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Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards
SAUDI ARAMCO ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.
Chapter : Civil Engineering File Reference: CSE 106.02
For additional information on this subject, contact PEDD Coordinator on 8621026
Engineering Encyclopedia
Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components
Section OBJECTIVES
Page ......................................................................................................... 1
Terminal Objective................................................................................................ 1 Enabling Objectives.............................................................................................. 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 3 ANALYZING BEAMS............................................................................................ 4 Definition And Function Of Beams............................................................. 4 Identifying Types Of Beams....................................................................... 6 Support Types................................................................................. 7 Pictures Showing Support Types .................................................... 8 Load Types ................................................................................................ 9 Static Determinacy .......................................................................... 9 Defining And Calculating LoadShearMoment Relationships ................. 10 Load .............................................................................................. 11 Shear ............................................................................................ 12 Bending Moment ........................................................................... 13 Sign Convention For Bending Moment ......................................... 14 Example 1: Reactions, Shear, And Bending Moment In A Simple Overhang Beam................................................................... 15 Drawing Shear And Moment Diagrams.................................................... 17 Procedures to Draw Diagrams ...................................................... 17 Example 2: Shear And Moment Diagram For Overhang Beam With Concentrated Load P ............................................................ 18 Example 3: Shear And Moment Diagram For Simple Beam With Uniform Load Distribution ................................................................... 21 Beam Diagrams  Key Points ................................................................... 24 Basic Shear And Moment Diagrams ........................................................ 24 Beam Diagrams  Superposition .............................................................. 26 Example 4: Beam Diagrams By Superposition........................................ 26
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Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components
Calculating Beam Stresses ...................................................................... 28 Flexural (Bending) Stress ............................................................... 29 Shear Stresses............................................................................... 31 Example 5: Flexural And Shear Stresses In A Simple Overhang Beam . 34 Example 6: Flexural Stresses In A Simple TBeam ................................ 36 Calculating Beam Deflection.................................................................... 38 Standard Tables For Beam Deflection............................................ 39 Conjugate Beam Method................................................................ 40 Example 7: Beam Deflection................................................................... 42 Finding And Using Beam Formulas ......................................................... 48 Beam Formula Work Aids............................................................... 48 Using Beam Formula Work Aids .................................................... 49 Example 8: Shear Moment And Deflection For Simple Beam With Uniform Load Distribution .................................................... 50 Superposition of Beam/Load Cases ............................................... 52 Example 9: Superposition Of Beam/Load Cases ..................................... 53 Example 10: Beam Diagrams And Deflection Using Superposition And Work Aids ..................................................................... 54 ANALYZING COLUMNS .................................................................................... 58 Introduction .............................................................................................. 58 Definition And Function............................................................................ 58 Identifying Column Materials And Sections.............................................. 59 Column Analysis And Considerations ...................................................... 60 Identifying Column Types ........................................................................ 63 Column Type Based on Slenderness ............................................. 63 Column Type Based on Eccentricity............................................... 64 Column Type Based on Nature of Loading..................................... 65 Calculating Column Loads And Stresses................................................. 66 Ultimate Compressive Load ........................................................... 66 Compressive Yield Load................................................................. 67
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...................................................... 82 Identifying And Defining Types Of Footings................................................................................... 96 SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................................... 91 Identifying And Defining Stability Ratio On Footings........................................................................................................................................................ 93 Identifying And Defining Moment And Shear On Footings....................................................................................................................... 83 Identifying And Defining Applied Loads ..................................................................... 76 Eccentrically Loaded Columns ................................................ 82 Analysis Procedure .......................................... 71 Allowable Load/Capacity .......Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Critical (Buckling) Load..... 89 Partial Compression....... 85 Centered/Concentric Load .............. 89 Example 13: SoilBearing Pressure For A Square Footing ............................................................. 99 WORK AIDS GLOSSARY .............. And Shear For A Square Footing ............................................................................... 68 Factor of Safety ........................................................................ 160 PRACTICE PROBLEMS .................................... 149 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards iii .......... Moment................................................... 84 Identifying And Defining SoilBearing Pressure On Footings..................... 76 BeamColumns........................................................ 77 Example 12: Combined Axial Load And Bending In Column ................... 79 ANALYZING FOOTINGS ............................... 72 Calculating Combined Bending And Axial Loading............................... 101 ............ 71 Example 11: Column Loads And Stresses.......................................................... 93 Example 14: Stability Ratio............................................................................................ 85 Combined Vertical Load and Moment .................................................................................. 84 Identifying And Defining Eccentric Loads On Footings ........................................... 86 Critical Eccentricity.................................................. 67 Failure Load ...................................................
.......................................... Uniform Load Distribution..................... 19 Figure 13.....................................................................................................Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components List of Figures Figure 1..... Overhang Beam ................................................................................................................................ 26 Figure 20b........................................ Concentrated Load...... 5 Figure 3a........................................ 11 Figure 6.......................................... Simple Support Beam Subjected to Three Types of Load ................. 28 Figure 23............................. Shear Force ........................... Combined Individual Cases........... Uniform Load............................................... 20 Figure 14.................................... Stresses in a Beam ................. Common Materials and Sections Used for Beams......................... Shear Diagram for the Overhang Beam in Algebraic Terms ................................................ 18 Figure 12....................................... 27 Figure 21a................... Cantilever Beam with Concentrated Load ........................................................................... Support Beams ............................................................ 7 Figure 3b............................................................................................... 21 Figure 15................... 27 Figure 21b.............................. LoadShearMoment Relationships........................ Bending Moment ....... Determine Vertical Shear Force at Any Point Along Beam ................................................................... 12 Figure 7.................... 17 Figure 11.... Flexural Stress ............ 26 Figure 20a...................................................... Drawing Shear & Moment Diagrams. Cantilever Beam Subjected to Four Types of Load.................................................................................. Beam (linear structural member having one or more supports) . 29 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards iv .................... 9 Figure 5.. Moment Diagram for the Overhang Beam in Algebraic Terms........ Shear and Moment at Support B............................ 8 Figure 4.......... Beam Load Types ......................................... Cantilever Beam Loads .......................................... 28 Figure 24................................. 23 Figure 17.......... 25 Figure 18.... Support Beams ........................................................ Summing Vertical Forces ............ Cantilever Beam with Uniform Load ......... 15 Figure 10.................................................................................................... 4 Figure 2......... 22 Figure 16....................................................... 25 Figure 19.................... 27 Figure 22........ 14 Figure 9............ Bending Moment ....... 13 Figure 8...............................................
..... Cover Plates Added on Flanges of Beam . 53 Figure 36....... Elastic Curve of a Beam..... 64 Figure 44b...... 54 Figure 39a................................... Example 10 Beam......... 43 Figure 33b......... Columns as Part of a Structural Frame .... 46 Figure 34b........ 34 Figure 28.................................. 36 Figure 30.............................................. 55 Figure 39b......................... Beam Load Cases... M Diagram............................................................................................................................................... Maximum Shear at Center of Beam Section .................. Typical Structural Columns .......................... 66 Figure 45.......................................................................................... Plank Beams ............... 53 Figure 37......................... Horizontal Shear in a Beam ..................................... 31 Figure 26................... 54 Figure 38............................................................................................................. Le = kL....... Key Characteristic of a Single Column Loaded with P at Eccentricity e from the Centroidal Axis... 44 Figure 34a............................ 60 Figure 42....................................................................................... Typical Loadings for BeamColumns.......................................................... 35 Figure 29................. 65 Figure 44c............................................................ Loading Diagram for Actual Beam .................................... kL/r ............... Column Effective Length............. 70 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards v ......................................................................... Cross Section of a Simple TBeam ....... 47 EI Figure 35........................................................................................................................................ Typical Plots of Pmax and σmax as a Function of the Column Slenderness Ratio................................ 42 Figure 33a....................................................................................... Moment Diagram........Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Figure 25.............. Beam Load Cases.................... 62 Figure 44a..... 42 Figure 32............................ Moment Diagram for Actual Beam ................................ Types of Columns Based on Eccentricity ............................................................................................................. More Beam Load Cases.. 62 Figure 43......... Values of Column Coefficient.................. 38 Figure 31. Types of Columns Based on Slenderness ....... 33 Figure 27.. Simple Overhang Beam ................................. 56 Figure 40.............. Typical Column Sections....... 69 Figure 46........................ 59 Figure 41............................................ Superposition of Beam/Load Cases.................................................................................................................................................... k ............................. Deflections at Two Load Points (a & b) . More Beam Load Cases.
Engineering Encyclopedia
Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components
Figure 47. Alternate Arrangements of Column CrossSection...................................... 72 Figure 48. Biaxial Bending about x and y Axes of the Column Cross Section.............. 77 Figure 49. Eccentrically Loaded Column...................................................................... 78 Figure 50. Eccentrically Loaded Steel Column............................................................. 79 Figure 51. Types of Footings........................................................................................ 83 Figure 52. Loads Acting on a Support Footing ............................................................. 84 Figure 53. Footing Loads ............................................................................................. 85 Figure 54. Centered/Concentric Load .......................................................................... 86 Figure 55. Combined Vertical Load and Moment ......................................................... 87 Figure 56. Vertical Load and Moment .......................................................................... 88 Figure 57. Contact Area ............................................................................................... 88 Figure 58. Partial Compression.................................................................................... 90 Figure 59a. SoilBearing Pressure for Square Footing P = 100 k, M = 150 ft.k............ 91 Figure 59b. Maximum SoilBearing Pressure for Square Footing P = 100 k, M = 300 ft.k ............................................................................................................. 92 Figure 60. Stability Ratio .............................................................................................. 93 Figure 61. Moment and Shear on Footings .................................................................. 94 Figure 62. Critical Sections .......................................................................................... 95 Figure 63a. Wall and Footing Support Loads ............................................................... 96 Figure 63b. Wall and Footing Support Loads (Shear at Critical Section) ..................... 98 Figure 63c. Wall and Footing Support Loads (Moment at Critical Section) .................. 98 Figure 64. Overhang Beam ........................................................................................ 101 Figure 65. Work Aid 2, Beam with Loads ................................................................... 103 Figure 67. Work Aid 3, Beam with Uniform Load ....................................................... 105 Figure 68. ................................................................................................................. 105 Figure 69. ................................................................................................................. 106 Figure 70. Repeat of Figure 17, Work Aid 4, Basic Shear and Moment Diagrams..... 107 Figure 71. Repeat of Figure 18, Work Aid 4, Basic Shear and Moment Diagrams..... 108 Figure 72. Work Aid 6, Beam with Uniform and Concentrated Loads ........................ 110
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Figure 73. Loads ......................................................................................................... 110 Figure 74. Load Cases ................................................................................................ 110 Figure 75. ................................................................................................................. 111 Figure 76. Repeat of Figure 23, Work Aid 7, Beam Stresses..................................... 112 Figure 77. Work Aid 8, Bending Moment and Shear Diagram.................................... 113 Figure 78. Work Aid 10, Calculating Beam Defelection.............................................. 116 Figure 79. Beam......................................................................................................... 117 Figure 80. Repeat of Figure 37. Work Aid 12 Beam................................................... 120 Figure 81. Repeat of Figure 38 More Beam Load Cases ........................................... 120 Figure 82a. Repeat of Figure 39a Beam Load Cases ................................................ 121 Figure 83b. Repeat of Figure 39b More Beam Load Cases ....................................... 122 Figure 84. Beam Diagrams and Formulas.................................................................. 127 Figure 85. Work Aid 15, Calculating Column Load and Stresses............................... 139 Figure 86. Work Aid 16, Calculating Combined Axial Load and Bending in Column.. 142
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Engineering Encyclopedia
Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components
OBJECTIVES Terminal Objective
After completing this module, the participant will be able to perform basic structural analysis for beams, columns, and footings.
Enabling Objectives
In order to meet the terminal objective, given the appropriate information, the participant will be able to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Identify types of beams. Define loadshearmoment relationships. Calculate load, shear, moment, and deflection in a beam. Draw shear and moment diagrams for simple beams. Calculate stresses and deflections in simple beams subjected to concentrated and distributed loads. Locate and use formulas to calculate moments, shears, and reactions in beams with selected endsupport conditions. Identify column materials and sections. Calculate loads and stresses in columns subjected to axial, transverse and eccentric loads. Calculate combined bending and axial loading in columns. Identify footing types. Define applied and eccentric loads and soilbearing pressure on footings. Calculate stresses and soil bearing pressures for eccentrically loaded footings. Define stability ratio, moment and shear on a footing. Calculate stability ratio, moment and shear in a footing Definitions of words in italics are contained in the Glossary
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respectively. columns. and steel structures. CSE106. and CSE109 for timber. reinforced concrete. The second module identified and calculated the basic loads and stresses encountered in these problems.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components INTRODUCTION This is the third and final module in the course. CSE108. Basic Strength of Materials. The first module covered the various section properties needed to solve common civil/structural engineering problems. you will use this information to analyze various components of a structure such as beams. In this module. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 3 . The detailed analysis and design of these components and their connections are discussed in the applications courses CSE104. and footings.
Beam (linear structural member having one or more supports) Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 4 . It carries transverse or lateral loads. and bridges. Loadshearmoment relationship. Beams are commonly used for floors. load types. Beam stresses. Definition and Function of Beams A beam is a linear structural member having one or more supports. loads perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. y Loads x Supports Span Figure 1. Shear and bending moment diagrams. To perform the structural analysis of beams you need to cover: • • • • • • Definition and function of beams. that is. A beam is an efficient structural member used to support loads over an open span or clear area.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components ANALYZING BEAMS Beams are one of the basic components of a civil engineering structure. Beam deflections. Types of beams based on the support conditions. and whether or not they are statically determinate. roofs.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Common materials and sections used for beams: • • • • Rolled shape structural steel. Reinforced or prestressed concrete. the main focus in the analysis or design of a beam is to calculate and evaluate the stresses and deflection that will occur when it is loaded. Common Materials and Sections Used for Beams Two main factors are involved in the analysis or design of a beam: • Strength – the requirement to keep the stresses in a material below a specified level to ensure an adequate factor of safety against material failure. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 5 . Structural grade timber. Composite sections comprising: Structural steel and concrete (a) Structural steel and timber (b) Timber Sections Reinforced Concrete Structural Steel Shape Steel Plate (a) Steel and Concrete (b) Steel and Timber Figure 2. Excessive sag can impair its function or cause discomfort to people. Therefore. • Serviceability – the requirement to keep the deflection less than a specified tolerable limit to ensure that a beam does not sag excessively.
Static determinacy – whether they can be analyzed by the principle of statics alone. For the purpose of structural analysis beams are usually classified according to: • • • Support conditions. Type of loading. The following are examples of the various types of beams usually encountered in civil engineering practice. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 6 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Identifying Types of Beams The tables given in engineering handbooks for analyzing beams are often organized according to types or classes.
A beam that rests on more then two supports. Support Beams Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 7 . A cantilever beam with its free end restrained against rotation. Simple Support L 2 Cantilever Beam A beam supported (fixed) at one end only A beam resting on two or more supports.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Support Types 1 Simple Beam A beam that nests on simple supports at each end. Fixed End Free End 3 Overhanging Beam Overhang 4 Continuous Beam 5 Fixed End Beam 6 Propped Cantilever Beam Guided Cantilever Beam 7 Figure 3a. A cantilever beam fixed at one end and with a simple support at the other end. A beam that is restrained from rotation and movement at its ends. which has one or both ends projecting beyond the support.
Support Beams Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 8 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Pictures Showing Support Types Hinge Supports Roller Support Figure 3b.
and 3. P w = lb/ft a) Concentrated Load b) Uniform Load M c) Nouniform Load d) Induced Moment Load Figure 4. cantilevers. and overhanging beams on two supports as shown in Figure 3. the nonuniformly distributed load. the uniformly distributed load. and the induced moment load. or point load. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 9 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Load Types Four types of loads can act on a beam: the concentrated load. 2. These beam loads are illustrated in Figure 4. respectively. items 1. Beam Load Types Static Determinacy Statically determinate beams are those beams whose reactions can be found from the equations of equilibrium: Σ Fx = 0 Σ Fy = 0 Σ Mz = 0 Examples include simple beams.
the shear and moment can be represented graphically by a plot of the values of the shear force or bending moment along the xaxis of the beam to produce a Shear Diagram and a Moment Diagram. but require additional equations to determine the reactions.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Statically indeterminate beams are beams whose reactions cannot be found from the equations of equilibrium only. and moments in a beam and the calculation procedures are discussed below. The relationship between the loads. I) of the beam. The analysis of a statically indeterminate beam is performed with the static equilibrium equation and stiffness or flexibility relationships for the beam. Defining and Calculating LoadShearMoment Relationships The lateral loads supported by a beam cause shear forces and bending moments to develop along the beam. items 4 to 7). These forces and moments are calculated by using the principles of equilibrium applied to a particular portion of the beam. A designer needs to calculate these forces and moments and the stresses that result in order to determine whether the beam can safely support a given load. the analysis of a statically indeterminate beam depends on the material and section properties (E. Shear forces and bending moments in a beam can be calculated by the principles of equilibrium applied to any part of the beam as illustrated in Figure 5. These diagrams and the associated formulas are provided in standard references for certain common beam types. Therefore. For a specific loaded beam. shears. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 10 . as in continuous and fixed end beams and propped and guided cantilever beams (Figure 3.
axis z a) Beam Loading w Internal Forces at x . P. The beam may also carry a combination of these basic loads.Bending Moment.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components y . w(x). along the longitudinal axis. or distributed. These are the basic load types illustrated in Figure 4. The concentrated load has units of pounds or Newtons (lb. V .axis w Lateral Loads P Beam x . A couple acting as a load on a beam is positive when it is counterclockwise and negative when it is clockwise. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 11 .Shear Force. N). y V M x Reaction Support b) Beam FreeBody Figure 5. M y Lateral Deflection. Distributed loads and concentrated loads are positive when they act downward on the beam and negative when they act upward. LoadShearMoment Relationships Load (P or w) The beam loading can be either concentrated. and the distributed load has units of lb/ft or N/m.
However. along the longitudinal axis of a beam is the algebraic sum of the forces on one side of the section.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Shear (V) Shear is the internal force required to maintain the equilibrium on any part of a beam. dx V = − ∫ wdx Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 12 . Although the forces on either side of the section may be used. for convenience we generally deal with the forces to the left of the section. Determine Vertical Shear Force at Any Point Along Beam The vertical shear force acting on a section at any point. These forces include the applied loads and the reactions. w P a) Loaded Beam xo y w V P x Rl V Rr b) FreeBody: Shear found by summing vertical forces on either side of the section: ∑F y =0 Figure 6. The shear in a beam has units of pounds or newtons. The change in shear (V) along the longitudinal axis (x) of the section has the following relationship to the load (w): w=− dV . the value of V will be the same. with their proper signs. x = xo. Figure 6 shows how to determine the vertical shear force at any point along the beam.
For equilibrium: ΣMz = 0 Moment has units of poundfeet or newtonmeters. and the reactions. and shear is positive when it causes the left side of the beam to move down relative to the right side.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Shear is negative when it causes the right side of the beam to move down relative to the left side. Shear Force Bending Moment Bending moment (M) is the internal moment at a section required to maintain the equilibrium of any part of the beam. Moments include the moments of the applied external loads. The bending moment at any section of a beam is the algebraic sum of the moments on one side of the section. dx M = ∫ Vdx Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 13 . with their proper sign. The relationships between bending moment and shear are: V= dM . the internal forces. Shear Force Left v Right Left v Right Negative Shear Positive Shear Figure 7.
Conversely. shear is the change in the bending moment and the bending moment is the area under the shear diagram.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components That is. Bending Moment Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 14 . dx 2 M = − ∫ ∫ wdx Bending moment is positive when the upper part of the beam is in compression and the lower part is in tension. Sign Convention For Bending Moment P Upper fibers in Compression +M V C T Lower fibers in tension a) Positive Bending Moment P M Lower fibers In compression Upper fibers in tension b) Negative Bending Moment Figure 8. The relationships between bending moment and load are: d 2M w=− . bending moment is negative when the upper part of the beam is in tension and the lower part is in compression.
P=1200 lb A C B 10 ft R1 R2 6 ft Figure 9. Shear.200 = 1920 lb Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 15 . Overhang Beam Example 1: Solution a) Solve for reactions R1 and R2. calculate: a) b) c) Reactions R1 and R2. The shear and bending moment at midspan (C). The shear and bending moment at support (B). and Bending Moment in A Simple Overhang Beam (Page 1 of 4) For the overhang beam shown below. Taking moments about R1: Σ M1 10R2 R2 = 0 = (1200)(16) – R2 × 10 = 19. which is 5 ft from left support (A) of the beam.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 1: Reactions.
The beam must be held down at R1 to be in equilibrium. ΣFy = 0. A V C 5 ft R1 = 720 lbs (ii) Sum vertical forces to obtain shear. M + 5 × 720 =0 = −3600 lbft c) Shear and moment at support B. (i) Draw freebody diagram of a beam to left of point C. A force (V) and moment (M) are required to keep it in equilibrium. The shear is discontinuous at a support point. sum the vertical forces and the moments on the freebody diagrams as shown: Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 16 . Again.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Σ Fy R1 R1 = 0 = 1200 + R1 – R2 (Page 2 of 4) = 1920 – 1200 = 720 lb Note that R1 acts downward and R2 upward. ∴V = −R1 = −720 lb (iii) Sum moment about C to obtain bending moment. ΣM C M = 0. b) Solve for shear and moment at C. where they are shown positive as per adopted sign convention.
a moment diagram shows the variation of the bending moment along the longitudinal axis of a beam. Shear and Moment at Support B Σ F = 0. Procedures to Draw Diagrams The procedures to draw the shear and moment diagrams for beams are illustrated by the following two examples: Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 17 . MB1 = −10(R1) MB2 = −6(P) = − 10 × 720 = −7200 lbft = − 6 × 1200 = −7200 lbft Note MB2 = MB1 Drawing Shear and Moment Diagrams A shear diagram is used to indicate the value of the vertical shear force at any point along the longitudinal axis of a beam.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 3 of 4) P = 1200 lb VB1 MB1 R1 VB1 MB1 MB2 VB2 MB2 VB2 R2 Figure 10. Similarly. VB1 VB2 = −R1 =P = −720 lb = 1200 lb R2 = − VB1 + VB2 = 1920 lb Σ M = 0.
P A C x R1 L R2 B a Figure 11. for R1 V x R1 M R1 = P − R 2 = PL − P(L + a ) Pa =− L L Summing vertical forces on the freebody of the beam up to any point (x) between supports yields: V = +R1 = − Pa L 0≤x<L Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 18 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 2: Shear and Moment Diagram for Overhang Beam with Concentrated Load P (Page 1 of 3) Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the overhang beam in Figure 11. Drawing Shear & Moment Diagrams Again solving for R2 by Σ M1 = 0 R2 = P(L + a ) L And summing vertical forces. Σ Fy = 0.
x = L and M = −Pa Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 19 . the shear diagram for the overhang beam in algebraic terms is as follows: +P + Pa L  Figure 12.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 3) Similarly. Shear Diagram for the Overhang Beam in Algebraic Terms The bending moment at any point (x1) between supports is: M = R 1x = − Pax L 0≤x≤L ⎞ 0 ≤ x ≤ L⎟ ⎠ dM Pa ⎛ =− =V ⎜ Note dx L ⎝ At support 2. summing forces on the freebody of beam to the right of any point (x) on the overhang results in: M V L+ax P V2 = +P L < x < L+a Therefore.
the moment diagram is as follows: . Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 20 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 3 of 3) On the overhang: V L R1 x xL R2 M M = R1x + R2(x−L) M= − Pax ⎛ Pa ⎞ + ⎜P + ⎟(x − L) L L ⎠ ⎝ L ≤ x ≤ L+a = −P(L+a) + Px At support 2. x = L ∴ M = −Pa dM ⎛ =+P = V ⎜ Note dx ⎝ ⎞ L ≤ x ≤ L + a⎟ ⎠ Therefore. Moment Diagram for the Overhang Beam in Algebraic Terms Note that since the bending moment is negative (tension in the top fiber of the beam).Pa Figure 13. it is plotted below the line.
Uniform Load Distribution Y Ra = W .Rb = Va = R a = W 2 −W 2 wo M Vb = − R b = V Ra Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 21 . ∑F Shear: At A At B Figure 14.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 3: Shear and Moment Diagram for Simple Beam with Uniform Load Distribution (Page 1 of 3) Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown. Load: Total Load = W = woL wo = W L A L Ra x W = total load wo B Reactions: Solve for Rb by summing moment about A Rb ∑M A =0 R bL = L W 2 W w oL Rb = = 2 2 =0 W w oL = 2 2 x Summing vertical forces.
V=0. 2 Shear Diagram: W/2 = w oL 2 L/2 L/2 W/2 = w o L 2 Figure 15. summing forces on the free body: ΣF = Ra – wox – V = 0 V = Ra – wox = For x = W Wx W ⎛ 2x ⎞ − = ⎜1 − ⎟ 2 L 2 ⎝ L ⎠ L .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 3) At x. Summing Vertical Forces Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 22 .
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 3 of 3) Bending Moment: At x.125 woL2 L/2 w o L2 = 8 Figure 16.125 WL = 0. summing moments on the freebody to the left of x: x ΣMx = Rax − wo × x × − M(x) = 0 2 2 x M(x) = Rax – wo 2 = M(x) = Wx W ⎛ x 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ − 2 L ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Wx ⎛ x ⎞ ⎜1− ⎟ 2 ⎝ L⎠ ⎞ ⎛ dM W Wx W ⎛ 2x ⎞ = − = ⎜ Note ⎜1− ⎟ = V ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ dx 2 L 2 ⎝ L ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ Maximum Moment: Mmax at V = 0 V = 0 at x = ∴Mmax = L 2 WL ⎛ L ⎞ ⎜ 1− ⎜ L(2) ⎟ ⎟ (2)(2) ⎝ ⎠ WL w oL2 = 8 8 Mmax = Moment Diagram: Mmax. Bending Moment Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 23 .=0.
Key Points Note the following points from the foregoing examples: • Positive values of shear and moment are plotted above the base line and negative values are plotted below the base line. You can use these diagrams and expressions for more complex. as illustrated in Example 4. negative slope where shear is negative. and the shear diagram is horizontal. multipleload cases with the aid of superposition. Figure 18 shows a simplesupport beam for three load cases. • The value of shear changes abruptly at concentrated loads and reactions and is indicated by a vertical line.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Beam Diagrams .) • Since V = dM/dx. From the relation V = dM/dx the slope of the moment diagram changes abruptly at concentrated loads. Also. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 24 . Basic Shear and Moment Diagrams Figure 17 shows the diagrams and expressions for the shear and bending moments for a cantilever beam subjected to four basic types of load. the magnitude of shear is constant. since V = dM/dx. the slope of the moment diagram is constant where the shear is constant (positive slope where shear is positive. • Where there is no change in load within a beam segment. the maximum moment occurs where the shear is zero. • The change of moment between any two points along a beam is equal to the area of the shear diagram between the two points.
wL2 2 Mx = − wo 3 x 6L .wL 2 w o x 2 w oL + 2L 6 +  .Pa L wL 2 Vx = − +  W 3 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components a) Loads Mo x L P L w L wo L + b) Shear Diagrams Vx = 0 + P Vx = P + Vx = wx wL Vx = + − x2 wo 2L − w oL 2 + c) Bending Moment Diagrams Mx=Mo Mo Mx=Px PL Mx = − wx 2 2 .1283 WL c) Moment Diagrams Figure 18.2W 3 Mx = Mmax = Pab L Mmax = wL2 8 wx (L − x ) 2 Mx = Wx 2 (L − x 2 ) 3L2 Mmax=0. Simple Support Beam Subjected to Three Types of Load Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 25 .w oL2 6 Figure 17. Cantilever Beam Subjected to Four Types of Load a a) Loads L Pb w Total Load W = w oL 2 wo L L b) Shear Diagrams Pb L + .
The steps involved in this approach are: 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Beam Diagrams . Draw beam diagrams for each load case. 3. P = 5 kips L = 10 ft 5 kips 10 ft Figure 20a. Separate problem into beams with individual loads. Construct beam diagrams for the overall beam loads by combining diagrams for individual load cases. Example 4: Beam Diagrams by Superposition Draw the bending moment diagram for the cantilever beam with the loads shown. 5 kips 2 kips/ft A 10 ft B Figure 19.Superposition In certain situations in structural analysis or design you may encounter a beam with more than one load or with more than one type of load. The use of superposition is an effective method to obtain the shear and moment diagrams for such a beam. 2. Concentrated Load Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 26 . Cantilever Beam Loads Example 4: Solution Step 1 Separate into two simpler individual cases: a) Concentrated load.
wo = 2 kips/ft L = 10 ft 2 kips/ft 10 ft Figure 20b. Cantilever Beam with Concentrated Load b) Cantilever beam with uniform load 2 wL2 = 2(10 ) = 100 kip − ft Mmax = 2 2  100 kipft Figure 21b.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 1 of 2) b) Uniform load. Cantilever Beam with Uniform Load Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 27 . Uniform Load Step 2 Construct the moment diagrams for the individual load cases based on Figure 17. a) Cantilever beam with concentrated load Mmax = PL = 5(10) = 50 kipft  50 kipft Figure 21a.
Combined Individual Cases Calculating Beam Stresses The analysis steps for determining the stresses in a beam are illustrated in Figure 23. Beam Lateral Loads Concentrated Loads Distributed Loads Bending Moment Shear Force Bending or Flexural Stress Vertical and Horizontal Shear Stress Figure 23. Mmax = 50 + 100 = 150 kipft 2 kips/ft (a) (b) 150 kipft (c) = (a) + (b) Figure 22. Stresses in a Beam Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 28 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) Step 3 Construct the composite diagram by combining individual cases.
ct y Neutral Axis f(y) Neutral Axis (N. and that has neither compressive nor tensile stresses. Flexural Stress Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 29 .normal bending or flexural stress.vertical and horizontal shear stresses.A. Shear force . The fibers on the other side shorten and are in compression. For a homogeneous beam.) a) Bending Moment Tension b) Deformed Beam c) Stress Distribution Figure 24.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components The bending moments and shear forces in a beam resulting from the transverse loads give rise to stresses in the beam as follows: • • Bending moment . The procedure for calculating and evaluating these stresses is discussed below. is called the neutral axis. The plane that remains the same length.A. the neutral axis passes through the centroid of the beam cross section. Compression cc M M y N. the fibers on one side of the beam elongate and are in tension. Flexural (Bending) Stress When a beam is subjected to bending.
Modulus of rupture is useful in computing the ultimate beam strength of various species and grades of wood that are brittle under normal conditions. the variation of unit stress is no longer linear. the unit stress σ is directly proportional to the distance y from the neutral axis. The maximum stress in compression or tension is at the outermost fibers from the neutral axis. respectively. the modulus of rupture is a fictitious value higher than the true stress in the beam. S σ= where: S= M S I I = cc c t the section modulus The modulus of rupture is the flexural stress fr = Mmax/S. a distance cc or ct. where the bending moment Mmax is the maximum value at rupture. the flexural stress is expressed in terms of the section modulus. therefore. That is.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components The flexural stress in the beam is given by the formula: σ= My I where: σ = flexural stress (tension or compression) y = distance from neutral axis to fiber under consideration M = bending moment I = moment of inertia Thus. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 30 . at y = cc and y = ct: σc = σt = Mc c I Mc t I compressive stress tensile stress If the section is symmetrical. At rupture.
Engineering Encyclopedia
Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components
Shear Stresses
In addition to the flexural stresses, a beam develops longitudinal (horizontal) and transverse (vertical) shear stresses due to the shear force, V.
Neutral Axis Area d y b Shear Section (a) Flexural Stress y
Element A
Bending Moment M
Vertical Shear
τ
Shear Stress (b)
Shear Force (V)
Horizontal Shear Element A (c)
Figure 25. Horizontal Shear in a Beam
Shear stresses occur only if the bending moment varies along the beam. Any beam, or portion of the beam’s length, that has a uniform bending moment has no vertical shear and therefore no horizontal shear. Unlike flexural stress, the horizontal shear stress is zero at the outer fibers of the beam and maximum at the neutral axis of the beam. It tends to cause one part of the beam to slide past the other. The horizontal and vertical shear stresses at any point in the beam are equal. The shear stress at any point in the crosssection of a beam is:
τ=
where: V
VQ Ib
= external vertical shear on beam (lb, N)
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I b A
= moment of inertia of whole section (in.4, mm4) = width of section at plane where stress is desired (in., mm) = area of section beyond plane where stress is desired (in.2, mm2) = distance of center of gravity of area to neutral axis (in., mm) =
Ay , the static moment of the area beyond the plane being considered, taken about the neutral axis.
y
Q
The average shear stress, τavg, on a section of the beam is:
τ avg =
V A
For a beam with a rectangular section; b x d: A = bd, Qmax = bd3 I= 12 Therefore, or bd2 (for section at neutral axis) and 8
τmax = 1.5
V V , τavg = bd bd
τmax = 1.5 τavg
A way to visualize the horizontal shear stress in a beam is to consider two smooth planks forming a simple beam as shown in Figure 26. Two cases are considered:
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Lower fiber of upper plank stretch Upper fibers of lower plank shorten Planks slide past each other
a) Planks Not Connected • Shear stress along this line
b) Planks Connected
Figure 26. Plank Beams
In the first case, the planks slide past each other because they are not connected. The bending resistance of the beam is the sum of the bending resistances of the two planks acting independently. In the second case, if the planks are connected along their line of contact so as to develop adequate shear strength, the two planks can be made to act as one beam.
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Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 34 . flexural stress. Maximum tensile stress is at the top of section over support B. B 6 ft N 5 in. The maximum shear stress is at the location of the maximum vertical shear. 6 in. = 864 lb/in. 1920 Figure 27. S = = = 100 in. the maximum flexural stress occurs at the section with the maximum bending moment. A 10 in. From Example 1: Mmax = 7200 lbft (at support B) Vmax = 1200 lb Flexural stress: σ= Mc M = I S 2 bd2 6(10 ) For rectangular section.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 5: Flexural and Shear Stresses in a Simple Overhang Beam (Page 1 of 2) Calculate the maximum flexural stress and the maximum shear stress in the beam given in Example 1.2 3 100 in. P = 1200 lb A 10 ft 720 5 in. Simple Overhang Beam Since the beam section is uniform. Maximum compression occurs at bottom of beam at support B. b = 6 in.3 6 6 Max. and d = 10 in. σ max = 7200 x 12 lb in. The beam has a rectangular crosssection.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) Shear stress.5 V = 1. Maximum Shear at Center of Beam Section = 1.5 = 1. Qmax = I= bd3 12 bd d bd2 × = 2 4 8 d/4 b τavg A d t=b 1 2 bd 8 3 V × 2 bd Neutral axes τmax τ max = 1 3 bd × b 12 V= Figure 28.5t avg A 1200 = 30 psi 6(10 ) Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 35 . τ= VQ Ib τ avg = V A For a rectangular section the maximum shear occurs at the center of the beam section (where the neutral axis is).
515 in.905 in.000 lb y = 1.a = b = L 2 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 36 .000 lb at the midspan. I = 62.485 in. supported on each end. P = 10.47 in. 5. − lb 4 4 Pab L . Figure 29 shows the crosssection of this beam. 80. 50 in.4 5.000 lb 1.47 in. It is 100 in.6 in.5 lb) is used as a beam. 12. together with its load diagram. 6. N. Cross Section of a Simple TBeam Figure 18 shows that the formula for the bending moment for this type of beam is: Mmax = Therefore.94 in. 0.A. Find the maximum tensile and maximum compressive flexural stresses.wide flange.000 lb A 100 in. and bears a concentrated load of 10.long. Mmax = PL (10.000 )(100 ) = = 250. A 5.47 in.000in.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 6: Flexural Stresses in a Simple TBeam (Page 1 of 2) A standard rolled Tsection (WT6 in. 1. Section AA Figure 29.
47 ) = 21.6 The top portion of the beam is in compression. substituting appropriate known values into the formula for flexural stress gives: σt = Mc (250.6 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 37 .845 psi (tension) = I 62.47 ) = = 5870 psi (compression) I 62. σc = Mc (250.000 )(1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) Since the bottom portion of the beam is stressed in tension.000 )(5.
Therefore. L y w Lateral Loads P Neutral Axis x Internal Force: . You now know how to draw the shear and bending moment diagrams and to calculate the shear and flexural stresses at any section in the beam and at any point in that section. shear. calculating the beam deflections. V x y(x) Beam Properties: .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Calculating Beam Deflection The module thus far has reviewed the types of beams commonly encountered in structural analysis and the relationships that exist between the loads. Elastic Curve of a Beam Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 38 .Bending Moment. M .Moment of Inertia. I Beam Neutral Axis ρ ¦ ymax¦ θ Elastic Curve for Deformed Beam Figure 30. you have completed the first requirement for the structural analysis of beams. The module now addresses the second requirement. A loaded straight beam deforms due to shortening of the fibers in compression and elongation of the fibers in tension.Elastic Modulus. and bending moment in a beam. the neutral axis retains its original length but curves. As illustrated in Figure 30.Shear Force. E . The longitudinal axis of the beam is called the elastic curve. and the beam deflects downward under gravity loads.
and deflection (y) of the beam are related to the bending moment (M) along the longitudinal axis (x) of the beam: • • • Curvature. Standard textbooks provide several methods for calculating beam deflection using the relationships in the above equations. E. you must use a procedure such as the conjugate beam method to calculate deflection of the beam.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components The curvature (1/ρ). For cases not covered including beams having nonuniform crosssection. I. These tables include only simple cases involving beams of uniform crosssections. The use of these standard tables is covered in the section on Beam Formulas. 1/ρ = Slope. Standard Tables For Beam Deflection The simplest and quickest way to determine the deflection of a beam is to use the formulas listed in standard beam tables provided in the Work Aids or from engineering handbooks such as the AISC Manual for Steel Construction. slope (θ). The methods most applicable to the structural analysis and design of beams are standard tables and conjugate beams discussed in the following sections. Deflection. and the moment of inertia. d2 y M = . ρ = radius of curvature of beam 2 dx EI dy = dx y(x) = M ∫ EI dx θ = ∫∫ EI dx M The beam properties needed to calculate the deflection of a beam are the elastic modulus. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 39 .
the conjugate beam has free ends. the conjugate beam has builtin ends. • • Step 4: Load the conjugate beam with the M/EI diagram. The deflection is numerically equal to the moment as calculated from the conjugate beam forces. The method is able to handle beams of varying crosssections and materials. the conjugate beam will be simply supported at its ends. If the beam is of constant crosssection. if the beam crosssection varies with x. the conjugate beam has hinges at the support points If the actual beam has free ends. If the actual beam is simply supported away from its ends. EI will be constant and the M/EI diagram will have the same shape as the moment diagram. Step 2: Construct the M/EI diagram by dividing the value of M at every point along the beam by the product of EI at that point.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Conjugate Beam Method The conjugate beam method changes a deflection problem into one of drawing moment diagrams. • • If the actual beam is simply supported at its end. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 40 . then I will change and the M/EI diagram will differ from the moment diagram. Find the conjugate reactions by methods of statics. Use the superscript (*) to indicate conjugate parameters. However. Step 3: Draw a conjugate beam of the same length as the original beam. The material and crosssectional area of this conjugate beam are not relevant. Step 1: Draw the moment diagram for the beam as it is actually loaded. If the actual beam has builtin ends. Step 5: Find the conjugate moment at the point where the deflection is wanted.
R* Shear. θ Slope. M* Actual Beam Simple End Interior Support Builtin End Free End M EI End Slope. w* Reaction. θ Deflection. y *Indicates parameters related to conjugate beam. V* Moment. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 41 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components The relationships between the conjugate beam and the actual beam are as follows: Conjugate Beam Simple End* Hinge* Free End* Builtin End Load.
Cover Plates Added on Flanges of Beam Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 42 . Nonuniform beam . a 2 EI 40 in. ab. b 20 in.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 7: Beam Deflection (Page 1 of 6) Use the conjugate beam method to determine the deflections at the two load points a and b for the beams shown below. Figure 31. is doubled.356 × 106 lbin. Deflections at Two Load Points (a & b) B. b EI 20 in.2 Figure 32.2. 80 lb Cover Plates 120 lb EI 30 in. Uniform beam with constant value of EI = 2. EI = 2. 40 in.355 x 106 lbin. A.Cover plates added on flanges of beam between the loads so that EI of the portion of the beam. 80 lb 120 lb a 30 in.
Moment diagram for actual beam: 2400 lbin. the conjugate load has the same shape as the original moment diagram.019 x 103 in. 2. M Figure 33a. 40 in.Deflection of Uniform Beam (Page 2 of 6) 80 lb 120 lb a 30 in.356 x 10 6 lb . Moment Diagram for Actual Beam Steps 2 – 4: Since the crosssection is constant. The peak load on the conjugate beam is: w* = = M EI 2400 lb . Repeat of Figure 31 Step 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Solution: Example 7A .1 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 43 . b 20 in.in 2 = 1.in.
5x10 2 90 6.019 x 103) = 4.472 x 102 Total R*2 R*1 = = 312.623 x 102 − R*2 = 3.019 x 103) = 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 3 of 6) The conjugate reaction R1* is found by the following method.623 x 102 x 76.67 = 78.151 x 102 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 44 .076 x 102 x x* 50 M about Pt.8 x 102 30 2 (1.13 x 102 312. The loading diagram is assumed to be made up of a rectangular load and two triangular loads.5 x 102 = 90R*2 = 3.33 Figure 33b.67 13. R*2 * 20 (2) * (1) * (3) 50 76.019 x 103 M EI R*1 x* 90 in.58 x 102 (3) 20 2 (1.529 x 102 x 20 = 30. 1.019 x 103) = 1.019 x 102 6. Loading Diagram for Actual Beam Area (1) (2) 40(1. 1* = 203.
Engineering Encyclopedia
Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components
(Page 4 of 6) Step 5: Deflection  Conjugate Moment, M*
•
Deflection at a:
ya = M*a = 3.151 x 10 (30) – (1.019 x 10 )
3 2
= 94.53 x 102 = −15.29 x 102 79.24 x 10 = 0.7924 in.
2
30 30 × 2 3
ya
•
Deflection at b:
yb = M*b = 3.472 x 10 (20) 20 3 20 × – (1.019 x 10 ) 2 3 yb
2
= 69.44 x 102 = −6.79 x 102 62.65 x 10 = 0.6265 in.
2
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Solution: Example 7B  Deflection of Nonuniform Beam
(Page 5 of 6) Using conjugate beam method to calculate the deflection of the beam in Figure 32 with cover plates added between the two loads so that EI in this section of the beam is double that of the remaining parts of the beam.
80 lb
Cover Plates
120 lb
EI 30 in.
a
2 EI 40 in.
b
EI 20 in.
EI = 2.355 x 106 lbin.2
Repeat of Figure 32
Step 1: Moment diagram for actual beam is same as for Example 7A.
M
Figure 34a. Moment Diagram
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(Page 6 of 6) Steps 2 – 4: Conjugate beam load
1.019 x 103
1.019 x 103
(2)
* 0.5095 x 103 * (1) *
(4)
* R*1
(3)
R*2
Figure 34b.
Area From Example 7A 40(0.5095 x 103) Total 6.623 x 102 = 2.038 x 102 X 50 = 4.585 X 102 R*2
R*1
M Diagram EI
M about Pt. 1* 312.5 x 102 = 101.9 x 102 210.6 X 102 =
210.6 x102 90
x*
For Items (1), (2), and (3) For Item (4) = 90R*2
= 2.34 X 102
= (4.585 – 2.34) x 102 = 2.245 x 102
Step 5: Deflection  Conjugate Moment, M*
•
Deflection at a:
ya = M*a = 2.245 × 10 (30) – (1.019 ∗ 10 )
3 2
= 67.35 × 102 =
2
30 30 × 2 3
ya
−15.29 × 10

52.06 × 10 = 0.5206 in.
2
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that is. Beam overhanging support (Cases 24 to 28). Beam fixed at one end and free to deflect vertically but not to rotate at the other end. where 33 cases are listed covering various beams and load types.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Finding and Using Beam Formulas Previous sections have reviewed the procedures for calculating the reactions. and Work Aid 15 lists the beams and load types covered. shear. than to do the calculation from the methods discussed earlier. that is. bending moment. Continuous beam with two equal spans (Cases 29 to 31). 32. It is usually easier and quicker to use the listed diagrams and formulas from these sources for the analysis of a beam. 21. The types of beams covered in the table include: • • • • • Simple beam (Cases 1 to 11. 19. Work Aid 13 lists the symbols used in the beam diagrams and formulas. One useful source for such formulas is the AISC Manual of Steel Construction. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 48 . 23). a guided cantilever (Cases 20. • • The types of loads included in the beam diagrams of the Work Aids are as follows: • • Concentrated loads. Cantilever beam (Cases 18. Beam fixed at both ends (Cases 15 to 17). and deflection of beams with various types of loads and supports. Work Aid 14 is an index to the cases. Beam Formula Work Aids Beam diagrams and formulas from the AISC Manual are provided in Work Aids. if the loading and beam type are covered. 33). Beam fixed at one end and supported at the other. Uniformly distributed loads. a propped cantilever (Cases 12 to 14). for certain standard type beams the standard beam formulas provided in engineering handbooks can be used. 22). However.
(Values for the shear. Use the superposition technique if your problem is not covered but can be composed from two or more beam/loading cases that are covered. Obtain the appropriate diagrams and formulas from the Work Aids. moment. Maximum shear and its location. The results obtained from the beam diagrams and formulas listed in the Work Aids are: • • • Beam/Load diagram. 2. Identify the beam/load type that corresponds to the problem being solved.) Using Beam Formula Work Aids Use the beam formulas to perform beam analysis as follows: 1. and deflection at any point x along the beam. Variable end moments. Maximum deflection and its location. Maximum bending moment and its location. These calculation steps are illustrated in the following examples and exercises. 5.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components • • Linearly distributed (triangular) loads. Shear and bending moment diagram. Draw the shear and moment diagram if needed. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 49 . 4. Calculate the desired values for the beam by substituting the appropriate known values into the formulas. 3. Expressions for: Beam reactions.
and deflection for the beam and loading given in Example 3 (Figure 14).5 × 103 kips/in. x W = total load wo A L W B Ra Rb A Ra L/2 L/2 B Rb Repeat of Figure 14 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 50 .4 Use the beam formulas in the Work Aids.2 I = 3000 in. Assume: W = 300 kips L = 120 in. E = 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 8: Shear Moment and Deflection for Simple Beam with Uniform Load Distribution (Page 1 of 2) Calculate the maximum values for shear. moment.
3 ∆max = 5WL3 5(300 )(120 ) = = 1. From Work Aid 15. the applicable beam formulas are: 2. Vmax = supports. Identify the applicable beam/load case for a simply supported beam. Mmax = support.Beam/Load No. • Maximum shear. 1. 4. E. for Beam/Load No.Example 8 (Page 2 of 2) 1. and I: Vmax = Mmax = W 300 = = 150 kips 2 2 WL = 8 (300 )(120 ) 8 = 4500 kipin. Calculate required values based on the specified values for W. • Maximum deflection. Superposition is not required. W at the right and left 2 WL at x = L/2 from the left 8 5WL3 at x = L/2 from the 384 EI • Maximum moment. From Work Aid 14 . 3. L.5 in.5 x 10 3 )(3000 ) Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 51 . 384 EI 384(1. ∆max = left support. 1 applies.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Solution .
the beam loading may not be covered directly as a case in the Work Aids. The loads for the combined cases. should result in the loading being investigated. the given beam must have the same support condition as the cases to be combined. when summed. in some situations. This approach to analyzing beams with complex loading is illustrated in Examples 9 and 10. the principle of superposition can be used to combine two or more of the listed cases to obtain the results for the desired beam loading. However. For this approach to work correctly.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Superposition of Beam/Load Cases In some beam analysis problems. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 52 .
These cases are as follows: Figure 36. P w/2 w a L b Figure 35.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 9: Superposition of Beam/Load Cases Given the beam in Figure 35. Superposition of Beam/Load Cases Solution . Beam Load Cases Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 53 . However.Example 9 This beam/load case is not covered directly in the Work Aids. several listed cases can be combined to produce the desired result. identify the beam/load cases from the Work Aids that can be used to perform the beam analysis.
4 5 ft Figure 37. More Beam Load Cases Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 54 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 10: Beam Diagrams and Deflection Using Superposition and Work Aids (Page 1 of 4) Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown in Figure 37 and calculate the deflection at the midpoint between the supports.2 (steel) I = 1000 in.Example 10 Use superposition to combine the following beam/load cases: Figure 38.000 kips/in. Example 10 Beam Solution . R = 100 kips w = 100 kips P = 50 kips C 10 ft 10 ft Beam E = 29.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 4) Use superposition to combine the following beam/load cases: Figure 39a. Beam Load Cases Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 55 .
993 in. More Beam Load Cases Deflection.422 in. midpoint between support. 48(29. 96(29. ∆c. Case 7 RL3 ∆c = 48EI 100(240 ) = = 0. Superposition: Combined Diagrams Case 7 + Case 24 + Case 26 75 35 70 50 Moment Diagrams (Unit: kipft) Mc = 550 65 M2 = 300 105 Figure 39b.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 3 of 4) Shear Diagrams (Unit kips) d. x = 10 a.000 )(1000 ) 3 b. ∆ c = ( ) ∆c = 4(240 ) /12 ⎡5 2⎤ 2 ⎢ 4 (240 ) − 3(60 ) ⎥ = 0. Case 24 ∆x = wox 4 L − 2L2 x 2 + Lx 3 − 2a 2L2 + 2a 2 x 2 24EIL w oL2 ⎡ 5 2⎤ 2 ⎢ 4 240 − 3(60 ) ⎥ 96EI ⎣ ⎦ [ ] For x = L /2.000 )(1000 ) ⎣ ⎦ 2 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 56 .
Combine Case 7 + Case 24 + Case 26 Total ∆c = 0.993 + 0.372 = 1. Case 26 ∆x = Pax 2 L − x2 6EIL [ ] For x = L PaL2 (up) . ∆c = 16EI 2 2 ∆c d.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 4 of 4) c. (up) 16(29.372 in. 50(60 )(240 ) = = 0. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 57 .043 in.422 – 0.000 )(1000 ) By superposition .
Combined actions of bending loading and axial loading in a structural member. including: • • • • • • Definition and function of columns. Figure 40 shows examples of columns.the loadcarrying capacities of columns of various types. Types of columns. Definition and Function A column is a linear structural member loaded primarily along its longitudinal axis. the loads are axial compression and result from the self weights and operating conditions of the structure. Column loads and stresses . Columns are often connected to beams and other structural members to form structural frames to support the permanent and superimposed loads efficiently. called a beamcolumn. Often the beams in a structure are framed into (or are supported by) vertical structural members. Column analysis considerations.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components ANALYZING COLUMNS Introduction The first section of this module discussed the analysis of beams as basic components of civil engineering structures. Column materials and sections normally used. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 58 . Therefore. usually referred to as columns. A column usually has a uniform crosssection and is oriented vertically (or nearly vertically) in a structure. Generally. This part of the module covers the analysis of columns. in evaluating or designing such structures you will often have to perform structural analysis of columns.
Reinforced concrete. Structural steel and timber. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 59 . Hollow sections . Columns in Rigid Reinforced Concrete Space Frame Figure 40. Individual Columns b.square.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components P P P 2nd story columns columns 1st story columns a. etc. Structural Timber. circular.pipes and tubes. Structural steel and concrete. The section shapes used for columns include: • • • Compact rolled shapes (AISC). rectangular. Composites. Columns in Braced Steel Frame c. Typical Structural Columns Identifying Column Materials and Sections The materials commonly used for columns are: • • • • Structural steel. Simple solids .
or movement.the ability of the structure to safely support a specified load without experiencing excessive stresses. Typical Column Sections Column Analysis and Considerations The discussion of the analysis of beams showed that two key considerations in structural analysis are: • • Strength . deformation. These considerations apply to analysis and design of columns Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 60 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components • Compound or builtup sections. a: Structural Steel Rolled Shape b: Reinforced Concrete with RoundSpiral Ties c: ConcreteFilled Tube d: Reinforced Concrete Encased Steel e: SteelTimber Composite Figure 41. Some of these column materials and sections are illustrated in Figure 41. and Serviceability .the ability of the structure to support a specified load without undergoing unacceptable deflection.
See Figure 42.usually expressed as a ratio of the effective kL of the column to a characteristic crosssection dimension (width b or radius of gyration r). Area of crosssection. Effective length. Load eccentricity. The tendency to buckle under axial compression occurs even in a column that is initially straight. Slenderness .The column length L is modified by a factor k to reflect the tendency to buckle due to the end conditions.imperfections. End support conditions . fixed. σy. are as follows: • • • • • • Load magnitude.Pinned. This change in geometry is called buckling. P. Initial outofstraightness .the ability to support a given compressive load without experiencing a sudden change in geometry. e . There is a third major consideration specific to columns. Material elastic modulus. namely: • Stability .kL . Material yield stress. the parameters that can control or affect the behavior of a column.Distance from the center of the column crosssection to the load application point. A. and ultimate stress. free. Deviation from straightness will further worsen this buckling tendency. Based on these considerations. as shown in Figures 42 and 43. σu.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components as well. E. . • • • Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 61 . or partially restrained.
Key Characteristic of a Single Column Loaded with P at Eccentricity e from the Centroidal Axis Loads H P Beam P Le = kL H P P Columns Footings L a) Structural Frame b) Structural Model Figure 43. I A L r= I A Figure 42.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components P xaxis e b d Area Moment of Inertia. Columns as Part of a Structural Frame Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 62 .
intermediate length columns are used. The limits on the slenderness ratio for a long column are: • • • Structural steel Reinforced concrete kL/r > 120. Timber .) Intermediate Length Column . The slenderness ratios for this type of column fall in the range between those for a short column and long column. kL/r > 100.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Identifying Column Types To analyze or design a column you need to know its type. kL/r < 22. buckling is not a consideration.Capacity is limited both by compressive crushing or yielding and by buckling.Capacity is limited by elastic buckling.not permitted. In most practical civil engineering applications. (kL/d must be less than 50. kL/d < 11. that is. A long column will buckle sideways before the material crushes or yields under the compressive load. This will help you to calculate the load capacity of the column. kL/d for wood) below a specified limit: • • • Structural Steel Reinforced Concrete Timber kL/r < 20.Capacity is limited only by the compressive strength of the material. Long column . Column Type Based on Slenderness Short column . A column is classified to be one of the following three types as shown in Figure 44. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 63 . A short column is one that has a slenderness ratio (kL/r for steel and reinforced concrete.
Eccentrically Loaded Column .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Figure 44a.The axial compressive load acts at or near the geometric center (centroid) of the column crosssection. Eccentricity in a column is often due to its construction details and to imperfections such as deviations from vertical straightness. This bending increases the normal stresses in the column and the tendency of the column to buckle. Types of Columns Based on Slenderness Column Type Based on Eccentricity Axially Loaded Column . The eccentric load can result in significant bending of the column. The eccentricity e of the load (that is distance of load P to the centroid) must be less than 5% of the smaller crosssectional dimension.The axial compressive load acts at a distance greater than 5% of the smaller crosssectional dimension from the centroid of the column crosssection. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 64 .
If the axial load effects are more significant. and the members are treated as beamcolumns.Structural members do generally support both lateral loadings and axial loadings.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Figure 44b. However. The lateral load causes additional bending deflections and stresses as in a beam. these members are treated as beams. structural members are subjected to both lateral and axial loads. the members are treated as columns. In some cases both effects are important. Types of Columns Based on Eccentricity Column Type Based on Nature of Loading BeamColumn . The lateral loading can be caused by forces perpendicular to the column axis or by bending moments and shears due to the column framing into other structural members. These additional stresses combine with the stresses due to axial loading. In most practical situations in civil engineering. if the lateral load effects predominate. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 65 .
σy and compressive yield load. Allowable axial load. For a column with a cross Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 66 . Pcr. Pmax. Typical Loadings for BeamColumns Calculating Column Loads and Stresses It is often necessary to determine the loadcarrying capacity of a column to safely support a prescribed level of load. σcr and (buckling) load. Py. σu and compressive load. Failure load. Pa. Yield stress. To do this. you need to know how to calculate: • • • • • • Ultimate stress. Ultimate Compressive Load The ultimate compressive load Pu or ultimate capacity of a column is the load that will produce crushing failure of the column material. Pu. σa.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components M V P w1 w2 w3 g) BeamColumns Figure 44c. That is. and stress. Critical stress. σmax. and stress. the compressive stress in the material will reach the ultimate value (σu). Factor of safety.
For an ideal. σy: P Py = σyA or σy = y A Critical (Buckling) Load The critical (buckling) load of a column is the load at which the column will become unstable (due to large geometric deformations needed for the column to move to a new equilibrium position) or begin to buckle. but it depends on: i) elastic modulus. and iii) effective length factor k.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components sectional area A: Pu = σuA or σu = Compressive Yield Load Pu A The compressive yield load or yield capacity of a column is the load that will cause compressive yielding of the column material. ii) shape of cross section in terms of moment of inertia. L/r. The corresponding critical stress in the Euler column due to the critical load is: P π 2E σ cr = cr = A (L/r )2 I . where r = Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 67 . The stress in the material reaches the yield value. The equation shows that the critical stress is proportional to the elastic modulus of the column material and inversely proportional to the square of the slenderness ratio. the buckling load is given by the Euler formula for elastic instability of a column: π 2EI with k = 1 Pcr = (kL) 2 where: I E = the elastic modulus of the column material = moment of inertia of the column section L = length of column between pinned supports k = effective length factor Note that the buckling load of a column does not depend on the strength (ultimate stress or yield stress) of the material. the minimum radius of gyration of the column A cross section. initially straight. pinnedend column.
of the column as defined in Figure 45. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 68 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components for a column with pinnedend supports. whichever is less. Generally. kL/r. the critical (buckling) stress is given as σcr = π 2E (kL/r) 2 where: k = 1 for Euler column. the ultimate load and the critical (buckling) load. for a column is the lower of two values. Pmax. however. the critical loads and critical stresses are based on the effective length. Pmax = Pu or Pcr. For columns with other than pinnedend supports. and other intermediate values are determined depending on the end conditions. The failure stress corresponding to the failure load is: σmax = σu or σcr. Failure Load The failure load.5 for a column with fixed ends and k = 2 for a cantilever column. Figure 46 shows typical plots of Pmax and σmax as a function of the column slenderness ratio. k = 0. whichever is less. Le. The failure load is the largest load the column will support before it fails. or the minimum load that will cause failure of the column. L. is replaced by Le = kL in equations: Pcr = (kL )2 π 2EI σ cr = (kL/r )2 π 2E where values k are given for support conditions commonly encountered in civil engineering practice as provided in Figure 45. For such columns the length.
0 1. k Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 69 . Values of Column Coefficient.65 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Buckled shape of column is shown by dashed line Theoretical k value Recommended design value when ideal conditions are approximated 0.0 Rotation fixed and translation fixed End condition code Rotation free and translation fixed Rotation fixed and translation free Rotation free and translation free Figure 45.0 2.80 1.5 0.0 2.2 1.10 2.7 1.0 2. Le = kL. Column Effective Length.0 0.
kL/r Note that in Figure 46 the transition point between the ultimate and critical values are based on setting σcr = σu such that σU = π 2E (kL/r) 2 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Figure 46. theoretical curves for the column failure loads and stresses cannot be reached. Typical Plots of Pmax and σmax as a Function of the Column Slenderness Ratio. The actual column failure loads and stresses are lower than the theoretical values because of: • Geometric imperfections in the column or deviation from Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 70 . the ideal. especially for columns of intermediate lengths. then: EI σuA For failure load: For failure stress: The critical length Lc = kL = π The critical slenderness ratio Cc = E kL =π σu r In practice. Tests results show lower values for these loads and stresses as indicated by the lower curves in Figure 46.
in the material and geometric properties. and in the approximation and analysis.0 is usually selected for the factor of safety.S. A Factor of Safety (F. so that the column has a low risk of failure due to crushing. Allowable stress σa corresponding to the allowable load for a column depends on the material compressive strength σu and the critical (buckling) stress σcr such that σa = = Pa σ max = A F. Structural design handbooks such as the AISC Manuals [Ref. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 71 . Pmax : Pa = Pmax F. • • Factor of Safety Actual or incidental eccentricity of the axial load. on ASD or LRFD methods] for Steel Construction and the National Forest Products Association (NFPA) National Design Specification for Lumber provide tables of allowable loads and stresses for columns of varying slenderness.S.g.S.) is applied to failure load to obtain the load that the column can safely support. σ σu or cr . yielding. Allowable Load/Capacity Allowable load or allowable capacity Pa of a column is the load that the column can safely support. The stress due to axial compressive load for a column is limited to the allowable stress to ensure that the column functions safely. F. It is obtained by applying a factor of safety to the column failure load.S. or buckling. whichever is less. that is. For column analysis and design. a value of 2. no.S. due to rolling and/or transportation) in rolled and fabricated column shapes. Effects of residual stresses (e. The factor of safety takes into account the uncertainties in the loads.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components straightness. F.
c. Alternate Arrangements of Column CrossSection • Assume that: E = 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 11: Column Loads and Stresses (Page 1 of 3) A column. Ultimate Load. of 12 ft effective length.S. Failure load. Critical buckling load and stress. Allowable load and stress. • Calculate the following for each column arrangement: a. Two arrangements of the planks are to be considered. Note: It is assumed that the shear strength of each nail far exceeds the shear strength of the wooden planks and the Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 72 . is to be constructed by securely nailing four wooden planks together.5 × 106 psi = 4000 psi =3 σu F. b. Figure 47. d. Each plank has an actual crosssection of 2× 8 in. as shown in Figure 47 for an Euler column with k = 1.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components section will always act as if it were continuous (without nails). = 64 in σu Pu b.80 kips/in.33 ) (144 )2 = 243.44 kips d. Allowable Load. A 64 Pmax = min of [Pu or Pcr] Pmax = Pcr = 243. Pcr Pcr = E I kL (kL )2 π 2EI (k = 1) = 1. Solution: Example 11 (Page 2 of 3) Column 1. 2 8 in.5x106 )(341. a.5 × 106 psi bd3 8(8)3 = = = 341. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 73 . Pu Pu A = Aσu = 8(8) = 4000 psi = 64(4000) = 256 kips 8 in. Critical Euler Buckling Load. Ultimate Load.33 in. Pa Pa = Pmax F. Pmax Pcr 243.44 kips Critical stress.4 12 12 = 12 ft = 144 in. Pcr = (3.S. Failure Load.44 2 = = 3. σcr = c.14 )2 (1.
15 kips 3. = A 64 Critical Buckling Load Pcr Pcr = I kL = (kL )2 π 2EI 10 6 (10)3 – (6)3 = 725.3 k 2 = 8.0 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 74 . = 2 A 64 in. 10 in. a. Pmax = Pu or Pcr.3 kips Critical stress. σa = Column 2. Allowable Load.5x10 6 )(725.15 2 = 1. whichever is less Pmax = Pu = 256 kips d.4 12 12 = 144 in. Pu Pu A Pu b. Pa Pa = Pmax 256 = = 85. Pmax Pcr 517.44 = 81. = Aσu = (10)2 – (6)2 = 64 in. 10 in Pa 81. = 3.14 )2 (1.33 ) (144 )2 = 517.0 (Page 3 of 3) Allowable stress.33 kips F. Pcr = (3. σcr = c.2 = 64(4000) = 256 kips 6 in. 6 in. Ultimate Load. 3.0 Pa = 243.08 kips/in.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components F.33 in.S. Failure Load.27 kips/in.S.
σa = Pa 85.33k 2 = 1.33 kips/in. the box section is more efficient in carrying the applied axial loads. Note: In the above problem. = 2 A 64in.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Allowable stress. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 75 .
However. in civil engineering structures. (FS)u For intermediate and long beamcolumns. Therefore. P.S. the allowable axial compressive stress is generally less than that for bending. The next section reviews the procedures and formulas for analyzing a beamcolumn. A structural member that experiences a significant amount of bending as well as axial load is called a beamcolumn. such as the column in a rigid frame (Figure 43) carrying both horizontal and vertical loads. where buckling has to be considered. are: • • • Axial stress: Bending (flexural) stress: Combined stress: fa = ± fb = ± P A M S P M ± A S f tot = fa + fb = ± The allowable combined stress formula (below) is valid only for a short member that has an allowable compressive stress governed by the yield or ultimate capacity of the material: f = Fy P M ± ≤ A S (F. for such beamcolumns. and bending moment. a structural member is usually subjected to both bending and axial loads.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Calculating Combined Bending and Axial Loading This module has reviewed some of the principles and procedures required for analyzing beams subjected to bending from lateral loads and columns subjected primarily to axial compressive loads. BeamColumns Recall that the basic stresses in a structural member due to the axial load.)y and also f tot ≤ Fu . the interaction formulas are more meaningful and are applied as follows: • Axial load and bending about one axis: Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 76 . M.
+ ≤1 Fa Fb Fa Fb where: Fa Fb • = allowable stress when only axial load is present in the member (axiallyloaded column). = allowable stress when only bending is present in the member (beam flexure). Biaxial Bending about x and y Axes of the Column Cross Section where the subscripts x and y denote values pertaining to the x and y axes of the section. Axial load and bending about both axes: fby fa f + bx + ≤1 Fb Fbx Fby P My Mx y x Figure 48.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components fa f P/A M/S + b ≤1 . about which the biaxial bending state is enforced. Eccentrically Loaded Columns Eccentrically loaded columns are a special case of combined axial load and bending in the column. the combined Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 77 . Therefore.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components stress formula and the interaction formulas can also be used in the analysis of columns subjected to eccentric loads. c = Distance from the center of the column section to the extreme fiber. P Eccentricity. using the short column formula. For example. Eccentrically Loaded Column Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 78 . Therefore: f = P Pe Ac P ⎛ ec ⎞ ± • = ⎜1 ± 2 ⎟ A A I A⎝ r ⎠ Load. e where: the radius of gyration. r = I A Area. for the bending moment M in the formulas for combined stresses and in the beamcolumn interaction formulas. This is done by substituting the moment. the product of P multiplied by e. the combined stress due to an eccentric load is: f = P M ± A S where: M = Pe Smin = I I c = Moment of inertia. A c Figure 49.
200 mm x W 310 x 74 A = 9480 mm2 rx = 131. and allowable bending stress Fb = 0.5m effective length.6 mm ry = 49. Based on interaction formula with allowable axial stress Fa = 100 MPa. Use E = 200 GPa and Fy = 250 MPa. Eccentrically Loaded Steel Column a) b) Based on allowable combined stress and Fa = 100 MPa. Solution: Example 12 a) Combined Stress: Eccentrically loaded column e = 200 mm P ⎛ ec ⎞ ⎜1+ 2 ⎟ ≤ Fa A⎝ r ⎠ fapp = Maximum allowable P1 is obtained by setting fapp = Fa : P1 = AFa ec 1+ 2 r Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 79 .8 mm Sx = 1058 x 103 mm3 P C y C Figure 50.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 12: Combined Axial Load and Bending in Column (Page 1 of 2) Determine the largest load P that can be safely carried by a W 310 x 74 steel column of 4.6 Fy.
6mm )2 = 339.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components = (9480mm )(100N/mm ) 2 2 (200mm )(155mm ) 1+ (131.8 kN Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 80 .
9 kN It is concluded: For the given conditions (e. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 81 .8 kN Note: If one of the above conditions is changed. cross section type. material properties.6(250 ) = 150N/mm 2 Fa Fb ⎡ 1 e ⎤ P/A Pe/S + ≤ 1 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) b) Interaction Formula: fa fb + ≤ 1. P⎢ + ⎥ ≤1 Fa Fb ⎣ AFa SFb ⎦ Maximum allowable P2 is obtained by setting the sum of dimensionless stress ratio to 1: ⎡ 1 e ⎤ P2 = ⎢ + ⎥ ⎣ AFa SFb ⎦ −1 ⎡ ⎤ 1 200 =⎢ + ⎥ 3 ⎣ (9480 )(100 ) 1058x10 (150 ) ⎦ −1 ( ) = 431. the load carrying capacity of the column will also change and one has to reevaluate the column capacity. and value of e). Fb = 0.g. the column can safely carry Pmax = min [P1 . dimension. effective length. P2] = 339.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components ANALYZING FOOTINGS In addition to beams and columns that have been reviewed in the two preceding sections. Spread (individual) footings for columns. Stability ratio.supporting two or more columns. especially for large vessels and stacks. foundations are also important parts of civil engineering structures. Identifying and Defining Types of Footings Footings are structural components used to transfer the loads on a structure to the ground. Combined footings . are: • • • • Strip footing for walls. However. Analysis procedure for footings. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 82 . This section discusses the analysis of footings. Soilbearing pressure. Moment and shear in a footing. sometimes octagonal or circular footings are used. Footings are also called shallow foundations because they support the loads near to the ground surface. as shown in Figure 51. Footings are generally made of reinforced concrete and are usually rectangular in shape. Octagonal or circular footings. Applied loads. Effects of load eccentricity. including the following topics: • • • • • • • Definition and types of footings. The most common types of footings.
Evaluate the soilbearing pressure and footing stresses by comparing the calculated values with the specified allowable values. Calculate the bearing pressure on the soil due to the loads and weight of the footing. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 83 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components b d d a) Strip Footing (wall) b) Spread Footing (Column) d d L c) Combined Footing d) Octagonal Footing Figure 51. Calculate the bending moment and shear force at the critical sections of the footing. Types of Footings Analysis Procedure The analysis of a footing involves the following: • • • • Determine the loads on the footing.
This results in an eccentric load on the footing as shown in Figure 53b. In general these loads are. Loads Acting on a Support Footing Identifying and Defining Eccentric Loads on Footings Normally a wall or column is located at the center of the supporting footing. sometimes the wall or column is off center. Horizontal (Shear) Load. H. so that the vertical load is centered on the footing. as shown in Figure 52: • • • Vertical (Axial) Load. However.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Identifying and Defining Applied Loads The loads acting on a support footing are the reactions from the structural member it supports. P. P M H Figure 52. Moment M along one or both horizontal axes of the footing. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 84 .
acts as if it were eccentric. q. use the following formulas.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components P P e a) Centered/Concentric Load b) Eccentric Load Figure 53. P. Centered/Concentric Load The soilbearing pressure for a centrally loaded footing is: q = where: A = contact area of the footing. To calculate the soilbearing pressure. M. Footing Loads Load eccentricity can occur about one axis of the footing or about both axes. When a moment. The apparent eccentricity. Identifying and Defining SoilBearing Pressure on Footings The soilbearing pressure. e. the soilbearing pressure due to the loaded footing is limited to an allowable value specified by a geotechnical engineer or in a project specification. Therefore. the centered or concentric load. is the ratio M/P. P A Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 85 . is the load per unit area produced by the footing on the underlying soil. is present on the footing. A footing must support the applied load safely without soil failure or excessive settlement.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Figure 54. Centered/Concentric Load Combined Vertical Load and Moment The standard combined stress formula is used to calculate the soil bearing pressure for a footing subject to both vertical load and overturning moment as follows: q = P Mc ± A I P Mc + A I P Mc − A I qmax = qmin where: I c = = moment of inertia of the contact area. = distance from center to edge of footing. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 86 .
125d ⎥ A⎣ ⎦ S = 0.167d ⎥ ⎦ • For a circular footing.8284 d2. Therefore: q = P⎡ M/P ⎤ ⎢1± 0. Combined Vertical Load and Moment • For a rectangular footing: A = bd I bd2 S = = c 6 and the equation for soil bearing pressure. 4 S = πd3 32 • For an octagonal footing. d = distance across the parallel faces: A = 0.1094 d3 π 2 d . q. becomes: q = P 6M P ⎡ M/P ⎤ ± 2 = ⎢1 ± bd bd A ⎣ 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Figure 55.132d ⎥ A⎣ ⎦ Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 87 . diameter = d: A = Therefore: q = P⎡ M/P ⎤ ⎢1 ± 0.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Eccentric Load q = = where: e = Load eccentricity r = Radius of gyration. e P (Pe )c ± A I P ⎡ ec ⎤ 1± A ⎢ r2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ I A P qmin qmax Figure 56. Contact Area Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 88 . Vertical Load and Moment • For a rectangular footing contact area: A = bd r 2 d2 = 12 e b d c = 2 Therefore: q = P ⎡ 6e ⎤ 1± ⎥ bd ⎢ d⎦ ⎣ *P d Figure 57.
qmin < 0.132 d.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components This is the same expression as that for a footing subjected to combined vertical load and moment. The expressions for ecr for specific footing shapes are as follows: • • • Partial Compression For rectangular footing.167 d.167 d P That is. q > 0. The standard combined stress equation for a footing with combined vertical load and moment or with eccentric load applies only for cases where the footing contact area is fully in compression. ecr = 0. That is. This occurs if e > ecr. ecr = 0. For octagonal footing. uplift occurs for a rectangular footing if the load falls outside the middle third or “kern” of the footing. For a rectangular footing this means that: e = M > ecr = 0. the soil cannot take tensile stress. For this case the rectangular footing is in only partial contact with the underlying soil. the eccentricity of the load on the footing cannot exceed a limit value called the critical eccentricity. The following relationships apply: From vertical equilibrium: ∑ Fy = 0 ∴ qmax = ⇒ P= 1 qmax × b 2 2P bx Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 89 . The same is true for footings of other shapes. Critical Eccentricity To prevent the uplift of any part of the footing. ecr.125 d. For circular footing. ecr = 0.
“R”.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Also. should coincide with line of action of “P” for equilibrium. thus: x d = −e 3 2 or: ⎛d ⎞ x = 3⎜ − e ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ Figure 58. Partial Compression Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 90 . resultant of soil pressure.
Solution: Example 13 a. SoilBearing Pressure for Square Footing P = 100 k. e. M = 300 kipft. M 150 kip − ft = = 1. e e = b. ecr ecr = 0. Maximum and minimum soil bearing pressures.5 ft P 100 kips Critical eccentricity. b. P = 100 k and an overturning moment. Critical eccentricity.167d. d. Eccentricity.k Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 91 . if the overturning moment is doubled. c.167(10) = 1. = 0. Calculate: a. ecr. Eccentricity. M = 150 ft.67 ft d = 10ft Figure 59a.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Example 13: SoilBearing Pressure for a Square Footing (Page 1 of 2) A column footing 10 ft square supports a concentric load. M = 150 kft. Maximum soilbearing pressure.
5 ⎤ 2 ⎢1 + 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) c.167d ⎥ A⎣ ⎦ 100 ⎡ 1.33 kips/ft bx 10(6) qmax = 3.67 ⎥ = 1. q e < ecr q = P⎡ e ⎤ ⎢1± 0.5 ⎤ e ⎤ 100 ⎡ P⎡ 2 ⎥= ⎢1 − ⎢1 − 1.k Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 92 . e = M 30 = = 3ft P 100 e > ecr. footing uplift occurs x qmax ⎛d ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ = 3 ⎜ − e ⎟ = 3 ⎜ − 3 ⎟ = 6ft ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = 2P 2(100) 2 = = 3.33 Figure 59b.67 ⎥ = 0. Soil bearing pressure.167d ⎥ A⎣ ⎦ P⎡ e ⎤ ⎢1+ 0. M = 300 ft.1 kips/ft A ⎣ e cr ⎦ 10(10 ) ⎣ ⎦ qmax = = qmin d. = Maximum soilbearing pressure M = 300.9 kips/ft 10(10 ) ⎣ ⎦ 1. Maximum SoilBearing Pressure for Square Footing P = 100 k.
See Figure 60 for example: P H M SR = = ΣMr ΣMo (P + W )d/2 M + Hh w d 2 o h Mr = Resisting Moment about point O Mo = Overturning Moment about point O Figure 60. The next step in the analysis procedure for a footing is to determine the moments and shears at the critical section of the footing and to compute and evaluate the stresses that result from these internal forces. the footing is treated similarly to a beam. The stability ratio (SR) is the ratio of the sum of the moments preventing overturning and the sum of the moments causing overturning of the structure. It is loaded vertically upward by the bearing pressure from the soil. The moments are taken about the point of rotation in the event of overturning. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 93 . An adequate factor safety is also needed to prevent the overturning of a structure subjected to large overturning forces.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Identifying and Defining Stability Ratio on Footings You know that the soil bearing pressure for a footing has to be limited to assure an adequate factor of safety against soil failure and to prevent excessive settlement of the footing. For this purpose. With this structural model. The factor of safety against the overturning of a footing or foundation is called the stability ratio. Stability Ratio Identifying and Defining Moment and Shear on Footings The lesson so far has shown how to determine the loads on the footing and the resulting soilbearing pressure. as shown in Figure 61.
See Figure 62.5t from support. Critical section for shear — 0. Moment and Shear on Footings The moment and shear forces and stresses are calculated at the critical sections defined as follows. P M qmin Footing qmax w=q w=q Cantilever Beams Figure 61.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components the moments and shears are calculated using the procedures covered earlier in the module. • • Critical section for bending moment — at face of support. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 94 .
Critical Sections Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 95 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components d t 2 b t Footing Section Column Footing d Critical Section: for bending moment for shear force Wall Footing Figure 62.
Engineering Encyclopedia
Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components
Example 14:
Stability Ratio, Moment, and Shear for a Square Footing
(Page 1 of 3) A retaining wall and footing support loads as shown in Figure 63. Calculate the following: a. Stability ratio. b. Eccentricity. c. Critical eccentricity. d. Soilbearing pressure. e. Shear at critical section. f. Moment at critical section.
P = 16 kips/ft including weight of wall and footing. 12 in. H = 12 kips/ft
H wall
P
12 in.
4 ft.
o
3 ft. 5 ft. d = 8 ft., b = 1 ft. P C L e = 2 footing
c
qmax 5.33 kips/ft.2 x = 6 ft.
Figure 63a. Wall and Footing Support Loads
Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards
96
Engineering Encyclopedia
Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components
Solution:
Example 14
(Page 2 of 3) a. Stability ratio, SR Taking moments about point O SR = b. Mr 16(5 ) = = 1.67 Mo 12(4 )
Eccentricity, e e M e = M P 12(4 ) − 16(1) = 2ft 16
= Moment about center of footing =
c.
Critical eccentricity, ecr ecr = 0.167 d = 1.33ft
d.
Soilbearing pressure, q e > ecr, footing uplifts x
⎛d ⎞ ⎛8 ⎞ = 3⎜ − e ⎟ = 3⎜ − 2 ⎟ = 6 ft ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠
qmax =
2P 2(16 ) 2 = = 5.33 kips/ft bx 1(6 )
Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards
97
Engineering Encyclopedia
Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components
(Page 3 of 3) e. Shear at critical section, Vc Vc = 5.33 + 1.78 (1)x4 = 14.22 kips 2
t = 0.5ft. 2
t = 1 ft.
Critical Section for Shear
5.33
1.78
4 ft
Figure 63b. Wall and Footing Support Loads (Shear at Critical Section)
f.
Moment at critical section, Mc
Mc = (1.33 )
(4.5 )2
2
+
1 (4.0 )(4.5 )⎛ 2 ⎞(4.5 ) = 40.5 kipft ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝3⎠
Critical Section for Shear moment
1.33 4.0 1.33
4.5 ft
Figure 63c. Wall and Footing Support Loads (Moment at Critical Section)
Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 98
Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 99 . columns.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components SUMMARY This module has discussed information to be used in analyzing various components of structure such as beams. and footings.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components This Page Intentionally Blank Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 100 .
calculate: a) b) Reactions R1 and R2. and Bending Moment in a Simple Overhang Beam (Page 1 of 2) For the overhang beam shown below. 100 lb/ft 300 lb A C 10' B 6' D 1000 lb 300 lb A R1 5' C 5' R2 B 6' D Figure 64. Overhang Beam Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 101 . Shear. which is 5 ft from left support (A) of the beam.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components WORK AIDS Work Aid 1: Calculating Reactions. The shear and bending moment at (C).
(i) Draw freebody diagram of a beam to left of point C.5' (100) (5) = 500 lb M A 320 lb 5' C V (ii) Sum vertical forces to obtain shear. + Σ MB = 0 ↑ Σ Fy = 0 : −(10)(R1) + (1000)(5) − (300)(6) = 0 R1 = 320 lb ↑ + : R2 + 320 − 1000 − 300 = 0 R2 = 980 lb ↑ b) Solve for shear and moment at C. + Σ MC =0 : −(320)(5) + (500)(2. 2.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) Procedure: a) Solve for reactions R1 and R2.5) + M = 0 M = 350 lb.ft Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 102 . + ↑ Σ Fy = 0 : 320 − 500 − V = 0 V = −180 lb (iii) Sum moment about C to obtain bending moment.
P 5PL A R1 L C L D L B R2 Figure 65. Beam with Loads Procedure: Solving for R1 by taking Σ MB = 0 : R1 = −P ⇒ ⇒ R1 = P ↓ R2 = 2P ↑ Σ Fy = 0 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 103 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 2: Procedures to Draw Diagrams (Page 1 of 2) The procedures to draw the shear and moment diagrams for beams are illustrated by the following two examples: Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam in Figure 65. Work Aid 2.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) 0<x<L + + P 5PL ↑ Σ Fy = 0 Σ M= 0 : M = −Px ⇒ V = −P P L M V P x P M L L 2P L < x < 2L + + ↑ Σ Fy = 0 : V = −2P V P x P 5PL V M Σ M= 0 : Px + P(x−L) + M = 0 M = P(L−2x) P 2L < x < 3L (Right to the section) + + M V V 3Lx 2P ↑ Σ Fy = 0 Σ M= 0 V = −2P M = 2P(3L−x) x P 2P Fig. 75 104 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards . 74 M 2PL x PL 3PL Fig.
↑ Σ Fy = 0 : 3w oL − 3woL + R2 = 0 4 9w oL R2 = 4 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 105 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 3: Procedures to Draw Diagrams (Page 1 of 2) Drawing and Using Shear and Moment Diagram for Overhang Beam with Uniformly Distributed Load wo. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the overhang beam in Figure 66. wo A 2L B L Figure 67. Work Aid 3. Beam with Uniform Load Procedure: Determine R1 by summing moments about B : + 3 woL Σ MB = 0 : ⎛L⎞ − (R1)(2L) + (3woL) ⎜ ⎟ = 0 ⎝2⎠ A R1 B R2 L 3w oL R1 = 4 + 3L 2 L 2 Figure 68.
Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 106 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) 0 < x < 2L + wo ↑ Σ Fy = 0 : 3w oL − wox − V = 0 4 ⎛ 3L ⎞ V = wo ⎜ − x⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3w oL 4 w ox M V 2L 9w oL 4 L + Σ M= 0 : 3w oL x w o x 2 − + +M = 0 4 2 w x ⎛ 3L ⎞ M = o ⎜ −x⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3w oL 4 x 2 x wo (3Lx) M V (3Lx)/2 3Lx 2L < x < 3L (Consider right part) + ↑ Σ Fy = 0 : V − wo(3L−x) = 0 V = wo(3L−x) V + Σ M= 0 : w o (3L − x)2 = 0 2 w (3L − x)2 M=− o 2 −M − 3w oL 4 w oL x 3L 4 − 5w oL 4 Maximum positive moment 3L = M at x = 4 w o ⎛ 3L ⎞ ⎛ 3L 3L ⎞ 9w oL2 − = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 2 4 ⎠ 32 Maximum negative moment = − w oL 2 2 M 9w oL2 32 x − w oL2 2 Figure 69.
multipleload cases with the aid of superposition. Cantilever Beam subjected to four types of load Figure 70. Repeat of Figure 17. Basic Shear and Moment Diagrams Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 107 . Work Aid 4.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 4: Basic Shear and Moment Diagrams (Page 1 of 2) You can use these diagrams and expressions for more complex.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Simple Support Beam subjected to three types of load (Page 2 of 2) Figure 71. Repeat of Figure 18. Work Aid 4. Basic Shear and Moment Diagrams Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 108 .
Construct beam diagrams for the overall beam loads by combining diagrams for individual load cases.Superposition The steps involved in this approach are: 1. Draw beam diagrams for each load case. 2. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 109 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 5: Beam Diagrams . Separate problem into beams with individual loads.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 6: Using Beam Diagrams by Superposition Draw the bending moment diagram for the beam with the loads shown. (Page 1 of 2) 6 kips 3 kips/ft 5' 5' Figure 72. Work Aid 6.5 kipft Mmax = 8 8 + Figure 74. Loads Step 2 Construct the moment diagrams for the individual load cases based on Figure a) Simply supported beam with a concentrated load Mmax = b) PL (6)(10) = = 15 kipft 4 4 15 kipft + 37.5 kipft Simply supported beam with uniform load wL2 3(10) 2 = = 37. Load Cases Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 110 . wo = 3 kips/ft 5' 6 kips 5' 3 kips/ft 10' Figure 73. P = 6 kips Uniform load. Beam with Uniform and Concentrated Loads Step 1 Separate into two individual loads: a) b) Concentrated load.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) Step 3 Construct the composite diagram by combining individual cases Mmax = 15 + 37. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 111 .5 kipft Figure 75.5 kipft + 52.5 = 52.
Beam Lateral Loads Concentrated Loads Distributed Loads Bending Moment Shear Force Bending or Flexural Stress Vertical and Horizontal Shear Stress Figure 76. Work Aid 7.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 7: Beam Stresses The analysis steps for determining the stresses in a beam are illustrated below. Beam Stresses Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 112 . Repeat of Figure 23.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 8: Calculating Flexural and Shear Stresses in an Overhanging Steel Beam with Uniformly Distributed Load (Page 1 of 2) 10 k ip/ft 8" 0.5" 9" 0.5" 10' 5' 0.0 37.5 x M (k ipft) 70.5 xsection IN. Bending Moment and Shear Diagram From shear and moment diagrams: Vmax = 62.3 x 125.5 kips Mmax = 125.A.0 kipft (negative moment) Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 113 .0 Figure 77.5" V (kip) 50. Work Aid 8. = 211 in4 62.
55 ksi I 211 8" 0.A.25" N.) 4.75) + (4.75" 2.5) Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 114 .5)(4.5" Q = (8)(0.25) = 24.5)(2.5" 4.5)(24.5" Maximum shear stress: τ max = Vmax Q Ib (at N.06 in τmax = 3 (62.26 ksi (211)(0.06) = 14. 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) Maximum flexural stress: σ max = Mc (125 ∗ 12) ∗ (5) = = 35.5)(0.A.
the conjugate beam will be simply supported at its ends. However. the conjugate beam has free ends. Step 3: Draw a conjugate beam of the same length as the original beam. V* Moment. Find the conjugate reactions by methods of statics. then I will change and the M/EI diagram will differ from the moment diagram. If the actual beam is simply supported away from its ends. y *Indicates parameters related to conjugate beam Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 115 . the conjugate beam has hinges at the support points. Slope. Step 5: Find the conjugate moment at the point where the deflection is wanted. if the beam crosssection varies with x. EI will be constant and the M/EI diagram will have the same shape as the moment diagram. The deflection is numerically equal to the moment as calculated from the conjugate beam forces. the conjugate beam has builtin ends.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 9: Conjugate Beam Method The conjugate beam method changes a deflection problem into one of drawing moment diagrams. The method is able to handle beams of varying crosssections and materials. The material and crosssectional area of this conjugate beam are not relevant. Step 4: Load the conjugate beam with the M/EI diagram. Deflection. W* Reaction. M* Simple End Interior Support Builtin End Free End M EI End Slope. Step 1: Draw the moment diagram for the beam as it is actually loaded. R* Shear. Use the superscript (*) to indicate conjugate parameters. • • • • If the actual beam is simply supported at its end. If the actual beam has builtin ends. If the beam is of constant crosssection. If the actual beam has free ends. Relationships between conjugate beam and actual beam are shown below: Conjugate Beam Actual Beam Simple End* Hinge* Free End* Builtin End Load. Step 2: Construct the M/EI diagram by dividing the value of M at every point along the beam by the product of EI at that point.
Calculating Beam Defelection Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 116 .2. Uniform beam with constant value of EI = 2. Work Aid 10. 120 lb A 60" B 30" C Figure 78.356 × 106 lbin.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 10: Calculating Beam Deflection (Page 1 of 3) Use the conjugate beam method to determine the deflections at the right end (point C).
06∗10−2 1 (1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 3) Step 1: Moment diagram for actual beam. * RB (2) * RC Figure 79.528∗10−2 − R*B = 3.356 ∗10 6 3 1 * MC 60" A B 30" C 3600 lbin A B hinge C M/EI 1.528∗10−2 Σ Fy = 0 ⇒ R*B + 1.528∗10 in Step 3: Consider 1st.528*103 in1 x x x * RB R* A (1) = 1.528∗10−3)(60) = 0 2 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 117 . Beam + Σ MB = 0 : − 60 R*A + 1 ⎛ 60 ⎞ (1. Step 2: Load the conjugate beam with M/EI M w* = EI w*max = 3600 2. the segment AB and determine R*A and R*B.528∗10−3)(60) ⎜ ⎟ = 0 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ R*A = 1.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 3 of 3) Step 4: Consider segment BC.06 ∗ 10 −2 + R*C = 0 R*C = 3.528∗10−3)(30)(20) = 1. the deflection at C = M*C = 1.38 in.38 in. Σ Fy = 0 : − 3.528∗10−3)(30)(20) + (R*B)(30) – M*C = 0 2 M*C = (3.06∗10−2)(30) + (½)(1. Therefore. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 118 .06∗10−2 + Σ MC = 0 : 1 (1.
Calculate the desired values for the beam by substituting the appropriate known values into the formulas. Use the superposition technique if your problem is not covered but can be composed from two or more beam/loading cases that are covered. 5. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 119 . 3. Identify the beam/load type that corresponds to the problem being solved. Obtain the appropriate diagrams and formulas from the Work Aids. 2. 4. Draw the shear and moment diagram if needed.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 11: Using Beam Formula Work Aids Use the beam formulas to perform beam analysis as follows: 1.
R = 100 kips w = 100 kips P = 50 kips C 10 ft 10 ft Beam E = 29.4 5 ft Figure 80. Repeat of Figure 37. Repeat of Figure 38 More Beam Load Cases Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 120 .2 (steel) I = 1000 in. Work Aid 12 Beam Use superposition to combine the following beam/load cases: Figure 81.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 12: Drawing Beam Diagrams and Deflection Using Superposition (Page 1 of 4) Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown in Figure 80 and calculate the deflection at the midpoint between the supports.000 kips/in.
Repeat of Figure 39a Beam Load Cases Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 121 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 4) Use superposition to combine the following beam/load cases: Figure 82a.
∆ c = Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 122 . midpoint between support. Superposition: Combined Diagrams Case 7 + Case 24 + Case 26 75 35 70 50 Moment Diagrams (Unit: kipft) Mc = 550 65 M2 = 300 105 Figure 83b. Repeat of Figure 39b More Beam Load Cases Deflection. x = 10 a. ∆c. 48(29.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 3 of 4) Shear Diagrams (Unit kips) d.993 in. Case 7 ∆c = RL3 48EI 100(240 ) = 0.000 )(1000 ) 3 = b. Case 24 ∆x = wox 4 L − 2L2 x 2 + Lx 3 − 2a 2L2 + 2a 2 x 2 24EIL w oL2 ⎡ 5 2⎤ 2 ⎢ 4 (240 ) − 3(60 ) ⎥ 96EI ⎣ ⎦ [ ] For x = L /2.
043 in. By superposition .372 in. 96(29.Combine Case 7 + Case 24 + Case 26 Total ∆c = 0. Case 26 ∆x = Pax 2 L − x2 6EIL [ ] For x = L PaL2 .993 + 0.422 in. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 123 . ∆c = (up) 16EI 2 50(60 )(240 ) = 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components ∆c 4(240 ) /12 ⎡5 2⎤ 2 = ⎢ 4 240 − 3(60 ) ⎥ = 0. (up) 16(29.372 = 1.422 – 0.000 )(1000 ) ⎣ ⎦ (Page 4 of 4) 2 ( ) c.000 )(1000 ) 2 ∆c = d.
) maximum moment in right section of beam (kipin.000 ksi moment of inertia of beam (in.) uniformly distributed load per unit of length nearest left reaction (kips/in.) any distance measured along beam from left reaction (in.) maximum positive moment in beam with combined end moment conditions (kipin.) total length of beam between reaction points (in.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 13: Beam Diagrams and Formulas Nomenclature E I L Mmax M1 M2 M3 Mx P P1 P2 R R1 R2 R3 V V1 V2 V3 Vx W a b = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = modulus of elasticity of steel at 29.) any distance measured along overhang section of beam from nearest reaction point (in.) concentrated load (kips) concentrated load nearest left reaction (kips) concentrated load nearest right reaction.) uniformly distributed load per unit of length nearest right reaction.) maximum deflection (in. or to right of intermediate reaction point of beam (kips) vertical shear at distance x from end of beam (kips) total load on beam (kips) measured distance along beam (in.4) total length of beam between reaction points (ft) maximum moment (kipin.) deflection at any point x distance from left reaction (in.) deflection of overhang section of beam at any distance from nearest reaction point (in.) maximum moment in left section of beam (kipin.) l w w1 w2 x x1 ∆max ∆a ∆x ∆x1 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 124 . and of different magnitude than P1 (kips) end beam reaction for any condition of symmetrical loading (kips) left end beam reaction (kips) right end or intermediate beam reaction (kips) right end beam reaction (kips) maximum vertical shear for any condition of symmetrical loading (kips) maximum vertical shear in left section of beam (kips) vertical shear at right reaction point.) moment at distance x from end of beam (kipin. and of different magnitude than w1 (kips/in. or to left of intermediate reaction point of beam (kips) vertical shear at right reaction point.) measured distance along beam which may be greater or less than a (in.) uniformly distributed load per unit of length (kips/in.) deflection at point of load (in.
10. 13.Concentrated Load at Any Point. . .Two Equal Concentrated Loads Symmetrically Placed. . 19.Uniformly Distributed Load . 12. Beam Load Type 1. .Concentrated Load at Any Point. . 14. . Supported at Other Fixed at One End. .Uniformly Distributed Load.Concentrated Load at Center. 9. 7.Concentrated Load at Center.Uniform Load Partially Distributed at Each End. 8. 11. . 6.Load Increasing Uniformly to Fixed End.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 14: Beam Diagrams and Formulas (Page 1 of 14) Beam List No. 18. 15.Uniformly Distributed Load. .Concentrated Load at Center .Load Increasing Uniformly to Center. . .Concentrated Load at Any Point.Uniformly Distributed Load. 2. 5. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 125 . . . Supported at Other Fixed at Both Ends Fixed at Both Ends Fixed at Both Ends Cantilever Cantilever .Load Increasing Uniformly to One End. 4. Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Fixed at One End. 16. Supported at Other Fixed at One End.Two Equal Concentrated Loads Unsymmetrically Placed.Uniform Load Partially Distributed. 17. . 3.Two Unequal Concentrated Loads Unsymmetrically Placed.Uniform Load Partially Distributed at One End . .
. 30. 33. Two Equal Spans Continuous.Concentrated Load at Any Point. Free to Deflect Vertically but not Rotate at Other Overhanging One Support Overhanging One Support Overhanging One Support Overhanging One Support Overhanging One Support Continuous.Uniformly Distributed Load.Concentrated Load at Free End. . . . . . 26.Concentrated Load at End of Overhang. 24. . Free to . . 28. . 27. Deflect Vertically But Not Rotate at Other Cantilever Cantilever Beam Fixed at One End.Concentrated Load at Deflected End.Concentrated Load and Variable End Moments Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 126 . 21. 22. 25. Fixed at One End. 29.Concentrated Load at Any Point. 23.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 14) 20. Two Equal Spans Simple Simple .Concentrated Load at Center of One Span.Uniform Load on One Span. 32.Uniform Load and Variable End Moments. .Uniformly Distributed Load.Distributed Load on Overhang. 31.Concentrated Load at Any Point Between Supports. Two Equal Spans Continuous. .Uniformly Distributed Load Between Supports. .
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 3 of 14) Figure 84. Beam Diagrams and Formulas. AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 127 .
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 128 .).Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 4 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 5 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d.). AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 129 .
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 6 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d.). AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 130 .
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 131 .).Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 7 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d.
).Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 8 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d. AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 132 .
). AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 133 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 9 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 10 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d.). AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 134 .
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 11 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d.). AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 135 .
). AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 136 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 12 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d.
).Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 13 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d. AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 137 .
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 138 .).Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 14 of 14) Figure 84 (cont’d.
Assume that: E σu = 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 15: Calculating Column Load and Stress (Page 1 of 3) Consider a column of 15 ft effective length. (1) Square section 9 in. 8 in. a. Pu Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 139 . Pu Pu A σu 8 in. (2) Circular section Figure 85. Work Aid 15.0 × 106 psi = 4000 psi =3 F. = Aσu = 8(8) = 4000 psi = 64(4000) = 256 kips = 64 in.S.2 8 in. Calculating Column Load and Stresses Procedure: Column 1. 8 in. Ultimate Load. Compare the load capacity for the following two solid sections (Figure 95).
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 3) b.2 Pu Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 140 .0 x10 ) ( 341. ( 3.87 = 3.87 kips Failure Load Pmax Pmax = Pu or Pcr. Pu Pu A σu = Aσu = π r 2 = (3.34 kips 9 in.4 12 3 = 15 ft = 180 in.59 in.S.14) (4.33 in. Pcr Pcr = E I kL (kL )2 π 2EI = 1. Pa Pa = Pmax F. Pcr = c. Allowable Load. Ultimate Load. F. whichever is less = Pcr = 103. = 63.0 Pa = 103.5)2 = 4000 psi = 63.62 kips Column 2.0 34. = 3.87 kips d. a.14 ) 2 (1.0 × 106 psi = 8(8 ) = 341.33 ) 6 (180 ) 2 = 103.59 (4000) = 254.S. Critical Buckling Load.
0 = 32.14 )2 (1. 3. Pcr = (3. Critical Buckling Load. Pa Pa = Pmax 97.0 x 10 6 )(321.S.4 = 180 in.90 ) (180 )2 = 97.90 in. Pcr Pcr = (kL )2 π r4 4 π 2EI I kL = = 321.96 = F. Pmax Pu or Pcr.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 3 of 3) b.65 kips Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 141 .96 kips c.96 kips d. Failure Load. whichever is less Pmax = Pu = 97. Allowable Load.
5m effective length.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 16: Calculating Combined Axial Load and Bending in Column (Page 1 of 2) Determine the largest load P that can be safely carried by a W 250 × 80 steel column of 4. Based on interaction formula with Fa = 100 MPa. Use E = 200 GPa and fy = 250 MPa.2 mm Sx = 985 x 103 mm3 P c y c 255 mm Figure 86. Work Aid 16. 150 mm x W 250 x 80 A = 10200 mm2 rx = 111. Procedure: a) Combined Stress: Eccentrically loaded column e f = 150 mm = P ⎛ ec ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ≤ Fa A⎝ r ⎠ Maximum allowable P P = AFa ec 1+ 2 r Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 142 . Fb = 0.6 Fy. Calculating Combined Axial Load and Bending in Column a) b) Based on allowable combined stress and Fa = 100 MPa.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components = (10200 mm )(100N/mm ) 2 2 (150 mm )(127.5mm ) 1+ (111.5 kN Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 143 .2mm )6 = 400.
P ⎢ + ⎥ ≤1 Fa Fb ⎣ AFa SFb ⎦ Maximum allowable P ⎡ 1 e ⎤ + ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ AFa SFb ⎦ −1 ⎡ ⎤ 1 150 =⎢ + ⎥ = 501.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) b) Interaction Formula: f a fb + ≤ 1. Fb = 0.1 kN 3 ⎣ (10200 )(100 ) 985x10 (150 )⎦ −1 ( ) Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 144 .6(250 ) = 150N/mm 2 Fa Fb ⎡ 1 e ⎤ P / A Pe / s + ≤ 1.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 17: Procedure for Analyzing Footings The analysis of a footing involves the following: • • • • Determine the loads on the footing. Calculate the bending moment and shear force at the critical sections of the footing. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 145 . Calculate the bearing pressure on the soil due to the loads and weight of the footing. Evaluate the soilbearing pressure and footing stresses by comparing the calculated values with the specified allowable values.
footing uplift occurs x qmax = ⎛d ⎞ ⎛ 12 ⎞ = 3⎜ − e ⎟ = 3⎜ − 2. Calculate: a.167d.5 ⎟ = d ⎝2 ⎠ d = 15 ft Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 146 . d. Minimum footing size to guarantee no uplifting Procedure: a. P = 120 k and an overturning moment.5) Figure 95. Critical eccentricity. Eccentricity. M = 300 kft. Soil bearing pressure.167(12) = 2.5 ⎟ = 10.0 ft.5 ft P 120 kips Critical eccentricity. = 0. Distribution of soil bearing pressures. e e b. Calculating Soil Bearing Pressure for a Square Footing d. Work Aid 18. ecr ecr = 0.5 ft ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2P 2(120) 2 = = 1.90 kips/ft bx 12(10.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 18: Calculating SoilBearing Pressure for a Square Footing A column footing 12 ft square supports a concentric load. Eccentricity. q e > ecr. e. Minimum footing size (no uplifting) x=d ⎛d ⎞ 3⎜ − 2. = M 300 kip − ft = = 2. b. ecr. c. d = 12 ft c.
ecr ecr = 0. f. and Shear for a Square Footing (Page 1 of 2) A retaining wall and footing support loads as shown in Figure 87. Calculate the following: a.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Work Aid 19: Calculating Stability Ratio. SR Taking moments about point “O” SR = b. e e M e M P = Moment about center of footing = = 10 ( 5 ) − 20 (1. Mr 20(6 ) = = 2. Moment & Shear Pressure c.5 ) 20 = 1 ft Figure 87a. Calculating Stability Ratio. Work Aid 19.5 ft Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 147 . Moment. e.167d e < ecr q = P⎡ e ⎤ ⎢1 ± 0. Stability ratio.167d ⎥ A⎣ ⎦ = 1. Stability ratio Eccentricity Critical eccentricity Soilbearing pressure Shear at critical section Moment at critical section Procedure: a. c. d. b.4 Mo 10(5 ) Eccentricity. Critical eccentricity.
5 ) ⎛ × 5.81)( 5. Work Aid 19.167d ⎥ A⎣ ⎦ 20 ⎡ 1.70 + 2. Calculating Stability Ratio.4 kips f. Moment & Shear Pressure = 46.89 ) + (5.0 ⎤ 1+ = 9(1) ⎢ 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) P⎡ e ⎤ ⎢1 + 0. Work Aid 19.70 kips/ft 2 qmax = = qmin = e ⎤ 20 ⎡ 1.86 kipsft Figure 96c.5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3. Shear at critical section. Moment & Shear Pressure Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 148 .06 (1) x 5 2 = 14. Vc Vc = 3. Calculating Stability Ratio.5 )2 2 1 2 (1. Mc Mc = (1.5 ⎞ ⎜3 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Figure 96b.5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0. Moment at critical section.0 ⎤ P⎡ = 1− ⎢1 − ⎥= A ⎣ e cr ⎦ 9(1) ⎢ 1.74 kips/ft 2 e.
Sol ⎡ 3(4)3 ⎤ 4 × (3)3 INA = 2 ⎢ + (3 × 4)(3.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components PRACTICE PROBLEMS Practice Problems 1 (Page 1 of 2) (a) Three 3x4 inches pieces of wood are glued together as shown.5)2 ⎥ + 12 ⎣ 12 ⎦ = 2(16+147) + 9 = 335 in4 max. 0.6 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 149 . what load P will make the beam come apart? Assume that the joint connection governs the design load.6P = [3 × 4 × (3.4P + P _ SF Check τ at glue line: τ= VQ 0.6 P. V in beam = 0. If the glue has a maximum shear strength of 500 psi.5)] = τall = 500 It 335 × 3 0.
6 × 12 × 3. t Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 150 .94 kips 0. shear strength of wood) Note max.5 (Page 2 of 2) (b) For P obtained.5 + 4 × 1.940 (12 × 3. Sol τmax in beam may be at neutral axis (depends on variation of “t”) = VQ 0.5) = 500 psi 335 × 3 τmax of wood should be ≥ 500 psi (i.e.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components P= 500 × 335 × 3 = 19.5 × 2 ⎥ It 335 × 4 ⎣ ⎦ = 415 psi (< 500 psi) Check τmax in beam just above glue line = 0.5 ⎤ = ⎢12 × 3.940 lbs = 19. check maximum shear stress in the wood of the beam itself. τ (through thickness) always where Q is GREATEST.6 × 19.940 ⎡ 1.6 × 19.
Find the maximum permissible magnitude of P. centers.500 psi and (iii) shear rating of nail Rn is 400 lbs. The nails are spaced uniformly at S = 3 in. The beam is made up of 3 planks of wood which are nailed as shown. given that (i) the allowable shear stress in the wood is 200 psi (ii) allowable bending stress (tension or compression) is 2.) at the free end.33 in4 12 12 Shear in Wood Vmax = P max τmax = Vmax ⎛Q⎞ × max ⎜ ⎟ I ⎝ t ⎠ Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 151 .5)(4) 3 − = 81.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Practice Problems 2 (Page 1 of 2) Shown below is a cantilever beam subjected to a force P (assume units lbs. P INA = 6(6) 3 2(2.
5) = n = 81. Answer: Choose smallest P i.33 S 3 P = 723 lbs. Bending Stress in Wood max σ = (max M) (y max ) I 2.500 = 60P × 3 81. Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 152 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) 200 = P ⎛ 6 × 1× 2.33 ⇒ P = 1.130 lbs. P = 723 lbs.e.5 + 2 × 1× 1 ⎞ ⎟ 81. Nail Rating q= VQ I (to be calculated where flange is nailed to web) q= R P 400 (6 × 1× 2.33 ⎜ 1 ⎝ ⎠ ⇒ P = 957 lbs.
If Vmax = 2000 lb. fillet welds with a 8 capacity of 100 lb/in.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Practice Problems 3 A beam is to be fabricated from 2 sections of 2in.375) 3 + 4 12 2q = VQ I ∴ q= 2000 [1. each will be sufficient. pipe 1 4k 1 ¼" 6" F F load x 12" weld x 2.666 in4 Ixx = 2 0.375 x Steel plate 2k x +2k A = 1.07 in2 Ixx = 0. determine whether in. thick 1 steel plate by 4 fillet welds.666 + 1. (< 100 lb/in.95 q q = 66. standard steel pipe and a ¼ in.95 in4 [ ] 1 (12 − 2.07(6) 2 = 96.2 lb/in. OK) Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 153 .07 × 6] 2 × 96.
15 × (0.462 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 154 .15 × 0.85x10−6 m4 2q = VQ I q q q= VQ 1× 103 = [0.025 × 0.0625] 2I 2 × 33. If Rn (shear resistance of each nail) = 1000 N and Vmax = 1 kN.1)3 12 12 = 33.85 × 10−6 q = 3.15)3 − × 0.462 N/m & qs = Rn ⇒ s= 1. determine maximum spacing s of nails for the two different schemes (a and b) shown.288 m = 289 mm 3.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Practice Problems 4 (Page 1 of 2) Two 100 mm x 25 mm boards and two 150 mm x 25 mm boards are used in fabrication of a box beam.1× (0. (a) 25 mm 100 mm 25 mm 25 mm NA 100 mm 25 mm INA = 1 1 × 0.000 = 0.
025× 0.0625 = 1.85 × 10−6 = 2.308 = 433 mm (Scheme (b) is better Q Q(b) < Q(a)). Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 155 .433 m 2. * Note: Shear stress in wood itself is not of interest in this problem.308 N/m & s= 1.5625× 10−4 m3 q= 1× 103 × 1.100× 0.000 = 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components (Page 2 of 2) (b) 25 mm 100 mm 25 mm 25 mm NA 100 mm 25 mm q VQ 2q = I q where Q = 0.5625 × 10−4 2 × 33.
Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Practice Problems 5 (Page 1 of 2) The beam shown below is subjected to a uniform load w.A. Determine the maximum value of w if the allowable bending stress is 24 ksi and the allowable shear stress is 15 ksi. The moment of inertia about the neutral axis is 768 in4. w (kips/ft) 12" 10 ft Mmax = WL 8 BMD 5' + 2 4" N. 8" WL 2 SFD + − WL 2 3" (i) Bending Note: σT 4 = 24 ⇒ σ T = 12 8 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 156 .
= 1. “w” in units of k/in.36 k/ft.36 k/ft. critical section through thickness for Tbeam is NA (for shear).) (here. = 72 k/ft.28× 12 = 15.) (Page 2 of 2) = 1800w σmax = Mymax Mc 1800w × 8 = = = 24 I I 768 w = 1. (smaller of two) Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 157 . max τmax = 15 = Vmax ⎛ Q ⎞ 60w ⎡ 12 × 4 × 2 ⎤ = ⎜ t ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ I ⎝ ⎠max 768 ⎣ 3 ⎦ w = 6 k/in. (ii) Shear Variation of τ with y wL w × 10 × 12 = 2 2 kips Vmax = (w ⇒ k/in.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Sol Mmax = wL2 (10 × 12)2 = w 8 8 kin (kin. Answer: w = 15.28 k/in.) = 60w Also.
full sized wooden planks are glued together to form a Tsection as shown. is applied around the zaxis.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components Practice Problems 6 (Page 1 of 2) Two 2in.by6in.9 × 1/3 = 200.Distribution σt = σm = 600..5 psi 136 Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 158 . find ∗ bending stresses at top and bottom fibers (Iz = 136 in4) ∗ the total compressive force resultant C due to the bending stresses (above the neutral axis) ∗ the total tensile force resultant T due to the bending stresses (below the neutral axis) and compare it to the force C. If a moment M = +2.270 ftlb.3 σb = 2270 × 12 × 5 = 1001.9 psi 136 σ . σt C2 C1 C3 y z T σb CrossSection 2270 × 12 × 3 = 600.
5 lbs.3 × 1× 2 14 244 2 4 3 2 C1 1442443 1442443 C2 C3 = 2403. = T OK Saudi Aramco Desktop Standards 159 .6 × 2 × 6 + × 200.3 = 5007.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components T = 1 × 1001.3 × 6 × 2 + × 400.6 + 2403.5 × 5 × 2 = 5007. 2 (Page 2 of 2) C 1 1 = 200.6 + 200.5 lbs.
Linear structural member having one or more supports and supports load perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. Loads that a structural member supports for design purpose or in actual service. Graphical representation which shows the variation of the shear force along the longitudinal axis of a beam. Graphical representation which shows the variation of the bending moment along the longitudinal axis of a beam. Internal moment at a beam section required to maintain the equilibrium of any part of the beam. The ability of the structure to support a specified load Moment Diagram Neutral Axis Shear Diagram Shear Force Serviceability 160 . The flexural stress in a beam when the bending moment of the beam is the maximum value at the point of rupture. Plane in a beam that remains the same length when it is subjected to bending. Load that will cause yielding of the column material in compression. Load at which the column will become unstable or begin to buckle. Linear structural member loaded primarily along its longitudinal axis. Load applied away from the geometric center of a column or supporting footing. The internal force at a beam section required to maintain the equilibrium on any part of a beam. A method to determine deflection of a beam. Distance from the center of the column crosssection or of a footing to the load application point. A structural member that experiences a significant amount of bending as well as axial load.Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components GLOSSARY Allowable Load Applied Loads Beam BeamColumn Bending Moment Column Compressive Yield Load Conjugate Beam Method Critical Load Eccentric Load Load Eccentricity Modulus of Rupture Load that the column or other structural member can safely support.
Load that will produce crushing failure of the column material. the ratio of the resisting moment to the overturning moments. Beams whose reactions cannot be found from the equations of equilibrium only. The factor of safety against the overturning of a footing or foundation. or buckling. Load per unit area produced by the footing on the underlying soil. Stability Ratio Statically Determinate Beams Statically Indeterminate Beams Strength Superposition Ultimate Compressive Load 161 .Engineering Encyclopedia Civil Engineering: Basic Properties of Section Analysis of Structural Components without undergoing unacceptable deflection. Beams whose reactions can be found from equations of equilibrium alone. but require additional equations to determine the reactions. Method to determine the shear and moment diagrams for a beam by combining the results from known load cases. deformation. The ability to support a given compressive load without experiencing a sudden change in geometry. Slenderness Soil Bearing Pressure Stability Geometric property of a column that makes it tend to buckle under axial load. The ability of the structure to safely support a specified load without experiencing excessive stresses. or movement.
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