research report

Design of Cold-Formed ch AISI Sponsored Resear Steel Structural Members Reports and Connections for Cyclic Loading (Fatigue)
RESEARCH REPORT RP01-1 RESEARCH REPORT RP99-1 2001 REVISION 2006 JULY 1999 REVISION 2006

Committee on Specifications for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

American Iron and Steel Institute

The material contained herein has been developed by researchers based on their research findings. The material has also been reviewed by the American Iron and Steel Institute Committee on Specifications for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. The Committee acknowledges and is grateful for the contributions of such researchers. The material herein is for general information only. The information in it should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any given application. The publication of the information is not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of the American Iron and Steel Institute, or of any other person named herein, that the information is suitable for any general or particular use or of freedom from infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of the information assumes all liability arising from such use.

Copyright 1999 American Iron and Steel Institute Revised Edition Copyright 2006 American Iron and Steel Institute

Civil Engineering Study 99-1 Cold-Formed Steel Series Final Report

DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS FOR CYCLIC LOADING (FATIGUE)

by R. A. LaBoube and W. W. Yu

A Research Project Sponsored by the American Iron and Steel Institute

July, 1999 Department of Civil Engineering Center for Cold-Formed Steel Structures University of Missouri-Rolla Rolla, MO

the intent of the research reported herein was to develop general design rules for design of cold-formed steel members and connections subject to fatigue loading. Therefore. Although fatigue design guidelines have existed for hot-rolled steel structural members and connection. No additional experimental studies were performed to support the suggested design recommendations.ii PREFACE Fatigue in a structural steel member or connection is the process of initiation and subsequent growth of a crack under the action of a cyclic or repetitive load. . Chairman) provided technical guidance for the study. The fatigue process commonly occurs at a stress level less than the static failure condition. This study was made possible by the funding provided by the American Iron and Steel Institute. M. there have been no generally accepted design guidelines in the AISI Specification for addressing fatigue in a cold-formed steel member or connection. The fatigue design recommendations developed and reported herein are based on a review of available test data. Fisher. The AISI General Provisions Subcommittee (J.

iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES Introduction Literature Review Analysis of Klippstein Data Future Research Needs References Appendix A Proposed Specification Appendix B Commentary for Proposed Specification Appendix C Design Example ii iv iv 1 1 2 3 4 12 20 23 .

iv List of Tables Table 1 2 3 4 A1 C1 Klippstein’s Fatigue Design Categories Intercept for Mean Fatigue Curves Page 5 6 Recommended Fatigue Design Parameters for Cold-Formed Steel Structures 6 Comparison of Recommended Fatigue Design Parameters Fatigue Design Parameters for Cold-Formed Steel Structures Intercept for Mean Fatigue Curves 7 16 22 List of Figures Figure 1 2 3 4 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 S-N Curves for the Various Detail Categories (Load. 1999) Typical Test Beam for Category I Typical Test Beam for Category II Typical Test Weld Attachments for Categories III and IV Typical Test Spot Weld and Screw Attachments for Category III Typical Beam for Category I Typical Beam for Category II Typical Weld Attachments for Categories III and IV Typical Spot Weld and Screw Attachments for Category III Page 8 9 10 11 11 17 18 19 19 .

and drilled holes with and without screws. In addition to design recommendations and supporting commentary. (2) the type of member and connection detail. its’ severity is determined primarily by three factors: (1) the number of cycles of loading. Several types of beam details were studied such as as-rolled surfaces. A discussion of the stress-range fatigue-design concept. it was reported that the results indicated that the stress-range fatigue- .1 Introduction Fatigue in a structural steel member or connection is the process of initiation and subsequent growth of a crack under the action of a cyclic or repetitive load. Literature Review Based on a survey of current fatigue-design procedures and available fatigue test data. Based on a compilation of 163 tests. Future research needs are also contained herein. 1988) performed an extensive. the intent of the research reported herein was to develop general design rules for design of cold-formed steel members and connections subject to fatigue loading. Klippstein. including the results of 77 welded coldformed steel sheet specimens exposed to constant amplitude stress cycles were reported by Klippstein (1981). The fatigue process commonly occurs at a stress level less than the static failure condition. No additional experimental studies were performed to support the suggested design recommendations. Welded details included flange-to-web welds. When fatigue is a design consideration. rolled sheet steel surfaces. 1985. and (3) the stress range at the detail under consideration (Fisher et al. in 1985. The steel sheet conformed to ASTM grades. plate attachments with transverse welds. 1998: Load 1999). reported on further studies of fabricated steel sheet details. Although fatigue design guidelines have existed for hot-rolled steel structural members and connections there have been no generally accepted design guidelines in the AISI Specification for addressing fatigue in a cold-formed steel member or connection. The fatigue design recommendations developed and reported herein are based on a review of available test data. cold-formed corners. Therefore. Thus. It was concluded that although extensive data and knowledge existed about strain-life behavior of steels. 1981. and SAE 1008 (Fy = 30 ksi). especially welded components. multi-year research project aimed at assessing the fatigue behavior of cold-formed steel members and connections. Barsom (1980) developed recommendations for future research. This research focused on the application of cold-formed steel members and connections in the ground-transportation and agricultural-equipment industries. Klippstein (1980. A715 Grade 80 (Fu/Fy = 1. slit and sheared edges. The test specimens were fabricated from steel sheet with yield strengths ranging from 30 to 80 ksi. and plate attachments with short or long longitudinal welds.13) A607 Grade 60. a design example for the AISI Manual is contained in Appendix C. it was difficult to use this information for predicting the strain-life behavior of formed and/or fabricated components.

2. b. transverse fillet welds. The general relationship is often plotted as a linear log-log function. and continuous longitudinal fillet welds that are less than and equal to 2 inches in length.1970) and AISC (Load 1999) design specifications. 1. In the 1985 report. The exponential form of Eq. Klippstein’s experimental studies consisted of constant amplitude fatigue tests with stress ratios of > 0 through -1.m log FSR Cf = b . be taken as 2 and 0.2 design concept adopted by bridge and crane girder design specifications provided a reliable method for fatigue analysis of fabricated sheet steel details. Klippstein summarized his multi-year studies and recommended an appropriate design methodology based on mean fatigue life curves (S-N curves). 1 is as follows: FSR = (Cf/N)1/m (3) Equation 3 represents the adopted format for fatigue analysis of both the AASHTO (Fisher. in Eq. respectively. For the computation of Cf. Eq. log N = Cf . 3 with m = 3. are summarized in Table 2. A significant conclusion reported by Klippstein was that spot welded or screwed-on attachments fall under the same fatigue design category as welded attachments to a plate or a beam. Using the format of Eq. Analysis of Klippstein Data Although Klippstein (1988) recommended that bolt and screw connections and spot welds be classified as Category F.(n * s) (1) (2) where N = number of full stress cycles m = slope of the mean fatigue analysis curve FSR = effective stress range b = intercept of the mean fatigue analysis curve n = number of standard deviations to obtain a desired confidence level s = approximate standard deviation of the fatigue data.25. data presented by Klippstein (1985) showed that Category C provided . Klippstein (1985) also reported that intermittent welds parallel to the direction of the applied load may be considered in the same fatigue category as fillet welded attachments greater than 2 inches in length parallel to the direction of the applied force. The fatigue resistance S-N curve has been expressed as an exponential relationship between stress range and life cycle (Fisher. Table 1 summarizes the categories along with the corresponding values for Cf. Klippstein (1988) proposed a classification system for the various stress ranges. The intercept for the mean fatigue analysis curves. Klippstein recommended that n and s. 1970).

For the four proposed fatigue categories. the ratio of AISI to AISC FSR values ranged from 0. N. and a broader array of screw sizes. Particular emphasis should be placed on future research to study additional fabrication details. effect of holes. In all cases.000. Data (Klippstein 1985) also demonstrated that intermittent welds parallel to the direction of the applied force may be classified in Category D. Variation in the number of cycles. Table 3 presents a summary of the recommended fatigue categories and the corresponding design parameters. future research is recommended to broaden the applicability of the fatigue design for coldformed steel members and connections. Thus. The computed threshold stress for each category is listed in Table 3. values of FSR were determined using both the AISI and AISC design parameters (Table 3). Therefore. The proposed fatigue categories are summarized in Table 3. These applications experience constant amplitude stress range. Therefore. To provide a threshold stress for design.896 to 1. To avoid confusion with fatigue categories contained in other design specifications the categories in Table 3 use Roman Numerals. with m = 3 and N = 1.085. Figure 1 summarizes the AISC mean fatigue life curves and corresponding number of cycles.3 an appropriate classification. will not alter the resulting ratios. Summarized in Table 4 are the resulting FSR values. 3. These ratios demonstrate the good correlation between the proposed AISI design formulation and the AISC design method. good correlation is shown between the recommended design parameters and AISC’s design parameters. and therefore are not exposed to a threshold stress. FTH was computed using Klippstein’s mean fatigue life curves and the number of cycles that define the threshold stress in the AISC Specification (1999). as well as the ratio of AISI to AISC FSR values. this research recommends that Category D be used for intermittent welds parallel to the direction of the applied force. Using Eq. Klippstein’s research was focused on the application of cold-formed steel members and connections in the ground-transportation and agricultural-equipment industries. Appendix B contains a draft commentary to support the draft specification. Future Research Needs Although the proposed design recommendations are based on an extensive collection of data.000. Klippstein made no attempt to define a threshold stress. at the threshold stress. Fluctuation in stress below a defined threshold will not cause a fatigue crack. References . the recommendation of this research is to use Category C for bolt and screw connections and spot welds. Appendix A contains a draft design specification for cold-formed steel structural members and connections for cyclic loading (fatigue). Also presented in Table 3 are the AISC design parameters for each category. N. However.

Fisher.. H.” Research Report SG 80-2. American Institute of Steel Construction. M.C. “A Fatigue Primer for Structural Engineers. “Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steel Fabrication Details.4 Barsom. (1970). K. Detroit. “Effect of Weldments on the Fatigue Strength of Beams. K. A. K. Report 102. H. J. F. Klippstein. J.” unpublished AISI research report. K. H.” National Cooperative Highway Research Program. American Iron and Steel Institute Klippstein. Hirt. Detroit. (1988).” SAE Technical Paper Series 850366. “Fatigue Design Curves for Structural Fabrication Details Made of Sheet and Plate Steel. Chicago. University of Missouri-Rolla Klippstein. MI Klippstein. (1998). “Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steels for Automotive Applications.. B. L.. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (1999). K. “Fatigue of Fabricated Steel-Sheet Details . ..” SAE Technical Paper Series 810436.. and Smith. M. (1985). W. and Shoemaker. D. (1980).. (1981).C. M. K. Kulak. Fisher. H. H. International Congress and Exposition.Phase II. H. G. J. IL .” Proceedings of the Fifth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures. (1980). MI Klippstein. “Fatigue Behavior of Steel-Sheet Fabrication Details. K. Washington. A. and McNamee. Frank.” National Steel Bridge Alliance. International Congress and Exposition. W. I.

and shear connectors. transverse web stiffeners.0x1010 Continuously welded attachments to C a plate or a beam.16x1010 Base metal and components with as received surfaces. Bolt and screw holes in connections and other punched and drilled holes. and intermittent welds parallel to the direction of the applied stress.16x109 1. weld washers with outside diameter less than 2 inches. Weld washers with diameter ranging from 2 to 4 inches. Attachments longer than 4 inches parallel to the direction of the applied stress. transverse fillet welds. Transverse welds in regions of cold-forming.16x108 F 1.0x109 E 3. D 3. Base metal and weld metal in members connected by continuous longitudinal fillet welds. B 1.5 Table 1 Klippstein’s Fatigue Design Categories Description Stress Category A Constant Cf 3. Any welded attachment with a length of 2 to 4 inches parallel to the direction of the applied stress. and continuous longitudinal welds in regions of cold-forming and subsequent welding. including sheared edges and cold-formed corners. spot welds.0x1010 .

. transverse fillet welds. Longitudinal fillet welded attachments greater than 2 inches parallel to the direction of the applied stress. Bolt and screw connections and spot welds. As received base metal and weld metal in members connected by continuous longitudinal welds.2x109 (4.5 10.0x1010 (1. including sheared edges and cold-formed corners.5 9. and intermittent welds parallel to the direction of the applied force. Welded attachments to a plate or a beam. and continuous longitudinal fillet welds less than and equal to 2 inches.5 Table 3 Recommended Fatigue Design Parameters for Cold-Formed Steel Structures Description Stress Category Constant Cf 3.5x1010) Threshold FTH (ksi) 25 (24) Illustrative Example As received base metal and components with as rolled surfaces.2x1010) 3.0 10.0x109) 9 (7) Fig. 5 IV 1. 3 III 16 (10) Fig. 4.0 9. 2 II 1.2x1010 (2. 4 The numbers in ( ) are the corresponding AISC values for information only.4x109) 15 (16) Fig. I Fig.0x109 (1.0 10.6 Table 2 Intercept for Mean Fatigue Curves Stress Category A B C D E F b 11.

1 x 109 FSR AISI (ksi) 3.7 Table 4 Comparison of Recommended Fatigue Design Parameters Category Cf AISI 3.2 x 1010 4.000 cycles.15 1.2 x 109 1.2 x 1010 1.00 FSR (FSR)AISI/ (FSR)AISC AISC (ksi) 2.17 2. .896 1.29 0.939 1.92 1.4 x 109 1.64 0.03 0. 3 with m = 3 and N = 1.0 x 1010 3.085 2.971 I II III IV FSR calculations used Eq.000.0 x 109 Cf AISC 2.5 x 1010 1.47 1.

8 100 ST-STRESS RANGE (ksi) 500 ST-STRESS RANGE (MPa) A B B' C 100 D E E' 10 10 105 106 107 108 N-NUMBER OF CYCLES Figure 1 S-N Curves for the Various Detail Categories (Load 1999) .

9 Figure 2 Typical Test Beam for Category I .

10 Figure 3 Typical Test Beam for Category II .

11 Figure 4 Typical Test Weld Attachments for Categories III and IV Figure 5 Typical Test Spot Weld and Screw Attachments for Category III .

12 Appendix A Proposed Specification .

shears. or shall specify the planned cycle life and the maximum range of moments. 2. if applicable.000. Evaluation of fatigue resistance is not required if the live load stress range is less than the threshold stress range. 1. the stress range shall be computed as the numerical sum of maximum repeated tensile and compressive stresses or the numerical sum of maximum shearing stresses of opposite direction at the point of probable crack initiation. The cyclic load resistance determined by the provisions of this section are applicable to structures with suitable corrosion protection or subject only to non-agressive atmospheres. Evaluation of fatigue resistance is not required if the number of cycles of application of live load is less than 20. or the total stresses including those due to . In the case of axial stress combined with bending. the fasteners and welds shall be arranged symmetrically about the axis of the member.6 Fy. given in Table A1. the calculated stresses shall include the effects of prying action. For bolts and threaded rods subject to axial tension. For members having symmetric cross sections. Stresses shall not be amplified by stress concentration factors for geometrical discontinuities. The cyclic load resistance determined by the provisions of this section is applicable only to structures subject to temperatures not exceeding 300°F. General The provisions of this section apply to stresses calculated on the basis of unfactored loads. of each kind. The maximum permitted tensile stress due to unfactored loads is 0. In the case of a stress reversal. shall be those determined for concurrent arrangements of applied load.13 DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS FOR CYCLIC LOADING (FATIGUE) This design procedure shall apply to cold-formed steel members and connections subject to cyclic loading within the elastic range of stresses of frequency and magnitude sufficient to initiate cracking and progressive failure (fatigue). FTH. Calculation of Maximum Stresses and Stress Ranges Calculated stresses shall be based upon elastic analysis. the maximum stresses. The contract documents shall provide. either complete details including weld sizes. Stress range is defined as the magnitude of the change in stress due to the application or removal of the unfactored live load. and reactions for the connections.

= Number of stress range fluctuations per day x 365 x years of design life. The threshold stress.333 where: FSR = Design stress range Cf = Constant from Table A1 N = Number of stress range fluctuations in design life. FTH. the range of stress at service loads shall not exceed the design stress range computed using Equation A1. For all stress categories. FTH. shall be included in the calculation of stress range. shall be taken as 7 ksi. FSR = (Cf/N)0. The net tensile area is given by Equation A2. and threaded anchor rods with cut. common bolts. but FSR shall not be less than the fatigue threshold. shall be taken as 7 ksi.9x108. The factor Cf shall be taken as 3. FTH = Threshold fatigue stress range. The threshold stress. FTH. FTH. including those due to joint eccentricity.14 eccentricity shall be included in the calculation of the stress range. At = (π/4) [db . Design Stress Range If the stress range is less than the fatigue threshold stress range. If the center of gravity of the connecting welds lies outside this zone. 3. For not-fully-tightened high-strength bolts. the maximum range of tensile stress on the net tensile area from applied axial load and moment plus load due to prying action shall not exceed the design stress range computed using Equation A1. the maximum range of stress in the connected material at service loads shall not exceed the design stress range computed using Equation A1. maximum stress range for indefinite design life from Table A1 4. Otherwise. The factor Cf shall be taken as 22x108. Bolts and Threaded Parts For mechanically fastened connections loaded in shear. the total stresses. ground or rolled threads. For axially stressed angle members where the center of gravity of the connecting welds lies between the line of the center of gravity of the angle cross section and the center of the connected leg. fatigue is not a limit state. the effects of eccentricity shall be ignored.(0.9743/n)]2 where: db = nominal diameter (body or shank diameter) n = number of threads per inch (A2) (A1) .

weld tabs shall be used to provide for cascading the weld termination outside the finished joint. shall be continuous. if used. backing bars. or by thermal cutting to form the radius of the cut. the cut surface shall be ground to a bright metal contour to provide a radiused transition. copes and weld access holes shall form a radius of not less than 3/8 in. shall be removed and the joint back gouged and welded. . For transverse butt joints in regions of high tensile stress. by pre-drilling or sub-punching and reaming a hole. Re-entrant corners at cuts.. End dams shall not be used. free of notches. If the radius portion is formed by thermal cutting. Special Fabrication Requirements Backing bars that are parallel to the stress field are permitted to remain in place. In transverse joints subject to tension. with a surface smoothness not more that ANSI 1000.15 5. Weld tabs shall be removed and the end of the weld finished flush with the edge of the member. Flame cut edges subject to cyclic stress ranges shall have a surface smoothness not more than ANSI 1000. and if used.

As received base metal and weld metal in members connected by continuous longitudinal welds.2x109 16 A3.0x1010 15 A2 III 3.2x1010 Threshold FTH (ksi) 25 Illustrative Example As received base metal and components with as rolled surfaces. transverse fillet welds. Longitudinal fillet welded attachments greater than 2 inches parallel to the direction of the applied stress. Welded attachments to a plate or a beam. A4 IV 1. Bolt and screw connections and spot welds. and intermittent welds parallel to the direction of the applied force. including sheared edges and cold-formed corners. I A1 II 1.16 Table A1 Fatigue Design Parameters for Cold-Formed Steel Structures Description Stress Category Constant Cf 3.0x109 9 A4 . and continuous longitudinal fillet welds less than and equal to 2 inches.

17 SHEAR EDGES COLD-FORMED CORNER COLD-FORMED STEEL CHANNELS CATEGORY I Figure A1 Typical Test Beam for Category I .

18 WELD WELDED I BEAM CATEGORY II Figure A2 Typical Test Beam for Category II .

19 TYPICAL PLATE L L (a) TRANSVERSE WELDS CATEGORY III (b) LONGITUDINAL WELDS FOR CATEGORY III L ≤ 2" FOR CATEGORY IV 2" < L ≤4" Figure A3 Typical Test Weld Attachments for Categories III and IV (c) SPOT WELDS (d) SCREWS Figure A4 Typical Test Spot Weld and Screw Attachments for Category III .

20 Appendix B Commentary for Proposed Specification .

When fatigue is a design consideration. Also. When fabrication details involving more than one category occur at the same location in a member. (2) the type of member and connection detail.25 (Klippstein. The fatigue resistance S-N curve has been expressed as an exponential relationship between stress range and life cycle (Fisher. Fluctuation in stress which does not involve tensile stress does not cause crack propagation and is not considered to be a fatigue situation. By locating notch-producing fabrication details in regions subject to a small range of stress. 1985. mean fatigue life curves (S-N curves) with the corresponding standard deviation were developed.(n * s) (C1) (C2) where N = number of full stress cycles m = slope of the mean fatigue analysis curve FSR = effective stress range b = intercept of the mean fatigue analysis curve from Table C1 n = number of standard deviations to obtain a desired confidence level = 2 for Cf given in the Specification s = approximate standard deviation of the fatigue data = 0. and (3) the stress range at the detail under consideration (Fisher et al. It is not intended that the allowable stress ranges should be compared to “hot-spot” stresses determined by finite element analysis. Using regression analysis. therefore. stress concentrations have been accounted for by the category in Table A1 of the Specification. Research by Barsom (1980) and Klippstein (1988.m log FSR Cf = b . its severity is determined primarily by three factors: (1) the number of cycles of loading. the need for a member larger than required by static loading will often be eliminated. 1981. C1. 1998). 1988) The data base for these design provisions are based upon cyclic testing of real joints. Eq. 1980) developed fatigue information on the behavior of sheet and plate steel weldments and mechanical connections. the design stress range at the location must be limited to that of the most restrictive category. log N = Cf . calculated stresses computed by ordinary analysis . The fatigue process commonly occurs at a stress level less than the static failure condition. The general relationship is often plotted as a linear log-log function. 1970).21 COMMENTARY ON DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS FOR CYCLIC LOADING (FATIGUE) Fatigue in a cold-formed steel member or connection is the process of initiation and subsequent growth of a crack under the action of a cyclic or repetitive load.

L. International Congress and Exposition. W. H. R. Table C1 Intercept for Mean Fatigue Curves Stress Category I II III IV b 11. Table A1 of the Specification provides a classification system for the various stress categories. K.0 10.5 10. ColdFormed Steel Series.” unpublished AISI research report. .. N..0 9. (1980). (1999). M. H. F. University of Missouri-Rolla Klippstein. “A Fatigue Primer for Structural Engineers. (1980). Klippstein.” Final Report. H.” SAE Technical Paper Series 810436. LaBoube. Klippstein. This also provides the constant Cf that is applicable to the stress category that is required for calculating the design stress range FSR. A. “Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steels for Automotive Applications. Detroit.. All categories were found to have a common slope with m = -3. Detroit. Department of Civil Engineering. International Congress and Exposition. “Fatigue of Fabricated Steel-Sheet Details . A. and Smith.” SAE Technical Paper Series 850366. Fisher. (1988)..” Research Report SG 80-2. K. K. K. MI.” Proceedings of the Fifth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures. K.” National Steel Bridge Alliance. J. I. W..22 need not be amplified by stress concentration factors at geometrical discontinuities and changes of cross section. (1998). Klippstein. “Fatigue Behavior of Steel-Sheet Fabrication Details. “Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members and Connections for Cyclic Loading (Fatigue). H. American Iron and Steel Institute. H. W. G. Klippstein.C. Civil Engineering Study 99-1. References Barsom. Equation 1 of the Specification is to be used to calculate the design stress range for the chosen design life. (1981). MI. and Shoemaker. Kulak. “Fatigue Design Curves for Structural Fabrication Details Made of Sheet and Plate Steel. (1985).Phase II.5 The provisions for bolts and threaded parts were taken from the AISC Specification (Load 1999). and Yu. K. University of Missouri-Rolla. “Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steel Fabrication Details. J.

23 Appendix C Design Example .

Cf = 3. center-to-center. (2) The flexural member is C-shaped in geometry. The fatigue design stress range for the C-shaped member is.2x109 and FTH = 16 ksi. (4) Sheeting is attached using self-drilling screws which are spaced 12 in.333 = ( 3.2x1010 and FTH = 25 ksi. fatigue must be considered.24 Given: (1) Cold-formed steel flexural member with sheeting attached to its compression flange. determine the design stress range for the C-shape.86 ksi Because FSR is greater than 30 ksi. The maximum stress range is 0. (B) At the location of the attachment: The attachment of the sheet to the C-shape uses self-drilling screws. N = 2 cycles/hour x 24 hrs/day x 365 days/year x 20 year life = 350. . 9CS3x075 (3) ASTM A653 Grade 50 steel was used to roll the C-shape. Solution: The number of cycles is. fatigue must be considered. FSR = (Cf/N)0. The fatigue design stress range for the attachment is.400 cycles (A) Between the fasteners: The C-shape has rolled corners.2x1010 / 350. Because FTH is less than 30 ksi. thus the design of the Cshape is governed by stress category III. fatigue will not control the design of the C-shaped flexural member between the fastener locations.333 = 44. therefore stress category I applies. Because FTH is less that 30 ksi.400)0. If the C-shape is subjected to a loading rate of 2 cycles per hour. (5) A 20 year life expectancy is stipulated for the design. Cf = 3.6 x 50 ksi = 30 ksi.

400)0.333 = ( 3.2x109 / 350.25 FSR = (Cf/N) 0.84 ksi Because FSR is less than 30 ksi.333 = 20. fatigue will control the design of the C-shape at the sheeting attachment locations. .

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