¡N8T¡TUTE OF ENG¡NEER¡NG
PULCHOWK CAMPU8
DEPARTMENT OF MECHAN¡CAL
ENG¡NEER¡NG
FUNDAMENTAL8 OF THERMODYNAM¡C8
AND HEAT TRAN8FER
[TUTOR¡AL 8HEET8j
MECHAN¡CAL & C¡V¡L {¡/¡}
2068 Odd Semester
CONTENTS
Tutorial No. 1: Thermodynamic Properties 1
Tutorial No. 2: Energy TransIer 3
Tutorial No. 3: Properties oI Common Substances 5
Tutorial No. 4: First Law oI Thermodynamics 8
Tutorial No. 5: Second Law oI Thermodynamics 11
Tutorial No. 6: Gas and Vapor Power Cycle 13
Tutorial No. 7: Heat TransIer 15
Answers 17
1
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 1
FUNDAMENTAL8 OF THERMODYNAM¡C8 AND HEAT TRAN8FER
TUTOR¡AL NO: 1
THERMODYNAM¡C PROPERT¡E8
1. A container has two compartments separated by a membrane as shown in Figure P1.1.
Compartment A has 2 kg oI air and a volume oI 1 m
3
; compartment B has 1.5 m
3
oI air with
a speciIic volume oI 2.5 m
3
/kg. II the membrane is broken, determine the resultant speciIic
volume.
2. A cylinder with a total volume oI 1 m
3
has a movable piston as shown in Figure P1.3. When
the piston is at one Iourth oI the length, both sides have same speciIic volume oI 4 m
3
/kg.
Determine the speciIic volumes oI both sides when the piston is at middle oI the cylinder.
3. An oxygen cylinder having a volume oI 10 m
3
initially contains 5 kg oI oxygen. Determine
the speciIic volume oI oxygen in the cylinder initially. During certain process 3 kg oI oxygen
is consumed, determine the Iinal speciIic volume oI oxygen in the cylinder. Also plot the
amount oI oxygen that has been consumed versus the speciIic volume oI the remaining in the
cylinder.
4. Three pressure gauges are connected to a container consisting oI two compartments as shown
in Figure P1.4. II the local barometer reads 750 mm oI Hg and pressure gauges A and B read
300 kPa and 200 kPa respectively. Determine the absolute pressure in each compartment and
reading oI pressure gauge C. Take
÷13600 kg/m
3
and ÷ 9.81 m/s
2

Figure P1.1 Figure P1.2 Figure P1.4
5. Figure P1.5 shows a tank within a tank, each containing air. Pressure gage A is located
inside the tank B and reads 140 kPa. The Utube manometer connected to tank B contains
mercury. Using data on the diagram, determine the absolute pressures inside the tank A and
tank B.
6. A vertical pistoncylinder device shown in Figure P1.6 contains a gas at a pressure oI 100
kPa. The piston has a mass oI 5 kg and a diameter oI 12 cm. Pressure oI the gas is to be
increased by placing some weights on the piston. Determine the local atmospheric pressure
and the mass oI the weights that will double the pressure oI the gas inside the cylinder. Take

7. For the piston cylinder device shown in Figure P1.7, determine the Iorce necessary to
produce an absolute pressure oI 500 kPa within the device. Take

2
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 1
Figure P1.6
Figure P1.5 Figure P1.7
8. A piston cylinder device loaded with a linear spring with a spring constant oI k ÷ 100 kN/m
contains a gas initially at a pressure oI 100 kPa and a volume oI 0.05 m
3
, as shown in Figure
P1.8. The cross sectional area oI the piston is 0.1 m
2
. Initially spring touches the piston but
exerts no Iorce on it. Heat is supplied to the system until its volume doubles, determine the
Iinal pressure.
9. A 5 kg piston in a cylinder with diameter oI 100 mm is loaded with a linear spring and the
outside atmospheric pressure oI 100 kPa. The spring exerts no Iorce on the piston when it is
at the bottom oI the cylinder and Ior the state shown in Figure P1.9, the pressure is 400 kPa
with volume oI 0.4 L. The valve is opened to let some air in, causing the piston to rise 2 cm.
Find the new pressure. Take
.
Figure P1.8 Figure P1.9
10.A new scale N oI temperature is deviced in such a way that the Ireezing point oI ice is 100
0
N
and boiling point is 400
0
N. What is the temperature reading on this new scale when the
temperature is 150
0
C? At what temperature, both the Celsius and new temperature scale
reading would be the same?
3
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 2
FUNDAMENTAL8 OF THERMODYNAM¡C8 AND HEAT TRAN8FER
TUTOR¡AL NO: 2
ENERGY TRAN8FER
1. A gas undergoes compression Irom an initial state oI V
1
÷ 0.1 m
3
, P
1
÷ 200 kPa to a Iinal
state oI V
2
÷ 0.04 m
3
, P
2
÷ 500 kPa. II the pressure varies linearly with volume during the
process, determine the work transIer.
2. A gas undergoes a ploytropic process Irom an initial state oI 500 kPa and 0.02 m
3
to a Iinal
state oI 100 kPa and 0.05 m
3
. Determine the work transIer.
3. In a non Ilow process, a gas expands Irom volume 0.1 m
3
to a volume oI 0.2 m
3
according to
the law
where P is the pressure in bar, and V is the volume in m
3
. Determine (i) the pressure at the
end oI the expansion and (ii) the work done by the gas in the expansion process, in kJ.
4. Consider a twopart process with an expansion Irom 0.1 m
3
to 0.2 m
3
at a constant pressure
oI 150 kPa Iollowed by an expansion Irom 0.2 m
3
to 0.4 m
3
with a linearly rising pressure
Irom 150 kPa ending at 300 kPa. Show the process in a PV diagram and Iind the boundary
work.
5. Air undergoes three process in series to Irom a cycle:
Process 12: constant volume cooling, V
1
÷ V
2
÷ 2 m
3
Process 23: constant pressure heating, P ÷ 100 kPa, V
3
÷ 10 m
3
Process 31: isothermal compression
Sketch the process on PV diagram and determine the total work transIer.
6. Argon (1 kg) contained in a piston cylinder device shown in Figure P2.6 is initially at a
pressure oI 500 kPa and a temperature oI 70
0
C. Heat is added until the Iinal temperature is
600
0
C and a pressure oI 1 MPa is required to liIt the piston Iorm the stops. Sketch the process
on PV and TV diagrams and determine the total work transIer. Take R ÷ 208 J/kg K
7. Air (0.5 kg) in the piston cylinder device shown in Figure P2.7 has an initial pressure and
temperature oI 1 MPa and 500
0
C respectively. The system is cooled until the temperature
reaches 50
0
C. It takes a pressure oI 0.5 MPa to support the piston. Sketch the process on PV
and TV diagrams and determine the total work transIer. Take R ÷ 287 J/kg K
8. Oxygen (3.6 kg) contained in a piston cylinder device shown in Figure P2.8 is initially at a
pressure oI 200 kPa and a temperature oI 50
0
C. Heat is added until the piston just reaches the
upper stops where the total volume is 3 m
3
. it requires a pressure oI 500 kpa to liIt the piston.
Sketch the process on PV and TV diagrams and determine the total work transIer. Take R
÷ 260 J/kg K
4
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 2
9. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure P2.9 contains 1 kg oI Nitrogen initially at a
pressure oI 250 kPa and a temperature oI 500
0
C. Heat is lost Irom the system till its
temperature reaches 25
0
C. Sketch the process on PV and TV diagrams and determine the
Iinal pressure and the total work transIer. Take R ÷297 J/kg K
Figure P2.6 Figure P2.7 Figure P2.8 Figure P2.9
10.A piston cylinder arrangement loaded with a linear spring ( ) as shown in Figure
P2.10 contains air. Spring is initially unstretched and undergoes a compression oI 40 mm
during a process. II the mass oI the piston is 80 kg and piston diameter is 0.1 m, determine
the total work transIer. Take
and

11.Air (0.01 kg) is contained in a piston cylinder device restrained by a linear spring (
) as shown in Figure P2.11. Spring initially touches the piston but exerts no Iorce
on it. Heat is added to the system until the piston is displaced upward by 80 mm. determine
(a)the temperature at which piston leaves the stops
(b)work done by the air Take J/kg. K,
and

12.A piston cylinder arrangement shown in Figure P2.12 is restrained by two linear springs as
shown. The system contains air initially at a pressure oI 150 kPa and a volume oI 0.002 m
3
.
Heat is added to the system until its volume doubles; determine the total work transIer. Also
sketch the process on PV diagram. Both springs have spring constant oI 100 kN/m.
Figure P2.10 Figure P2.11 Figure P2.12
5
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 3
FUNDAMENTAL8 OF THERMODYNAM¡C8 AND HEAT TRAN8FER
TUTOR¡AL NO: 3
PROPER¡E8 OF COMMON 8UB8TANCE8
1. Fill in the blanks in the Iollowing table with the corresponding properties oI water or by the
symbol ×, when it is no relevant or meaningless or by the symbol , when it is indeterminate.
State P, kPa T,
0
C x, º v, m
3
/kg h, k1/kg Degree of Superheat
1 200 200
2 250 80
3 300 0.5
4 150 60
5 200 0.1
6 250 0.5951
7 1000 2000
8 350 2563.5
9 600 0.001101
10 2000 0.1757
11 5000 0.001206
12 500 3445.4
13 8000 295.04
2. A rigid vessel contains 8 kg oI water at 120
0
C. II 5 kg oI the water is in the liquid Iorm and
the rest in the vapor Iorm. Determine:
(a)the pressure in the vessel,
(b)the volume oI the tank,
(c) the volume oI saturated liquid and saturated vapor respectively, and
(d)the speciIic enthalpy oI H
2
O.
3. Determine the pressure Ior water at 250
0
C with speciIic volume oI 0.25 m
3
/kg.
4. Steam contained in a closed container initially at a pressure oI 2 MPa and a temperature oI
250
0
C. The temperature drops as a result oI heat transIer to the surroundings until the
temperature reaches 80
0
C. Determine:
(a)the pressure at which the condensation Iirst occurs,
(b)the pressure and quality at Iinal state, and
(c) the percentage oI volume occupied by the saturated liquid at the Iinal state.
5. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure P3.5 contains 2 kg oI H
2
O with an initial
temperature and volume oI 80
0
C and 0.05 m
3
respectively. It requires a pressure oI 400 kPa
to liIt the piston Irom the stops. The system is heated until its temperature reaches 250
0
C.
Sketch the process on Pv and Tv diagrams and determine the total work transIer.
6. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure P3.6 contains water initially at a pressure oI 125
kPa with a quality oI 50 °. Heat is added to the system until its reaches to a Iinal temperature
6
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 3
oI 800
0
C. It takes a pressure oI 600 kPa to liIt the piston Irom the stops. Sketch the process
on Pv and Tv diagrams and determine:
(a)the mass oI H
2
O in the system, and
(b)the total work transIer.
7. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure P3.7 contains 2 kg oI water initially at a pressure
oI 500 kPa with a quality oI 20 °. The water is heated until it becomes a saturated vapor.
The volume oI the system when the piston is at the upper stops is 0.4 m
3
. Sketch the process
on Pv and Tv diagrams and determine:
(a)the Iinal pressure, and
(b)the total work transIer.
8. A piston cylinder arrangement shown in Figure P3.8 contains 0.2 kg oI water initially at a
pressure oI 150 kPa with a quality oI 40 °. The system is heated to a position where the
piston is locked, and then cooled till it becomes a saturated vapor at a temperature oI 60
0
C
.
Sketch the process on Pv and Tv diagrams and determine the total work transIer.
Figure P3.5 Figure P3.6 Figure P3.7 Figure P3.8
9. A piston cylinder arrangement shown in Figure P3.9 contains 1 kg oI water initially at a
pressure oI 1 MPa and a temperature oI 500
0
C. The water is cooled until it is completely
converted into the saturated liquid. It requires a pressure oI 400 kPa to support the piston.
Sketch the process on Pv and Tv diagrams and determine the total work transIer.
10.A piston cylinder arrangement shown in Figure P3.10 contains 2 kg oI water initially at a
pressure oI 200 kPa and a temperature oI 50
0
C. Heat is added until the piston reaches the
upper stops where the total volume is 1.5 m
3
. It takes a pressure oI 600 kPa to liIt the piston.
Sketch the process on Pv and Tv diagrams and determine the Iinal temperature and the
work transIer.
11.A piston cylinder device with a linear spring initially contains water at a pressure oI 4 MPa
and 500
0
C with the initial volume being 0.1 m
3
, as shown in Figure P3.11. II the piston is at
the bottom, the system pressure is 300 kPa. The system now cools until the pressure reaches
1000 kPa. Sketch the process on Pv diagram and determine
(a)the mass oI H
2
O
(b)the Iinal temperature and volume, and
(c) the total work transIer.
7
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 3
12.A piston cylinder arrangement shown in Figure P3.12 contains water initially at P
1
÷ 100
kPa, x
1
÷ 0.8 and V
1
÷ 0.01 m
3
. When the system is heated, it encounters a linear spring (k ÷
100 kN/m). At this state volume is 0.015 m
3
. The heating continues till its pressure is 200
kPa. II the diameter oI the piston is 0.15 m, determine
(a)the Iinal temperature, and
(b)the total work transIer.
Also sketch the process on Pv diagram.
Figure P3.9 Figure P3.10 Figure P3.11 Figure P3.12
8
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 4
FUNDAMENTAL8 OF THERMODYNAM¡C8 AND HEAT TRAN8FER
TUTOR¡AL NO: 4
F¡R8T LAW OF THERMODYNAM¡C8
1. A gas contained in a piston cylinder device undergoes a polytropic process Ior which
pressure volume relationship is given by
2.5
. The initial pressure is ,
the initial volume is
3
and the Iinal volume is
3
. The internal energy oI the gas
decreases by during the process. Determine the work transIer and heat transIer Ior the
process.
2. A closed rigid tank contains oI a saturated water vapor initially at
0
. Heat transIer
occurs Irom the system and the pressure drops to . Determine the amount oI heat
lost by the system.
3. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure P4.3 loaded with a linear spring ( )
contains oI H
2
O initially at a pressure oI and a volume oI
3
. Heat is
transIerred to the H
2
O until a Iinal pressure oI is reached. II the cross sectional area
oI the piston is
2
, determine the Iinal temperature and the heat transIer Ior the process.
4. Nitrogen ( ) is contained in a piston cylinder device shown in Figure P4.4 initially at a
pressure oI and a temperature oI
0
. There is a heat transIer to the system until
the temperature reaches to
0
. It takes a pressure oI to liIt the piston. Sketch
the process on and diagrams and determine the total work and heat transIer in
the process. Take and
v
.
5. Air is contained in a piston cylinder device shown in Figure P4.5 initially at a pressure and
temperature oI and
0
. Heat is lost by the system until its pressure drops to
. Sketch the process on and diagrams and determine the total work and
heat transIer. Take and
v

Figure P4.3 Figure P4.4 Figure P4.5
6. Air ( ) is contained in piston/cylinder assembly as shown in Figure P4.6. Initially, the
piston rests on the stops and is in contact with the spring, which is in its unstretched position.
The spring constant is . The piston weighs and atmospheric pressure is
9
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 4
. The air is initially at and . Heat transIer occurs until the air
temperature reaches the surrounding temperature oI .
(a)Find the Iinal pressure and volume.
(b)Find the process work.
(c) Find the heat transIer.
(d)Draw the PV diagram oI the process. Take and
v
.
7. Water ( ) is contained in a piston cylinder device shown in Figure P4.7 initially at a
pressure oI with a quality oI . Mass oI the piston is such that a pressure oI
is required to liIt it. Heat is transIerred to the system until its volume doubles.
Sketch the process on and diagrams and determine
(a)the Iinal temperature
(b)the total work transIer, and
(c) the total work transIer.
8. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure P4.8 contains oI water initially at saturated
liquid state at . There is a heat transIer to the system until it hits the stops at which
time its volume is
3
. There is Iurther heat transIer to the device until water is
completely vaporized. Sketch the process on and diagrams and determine the
total work and heat transIer.
Figure P4.6 Figure P4.7 Figure P4.8
9. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure P4.9 contains water initially at
1
and
1
0
. A pressure oI 400 kPa is required to support the piston. There is a heat transIer
Irom the device until its temperature drops to
0
. Sketch the process on and
diagrams and determine the total work and heat transIer.
10.A closed system undergoes a process Irom state to state as shown in Figure P4.10;
which requires a heat input oI
A
. The system returns adiabatically Irom state to
state through process . Determine the work transIer Ior process .
11.Steam enters a turbine operating at steady state with a mass Ilow rate oI . Properties
oI the steam at the inlet are
1
,
1
0
1
and at the exit are
2
,
2
2
. II the power output oI the turbine is ,
determine the rate oI heat transIer Irom the turbine.
10
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 4
Figure P4.9 Figure P4.10
12.Air expands through an adiabatic turbine Irom , to , . The
inlet velocity is whereas exit velocity is . The power output oI the turbine is
. Determine the mass Ilow rate oI air and the inlet and exit areas. Take
and
P
.
13.Steam enters an adiabatic nozzle with
1
,
1
0
and with very low
velocity. The steam exits the nozzle with
2
and velocity oI . The mass
Ilow rate oI steam is . Determine the exit area oI the nozzle.
14.A water heating arrangement operates at steady state with liquid water entering at inlet
with
1
and
1
0
. Steam at
2
and
2
0
enters at inlet
. Saturated liquid water exits with a pressure oI
3
Irom the outlet . Determine
the ratio oI mass Ilow rates
1 2
.
15.Steam enters into a well insulated throttling valve at ,
0
and exits at .
Determine the Iinal temperature oI the steam.
11
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 5
FUNDAMENTAL8 OF THERMODYNAM¡C8 AND HEAT TRAN8FER
TUTOR¡AL NO: 5
8ECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAM¡C8
1. An inventor makes the Iollowing claims. Determine whether the claims are valid or not and
explain why or why not.
(a)A petrol engine operating between temperatures
and
will produce
oI power output consuming oI petrol having a caloriIic value oI
.
(b)A heat pump supplies heat to a room maintained at
at a rate oI . The
inventor claims a work input oI is suIIicient when the surroundings is at
.
(a) A reIrigerator maintains
in the reIrigerator which is kept in a room where the
temperature is
and has a COP oI 8.
2. A power cycle operating between two reservoirs receives
Irom a high temperature source
at
and rejects energy
to a low temperature sink at
. For each oI
the Iollowing cases, determine whether the cycle operates reversibly, irreversibly or is
impossible.
(a)
,
(b)
,
(c) ,
(d)
3. A car engine consumes Iuel at a rate oI and delivers oI power output. II the
caloriIic value oI the Iuel is and a density oI
, determine the
eIIiciency oI the engine.
4. A Carnot engine operates between two reservoirs at temperatures T
L
and T
H
. The work
output oI the engine is 0.6 times the heat rejected. The diIIerence in temperatures between
the source and the sink is 200
0
C. Calculate the thermal eIIiciency, source temperature and the
sink temperature.
5. A reIrigerator having a COP oI maintains the Ireezer compartment at
by removing
heat at a rate oI and rejects heat to the surroundings at
.
(a)Determine the power input to the reIrigerator and compare it with minimum theoretical
power input.
(b)II the electricity costs , determine the actual and minimum theoretical cost
per day Ior eIIective operation oI .
6. A heat pump heats a house in the winter and then reverses to cool it in the summer. The room
temperature should be
in the winter and
in the summer. Heat transIer through the
walls and ceilings is estimated to be per degree temperature diIIerence between
the inside and outside.
(a)Determine the power required to run it in the winter when the outside temperature
decrease to
.
12
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 5
(b)II the unit is run by the same power as calculated in (a), throughout the year, determine
the maximum outside summer temperature Ior which the house can be maintained at
.
7. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure P5.7 contains oI water initially at
with oI quality. The mass oI the piston is such that a pressure oI is required to
liIt the piston. Heat is added to the system Irom a source at
until its temperature
reaches
. Determine the total entropy generation during the process.
Figure P5.7
8. water at
is mixed with oI water at
in an isolated system. Calculate
the net change in entropy due to the mixing process. Take speciIic heat oI water

9. Two blocks A and B, which are initially at 95
0
C and 540
0
C, respectively are brought together
into contact and isolated Irom the surroundings. They are allowed to reach a Iinal state oI
thermal equilibrium. Determine the entropy change oI each block and oI the isolated system.
Block A is aluminium (c
P
÷ 0.9 kJ/kg K) with m
A
÷ 0.45 kg, and block B is copper (c
P
÷
0.385 kJ/kg K) with m
B
÷ 0.9 kg.
10. oI air enclosed in an isolated box with volume
, pressure
and temperature
is
allowed to expand Ireely until its volume increases to
. Determine the change in
entropy. Take 
11.Steam enters the nozzle at 1 MPa, 300
0
C, with a velocity oI 30 m/s. The pressure oI the
steam at the nozzle exit is 0.3 MPa. Determine the exit velocity oI the steam Irom the nozzle,
assuming a reversible, adiabatic, steady state, steady Ilow process.
12.Air at and with very low velocity enters into a nozzle and exits at a
pressure oI . Assuming the process to be isentropic, determine the exit velocity.
13.Steam enters into a well insulated throttling valve at and
and exits at .
Determine the change in entropy per unit mass oI the steam.
14.Steam enters into a turbine at a rate oI with
,
and exits at
.
(a)II the turbine is isentropic, what is the power output oI the turbine?
(b)II the isentropic eIIiciency oI the turbine is , what is the power output?
(c) What is the outlet enthalpy oI the steam Irom the real turbine?
15.Air enters a gas turbine at and and exits at . II its isentropic
eIIiciency is 80 °, determine the turbine exit temperature.
13
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. ó
FUNDAMENTAL8 OF THERMODYNAM¡C8 AND HEAT TRAN8FER
TUTOR¡AL NO: 6
THERMODYNAM¡C CYCLE8
1. Air at and
enters into a compressor oI an ideal Brayton cycle and exits at
The maximum temperature during the cycle is
. Determine
(a)the pressure and temperature at each states oI the cycle.
(b)the compressor work, turbine work and net work per kg oI air, and
(c) the cycle eIIiciency.
2. An ideal gas turbine cycle produces oI power output. The properties oI air at the
compressor inlet are and
. The pressure ratio Ior the cycle is and the heat
added per kg oI air per cycle is . Determine
(a)the eIIiciency oI the cycle,
(b)the maximum temperature in the cycle, and
(c) the mass Ilow rate oI air.
3. The compressor and turbine oI an ideal gas turbine each have isentropic eIIiciencies oI .
The pressure ratio is . The minimum and maximum temperatures are and
respectively. Determine:
(a)the net work per kg oI air,
(b)the thermal eIIiciency oI the cycle, and
(c) Compare both oI these Ior a cycle with ideal compressor and turbine.
4. An ideal Otto cycle has a compression ratio oI . The minimum and maximum temperatures
during the cycle are and respectively. Determine:
(a)the heat added per kg oI air,
(b)the thermal eIIiciency, and
(c) the eIIiciency oI a Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limits.
5. The Iollowing data are obtained Ior a Iour stroke petrol engine:
Cylinder bore ÷
Stroke length ÷
Clearance volume ÷
Determine:
(a)the ratio oI clearance volume and swept volume,
(b)the compression ratio, and
(c) the thermal eIIiciency.
6. In an ideal Otto cycle, heat added to the system due to combustion is twice the heat rejected
through the exhaust gas. Determine the thermal eIIiciency and compression ratio oI the
engine.
7. The pressure and temperature at the beginning oI the compression stroke oI an air standard
Diesel cycle are and . The peak pressure and temperature during the cycle
14
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. ó
are and respectively. Determine the compression ratio and the cycle
eIIiciency.
8. An air standard diesel cycle has a compression ratio oI and expansion ratio oI .
Determine its cut oII ratio and the eIIiciency.
9. Air at the beginning oI compression stroke in an ideal Diesel cycle is at and
and the compression ratio is . Determine the maximum temperature during the cycle to
have an eIIiciency oI .
10.Determine the eIIiciency oI an ideal Rankine cycle operating between the boiler pressure oI
and a condenser pressure oI . The steam leaves the boiler as saturated vapor.
11.An ideal Rankine cycle operates between a boiler pressure oI and a condenser
pressure oI . The exit steam Irom the turbine should have a quality oI and the
power output oI the turbine should be . Determine
(a)the minimum boiler exit temperature,
(b)the eIIiciency oI the cycle, and
(c) the mass Ilow rate oI steam.
12.Superheated steam at ,
enters into turbine oI a steam power plant working on a
Rankine cycle. The steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid at . The turbine and
pump have isentropic eIIiciencies oI and respectively. For the cycle, determine:
(a)the net work per kg oI steam,
(b)the heat supplied into the boiler per kg oI steam, and
(c) the thermal eIIiciency.
15
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 7
FUNDAMENTAL8 OF THERMODYNAM¡C8 AND HEAT TRAN8FER
TUTOR¡AL NO: 7
HEAT TRAN8FER
1. A hollow cylinder with inner and outer diameters oI and respectively has an
inner surIace temperature oI
and an outer surIace temperature oI
. II the
thermal conductivity oI the cylinder material is , determine the heat transIer Irom
the unit length oI the pipe. Also determine the temperature at the surIace at a radial distance
oI Irom the axis oI the cylinder.
2. The rooI oI an electrically heated home is long, wide, and thick, and is
made oI a Ilat layer oI concrete whose thermal conductivity is . The
temperatures oI the inner and the outer surIaces oI the rooI one night are measured to be
and
, respectively, Ior a period oI . Determine:
(a)the rate oI heat loss through the rooI that night and
(b)the cost oI that heat loss to the home owner iI the cost oI electricity is .
3. The heat Ilux at the surIace oI an electrical heater is
. The heater surIace
temperature is
when it is cooled by air at
. What is the average convective heat
transIer coeIIicient? What will the heater temperature be iI the power is reduced so that heat
Ilux is
?
4. A room is maintained at
by an air conditioning unit. Determine the total rate oI heat
transIer Irom the person standing in the room iI the exposed surIace area and the average
outer surIace temperature oI the person are
and
, respectively, and the
convection heat transIer coeIIicient is
. Take surIace emissivity as .
5. A Ilat plate collector is insulated at the back surIace and exposed to solar radiation at the
Iront surIace. The Iront surIace receives solar radiation at a rate oI
and dissipates
heat to the ambient air at
both by convection and radiation. II the convection heat
transIer coeIIicient between the plate and air is
, determine the surIace
temperature oI the plate.
6. The inner surIace oI a thick plate ( ) is at
. The
outer surIace dissipates heat by combined convection and radiation to the ambient air at
. II the plate surIace has an emissivity oI and the convection heat transIer
coeIIicient between the outer plate surIace and the ambient air is
, determine the
outer surIace temperature oI the plate.
7. A Iurnace is made oI Iireclay brick oI thickness and thermal conductivity oI
. The outside surIace is to be insulated by an insulating material with the thermal
conductivity oI . Determine the thickness oI the insulating layer in order to limit
the heat loss per unit area oI the Iurnace wall to
when the inside surIace oI the
wall is at
and the outside surIace is at
.
16
20ó8 Udd Semester TUTURIAL NU. 7
8. Find the heat transIer through the composite wall as shown in Figure P7.8. Assume one
dimensional Ilow. The thermal conductivities oI wall materials are
,
,
and
. All dimensions are in .
Figure P7.8
9. A composite wall consists oI thick layer oI common brick oI thermal conductivity
and thick plaster oI thermal conductivity .An insulating material
oI thermal conductivity is to be added to reduce the heat transIer through wall by
. Determine the required thickness oI the insulating layer.
10.A diameter long pipe carrying steam is covered with oI high
temperature insulation ( ) and oI low temperature insulation (
). The inner and outer surIaces oI the insulating layers are at
and
respectively. Determine:
(a)the rate oI heat loss Irom the pipe,
(b)the temperature at the interIace oI two insulating layers,
(c) the rate oI heat transIer Irom unit area oI the pipe surIace, and
(d)the rate oI heat transIer Irom unit area oI the outer surIace oI the composite insulation.
11.A gas turbine blade is modeled as a Ilat plate. The thermal conductivity oI the blade material
is and its thickness is . The upper surIace oI the blade is exposed to hot
gases at
and the lower surIace is cooled by air bled oI the compressor. The heat
transIer coeIIicients at the upper and lower surIaces oI the blade are
and
respectively. Under steady state conditions, the temperature, at the upper
surIace oI the blade is measured as
, determine the temperature oI the coolant air.
12.A long steel plate ( ) is well insulated on its sides, while its leIt section is
maintained at
and the right section is exposed to ambient air at
. Under steady
state conditions, a thermocouple inserted at the middle oI the plate gives a temperature oI
. Determine the value oI convection heat transIer coeIIicient Ior convection heat
transIer between the right section oI the plate and air.
.
3 5 . /(( ! .01 ! 2 +
# %( . " (( .!
"
# $ % ! ( ' & ' & '
# & ' ' # ' ) (( .
(( . ) & # ) 34
. # ) 2
. ) * ( & . )
2 6 (( .
(( 7! (( .. ) (%8 ) ) ' # # 2 6 %(( . ) ' + (( (( . ( " # (( #
7 %(((7 $ ( : :
(
9 #
(((7
.
' 0 * + ' (
+ " 1 3+ ( 1 * 3+ " * 1 # ' 0 # ( ! + 5 3+ " * / 2 ! 43 ! 2 # # ! " 3 " ! .! # " $ # # % ! # !
"#
!
# % * # + # # &"
& ' ( # %
# %
! &"
$ % #
'( ) " & "
. 43 5 "
.
# " 
+
!
.
. 5 " 7 # 43 #
+
6%"
. * /
# # .
). ! 5 " & ! > &" # ! # 8. <5
8 "
"
43
" . ! " # &" = &" & % '
."
! * . #
# * / + 3+ 9 :. # ' ( / # # " # / 3 " " + ! ? &" 43 # ( # " 43 "
# =
'
(
#
5 " .
& 2 23 )* ) ) ) ) ) ) ) & * () ) ) )* ' () ) ) () .) & ) ) 01 ) ) ) . ) + $ & ' ()
.×
! " ! " # ! ! # # ! $$ $ " % * $ % $&% $'% $(% * / & 2 ) $ % $&% $'% % ) / % 1 () ) 13 4 .) $ 1 & + ) ) ) ) ) ) ) () .
) 1 01 ) 13
)* )* ) () 23 ' () )* ) ) 13 23 '
)* # & 2 )
! ) $ 1
)*
"
)
& .
)
!
1 +
/
)* 4 2 +
! ) ) $ / )
)
() 23
)* $ 4 2
" ) ) ! &
)* # % ) / % ) ) / % & 1 / $ % $&% $'% . )
) ! 1 ) ) $ 01 )
) ) 13 )
)* 1 2 )
'
.& ' 13 $ % $&% ! % 2 13 $ % $&% " % ) / 1 13 1 ) 23 ) () 23 .
.! % 1 6 5 :. % 1 ' $ % $&% % )* 7 5 ) ) 13 8 2 ) ) 1 5 9 5 )
)*
#
)*
)*
)*
.
! ! # " % & $ "
$ % &
'
"
.
$ . % &
/ $
011 )
$ 2
$ " ) 3
.( ( ( )*+ .
3 3 3 & $ 3 // // 3 $ $ $ 3 3 // %
.
! # # # # #
"
$ #
% &
'( )'''
! # * !
$
#
&
+
.
# # 8''' # # ** # 9 9 $ $ = ' ># # # < $ # < < 8' 6 ** # # 0 . 4 ' 1 56 04'1 74 ' 32 # . #
#
+ &
+
. 4 12' 23'' #
. / 0# + 0 ' 8 2 56 7. '8.$
. 9 ** # ** / : .
!
#
" " "
$
!
%
.
& & '
# &
' (
.
! !
"
#
.
$
% " # # "
& " # &
.