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Learn to Read Urdu
Urdu is a very popular language of the subcontinent , second only in the number of speakers to Hindi. It is the national language of Pakistan and an offical language of UP in India . It is the language of poetry and of literature .
Urdu is written in the opposite direction to English ie from right to left. It is an easy language to write fast in , because it has a built in shorthand ! It is very important to read each line slowly and study each part of a figure closely the first time , and then re-read it carefully again to make the whole learning experience easy. This is the most important lesson so once again do it very slowly and carefully and the rest of the 20 or so lessons will then seem very easy . Each sound is represented by a letter . For example lets look at the letter K and N in in the next figure.
Each letter is written in a slightly different form depending on whether it comes in the beginning , middle or end of a word or whether it occurs on its own ie in a detached form . If for example you look at the figure below, K on its own is on your extreme right marked detached . If it occurs in the beginning of a word as in the word Kill it is written as in the next one along -ie its inital form marked 2. If it occurs in the middle of a word eg luKy it is written in the medial form 3 and if it occurs at the end of the word as in ducK it is like the 4th final form to your extreme left.
. The above figure has the detached , initial . medial and final forms of K and N. You may have noted that the detached and final form form are usually very similar. Note again that the detached form is on your extreme right then the initial , medial and final.
Supposing we wanted to make say a meaningless two letter word with a starting ( initial) letter K and ending with N .
We would take the intial form of K marked 2 in the figure above and the final form of N marked 4 and join them together . Remember to read it R to L.
. Easy isnt it ? . Vowel marks Lets add some accent and vowel marks in between the letter K and N . Reading from the right of the screen the second word is k'n with the k pronounced a little longer since the accent mark (zabar) is over the k . The next word kn' has a longer n since the accent mark is over the n . The shapes of the vowels aa, i, ee, u , oo , o , au ,ae and aae are obvious from the figure and are explained in more detail after the figure .
To make kin (as in kith and kin) we put a small slanting mark called ZER below the letter K. The AA is a vertical straight line. This vowel mark is often left out in newspapers so when you see kn you may have to read it as To write the word kEEn we add two dots to the slanting zer mark To make the sound u as in kUmar a PESH mark is put over the letter as in this word kUn To make the long OO as cOOl another fat worm like mark is put after the letter as well as the pesh above it as in this word kOOn. For the mark O as in cOne the worm like mark is on its own without the pesh . A vowel is not joined to the letter following it so the letter n in kaan is written in its detached form . . Note also the slight change in the shape of K .Lets take our meaningless word kn and add vowel marks to it . The left word in the next figure reads kAAn ( ear).
To make the AU sound as in AUtumn the zabar mark is put above the O . The next figure reads as kAUn (who?) For the AE sound as in cAEn (cane) we write just two dots below the letter. Note the difference between kEEn and kAEn(cane) and between kEEn and cAAEn and between kUn and kAUn and between kOOn and kAUn . To make the AAE sound we add a slanting zabar above the AE mark.
A vowel mark like AA is not attached to the letter which follows after it .mark to make a big EE mark below the letter. The next word to it on your left is kin . Continuing . . The vowel mark AA as we noted above is written as a straight vertical line.ZER. There is revision of the vowel marks in the figure below. Two dots are added to the little i . The next word on the second line is KEEN . It signifies that the accent should be on k so making and not on n in this word here .so it should sound kughn and not knugh. in this case K. Note however there is a new accent mark called a zabar above the kn word second from your right.Note the K changing shape slightly in the figure for KAAN . the third word from R to L on the top line is the word kaan (ear) . The vowel mark AA is a straight vertical line put after K .This is a very important area so make sure you get them all right . The vowel mark little i is a small slant line called in urdu ZER is placed BELOW the letter . so N here is written on its own. This will become clearer later.
It is extremely improtant to get the vowel marks right .the worm on its own makes an O sound . Next in the figure here is O as in cone (icecream cone). . We get the AAE sound in cAAEnada (Canada) by just adding a zabar at the top of the letter Just go over the vowel marks again. Next below is ae as in cane (sugar) with two dots below. Thats right ! . The reason is that newspapers tend to leave out the small vowel marks of little i and little u and tend to put one word on top of another and you will get very confused unless you are confident of your vowels. .KUN as in the word crook . Spend a lot of time sudying the figure below and get up and get it imprinted on your mind. but when a zabar is added above the letter it makes an Au -KAUN (who in Urdu ) as in AUtumn .This is important to remember. After finishing these introductory lessons red some children's study books. but this worm is on level with the letter. the only difference between an AE vowel mark and an EE one is that EE has an extra zabar in addition to the two dots.the u mark -called PESH. See if you can spot the difference between the word Cane below and the word KEEN above. Note the difference between the words KOON and KAUN in the bigger figure above. Last of all in this figure look again at CANE with the two dots marking the AE sound and the next figure to it CAN . next is big U -KOON as in sOOn .is always above the letter . kOOn has a pesh on top of the worm while kAUn has a zabar on top of the worm.mark .note you get a big fat worm like figure added to the little u-pesh.Then little u .
We will end the first lesson here . . It is very important to go over this lesson again and again to make sure you have the vowels right.We shall look at this later. As a test see if you get them all in the next figure. hamza and tashdid signs are special characters we will look at in the next lesson Sometimes the letter N when it is the final letter is written without the dot in the middle and is not sounded except from the back of the throat as example in the word maa'n for mother. The madd .The following are the vowel marks which modify the letters.
an aliph sign is always put before the vowel mark. Note that the first word is a or ugh as in 'U'nder.Here are the answers . . Lesson 2 Vowel at the beginning of a sentence . One important point to note is that the zabar mark and i mark called a zer are similar but the zabar is on top of a letter while zer which signifies i is below. easter etc. apple . If a word begins with a vowel eg arm . Examples below.
. Between u and big ooo and between ooo and au ( au has a zabar on top ). It is important to get up and cram these vowel marks as they make the language very easy to read once you have done that.Note there are two ae letters. If the vowel is not at the start of a word we dont use the vertical aliph and just use the vowel marks as below. Make sure you can tell the difference between ae and big eee ( there is an extra zer at the bottom for eee). The bottom is used when ae is on its eg Ae cat sat while the one above it is used when AE joins the next letter eg in AEK (one).
T . middle . . Its quite easy to guess the four forms of each letter depending on whether it is detached ( to your right ) .-written from your R to Left.*As in Hindi the nasal n as in the word song is marked with a dot over the letter. P .3rd from the Right or final (leftmost ) . It is a doubler ie it means you have to say B twice . The S above can be confused with SH which we will see later .* After Aliph the next letters in the alphabet are B . Also note the little omega sign -called TASHDID-at the top of B in ABBA. Te and Se. These letters are pronounced as Be (bay) . Te . Looking at the above figure and keeping the sign of the aa vowel ( just a vertical line ) .can you read your first sentence in Urdu ? It has a final form of the i which you have not met before ( in the word KI below). Pe . the first B is half pronounced . Te (soft as in tota-parrot) . comes at the beginning ( second right on your screen) . and S. so look at it closely. Read R to L. and keeping in mind where the letter comes in the word .
The answers are . Note also that the two dots for the soft te in Kitab are placed well above the line.Do you know what the above . Can you read them ? Answers are in the next figure after the one below. Abba is urdu for father . Aap means you and kitab is book.Aap ke Abba ki Kitab .means ? It says this book belongs to your father . The next figure below has three urdu words and one English word.
Lesson 3 Lets look at the vowels and the words learnt so far and introduce a new letter M Can you by looking at the figure above identify the following words in the next figure ? They consist of Urdu words in the first line and English in the next one.The unlabelled figure is of course the English word TENT. .
no .a little one put over a vowel when one vowel follows another as here in the word MINE the vowel AA is followed by EE. Note also that the mark over the t in potato converts it into a hard T as in Turkey. . The second line has mint . Other points to note are that the intial B or P has a short vertical rather than horizontal line when it has a vowel with it as in the word NO above and that the letter S often has an elongated shape as in the word Pakistan .a new letter will be introduced in the figures sometimes before without prewarning and you have to make a best guess what it might sound like . The words are Mama and Neem on the first line.The answers are Pakistan ( this is a different form of S .its a good practice to get into as often some of vowel marks are not written and one has to occasionally guess in reading normal Urdu ) . Note the hamza . . potato and the final line has name and then mine.
Lesson 4 Lets look at another three vowels in the figure below from R to L which complete the vowels used in Urdu They are another form of A which we shall from now mark as little a to distinguish from Aliph. so the word SPIRIT for eg. Long Ae Then is the letter H and finally L. school is written as ischool etc.Third is the long Ae . Because it has two dots at the bottom it can easily be confused with the vowel mark ae . . Next on the left are the two useful consonants H and L .It seems that the first soldiers who got to the subcontinent did not speak the Queen's English . These are the four forms of each letter . So that the word CALL ( to call ) somebody is ususally written and pronounced as CAAL rather than CAUL by Urdu speakers. Long EE also used as Y as we shall see. The next is the letter Y . is written and pronounced as ISPIRIT . Also there is a tendency to add an I at the beginning whenever an English word is written with Urdu script . Here however we will try and stick close to the English pronounciation. a is pronounce as AEN ( as in mAn) .
The answers come afterwards. . Here are the answers. medial and final forms of each letter as far as possible.Note L initial or medial can be confused with alif and the L final with the undotted N. Try and read the words below . There are examples of the inital .Note that the medial form of a has a closed loop on top. If we look at the letters above we can form some new words with these and the previous letters. Lets make some words using the above . . Have a go at reading them. Each line is a mxture of English and urdu words.
.in the middle of each of the two words -can you read the words ? Line 2 has the special form of H marked Special H and the words are explained in the figure after the one below. The next figure has all Urdu words since these aspirated consonants do not occur in English.Lesson 5 There is a special form of H marked as " special H " in the figure below which is sounded with the letter and gives it a deeper more resonant sound . Line 1 has the common form of H-you have seen before. P as in Peter changes to PH as in PHil and we will meet more in the lessons to follow. For example K as in the word King becomes KH as in KHan . B as in Bat becomes BH as in BHai (brother) .
.Here are the answers.
it is easy to misread the two dots as Y instead of AE. In the word Naheen you might easily miss the zer and read the two dots as aesometimes you have to hunt for the vowel marks! Note the hamza in BYE and BHAEE to signify that one vowel follows another immediately. . Note also the word KHAEL . Note also that the final L has a longer vertical stem to distinguish it from the final undotted nasal N.Note some important points.
. Ch . Hae and Khae. The second and third one have one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and Urdu words. See if you can read the follwing words .Lesson 6 Next lets look at the second line of the Urdu alphabet. In the figure below the first line has English words. These letters are J .Dadi (grandmother). Another example is Chacha (uncle) and Chachi ( Aunt). It is not important that you get them right the first time but you should be able to reread them easily. Masculine words end with Aa eg Dada ( grandfather) while feminine words end with i . Cheem . H and Kh -read as Jeem .
.Here are the answers Revise your vowel marks to see if you agree with the answers above.Umbrella. Note the sound doubler in Bachcha . In the figure below see if you can read the words in Urdu on the second line and the sentence on the third line. The special H can be used for J and Ch to give the deeper JH and CHH sounds as for example in the Udu words Jhanda -flag and Chhatri .on Line 3.
It is not necessary for experienced readers as they can tell instantly from the final form of a letter where the word ends but the lack of space before the next word can be very confusing for beginners. The N in the word Maan is pronounced with the tongue on the teeth and has the dot in it. . . Another reason is that sometimes the space below a letter gets crowded and often a vowel mark will be left out and that can make it very difficult to read the words as well. It is better to start reading childrens books and build up a vocabulary before reading Urdu newspapers. Remember to reread all the previous lessons before moving on to the new one. Note that the N in the word mother ( Maa'n)is a nasal N and is not pronounced except from the back of the throat. It should take no more than fifteen minutes each time and you will find the learning experience a lot smoother . That is why it is marked with an apostrophe.Here is the answer. The reason is that often there are no spaces between the words in the newspapers.the tongue stays down flat.
See if you can spot a new letter that you have not met so far. . The inital . So even if you have read them once it is a good idea to reread them anew each week. medial and final forms of a typical example of each line is oultined. Before going on to the next line of the Urdu alphabet lets just recap all the letters learned so far .Lesson 7 Most lessons are corrected and then reposted.
.Here are the answers The new letter is of course G.
and the vowel marks . Y and E.Remember H .
dal and zal The figure below shows the inital . . Z . D and Z. medial and final forms of THE . called dhal . D . Lesson 8 The next line of the alphabet has the letters soft d ( THE ) .and a vowel mark on its own at the beginning.
Note that the mark over the A to signify a long AA is ometimes ommited.See if you can spot the word DWA and read the other Urdu words. . Here are the answers .What are the following English words?. Here are the answers The Vowel mark O is also used as the letter V or W as in the word DWA below .
H . S . . DE ( pronouced by curling the tongue right back behind that for the letter d and then bringing it forward as in D. Example the words ladki (girl) . Here are all the forms of the letters As you will see from above Urdu has borrowed many letters from Persian and Arabic and so there are multiple letters for the same sounds such as Z . and two more Zs .The next line has similar looking letters to the above and are called R. KH etc.
Can you read the following English sentences ? here are the answers .
Lesson 9 This lesson has just Urdu words as the letters have no equivalent English sounds. See if you can read them . The special H makes an aspirated sound as in the words outlined below . Then the letter D same as in English Drum .These are the letters learned in this lesson . then roll it back further and unroll it rapidly without touching the palate. Reading from your Right to Left. Next is a tricky one DE . The one to your most right is the letter THE as in the word That.put the tongue on the palate as if to say D .
. DHOD are pronounced the same although technicaly the later is not correct. Note that 2.DHOOD and 1. This is a problem for beginners as vowel marks like the pesh mark in 2 are often left out.Here are the answers.
The last line has Urdu words. S again and Z pronounced as Seen . Svad and Zvad. Sheen . Svad and Zvad the bottom two are borrowed from the Persian . In the above note that the first two are the most commonly used letter forms for S and Sh in Urdu.Lesson 10 The next set of letters are the S's . Sh .Read the following words. The figure below has the letters S . .
They will be corrected at a later date. They may not be written as in an Urdu dictionary because the pesh mark often (eg in the word for soap) gets left out. Also usually left out is the zabar or accent mark ( except in the word must below) since it is assumed that all English speakers know where to put the accent. Often the accent zabar mark is left out anyway.Ignore the problems of scale . Here are the answers .
Note the Z and S letters have been used liberally and this may not be the form you may find in the dictionaries.Read the following English sentences . Here are the answers .
Read the following Here are the answers Related to the above sounds are TH as in Thanks or in the word marked A below (thin)-note the two dots over the letter . and another mark is added to TH to convert it to TTH ( tongue touches the top of the mouth in between the positions for T and D) as in the word ttheek (correct) . the dots are lost. . Z is the same as other Zs.Lesson 11 The next two letters are another form of the soft t and another z. The t' sound is produced by protruding the tip of the tongue just beyond the upper teeth and letting the front third touch the bottom of the top teeth.The bottom teeth are also very close to the top teeth. They are called T'o and Zo .
Lets look at two more letters. . The first Aaen is pronounced as an ugh followed by aa for eg the word to forgive maaf is really pronounce as m-ugh-aa-f Try and read the following Urdu words. . The first is another form of A called Aaen and the second with the dot on top is another form of G called Gaaen.
Here are the answers Lesson 12 The next line of the Urdu alphabet contains the letters F pronounced as Fe and Q sounded as Quaf . The four forms of these letters are as follows .
Line A below has English words while line B is made of Urdu words . If it did it would be read as L which has the same form as A .the letter A being a vowel does not join the Q.Read the following sentences where all the four forms of each of these letters is used . Note again that the zer mark may be missing in for example the word for love when reading Urdu papers.Note also that in the word LIFE the F is slightly modified with a small vertical stem initally The answers are Note that in the word for Aq -stubborn .
. In the figure above the letter for v . As we have already met them before only the way they are written is outlined below. also serves as an O. G .Lesson 13 In the figure below we have the letters K . marked n' as in the urdu word for mother -maan' loses the dot in the middle.and L . See if you can read the two English and one Urdu sentences below . Note that the nasal N . The next letters are M and N . Remember to start at the tail end of the arrow and follow the direction.
Answers are Technically the O should be distinguished from the V by the fact that O should have a vowel mark over it as in the word LAaO . . However this rule is not always followed.
P into PH as in pharmacy etc. T'-soft t . CH .Lesson 14 Now we come to the final letters in the Urdu alphabet . In each case the letter being modified is written above the word. J . THE and D as in the examples below. H we have met before. Remember the special form which modifies the letters B. . P . It shows how H can be used in the intial . T . The special H makes B into a deeper BH . Read the Urdu sentence below . medial and final forms.
.Answer Y is written like an H but with two dots below the letter.
Here is how it used in its three forms. .
Answer Here is how the final letters big E .EE and big A .Ae can be used .
may be some distance from the two dots. . This will become clearer when you read the figures. It is most important to recognise the final form of letters as otherwise it can be extremely difficult to know where a word ends and another begins .Answer Lesson 15 These lessons contains a couple of hundreds of Urdu vocabulary. Donkey . Notice that the vowels are written in small case. Many of the accent marks are left out as they tend to clutter up the figure and you know where to lay the accent in English words anyway .on its own at the top or also what looks like an arrow head pointing up . Cow on the first line and Fox . these are accent marks. If you see a zabar. Have a guess at the answers and then check your answer after the figure. so revise lesson 14 before starting this one.a short slanting line. The first few figures are done for you. The next figure has the English words -for this lesson we will read as in English your left to your right Crocodile . Note that the zer -little i-slanting line mark below the letter which makes the two dots of an ae vowel into a big EE. Some words do have them left in as examples. Seal and Giraffe on the second. The first column reading as in English has the English word followed by its Urdu translation.
. bear . rhinosaurus . lion . mongoose and alligator . That is an accent mark over the M in mongoose. the words are elephant .In the figure below make sure you know the vowels correctly.
stag.dear . rabbit . pig .follows another a . Continue with the figure below . gloves-dastane . boots-boot.Now follow cat .mouse. hat-topi. camel and tortoise.gloves -dastane. It has the words for gorilla. Now see if you can guess the words in the figure below The answers are shoes -jutte . Notice in mouse the hamza sign tells you that one vowel o. belt-peti . fish .tiger and snake. Without the hamza the o would be read as a v. squireel. handkerchief-romal. baboon. goat . socks-juraben. slipper-chappal. .socks-juaraben .
cat-billi. goat -bakri . sheep.See if you can read the ones coming next Rabbit-khargosh. mouse-chooha.horse-ghod'a.dog-kutta. bufalobhaens. fish-machhli. camel-oont. .tortoise-kchhwa. pig-suar.
han' -yes . hm -we . The answers reading from your right are m(aae)n -me . mal(oo)m. lek(i)n-but. ph(i)r bi (even so) fourth line -ma-mother . vh-she . .Lesson 16 The next figure contains some common urdu words. These are indicated in brackets in the answers.to know. The shlrt u . baap-father . n(h)(ee)n'-no.he . bchcha-child. t(u)m -you . short i and the i mark modifying the ae into an big ee vowel often suffer this fate. a(a)p-you (polite) . Notice that some short vowel marks are left out. it second line meree -mine. kya-what. they . hae -is .
frog-maaendak. . richh is bear and cheetah usually means leopard as there are no cheetahs in the area. sheep-bhed. monkey -bandar.The arrow acent mark has been left in the word frog. and seal on the last line.donkey -gaddha. Ghaenda is rhino . cow-gaye. crocodile-magarmuchh . fox-loomdi. hathi is elephant . wolf-bhedia .Continuing with more vocabulary Your answers should read .
head-sr. thigh-ran.neck-gurdan .foot-paon. chin-thodi.lips-hont. mouth-mun'h. forehead-peshani. nose-nak .Lets look at some parts of the body ear-kaan . eye-ankh. tongue-zbaan .
thumb-angoottha. nail-nakhoon. elbow-kuhni . knee-gutthna. hand-hath. finger -ungli Teeth-dant'. ankle-tkhnh .Answers shoulder-kandha. back-peetth. arm-bazo. palm-hatheli. hair-baal.moustache -moonchh Lesson 17 Lets read the following real life ad .eyebrow-abro. beard-dhadi.chest-chhati.eyelashes-palken.waist-kmar.
It reads Agar aap mulk jane se ek hafta pehle If you country going to one week before saman book carvayen to aap ka saman luggae book do then your luggage aap ke phunchane se phele... your arrival before.. It is promising to deliver your luggage to the country of arrival before you if you book it a week in advance. Read the next ad
Each line reads Aap ki khidmat men pesh intercargo Hum Pakistan jane walon ke liye Pakistan mein custom clearance bhi karvaten haen. Aap duniya men kahin bi jana chaen to hum to hum se aap kisi bi airlines ke ticket kharid sakte hain har kism ki ghadiya aur truck bi bej sakte hein. The above says it can clear your cargo for customs and sell you any airline ticket and even send your car or truck.Note vocabulary duniya=world, khidmat=service, kharid=buy, ghadiya=car
Lets resume the vocabulary
Reading the above from L to R as in English liver=j(i)gr, brain=dimag , lungs=phephre , windpipe = nrkhra, heart=dil, vein=rg, stomach=maida, artery=shryan, kidney=gurde
toothache=dantdurd ocupations . fever=b(u)khar. june . judge=judge. postman=dakyh.soldier=foji. april (aepril ) .september . october . blood=khoon. mai (may). lawyer=vakeel Lesson 18 Continuing with the vocabulary Months . swelling=sujan. cold=zukam . launderer=dhobi. fisherman=machera. december .porter=qulee. aguust . november . headache=sirdurd.Illnesess -sprain=moch . february . march . july . january . clown=mskhrh.
ear ring-baliyan'. saturdayhefteh . bangles-chriyan. friday-jummah. watch-ghadi. thrusday-jumaraat. wednesday-budh. ring . necklace -haar. tuesday-mangal. monday-somvar. hair pin-pin hafte ke din ( week of days) sunday-itwar.anklet-janjher . nosering -nath.anghuti (finger). chainzanzir. broch -broch .
horns-sing. wing-punkah Birds.hoof-khur. . ostrich-shutarmurgh. crow-kwwa. feather-purr. swallo-albel. heronbagla.tota-parrot. peacock-mor. vulture-geedh. crane-sarus. beak-chunch. owl-uloo. claw-punjah. udders-thn. trunksudh. mane-ayyal. hump-kohan. tail-dum . swan-huns.
kite-cheel. pelican-abiprindah.Lesson 19 Continuing with the vocabulary flamingo-bag.phesant-chkor. dove-faqt. quailbtaer. cuckoo-koyal. eagle-aqaab. magpie-neelkantth . starling-maena. sparrow-chirya.
scorpion-bichhua. mosquito-machhar. crab-kakeda. . snail-gongha. louse-joon'. ant-chiyunti. butterfly-titlee. glowworm-jugnoo. beetle-bhoza. moth-patnga. wevil-ghun. wasp-zunboor. cockroach-jingher. bedbugkhatmal. locust-tiddi. ladybird-surkhi. flea-pisu. spider-mukddi.Insects-fly-makkhi.
. mulberry-shahtoot. Lesson 20 Urdu and Hindi and most Indian languages have the verb written after the object. It would be tedious to have to learn them all. pearnashpati.. damson. .. Grammaticaly for empahis in dramatic situations sometimes it would not be wrong to put the verb first eg . guava-amrood. These Urdu lessons are available on a floppy disc with all the images and a book .. Most inaminate objects have masculine or feminine forms .Learn to read Urdu for $25 inclusive of air postage . John .fruit.eg Nadi gaherEE hae Samundar (ocean) gaherAA hae. plums-aloochae.John! If however you use it too many times you will start getting strange looks.. You may also download them from this site. More vocabulary . This is .. pawpaw-papita. In general the bigger heavier object is male for eg Rivers are feminine while the Ocean is masculine. tangerine-sanugtra. grapefruit-chodar.grapes-angoor. melon-kharbuz. lemon-leemon. For example in English we write subject-verb-object eg The river is deep In Urdu the article THE is usually omitted and the verb is written last eg The river is deep is written as Nadi gaheri hae ( River deep is ) . For masculine terms the word ends in an AA sound while for feminine it is ee. . Send a cheque for this amount to ukindia box 346 Nottingham UK .Yeh hae .
mango-aam. banana-kela. pomigrenate-anar.apple-seb. orange-malta. strawberry -strawberry.cherries-cherries. peach-ardo(o). watermelon-tarbooz . pineapple-annanas.
p(o)tato-aloo . lychee-lychee. cucumber-kheera. aubergine-baengan. coconut-nariyal. jambolana-jamun. pumpkin-kaddu hlwah. lady fingerbhindyan'. coriander-dhaniya. peas-matar The above read radish-mooli. capsicumshimlamirch.The answers to the above are figs-anjeer. dates-kjhoor.beans-phliyan'. custard apple-sherifa. tinde-tinde.
spinach-paluk. fenugreek-methi. Lesson 21 At the top in your brower window you will see the address of this page ending with zurdu21. gourd-kaddu. garlic-luhsan. cabbage -bandghobi.htm . This signifies lesson 21. sugar-shakar. bitter gourd-krela.htm and press enter. tomato-tmatr. If you want to go to lesson 7 say just change it to zurdu7. carrot-gajar. Note how the numbers are written -these are the closest approximation . onion-pyaz. .they are tending to be displaced by English numerals Note above that 51 and 15 are written and read as in English even though Urdu reads from R to L.In the final figure above we have courgette-tori.
flour-aata. buttermakhkhan. . meat-gosht. milk-dudh. oil-tael. tea-chaye. eggs-ande.Continuing with the vocabulary Above read -yoghurt-dahee. chicken-mugi. cheese-paneer.
wall-diwar. soap-sab(u)n.roof-chhat. comb-kanga. window-khirdki. stairs-sirdhiyan'. gatephaatak. blanket-kambal. tap-nalka. lamp-lamp. pillars-sitoon. drawer-drwaz. chimney-chimney. bed-bister. door-darvaza.floor-farsh. garage-garage. bottle-bot'l Lesson 22 More vocabulary . pillow-takiya plant-poda.
gloves-dastane. chair-kursi. cushion-gaddi. h(aae)t-topee. socks-juraben . sofa-sofa. beltt-peti. -g (u)ldan. . table-mez.picture-tasveer. boots-boot. handkerchief-romal. sandliyer (lampshade)-fanos. gloves-dastane. socks-jurraben. heater-heater. pot-gamla Above read shoes-joote. sl(i)pper-chappal.
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