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At present, there has been increasing interest to a broad audience of graphic holography. Holography is widely used in the museum business, design. Let's try together to find out what is a hologram. And also, what methods exist and are used to manufacture them.
HOLOGRAM - a kind of photograph, but unlike a normal photo, it creates the illusion of depth, but also allows you to see the object depicted in different ways. Poluchaemo output, the image can be so realistic that it seems to you the object itself. There are several ways to make a hologram, and in all cases the film is illuminated for a few seconds, the laser beam reflected from the object. Many of the techniques used are very "sensitive" to a jar of equipment during prolonged exposure, so that professionals engaged in the manufacture of holograms, it is necessary to take various measures to protect the equipment from vibrations. In the beginning, it is necessary to understand the basic principles of holography. In particular, that created the illusion of three-dimensional holographic image of an object due to the fact that the hologram is a "fingerprint" the interference pattern formed by two light beams. The first beam, called the object is reflected from the object, and the second - the reference - does not undergo reflection. These beams have to go from one source (as it is used - laser), so that by the time they reach the film, among them there was a fixed phase difference. Phase defines the "state" of a light wave passing through the selected point. Wave is in phase one, when is it "comb", and in opposite phase, when is it "shoe." If you pass through the point of two waves with the same length, the difference of their phases is a measure of how close their condition: they say that the waves are in phase, if they are in the same condition, and in the counter if they are in opposite states . We also note that in the case when the wave is completely out of phase, they say that they interfere constructively, while the place of their meeting brightly lit thanks to the combination of ridges with crests and soles of the soles. And when the waves are in opposite phase, they interfere destructively, and because of their complete mismatch is the point where they meet, it turns dark. In the event that the arc long and continuouswave, the phase difference remains constant level of illumination at the point where they meet, also remains unchanged. The direction in which light propagates, it does not matter: beams can be directed to one side, and in opposite directions or at an angle to each other. We offer you, the device is based on the method of manufacturing hologram, invented in 1962 by Soviet scientists JN Denisyuk. The resulting design, the device is so compact and strong, and so the method is insensitive to vibrations, and obtained at the output of
and you can see an object from a different angle. modified grains become opaque and transparent remain unchanged. including. 1. covered with small dark and transparent stripes and a "fingerprint" of the original interference pattern. they are completely out of phase.the reference beam . the path of one of them is reflected from an object and becomes the object beam and the second . so the output given by the images they were muddy and dark. the phase difference varies from place to place. Note that the first holograms were produced without the use of the laser. but they differ in refractive index. If you look at the hologram at an angle and hits you in the eye of the scattered light. the interference pattern is created in the emulsion layer of film. In this case. The scheme of making a hologram. the phase difference of waves that reach every point of the film may change. Consider how a hologram. The original film. turning into a semblance of the object beam. When you slide a little line of sight. the light will be scattered on the lines. as well as higher-quality film and better ways of its exposure. If the hologram is illuminated by a beam that is identical to the reference beam. the laser beam is split semi-transparent mirror into two beams. Pushing an element on the path of the object or reference beam. Figure 2. The method used has one drawback . you see the image of the object. In some ways making holograms. When the film is beginning to show. But as the rays in the object beam is reflected from different points of the object on the film. and in other locations due to lack of coverage of these grains remain unchanged. which has become a hologram. At some point the film bright light activates the grains of silver. Then all the lines become transparent. but also in the white light bulbs. which was used during exposure of the film. and if there are many different wavelengths. The scattering of light in a hologram depends on the wavelength. Denisyuk. As a result. and therefore continue to be the imprint of the interference pattern. holographic images are brighter and sharper thanks to lasers. as in white light. which are then successively reflected with mirrors and other as a result of reaching the film.the hologram can be seen not only when they are illuminated by laser. and print the interference pattern will be blurred. While the beams start out. then your eyes will get another part of the scattered light. but the other way. In holography.directed the film with the same side as the object beam.the hologram has to be considered in the same light beam. To date. In Fig. the film is bleached in order to make a hologram brighter. as proceed from the same source. . the production of holograms at home with their own hands the installation must be protected from vibrations to the film during the long exposure remained constant interference pattern. In normal practice.
it should be noted that the size and shape of the parts is not strictly required. Some of this light (object beam) is scattered back. If you fall into the eyes of the scattered light. walking on the path of the reference beam. This problem can be solved if the exposed film so that the finished hologram created image only for a single wavelength. Object and film are close to each other: if one varies then another varies in much the same. The method is particularly suitable Denisyuk. getting back on the film. this advantage is lost. it is built to your visual system.is reflective hologram in its manufacture laser light is not split into two beams semitransparent mirror. For the manufacture of the hologram by the method of Denisyuk's own hands can make the following setup.then the set of the scattering pattern is superimposed on each other. reaching the facility within just a film. Falls on the hologram many different wavelengths. the advantage of an inclined orientation of the film during exposure. respectively. Can be regarded as a form of reflection scattering. It may be noted. the image you see. and interferes with the light falling on it from the front (reference beam). this type of hologram is called reflective holograms. Showing the film. it can be viewed in white light. and the details that are required for its proper operation are listed in Table 1. If an object is placed farther from the film. in a thick emulsion layer of film can fit a lot of "layers" of constructive and destructive interference. passing through one or two lenses. and expands. directed along the same path that was the original laser beam. but with the light of any wavelength that does not happen. the hologram can not be viewed in white light bulbs. This is called the "imaginary" image. where presumably there is an image. If put into place. creating such confusion that nothing is impossible to distinguish. If the laser beam was perpendicular to the film. and then goes directly through the set at an angle of a transparent film. shown in Figure 3. extrapolating rays entering the eye back to their intended starting point. then by looking at the holograms a white light source would have to keep straight face and not on the sidelines. . and consider it from the source. because it has little effect on vibration. and information about the wavelength of light is determined by the interval between the "layers". separated by a distance equal to half the wavelength. Processed film can illuminate a beam of white light. Our case is . What is the object and reference beams are directed onto the film from opposite sides. and the interference pattern on the film remains almost unchanged. you perceive the image as it were located on the far side of the hologram. This selective scattering due to the fact that the interval between the "layers" of interference is equal to half the wavelength: born with the 'right' wavelength undergoes a strong back-scattering on the film. which turned into a hologram. Background information about the object continues to carry horizontal variations of the interference pattern. and therefore. and in the direction of the observer affects only the light whose wavelength coincides with the wavelength of the original reference beam. cardboard and look at it "directly" (not a hologram). and the installation must guard against fluctuations.
Place the frame on a sheet of plywood and check its stability. The U-shaped frame-holder. "corners" and sleeves. Number p / p The components of the installation The number of necessary components Dimensions of components 1. 2. but with caution. then attach it to the plywood with z-shaped brackets and screws. use a rubber or plastic hammer. Assemble the main frame of the device of the tubes with square cross section. Connecting nodes. in order to be kept. cut holes in the thread or tighten nuts. Black tube with square cross-section 2 × 2 cm 4 tubes Length 92 cm 8 handsets Length 32 cm 4 tubes Length 26 cm 2.In Fig. designed to accommodate the object being photographed. Table 1. We now describe in detail the sequence of assembly set their hands: 1. Insert these bolts through holes drilled in both tubes. Installing the. Other mechanical parts 8 corner joints 2 crank . is made from three shorter tubes. The frame will be inside the main frame end face with the lateral gap of about 3 mm. The lower frame tube on the outside bolts attach the tube of the same length. The components of the installation. 3. which must be based on the film. Additional tube forms a narrow shelf.
the size of the film 6 steel washers Internal diameter of 0.6 cm July 4th-shaped brackets 4 screws round head The length of 2 cm 1 sheet of plywood Thickness of 2.5 cm.6 cm and a length of 4-5 cm 3.2 sets of bushings 2 rubber strip with a slot Length of 25 cm and a width of 0. Optical parts An optical bench 2 glasses lens 2 pin holder Width 30 mm 2 screws for installation of holders pins 2 biconcave lenses or ploskovognutye - . length 117 cm or longer A plate-glass Thickness of 0. 25 x 26 cm Two glass plates Thickness of 0.6 cm 2 steel bolts Diameter of 0. width 43 cm.6 cm.6 cm.
Mark the position of the axis of rotation on the vertical frame tube main frame. Then adjust the lens so that their centers are on the same axis with the center of the paper. but the best one that generates polarized light and has a power output of at least 5 mW (laser. Turn on the laser and adjust its height and the height and position of the lens on the bench so that the laser beam is uniformly illuminated paper. To reduce the cost of the device. Lenses should be ploskovognutye or biconcave with a focal length of .15 to . Reinsert the box-holder in the end the main frame. the weaker the longer the exposure should be. The bleaching solution is needed for clarification of the hologram without this reflection hologram will be dark. wooden dowels. Emulsion layer should be thicker than 6 mm. it may be optical bench itself. Drill holes are the same at the marked points in the frame-holder. but when installed. Washers should be enough to frame could be rotated on the bolt. which will require fine-grained high-developer and bleach mixture. If the developer is stored in a cool place in opaque plastic bottle. and cut them into threads. Optical bench should have a length of 30 to 60 cm on the bench is equipped with two holders for pins. remove the frame and then drill a hole diameter of 6 mm in the lateral tube main frame at the marked points. Cut the size of the frame plate glass and fasten it to the frame with a rubber gasket or otherwise (you can make a device made of wood). in the end may play a negative role). For these experiments. Locate and mark the position of the axis of rotation of the framework corresponding to its equilibrium position. inserted in a frame-holder. You can either buy a commercially available studs and frames. To make one of them must be added . pass through holes in the frame bolts. put the entire system on a stable table. partially filled with some loose material. In order to reduce vibration. 4. It is important to ensure that your eyes did not get myself a laser beam or a bright reflection.30 mm. or lenses to capture the clips. put them in the washer. optical bench and all that therein is. After assembly. After the above actions. transparent to light from both sides of and sensitive to red light laser. screwed into a frame lenses. trim white sheet of paper the size of the film (about 10 x 12 cm) and place the paper on the glass. then screw the bolt into the threaded holes in the frame. you will need to process film. and then insert these pins to the holders of the pins. which must be tilted to the lenses. Adjusting the position of all the components that attach the bench on the plywood and mark the position of the holders of the pins. set the table legs in cans of coffee. and at long exposures of vibration. except for the lenses should be painted flat black paint to avoid contact with stray light during exposure. screw clamps. Before final assembly plywood. and then set it upright in the end of the main frame of about 2 cm from the bottom of the tube. it can be used repeatedly. Then set the bench and optical components.3. would keep the same position due to friction in the washer. we can take any of a helium-neon laser. There are two recipes bleaching compounds that can be prepared by hand.
Whitening formula prepared by the second recipe. 3. there is nothing wrong. to damped oscillations of the new. the type and size of the film and the reflectivity of the object. dropping out of the tap water to the entire shed was diluted acid before it reaches the pipe. The mixture is prepared by adding 30 g of potassium bromide and 30 g of iron sulfate to 900 ml of water. but it can change the color of the image. mix until powders are dissolved completely. Green Lantern can see what's happening in film development. the required exposure time may be about 5 seconds. preferably one in which the temperature and air velocity can be adjusted individually. which must be tilted at an angle of 30 to 450 to the vertical. Then follow the following sequence of steps: 1. All this should be done in the sink. 4. and finally just remove it by opening the film for exposure. green lantern. you have everything to make Denisyuk holograms. If indoor lighting is turned off and turned on the laser re-check the alignment by placing a sheet of white paper on the glass in a frame-holder. Exposure time depends on the brightness of the laser beam. give more light hologram. bring the volume of the mixture to 1000 ml. and then remove the paper. Methanol is used to quickly dry the hologram (caution: do not breathe its vapors and keep close to the flame which can ignite it. so you need to pick up empirically. 7. and then insert the film between two panes. Put the photographed object in the upper glass and wait a few minutes to give damped oscillations. 2. 6. For the developer you will also need a certain amount of absolute methanol. 5. At this stage.to 25 g of potassium bromide and potassium zhelezosinerodistogo to 900 ml of water (distilled water is best). Slightly lift the carton. the size of which should be slightly greater than the dimensions of the film. Stir powder. place another plate glass. do not forget to wear safety glasses and laboratory gloves. Emulsion film must be directed to the laser.) Hair dryer is used at the final drying. wait 30 seconds. . On paper. If the beam from a laser power of 5 mW incident on the film size 10 x 12 cm · and if the object is of moderate reflectivity. If the hologram is viewed in white light. when you're working with a mixture of bleach. and a hair dryer. Fix the second glass with the left and right edges of the tape. bring the volume to 1000 ml with water and then carefully add 10 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid. Also. glue it to the big glass. but in light of the laser source image may be unclear does not occur. Close the carton laser.
but not dry. pull the tape and put it in a light-proof tape to manifestation. provided that the narrow beam of light: flashlight or slide projector fit.no. This glass should be about 6 mm thick and 30 x 35 cm In order to send a laser beam on the glass. which can be viewed in white light. If in the tub with methanol gets too much water is shown by the hologram will be dark. 10. All these steps should be done quickly: Remove the tape. this may take from 30 seconds to 2 minutes to determine the exact time you need to experiment.deleted. immerse the film in the tank with the developer. . it is necessary to re-establish the carton in front of the laser. there is no interference. and a fluorescent tube . if this area is close to the film. pereproyavlena or treated too old bleach. since the phase difference between these two waves is not fixed. and the sequence of waves. After that. To complete the drying dip the film for about 2 min in methanol. If he is far away. If there is a danger that the motor in hair dryer sparks. can not stand steadily on a narrow shelf frame-holder. Tilt the box-holder from the laser. and making sure that the film emulsion layer facing up and not scratch the bottom of the tank. The result is a hologram. let it flow down from the liquid and place on a soft. you can just put it on film and plate glass installed horizontally and covering the frame at the top. Not all the way to make a hologram Denisyuk. as described above. rinse the film in running water and place it in one of the bleachers. When hard tap water. so it was overexposed. In that case. if the film is clarified. if the object you want to photograph. Rotate the film in the developer until such time till it is quite dark. keep it away to a pair of methanol is not ignited. In Denisyuk holograms well "appear" similar object points and bad . it is necessary to rinse it again for 2 min in running water. each of which is longer than the laser itself. rinse the film in distilled water to wash away the salt from it. If the film soon becomes more transparent. In order to stop the exposure. dry paper towel emulsion layer upwards. because the illusion of depth in the hologram is often weaker than in the beam produced by the split. Put gently another paper towel on the emulsion layer and immediately proceed to drying with warm air dryer. 9. This is due to the fact that the laser emits a continuous wave of more than one. After that.8. so the coherent interference of light during exposure of the film should have one and the same wave. for 2 minutes. put it on the mirror and otyustiruyte system to laser light is distributed evenly over the sheet of paper on a horizontal glass. In the method of Denisyuk wave after scattering on a certain part of the object essentially consists of a well. At the same time wearing protective gloves. Then. gently blot it with a soft paper towel to remove any remaining water on it. Should be exercised only by the light of the film the green light. you will need a mirror size 20 x 25 cm from the front of the reflecting surface. In that case. When changing the wave phase varies randomly. a recurring part of the first wave meets another part of the incident wave. Then expose the film exposure.
The device differs from previously proposed vertical installation of all elements. a number of additional optical elements and holders for them. We describe a detailed scheme of fastening device components: 1. which contains. Settings such as planting. located on a horizontal basis. In a portable device for recording holograms. containing a laser. 3. besides the laser. 2. Laser tube is rigidly fastened to the beam expander. 2. the proposed VB Smirnov. made in the form of a shortcollecting lens in the frame or the lens of a microscope (expander can be glued to the cover of the laser with epoxy resin). This device for recording holograms. the proposed VB Smirnov. divider plates. the result is their relative immobility. mirrors). are not intended to shoot the holograms in the colliding beams. . 3. differs from the above installation the following characteristics: 1. known holographic setup a sufficiently small size and weight. Located horizontal plate is supported by the force of gravity on the pins in the rack or placed on a cradle mounted on the base. vertical rigidly to each other and with a horizontal base and a laser beam expander. Installation height will vary according to the optical power of the expander so that the expanded laser beam illuminates all or most of the photographic plate. kotorue also can be made by hand. 4. which is not always possible to have and just make your hands at home. simplicity of the device and a small mass. Golografiruemy object is based on a photographic plate. allowing to record holograms in transient conditions. which allows you to record a sufficiently large in size and quality of the hologram in the colliding beams in nonstationary conditions. To date. also used a method of making holograms of the Denisyuk method of size 13x18 cm or more. We offer you the device is shown schematically in Figure 4. as well as holograms of large dimensions. optical elements (lenses.There is a portable device for recording holograms. restored in white light. Also requires installation of special devices for the relative immobility of all the circuit elements in a hologram. Above has been described a rather complicated installation. is positioned vertically and rigidly fixed to the base using four or three racks. the lack of additional optical elements. including the laser emitter.
which is registered by a photographic plate. 3 . The result is stored (and can at any time to play) absolutely all the information we collect seeing this object in his life. The most convenient.a way to record all the optical information. 5 .pin 10 .is the sensitometric characteristics of the CCD or any film. but also information on the distribution of phases in it (that is. and creates an interference field. 8 . 6 .metal base 7 . for example. the material forming the latent image.screws. the same as in the subject. The proposed device in the absence of additional optical elements and the rigidity of the vertical design eliminates the mutual vibration of elements of the unit.laser. Sensitivity . The reflected object wave meets the core. Expressed in lux for a second. 2 .Next.the weld.the process of exposure light on a photosensitive material.in this wave of a hologram is an object or work.metal racks. Exposure .cylindrical rim. LGN-105-1-2 mW).golografiruemy object. as well as stereograms recorded hologram can reproduce an exact copy of absolutely the wave scattered by an object . as a stand using a small box filled with dry sand layer 5-10 cm This setup can be done easily collapsible.the product of the illumination light-sensitive layer of the matrix on the time during which light acts on this layer. we describe the principle: light from a laser passes through the expander after the photographic plate and is reflected from the object golografiruemogo. Concepts and definitions: Holography . A device for recording holograms VB Smirnov The figure marked by: 1 . Making your installation with their own hands not require much material and labor costs.beam expander. the distance from each point on the object to the recording plane). notable fluctuations are not registered.plate. Tests of the device and VB Smirnov showed that the exposure time (several minutes at low power laser. This preserves not only the amplitude information of each point of the incident on the plastic wave front (the distribution of light on the object). and the need to replace welding threaded connection. 4 . and obtain high-quality holographic images. 4. 9 . Exposure . That installation can be placed on the floor or on an ordinary table with minimal depreciation pads. The exposition should be of such magnitude to allow photographs to set the sensitivity to get the right amount of light to record images with a proportional reproduction of brightness. making it more convenient for use in mobile environments. with little of its total mass (not exceeding 3 kg without power supply of the laser). . In contrast to the photos. In Fig. which came from the object.
a non-linear addition of the intensities of two or more light waves. identifying errors and faults.change.verify) . as well as some of the equations (formulated for one subject area they are transferred to other subject areas). which implies the achievement of true relative position of the elements of the instrument and correct for their interaction. extra . In mathematics and statistics . may be both qualitative and quantitative characteristics. Its distribution is called the interference pattern. In 1801. Alignment involves the operation of the device. coined the term "interference" (1803) and explained the "colorful" of thin films. here is related to the concept of "interpolation" (Latin interpolatio . Adjustment (from him. For the first time the phenomenon of interference was independently discovered by Robert Boyle (1627-1691 gg. Extrapolation (Lat.the continuation of time series data according to certain formulas. To refer to such actions to other devices commonly use the term "control" or calibration.adjustment of measuring and / or optical device. refurbishing). it is preceded by control. Переводчик Google для бизнеса –Инструменты переводчика переводчик сайтов служба "Анализ рынков" Отключить моментальный перевод . requiring precision. They observed the emergence of multi-colored paint thin films (fringe) like oil or gasoline stains on the surface. change) . Thus. indicating the location of intermediate values for a number of logical or statistical data. the first explained the phenomenon of light interference. beyond and polio . the distribution of the findings based on the present and (or) past states of the phenomenon or process on the future of their (estimated) state.above. Justieren .). This phenomenon is accompanied by alternating in space the maxima and minima of intensity. Thomas Young (1773-1829 gg.) And Robert Hooke (1635-1703 gg.) By typing "superposition principle".straighten.Interference of light . the E.logical and methodological procedure of distribution (transport) findings with respect to any of the objects or events in the entire set (set of) data objects or events. as well as of any other part. He also performed the first demonstration experiment on the interference of light received from the two slit interference of light sources (1802) and later this experience Jung's become a classic.