and impair judgment egging one on to commit offences. Incidence of eve- teasing, group clashes, assault and impulsive murders increase with drug abuse. Apart from affecting the financial stability, addiction

increases conflicts and causes untold emotional pain for every member of the family. With most drug users being in the productive age group of 18-35 years, the loss in terms of human potential is incalculable. The damage to the physical, psychological, moral and intellectual growth of the youth is very high. Adolescent drug abuse is one of the major areas of concern in adolescent and young people's behavior. It is estimated that, in India, by the time most boys reach the ninth grade, about 50 percent of them have tried at least one of the gateway drugs. However, there is a wide regional variation across states in term of the incidence of the substance abuse. For example, a larger proportion of teens in West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh use gateway drugs (about 60 percent in both the states) than Uttar Pradesh or Haryana (around 35 percent). Increase in incidences of HIV, hepatitis B and C and tuberculosis due to addiction adds the reservoir of infection in the community burdening the health care system further. Women in India face greater problems from drug abuse. The consequences include domestic violence and infection with HIV, as well as the financial burden. Eighty seven per cent of addicts being treated in a de-addiction center run by the Delhi police acknowledged being violent with family members. Most of the domestic violence is directed against women and occurs in the context of demands for money to buy drugs. At the national level, drug abuse is intrinsically linked with racketeering, conspiracy, corruption, illegal money transfers, terrorism and violence threatening the very stability of governments. India has braced itself to face the menace of drug trafficking both at the national and international levels. Several measures involving innovative changes in enforcement, legal and judicial systems have been brought into effect. The introduction of death penalty for drug-related offences has been a major deterrent. The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, were enacted with stringent provisions to curb this menace. The Act envisages a minimum term of 10 years imprisonment extendable to 20 years and fine of Rs. 1 lakh extendable up to Rs. 2 lakhs for the offenders. The Act has been further amended by making provisions for the forfeiture of properties derived from illicit drugs trafficking. Comprehensive strategy involving specific programmes to bring about an overall reduction in use of drugs has been evolved by the various government agencies and NGOs and is further supplemented by measures like education, counseling, treatment and rehabilitation programmes. India has bilateral agreements on drug trafficking with 13 countries, including Pakistan and Burma. Prior to 1999, extradition between India and the United States occurred under the auspices of a 1931 treaty signed by the United States and the United Kingdom, which was made applicable to India in 1942. However, a new extradition treaty between India and the United States entered into force in July 1999. A Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty was signed by India and the United States in October 2001. India also is signatory to the following treaties and conventions: • • • • 1961 U.N. Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1971 U.N. Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1988 U.N. Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 2000 Transnational Crime Convention The spread and entrenchment of drug abuse needs to be prevented, as the cost to the people, environment and economy will be colossal. The unseemly spectacle of unkempt drug abusers dotting lanes and by lanes, cinema halls and other public places should be enough to goad the authorities to act fast to remove the scourge of this social evil. Moreover, the spread of such reprehensible habits among the relatively young segment of society ought to be arrested at all cost. There is a need for the government enforcement agencies, the nongovernmental philanthropic agencies, and others to collaborate and supplement each other's efforts for a solution to the problem of drug addiction through education and legal actions.

Bibliography:
• • • • • http://azadindia.org/social-issues/Drug-Abuse-in-India.html http://www.google.com/ http://www.navjyoti.org.in/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_abuse http://www.facebook.com/pages/Substance-abuse/111671125518052

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