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A wooden tank or barrel of a suitable size, according to the quantity of oil which is to be made, is necessary. This should be of a capacity of from two and a half to three times the volume of the oil to be treated ; thus if 40 gallons of oil are to be dealt with, a tank of at least 100 gallons would be provided, for practically the quantity of the finished product will be twice that of the oil started with. There are required also tanks or vessels to hold the solution of caustic soda or ammonia used, with suitable measuring vessels and test glasses. The vat or barrel in which the preparation is made should have a tap fitted in the bottom end for running-off purposes, and if the bottom be slightly inclined to the tap, so much the better. It is a good plan to have a gauge fitted to it, so as to be able to measure the quantity of liquid in the vat or barrel at any time. The following is a general descrij^tion of the process ; by using it with the quantities given a very good product is obtained : — 40 gallons of castor oil of fairly good quality are run into the vat ; 80 lb. of strong sulphuric acid are then weighed out and run into the oil in a thin stream, or in small quantities at a time, stirring well into the oil- The whole operation ought to take at least an hour, and after all the acid has been run in, the stirring should be kept up for half an hour so as to get the oil and acid well mixed together. The mixture is now left at rest for a period of not less than twenty-four hours, or a longer period if more convenient. After this standing there is added to the oil mass 40 gallons of water, which is well stirr^ in until a uniform mass of a creamy colour without any dark streaks is obtained. Too much attention cannot be given to the effectual mixing of this water with the oil mass. The whole is now again left to stand for not less than twenty- four hours, at least, although a little longer period is advisable. In winter thirty-six hours will be required. At the end of this time the mass will have separated out into two layers, one of oil at the top, the other of an aqueous acid layer at the bottom. This is run off by means of the tap which has been fixed at the bottom of the vessel. It is at this point in the process that makers often vary in their methods, some finish it off at this point, others give a second washing, using this time a strong solution of common salt containing 1 to H lb. salt per gallon, working this in the same manner as the first washing — the idea being to eliminate as much of the sulphuric acid as possible. There is no great advantage in giving this salt solution treatment. There is now prepared a solution of caustic soda of 40'' Tw. strength. This solution is now poured into the acidified oil slowly and with constant stirring ; at first a creamy mass is formed, then dark streaks will show themselves, increasing in number as the caustic solution is poured in ; finally the whole mass of liquid will become clear and trans- parent, when the addition of the soda solution is stopped. Usually about 10 gallons of the caustic soda liquor will be required, but the proportion will vary from time to time on account of varying degrees of action of the acid on the oil, due to differences of temperature, rate of mixture, time of standing, amount of washing, etc. The preparation of the oil is finished 10 by adding enough water to bring up the vokime of 75 gallons. If the addition of the water makes the oil milky in appearance, the addition of a little more soda solution will restore the transparency. Some makers use both caustic soda and ammonia in preparing their Turkey-red oils. In this case there is used aboutthree- fourths of the amount of caustic soda required for complete neutralisation, and a mixture of
1 gallon liquid ammonia with 1 gallon of water is added until complete neutralisation is effected. If sufficient water is not added in the first washing, or sufficient time is not allowed for settling, there is a liability for an excess of sulphuric acid to be left in the oil. This forms sodium sulphate with the caustic soda, the presence of which gives rise to two faults — first, the oil is turbid in appearance ; and, second, there is a tendency for the oil to separate into two layers, one of watery liquid at the bottom, the other of clear oil at the top. This latter separation is also liable to occur if sufficient caustic soda to neutralise the acidity of the oil has not been used, and therefore the oil is left on the acid side. The use of ammonia for neutralisation has certain advantages, especially in the finishing and printing of steam colours, because the alkali volatilises and leaves only the free fatty acid on the cloth. The reason why castor oil has come to be selected as the most suitable for Turkey-red dyeing is its property of forming a soluble soap
however. clear. and the decom23osition l^y means of sulphuric acid in the case of castor oil provides for the ready attainment of this condition. . alizarine oil. sodium. as in the process detailed above. and maximum decomposition is essential to the achievement of the best results. 20 per cent. the decomposition of the oil by the action of sulphuric acid is more complete with castor oil than with any other oil which can be used. only 21 per cent. The specific gravity is rather more than that of water being r0294. while the acidified oil becomes more freely soluble in water. giving slightly opalescent solutions. the advantage that it lessens the tendency to frotliing. ■ sodium sulphate. The proportion of sulphuric acid to castor oil used in making the oil has an influence in determining the quantity of caustic soda used to neutralise the resulting acidified oil. When 15 per cent. then the acidified oil takes 30 to 32 per cent. Commercial Turkey-red oil. Solutions of other fatty oils give emulsions rather than clear solutions. A sample of such an oil contained — 48*44 per cent. of the caustic soda solution to neutralise. Again. for it increases the quantity of soda reijuired. and there is then a greater risk of some of the oil passing away in the wash-waters. of the alkali solution is required to neutralise. and the mixture. sets to a solid. a soluble oil is got. fatty matter. the clearness or transparency of which depends entirely upon the degree of alkalinity of the oil. of acid is used. It mixes freely with water in all proportions. when the proportion of alkali falls much below that required for complete neutralisation. When only 10 per cent. and gives an oil which is freely soluble in water. and so being lost. The use of too great an excess of acid should be avoided. rather more viscid than water. 47*59 do. which does not freely dissolve in water. in colour it resembles the latter liquid. but this forms a milky emulsion with water. and does n<jt clear. and its odour is characteristic. but less so than castor oil . after standing some time. or oleine is a fairly limpid fluid. 2*48 do. and only forms a very milky mass. and in the solubility of the finished product. A certain proportion of undecomposed oil has. When 25 per cent. of acid is used. of acid i^ employed. To make a good.with a minimum proportion of alkali. not less than one part of acid should be used to five parts of oil — that is. 1*49 do. and fairly soluble oil. water. of acid.