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Rosie Leuby Economic Renewal and Wars of Religion, 1560-1648 The Netherlands, France, England, and the Holy

Roman Empire fell into this internal and international struggle in which religion was the most important issue. There was a time of economic renewal of a drawn-out conflict between Catholics and Protestants. This was an era in which the modern global economic system began to develop. The effects of these changes were delayed by the political-religious struggles that was within the country. The Atlantic was an opening for many opportunities to emerge between the Old and New World, a momentous event in human history, like with the economy and religion. It was a time of endless migration, a worldwide movement of trade, and transformed numerous cultures. A time of revolution with the economy came about Europe from the growth in the population and a rise in prices. The European Population reach around 90 million in the 1600 and the growth during the sixteenth century increased in countries all over the world. There was a price revolution, slow but it was there mostly from the demand of more land and food from the increase in population. The flow of gold and silver in America that really helped the inflation. This inflation caused and increased in prices and such little increase being payed to the hired labor with there wages, that really effects the life of social classes. The social structures where changing into a more modern kind of aristocracy in the 1600 as Eastern and Western Europe important social differences developed. In Eastern Europe the lords benefitted from the rising market for grains and forest products. The institution of the manor existed, but the peasants land tenures were more precarious than in the West. In Western Europe it was more dependent on accidents of death or on the wishes of the lord, also the lord worked a larger part of the manor with his own workforce for his own use and profit. Phillip II became the new Holy Roman Emperor, after his father Charles V, and he saw Spain a leader of European Catholicism. He believed that the advance of Spanish power in Europe served the cause of the universal church as well as the interest of his own monarchy and the people of Spain.The Netherlands revolted against Phillip II in 1566, he inherited the Netherlands from his father, for mainly political and religious and then it became an economic struggle as the years went by. The Netherlands has both Protestants and Catholic nobles that belonged. Queen Elizabeth of England lent aid to the Netherlands for many years, not trying to provoke with Spain. Several years the war went on for control over the Netherlands even after Phillip died in 1598. The war was over in 1609 a Twelve Years Truce was agreed to. France and Germany were really took a hit during this so-called Wars of Religion. France was torn apart by the 40 years of civil war between the time of 1562 and 1598. Germany entered an extended period of civil troubles that continued to culminated in the Thirty Years War between 1618 and 1648. France later recovered in the seventeenth century, but Germany did not. The Peace of Westphalia, 1648, ended the Thirty Year War, and that is what ended the Wars of Religion, but religion remained an issue with political matter in Europe as a whole. This era was a transformation in Europe with society, culture, and religious-political struggles that transformed in the sixteenth and seventeenth century. These changes affected the religious wars on various parts of Europe and the new economic and social development. This time left Spain and Germany weaken and English, Dutch and French profitable with the new changes that have emerged. Every moment in this era effected history and without it the world would be a far different place.