Lfl

_

Parallel/Oblique Impact on Thin Explosive Samples
Vincent M. Boyle Robert B3. Frey

c12
ARL-TR-584

Alfred L. Bines
October 1994

I,

C,

94-33233

APPROVED FOR PUBLUC RELEASE. WIMUTRIDON IS UNU WnlD.

9410

25 '8

MOTIORS

Destroy this, rep~i

R~ Is no Ionpl n~Jgd DO NOT eMisf, Ht~ fo 01"elt v

uaw( 9,on' # Nlskona YedifwWe kirArnialohi Addeiftma ipl &isof 9%i #WWfI may W bte hrvlo U,S DopefnenltofComrnqug $210 Ponl PvyuI MWd SW'n~d, VA IItI $ bemnaltud m4 sh UftWa fqpei~nw# of liti Amy rjovIe not 1to The "nnpof M fe~a utlOIed dwcumerw by ov* hf Poalio, unlss 60 d~h'om~ The use of ue&Ie neinm of mani.ulwurefV nmme inVile r*W' 09" mno welhou

kosm~nIn of gny oomintCV pruQ3ut

004 WIN Aaqmw

APPORT DOCUMMNATION PAW
t. A.~ z.d *0 ,- "

~

*fA

v--oo
o "

Pod, 40R I 1"

hr4V

a va bwp*hPAW & ft". wJ ANW to M

-fir
ATIW

IwpI NMI MPV~r& 1 P 11i
~
-

AMSD, WVTh Ab " 6 M OL m I tIm K"T iv
LUIW1 ANAW ATIT' (W AVB

*T X I
~~fh~T

TPm

9w~I

uimi

mwvm-

Tw

EpInev6 Ww~~VI*y IPY a high~ 466d Ihaml'0 o.w14# Us we. lots&. Ii~01116. w U ol osp5illeIiw4~1141440'S' (iINW0 doj H~m opu"WA 00 0A faeIw~do poeftM9 (Nip i.E ohm~ 040#0f1wIIs W04 liht" Is4) (lIeab I 111 1~*01alr we qA9.lv.v p~ NO)i Wdsi tm AuW one mwl. we. SOIKM pv fto b.mdww~ing sv"~Iv 44 1ANE) 0n), 11441u01 OFI ,mgs4iMt0 *04 0akVl .hdAt 1W OW. ISPA AM"wu 44f #A bMi 110.0841114111111 40a 14"I"i6ul1k~ 9 wV1.qI1 pl,)t Oe. Iuaqmil %61oIl 081S9IwUM*~h9 &euaPi.M)i wid fth wgm4 obow"i 004-ftwe vwastw NMI YWMe (:, 11w N ls too wA y~td .Smmh, do nwwIn' op.wsmDIs Af4 ipw wow waIAW(akuhloW ~jits Vi vamo mL~s4** o itlAu#*4 IWWiUm o4 *AM shpulmumad p*A1dh ikjstoevwsas

pa psi&Aw wgeK om

ro
MIUN1ASSIwoM

IMlL~I5IPowA

.

_I 11WA53tFI1uI

I
its .40

fl*
p Alj'p ji4 lit I& o~~'~

-

IMM"N~oALLY UrrRITUANK,

T!AMIPI ()I' CON1WIN

L~l• IST l !TA O ULM

...............................................

vi

I,

INTKODsU('rK)N

.........

..................

..............

.

I

2.
I. 4.

EXPURIMUNTAL APIROACH RESU L.T S .............. ....

,...*..

..................

*...........

......................... ..................
...................

... ......

.

10 II

D ISC USSIO N ................................
CONCLUSIONS ..........

5.
6.

.

....

....

17

REFEREN(ES,................

...

......

...................... ...............

19 21 25 31 35

APPENDIX A: DETAILS OF GAS GUN AND PROJECTILE

APPENDIX B; EVALUATION OF THE STRAIN RATE ................... APPENDIX C: PRESSURE CALCULATION ............................

DISTRIBUTION LIST ............................................

CiI Tx

~

(

D',. A -• •, . ""'-• ", . • :

i ,

iii

1

'

INM~moNALLY LEFr BLANK.

iv

I 181 01I

I

I

II

OlURlu
! 2. I. 4. IPlraileihbllque Imacl (if S flyer piale on a Mini ex.R)osive wuaplc '1lie nonnal and I010ig1iitll e.omiWinhW of tOW flyer plate be~oro t impoc, %m Illstruuaed ....... '1f1eitcop~npv&b cIlo Wguns Altiwt mounted on ita moblic cart, i'is affanngcment s
to whs usedw wlel SIh Int•uhe blImt chamber ........................ iun 4 2

An overall view of the experimental arragilement .......................... '" temperature Incree In an explosivc target plotted as a function of viscosity and yield strenth of the explosive. 7he sample thickness is 0.06 cm, and ftI transverse component of the flyer plate velocity Is 7,650 cm/s ....................... The temperature increase in an explosive target plotted as a function of the transverse component of the flyer plate velocity and the explosive viscosity, The sample thickness is 0.06 cm, and Its yield strength, is assumed to be 0.35 kbar ......... The temperature incwase in an explosive target plotted as a function of the explosive thickness and viscosity. The transverse component of the flyer plate velocity is 7,650 cm/s, and the explosive yield strength is assumed to be 0.35 kbar ........ Detail of the wraparounid breech showing the gas seal provided by the O-rings on the projectile body ................................................ The transverse velocity (the. component parallel to the interfaces) in the flyer plate, explosive target, and the anvil after impact ............................ The elastic impact of the flyer plate on the anvil is shown in the pressure-particle velocity plane .................................................

. 5

13

5.

15..1

6.

16 24 29 34

A-1. B-1. C-I.

'L.

INTYiEfloNALLY LiFPr BLANK.

LIST OF TABLES

I.

Material Propertis of Fyer Plates wW Anvils ......

.......

.........

......

.7

2.
3.

Experimental Data for Tests

.......................................

7
9

Pressurt, Strain Rate of Explosive, and Impact Simultaneity ..................

vii

IKNTnTONALLY LEFT BLANK.

viii

1, 1INKODU(IION 'I-e *hcarng of explosive materials mnder pressure Is an effective way to producc !w•nlictd hiallot 0y vI.coplastic work concentratcd in a sm.ll region of the dforming explosive, 11his Iuocalld heatnlki can cause the explosive to react releasing additional heat to accelerate the maction, In an cnrlicr paper, we d.scribed tie results obtained when a s"all cylinder of explosive was prtexuhzcd within heavy tccl confinement and then allowed to slide against the steel confinement (Boyle, Frey, aund BWake 19.89); in a similar arrangement, we investigated explosive on explosive shear by punching a plug from ihc pressuritzed explosive cylinder, In those experimens, we demonstrated that the ignition threshold depcndi on both pressure and shear velocity. Those uxperimcnts had a relatively long duration of about I ms, a maximum pressure of about 1.0 GPa, and a maximum shearing velocity of about 80 m/s; the pressure and shear velocity varied during the course of the experiment. The risc time to peak pressu.- was several hundred ps. Also the shear localization was not well defined so the local strain rate could not be determined. In the experiments reported here, we have attempted to study ,ie ignition of several explosives as they were impacted under conditionr that would cause the explosive sample to shear in a known manner under the high pressure of the impact. A maximum pressure of 1.3 GPa was reached with a strain rate of about 50,000 per second over an explosive layer 0.6 mm thick. 2. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In order to obtain well-defined conditions for pressure-shear impact on explosive, we adapted a technique described by Abou-Sayed, Clifton, and Hernann (1976), Kim and Clifton (1980), and Li and Clifton (1981). In this technique, one-dimensional combined pressure shear waves were generated in a flat target plate by the impact of a flat, high acoustic impedance flyer plate; both the flyer plate and the target plate were inclined at an angle to the velocity vector of the flyer plate in order to produce a shear component of particle velocity in the impacted targeL The impact occurred simultaneously at all points of the flyer-target interface. In addition, a high acoustic impedance anvil supported the target plate. The flyer plate and anvil have higher acoustic impedance than the target plate in order to prevent unloading of the target by reflection of waves at the target interfaces. This arrangement is illustrated in Figure 1 for the flyer plate impacting a target at 30° obliquity. A gas gun was used to accelerate the flyer plate. Details of the gas gun and projectile are shown in Appendix A. From Figure 1, it can be seen that the flyer plate velocity has a component normal to the target plate, Vn, and a component parallel to the target plate, Vt. These components can be calculated as follows:

1

III

1--*1
LU

Vn =V(cos a),

1 (2)

Vt= V (sin a),

witerv v it the flycr plate velocity and a is the angle of obliquity of the flyer plate with respect to the

seigtt l111##1111111 (111w W.WCcn the flyer plate velocity and the normal to the target plate). Upon impact, INw ernnial romixincnt of Oic flyer plate velocity generates astress wave in the target; this stres wave is cvi lltelt hoiwnr tho hI;h impercd.nc boundaries several times until the target re&.zhes a state of uniform titet, doWrneilnd by INw flyer plate velocity and the material properties of the flyer plate, target plate, and divtyl IIkqwiaq, the pardalll component or flyer plate velocity, by its traction with the target surface, gwdt- wave lit the tarcle which, after several reverberations, induces a state of uniform shear. tolwil 'Ilt Hil.i9, #so# a~s t-iNed with i10A shear Isdetermined by the parallel component of flyer plate velocity; Okw mehateul pijoeniprils of the flyor plate, target plate, and anvil; and the thickness of the target plate. A higI sjjwil hoentleeg v~ameei Cordin Model 192. was operated at half speed, 2,500 rps, in its ino itNIt ordler to mccorti the Impact of the flyer plate on the explosive target; this impact fti~~f~m ~ hnwli a5(1nu~,lilk Irnsprent Knvil. . - camera records 80 frames, and the interframe ~

014t tj&ýW 14 Wpeinohowatly 1.7 jin. However, we were usually l-i.':ed to about 15 jis of lw~mi A4*etiotl', Oh efta hcume thw Irye surface of the anvil became opaque shortly after the elastic wave I to#ploulyo HIMsiouuvAs (argon bombs) were used to illuminate the explosive surface siom~lvhi 'Jwu It*i '11w argon bombil consisted of a volume of argon gas inside a conical ,utallhifd WunU619*1 %ftill lot lRnIU'111114, reflectifix Inner surface; the container was sealed at the larger end voliejiiw of Worol Wraj), A 340Sg Comp Bi exploxive charge was taped Inside the smaller It9 iti~so twi.,,f vievtwt! t.y 91 tatinteg
tilbl4loIve (110100 Is01we,.wd, iastrono shock wave Is produced In the argon causing it #Wa W1011 110w tn Iuyitte &Al Ofli etigl of be1s'Y I11111 as th, Phock wave progresses through the argon. For the lov alp'." W11W~b VWd its iliww trAts, wo had Bifficieelt light to record for approximately 60 ps. ha,

I*s

'whtl

uut

-et it:l 'I'ito ctrnipreued pas gun was mounted on amobile cart

1k lwilk i~ewcii eecroviry, H'Iurc 2, Ii practice, we ended up welding La. Wa %"vitl "tasitnet eom OW sjh it Ielaifii a 1el1itr ilifid iteucturr wid improve the simultaneity of Impact. An 1 4'.1. lt 1t1iit~l II& beie kl ov't Wool 110#6; 01111 lowfiI u~jqeyA III tvqijw' wan used to hold tOw anvil rund explosive target and align use *a it.h W110 ** VI Owi 11#11)04 ills A iog f-lONO ratcicr Itank wit uxcd ito catch the projectile and some [us Vto 11'P.' &101# 11fp 041-1111161110 OllgIlstmItir Is Plowu lin h'igur 3.

ImI

2-0L-J

00

w

U

->

-i

>
W. 00

0

0

c z

-A
U)

cc
100

c

>44

41.1

z
I.-I CED I
0I

c

_

_

w
§

02

I

4-

CL

o o
cc

t

CLDL
<

CC9

05

In the experiments reported here, UOsrujn raw In the cpItuImc tiar•' con tv caliulsicd a•
(VtO -

V FA)/ A

(0)

where VOnM Vi ate the components of the pr a

!kwic velocity vid tld anvil vclm.iy pairidicl t1) de

inmerface after Impict iad x is the orilinal tikiisnis of the exploslyc sample T7i1 cal'ulaolw Is0 shown In Appendlx B. In order to calculate the sirms in the explosive sample, wc assumed thm thr flyer plate and ite anvil remained clhuic during the impact and. after several revertiratiou. the exp',sivc attained a At'UAS lcvCl equal to what would be achieved by the impact of Ue flyr plate directly on hie anvil, WIth ithse asumptions and the requirement dial the paricle velocity and pnesure rmmhln equal at the flyc plate.anvil interface, we were able to calculate the stress in the exploslve. For a stee flyer plute and a glnss anvil, the pressure lit the explosive can be calculated (see Appendix C):

PR M(prUr) (pu.)Vn / (plUr + paUl)
where
2 P5 is the pressure In Use explosive sample, dynes'crm

(4)

(101l dynes/cm2 I Maa 10 kbars) a 3 the flyer plate, S/cm pf is density of 3 pS is density of the anvil, &/cm Vn is the normal component of flyer plate velocity, cm/s Ur Ix the elastic wave velocity in dte flyer plate., cm/s U&is the elastic wave velocity In the anvil, cm/u, Table I lists the relevant material properties for the flyer plates and anvils described in this report. Trable 2 lists the experimental data for the tests which are being reported here. Using the data from Table 2, we were able to calculate the strain rate (Appendix B) and pressure (Appendix C) in the explosive sample, These values, as well as t1e impact simuancity Wlong the projcctile/targct interlace, are listed in T'able 3. We should comment that the calculated strain iate dcpcids on the value assumed for viscosity, The effect of changing the viscosity is shownt in Appendix B.

!

"

Table I. MMrtal Pwpern MiuluiW Wwal, 1020 aluminum, 2024.T4 Denud•

of Flyer PMates and Anvils I cluatic Velocity Wave

(S/cm )
7.19 2,711

(cm/u)
5.96 X 10 6.30 x 1C0$

ilJM
Plexlgla

2.23 1.1

5,64 x 10s 2.70 x I0

was Kutully a lsilnma. m nsisng of tour glas wid thrse pludo u uAn invil; 11 IU ;lass. a wuti whil. 5ouooiii"is, wu ad a plie, The ovwai ahkjl *a 2 Kuod t indiwdui gaiss pile warr 03 In t• i2 M Thi plasi plies were pulyvinyl butyMyI, . 0.0 1! IA hick

Table 2, Expertmcntial Data for Te•tl Flycr Plate Velocity

Shot No. I 2 3 4 5 6 7

Flyer Plait flat aluminum flat, alumiLnm flat, aluminum

(n/,)

Explosive Simple 1.rmm TNT 1.mm TNT 1.rmm TNT I-mm TNT 1-mm DS 1-mm DS 1-mm DS

Anvil Plexiglia PlexglSaS PlcxigtIu

147 148 174 -148 132 125

angled, aluminum
angled, aluminum flat, steel flat, steel

Pixiglas
Plexiglas glass glass glass g-mm glass

angled, steel
9 angled, steel flat, steel angled, steel flat, steel

125
145 153 143

DS
1-mm DS I-mm DS 1-mm DS 1-mm CS

10
II 12
NOTE: DS

glass
glass glass
8%Idumiroci.

*Ddulasat is an explosive mude by the DuPont Company; it contains 6396 by weight PMT, ulose, and 29% aoetyltributykitrate. Its density wu about 1,48 g/cm., TNT - out TNT or density 1,60 &0/cm.

7

Table 2. Experimental Dama for Tests (continued) Flyer Plate Velocity

Shot No.

Flyer Kimt
Mkat, Steel

Explosive Sample

Anvil

13
14 is 16 17 1s 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

144
148 143
-_

1-mm DS
I-mm DS l-mm DS I-mm DS 1-minDS I-mm DS 1-minDS 1-mm DS
1-mm DS
_

glass
glass glass glass glass glass glans glass glass gasn glass glasS glass glIMS glasS glass glass glass

angled, steel angled, gtel angled, stel angled, steel angled stel fliat stee stee fALa flat, mel flat, steel flat, steel flat, steel &~4 mode
" nged. ste!

-

120 127 79 89 57 58 103 69 153 64 42 39 59

I-mm DS 1-mw DS 1-mm DS 0.5-mm Pent 0.6-mim DS 0.6-mmn DS 0.6-mm DS 0.6-mm DS 0.6-mm DS

flat, sftel angled, steel angled, stel angled, stel

explosive mic by do~ DuPont Cotpnpui; it contains 63% by weight POWh, 8%nitrocellulose Nall: DS -Deulw.( is m.i 29% acetyltributylidwsta. Its density was about 1.48 g/cm . wan Padt. mcast Patuol~te (50% PE174/50% TNT) of density 1.67 5/cm'.

8

Table 3. Pressure, Strain Rate of Explosive, and Impact Simultaneity Shot No. 1 2 3 Pressure (GPa) 0.39 0.40 0.47 Strain Rate t (l/s) 0 0 0 12 Impact Simultaneity (ps)

4
5 0.35 35,000

6 7
8 9

1.31 1.24
1.07 1.25

0 0
31,000 36,000
_

15

10 11 12 13 14 15

1.31 1.42 1.43 1.27 1.23

38,000 0 0 37,000 36,000 2 10 10 20

18 19 20 21 22 23
for Detasheat.

1.03 1.26 0.78 0.88 0.56 0.57

29,000 0 0 0 0 0

3 0

0

2

a This is for the strain rate calculated assuming a viscx'ity of 50,000 poise and a yield strength of 0.35 x 10P dyneslcm 2

9

Table 3. Pressure, Strain Rate of Explosive, and Impact Simultaneity (continued) Shot No. 24 25 26 27
2 8b 29

Pressure
-(Gra)

Strain Rate' (/s) 0 0 49,000 0 10,000 9,600 17,000
_

Impact Simultaneity (Ps) 5 4 10 8 7

1.02 0.68 1.31 0.63 0.36 0.33 0.51

b

30 Detasheet.

2 SThis is the smain rate ¢alculated a•svxmg a viscosity of 50,000 poise and a yield strength of 0.35 x 109 dynes/cra for

b For these shot. an IM detector monitored a snall region of explosive at the edge of the inpact zone.

The desh lines in Table 2 indicate an absence of data due to failure of the arrival time circuitry used to meawnr projectile velocity.

In Table 3, the dash lines indicate a lack of data for various reasons; failure of the velocity pin circuitry, malfunctioning of the framing camera shutter or mistirning of the explosive light source used to illuminate the explosive target. 3. RESULTS As can be seen from the data in Table 3, many of our tests did not have good impact s?-ultaL.ity of the flyer plate on the surface of the explosive target. Also, in many of the tests, we were not able to observe the impact, due to experimental pioblems. For the impacts that we were able to observe, we did not see any obvious sign of explosive reaction such as light emission or the expulsion of reaction products from the region of impact. In all cases, the explosive in the impacted region became darker in about 4-6 ps; after this, the darkness did not appear to increase during the available time of observation, nbaut 15 ps. However the darkness did appear to increase with the impact pressure. For some of the shots (No. 14 vs. No. 19 and No. 18 vs. No. 24), we were able to compare shear and nonshear tests at pressures which were nearly equal; the presence or absence of shear did not appear to have an effect on explosive darkening. 10

For shot No. 25, the explosive target consisted of a 0.5-mm cast sheet of Pentolite explosive in which the grain boundaries were very prominent. Upon impact at 0.68 GPa the grain boundaries were noticeably darker than the rest of the explosive for several microseconds and then the entire impacted region became uniformly dark. Since we were not able to tell if the explosive darkening meant that reaction was occurring, we tried to detect IR radiation by using a photovoltaic silicon photodiode that was sensitive to wavelengths from the visible to the near IR (300 nm to 1,100 nm). Two longpass IR filters were used in tandem in front of the photodiode in order to attenuate the visible light from the argon bombs by a factor of 10 billion; the cut on wavelength was 785 nm. The filters and photodetector were shielded from stray light by enclosing them within a phenolic tube which was pointed toward the impacted surface of the explosive sample as shown in Figure 3. The photodetector viewed a small region on the edge of the impact area. For shot No. 29, the argon bombs did not function and the photodiode did not detect any signal during 6 ms of observation. For shot No. 30, the argon bombs functioned and the photodiode detected a signal but it corresponded to the turn on of light from the argon bombs before the flyer plate even impacted the explosive target. Several shots were. fired for which the rear surface (the surface facing the camera) of the explosive was marked beforehand with fine lines using a permanent marker. The lines appeared to remain undistorted during the time of observation, even though the impacted area of the explosive became dark. This was true even at an impact pressure of 1.02 0Pa, sho! No. 24. Examination of the debris recovered after the shot did not reveal any ,,idence of explosive reaction

"aýtving occurred. The flyer plate did not have any carbon residue or other indications of explosive
reactioi-.. The explosive within the impact zone was broken into small irregular fragments. The anvil was generally shatte-4 into many small pieces. The projectile and most of the debris from the impact zone enided up embedded in the rags within the catcher tank. 4. DISCUSSION We were surprised that we were unable to detect any obvious sign of explosive reaction for Detasheet since, in the paper previously mentioned (Boyle, Frey, and Blake 1989), we were able to cause Detasheet to react under what appeared to be a milder stimulus, 0.2-GPa pressure and a shear velocity of 60 m/s. 11

The duration of those tests was about 500 ps, whereas the tests reported here woald be terminated when release waves originating at the boundary of the flyer plate reached the axis, a time of about 15 ps. The
longer duration of those earlier tests may have allowed the explosive to reach temperatures required for reaction. Also, in those earlier tests a cylinder of explosive was slid along a boundary of either steel or

explosive causing the explosive temperature to increase due to viscoplastic heating. The shear may have become more localized in those earlier tests due to greater thermal softening of the explosive at the peak temperature region within the shear band. The concentration of shear motion in a narrow region would increase the strain rate and the peak temperature. In our current tests, if the strain rate is uniform across the target plate, the temperature increase in the target plate can be expressed by the formula,
AT = (V [&l/dt] 2 + Y [de/dt] ) t/pc, (5)

where AT v temperatem increase (OC)

=

= viscosity (poise)

d/dtt = strain rate (1/s) t
p

= time duration (s)
=

density (g/cm')

c
Y

= specific heat (ergs/g-0 C)
= yield stress in shear (dynes/cm 2 ).

For the experiments reported here, the strain rate ol the explosive is a function of its thickness, viscosity, and yield strength, as well as the component of the flyer plate velocity parallel to the explosive surface,
and the material properties of the flyer plate and anvil; this relationship is indicated in equations B4-1BI0 in Appendix B. Using this relationship, we computed the strain rates corresponding to a range of We then used equation 5 to calculate the

explosive viscosities and yield strengths for shot No. 26. 1.48 g/cm 3, and a

corresponding temperature increase, assuming a time duration of 15 ps, an explosive density of

,pecific heat of 1.25 x 107 ergs/g-*C. Figure 4 shows the temperature increase in the

explosive target as a function of its viscosity and yield strength. It can be seen that, the calculated

temperature increase, over a wide range of viscosity and yield strength, is no greater than 11l60 C. We
would not expect to see evidence of explosive reaction in our experiment at such a low temperature. 12

200 180 1 60
Y. S. = 1.0 KBARS

II

140
z

Y. S. = 0.35 KBAR
1Y. S. = 0.0 KBAR

120
Li

"Li 100 80
,,I, LIII
60

Li

40
80 0
20;

40

-20000

0

20000

40000

60000

80000 100000 120000

VISCOSITY (POISE)

Figure 4. The temveaTwe increase in an gxplosive taImct Dioawe as a function of viscosity and Yield strength of the explosive. The sample thickness is 0.06 on. and the

transverse comoonent of the flyer plate velocity is 7.650 co/s. _13

We can use Frank-Kamentskii's equation for the adiabatic explosion time (AMCP 706-180, 1972) to calculate the temperature required to produce a thermal explosion in 15 ps. We used the following data for PETN (Rogers 1975) for the required input parameters: Specific heat Gas constant Early heat of reaction Frequency factor Activation energy 1.25 x W ergs/g-OC 8.31 x W ergs/g-mol- 0 C 1.26 x 1010 ergs/g 6.3 x 1019/s 1.97 x 1012 ergs/g-mol

The calculated temperature for a thermal explosion time of 15 ps is 818 K, which corresponds to a temperature. increase of 5250 C. This temperature increase is much higher than those calculated for the parallel/oblique experiments. Taking 1160 C as the maximum calculated temperature increase for the parallel/oblique tests, the time required for an adiabatic explosion would be 2.4 x 108 s. In addition, the strain rate (and temperature increase) may have been limited by the explosive sample sliding at one or both of the interfaces with the flyer plate and anvil. The surface of the glass anvil had a commercial polish finish of 10 fringes per inch, and the steel target plate had a machined surface finish with roughness of 16 pin rms. Any future tests should address the possibility of slippage at these interfaces. A suggested approach would be to increase the traction by surface roughening. Also, the anvil consisted of glass plies laminated together by polyvinyl butyryl plies. In order to avoid the possibility of shear localization occurring in the polyvinyl butyryl, a single piece of thick glass could be used. The steel flyer plate used in our tests had a yield strength of about 0.5 GPa, but we did not see any evidence of yielding on the face of the recovered flyer plate. Such yielding, if present, would decrease the impact pressure by a small amount. In order to avoid this possibility, a hardened steel flyer plate should be used for future tests. The most direct means of increasing the temperature of the explosive sample is to increase its strain rate by increasing the velocity of the impacting projectile, decreasing the sample thickness, or doing both, It is instructive to calculate the temperature increase that would be expected using the data of shot No. 26 and varying the impacting velocity and the explosive sample thickness over a range of explosive viscosities. The yield strength of the explosive is assumed to be 0.35 x 109 dynes/CM 2 . Figures 5 and 6 show the calculated temperature increases for several sample thicknesses and impacting velocities. 14

600

i

VEL. = 153 M/SEC

VEL. = S------- = VEL.

114.75 M/SEC
76.5 M/SEC

z
,)

400

U
L

300 -.. 1

,.)

0ý20
(.-.
I~iJ

I-I

o 2
1000 0
t1

2000 Io .......

400

00

00

000100

O0

-

..

..................

II

VISCOSITY (POISE)

Figure 5. The temperature increase in an explosive target plotted as a function of the transve M. component of the flyer Dlate velocity and the explosive viscosity. Ile s nple thickness is 0.06 cm, and its yield strenytIh is assumed to be 0.35 kbar. 15

600
-

THICK. =.015 CM THICK. =.030 CM
=.060

*---THICK.

CM

500

zu400
Lii C-)

cr300

10L..............

0 -2000 0 00 400600 VICO IT (P IE 0001000100

Figur

6.7etmeaueinfa

ina
thickness~~~~~~~~~~~~ and he stengt xplgiy&Yiel

3)sv
an isnswgW

ae
vicst,-ense opnn t DI

og
ftgfl~ .35hb-

wabo
agylIl

nofteM
I7f~a

100

I16

%I f* fin Wit Wr insti eta#41v' fatSio w~Itf wwtkmv0n of comnbined! pressurv/shcur. Using Wa Ur4~n t telblm4 et"I'd nn#W1 hS %ajoelv@ o fit ytied .tiwngt and viscosity, we caflculated A tsr'nw, ~ ~ t* wea to ItSi Vt WSW Emalf ~ W1h ~

*l;uJevoie ~ ~uap ~~11i ~

ftijdtwt lot 0* 11"Wtq oJ1f tou

Is much j4Wf1iiitIl. Ai~ijt~zmately 15 PA. and as also

;iucrvane In wempruiure

sa" L'J*wru~tv 0* Wnewtne4
I4'4' 401v e It*1

I-tp sin
t Mli

Ii *An IW t'i

oLhefl 4Whatt.

0r

MMu.,

It.

rWlS~t bfl'i

INTENTONALLY LEFr BLANK.

18

6. REFERENCES

Abou-Sayed, A. S., R. J. Clifton, and L. Hermann. "The Oblique-plate Impact Experiment." Experimental Mechanics. pp. 127-132, April 1976. Boyle, V., R. Frey, and 0. Blake. "Combined Pressure Shear Ignition of Explosives." Ninth Symposium (International) on Detonation, OCNR 113291-7, vol. 1, Portland, OR, 28 Aug-I Sep 1989. Halleck, P. M., and J. Wackerle. "Dynamic Elastic-Plastic Properties of Single Crystal Pentaerythritol Tewanitrate." Journal of Apolied Physics. vol. 47, no. 3. 1976. Kim, K. S., and R. J. Clifton. "Pressure-Shear Impact of 6061-T6 Aluminum." Mechanics, vol. 47, pp. 11-16, March 1980. Journal of Applied

Li, C. H., and R. J. Clifton. "Dynamic Stress-Strain Curves at Plastic Shear Strain Rates of 1W sec1.Q" Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, AIP Conference Proceedings No. 78, edited by W. J. Nellis et al. Brown University, Providence, RI, 1981. Pinto, J., S. Nicolaides, and D. A. Wiegand. "Dynamic and Quasi Static Mechanical Properties of Comp B and TNT." ARAED-TR-85004, U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Center, Dover, NJ, November 1985. (AD-E401419) Rogers, R. N. "Thermochemistry of Explosives." Thermochimica Acta, vol. 2, 1975. U.S. Army Materiel Command. AMCP 706-180, 1972. Engineering Design Handbook - Principles of Explosive Behavior.

19

INTE"TONALLY LEFT BLANK.

20

APPENDIX A:
DETAILS OF GAS GUN AND PROJECTILE

21

INMERMINALLY LEFT BLANK.

22

The gas gun used for these tests was machined from 4140 steel and tempered to 35 on the Rockwell C scale. The barrel had the following basic dimensions: length = 70 in outside diameter = 7.750 in bore diameter = 5.940 in. A 1/4-in x 1/4-in x 70-in keyway was machined along the bore of the barrel in order to prevent rotation of the keyed projectile since rotation of projectiles having angled flyer plates could cause nonsimultaneous impact to occur. The gun had a wraparound breech of approximately 1,044-in 3 volume; the breech section was 24 in long and had an outside diameter of 14 in. The overall length of the assembled gun was 91 in. The total weight of the gun was about 1,500 lb. The projectile consisted of a polyethylene body to which the flyer plate was bolted. following characteristics:

It had the

body length = 12 in body diameter = 5.925 in flyer plate thickness = 2 in flyer plate diameter = 5.75 in total projectile weight = 15.4 lb to 22.9 lb.

The projectile had two O-rings (Parker 2-432) which served to seal against the high pressure nitrogen gas contained in the wraparound breech as shown in Figure A-I. When a small pressure is introduced through valve A, the projectile is displaced from its initial position and uncovers four large portholes connecting the wraparound breech to the gun bore. The high pressure breech gas which dumps behind the projectile causes it to accelerate rapidly. The O-rings were fitted against the gun bore with a 10% squeeze. For the tests reported here, the lowest velocity was obtained with a breech pressure of 125 psi and the highest with a breech pressure of 1,300 psi. We were not able to pressurize the breech beyond 1,300 psi due to leaks-probably past the O-rings.

23

U))

0U

w

IC

ccw

100

IcI
900

24

APPENDIX B: EVALUATION OF THE STRAIN RATE

25

INTENTIoNALLY LEFr BLANK.

26

Notation:

S1 = shear stress in projectile, dynes/cm 2
2 s3 = shear stress in anvil, dynes/cm

2 S2 = shear stress in target (explosive), dynes/cm

V = viscosity of explosive, poise

Y = yield strength of explosive, dynes/cm 2 2 01 = shear modulus of projectile, dynes/cm G3 = shear modulus of anvil, dynes/cm 2 C1 = elastic shear wave speed in projectile, cm/s C3 = elastic shear wave speed in anvil, cm/s Vt= initial component projectile velocity parallel to the interface, cm/s V,
=

component of projectile velocity parallel to the interface after impact, cm/s

V3 = component of anvil velocity parallel to the interface after impact, cm/s el = shear strain in the projectile, cm/cm

S= shear strain in the anvil, cm/cmr
T = thickness of the target plate, cm, S2= shear strain rate in the target, swhere
0, (steel) = 7.68 x 1011 dynes/cm
2

2 G, (alum.) = 2.78 x 1011 dynes/CM

G3 (glass) = 2.65 x 1011 dynes/cm 2 C1 (steel) = 3.12 x l&s cm/s C1 (alum.) = 3.16 x 105 cm/s
5 C3 (glass) = 3.45 x IC cm/s.

To evaluate the strain rate in the target, we make the following assumptions: (1) After a few reverberations of the wave back and forth acioss the target layer, the qhear in the target plate is homogeneous; i.e., there is no strain localization. This assumption gives the lowest possible strain rate. We will analyze this situation and will not consider the transient that exists before the homogeneous state is attained. 27

(2) The stress and particle velocity anm continuous at the Interfaces. (3) The projectile and the anvil respond elastically, so that

S1 = G1c1
and

(B1)

S3 =G (4) The explosive obeys the following very simple constitutive relation:

(B2)

S2 = Y + v i2 = Y + v (VI - V3)/

.

(B3)

We recognize that real materials will have more complex behavior. (5) We ignore heating of the layer and variations in the viscosity or the yield strength with

temperature. With these assumptions, the transverse velocity (the component parallel to the interfaces) varies as shown schematically in Figure B-1. A shock moves back into the projectile and reduces its transverse velocity from V, to V1. A shock moves to the right in the anvil and increases its transverse velocity from 0 to V3 . Within the target layer, the velocity varies linearly from VI to V3. The shear strain in the anvil is V3
E3 3

(B4)

The shear strain in the projectile is

e Vt-VI C1

(B5)

28

Projectile

Target I I
I

Anvil

V*
>m

I

I
I

I
I

*> C

I

V1 3

Elastic Wave

Distance (normal to target plate) Figure B-I. The transverse velocity (the component parallel to the interfaces) in the flyer plate, explosive tarmet. and the anvil after impact. The shear strain rate in the target is

'2 - (V - V 3 )

/ r

.

(B6)

At the interfaces, the stress is continuous, so the following equations hold:

GI(Vt-

V

)/C 1

1 -v

(VI-V

3 )/T

+ Y,

(B7)

and
G3 (V 3 ) / C 3 = v (V 1 - V 3 ) r + Y.

(B8)

29

Solving for V, and V3 gives the following result:

V1U . VIY
LCII2717 and

T +T4

-Z

("9)V

The viscosity Is unknown for thc cxplomlvcu t11t.1 wc uKcd (Wid 11W EoIIIiIuli jIVJ ivlstkn uvd IW4 to it almost certainly too simple to represent a real material), Novenlicleho, wt can mhake pot~ih pueIW Maht Awi the viscosity and calculate fthrexultinX Ntrain rate, 1llolck and Wackrile1 dien',ulilud 0 d(1Wa4021 b* PETN of 50,000 poise In a shock wave experiment, '11fs could he used u. mn upjvrl bouh4 '11W )tI#J strengt under pressure Isalso not wcll known. lItIn clear dial the yield muvnph utndo, pr~o.vi Itjevfte than ft~ strength ftht Is measurd In uncouiinwed uniaxia is)cxpefl'iuumz IltivNl_& -Witaa -4 determined a yield strength for compoul~tion 11 of stwut 0~1 libir. I).iig Ibewc vtolvet oif vi~wt tooi en yield strengith for Delruhe,:, we cani calculate 11alroim fjoii 9qualltkI1 114 lIft), iniJ @jetmnjei.4vit. reii, equation 5, for expdrvircn( 26, Uc cwiiputcd Ivinijcraue huinaitfI that *-ouhl. 1* &_ JIn I I II# v 1 950 C, Figure 4 hOKws the ,omputcd tcmnixruture IIn!96We fl I lplg oill tVl3~oO1~e114 j pift)?14 It.ia
It

can be seen that if yield xtrvn8tlt is heldcoi(nstant, Owey 14s aviKIottIw vAlue W11101 11ýv IM, higlwif

lpossible tcmpcraututi,

11t1liuII P. M., owl

3. W..aufi
met' 1)

)nwoii

M SYWia&. im, 4 1`1601

.Jb4i~jas Ij.*aA

.4d*%.d i

le.5 #age

ho

2 Plnltu, J,. 5, NwdeIsIs,

A Wisoob-I

'

ARAMI iM 354MWM, Amyn~ If15 Amoaite.

Me&suiot

spo '..sa aptoit misto Im4j.a~

11104. Me-kil-4.. V.Vo.-Up WO V" a Lo Puti I
pov 11l.y. fb~i la0.., tD
Iftlm~its

I t..111.

Uttami I
hUIThut tgivwp

II

INtMNI(1NALLY L~PT IItLANK,

12

We can calculate the impact pressure produced when a flyer plate strikes an anvil. We assume that the impact remains elastic. After impact, the pressure in the flyer plate and the anvil are equal at the interface and the interface has a common particle velocity. The following notation a-,)lies: Vn = normal component of flyer plate velocity, cm/s u= interface particle velocity, cm/s 3 Pa= density of anvil, g/cm 3 pf density of flyer plate, g/cm
Ua =

elastic longitudinal wave speed in anvil, cm/s

Uf = elastic longitudinal wave speed in flyer plate, cm/s 2 P. = pressure in anvil, dynes/Cnr 2 Pf = pressure in flyer plate, dynes/cm Pi = interface pressure, dynes/cm2 Px = pressure in explosive, dynes/cm 2 . After impact, an elastic wave of velocity U. propagates into the anvil and an elastic wave of velocity Uf propagates into the flyer plate. The anvil undergoes a change in particle velocity (uj - 0), and the flyer plate particle velocity undergoes a change (Vn - uj). By the laws of conservation of mass and momentum across the elastic wave, we can write: Pa = p1U. (uV 0) and Pf = pfUf (VnAt the interface P. = Pf. Therefore we can write:

u).

(Cl)

PsUatti = PfUf (Vn - ui).

This can be solved for ut:
U, = P(UVn / (PaU& + PtUf). (C2)

Then, since we assumed that P.

= P 1

= Pf = P. we can write: (C3)

Px - Pa - pAUapfUfVn / (p8 U + pfUf)8

The Impact of the flyer plate on the anvil is illustrated in Figure C-1, which shows the elastic equation of state In the pressure-particle velocity plane.

33

P
FLYER PLATE, P= PFUF U

-

--

ANVIL, P= P.U.U

U1

VN

U

Figure C-I.

hle elastic impact of the flyer plate on the anvil is shown in the pressure-panricle velocity plane.

34

No. of £g2ie Organization 2 Administrator Defense Technical Info Center ATIN: DTIC-DDA Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22304-6145 Commander U.S. Army Materiel Command ATMI: AMCAM 5001 Eisenhower Ave. Alexandria, VA 22333-0001 Director U.S. Army Research Laboratory ATTN: AMSRL-OP-SD-TA, Records Management 2800 Powder Oill Rd. Adelphi, MD 20783.1145 3 Director U.S. Army Research Laboratory ATTN: AMSRL-OP-SD-TL, Technical Library 2800 Powder Mill Rd. Adelphi, MD 20783-1145 Director U.S. Army Research Laboratory ATTN: AMSRL-OP-SD-TP, Technical Publishing Branch 2800 Powder Mill Rd. Adelphi, MND 20783-1145 2 Commander U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center ATTN: SMCAR-TDC Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000 Director Benet We pons Laboratory U.S. Army krmament Research, Development, and Engineering Center ATIN: SMCAR-CCB-TL Watervliet, NY i2189-4050 Director U.S. Army Advanced Systems Research and Analysis Office (ATCOM) ATMN: AMSAT-R-NR, /WS 219-1 Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000

No. of Copis Organization 1 Commander U.S. Army Missile Command ATIMN: AMSMI-RD-CS-R (DOC) Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898-5010 1 Co m n e I Commander U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command ATTN: AMSTA-JSK (Armor Eng. Br.) Warren, MI 48397-5000 Director U.S. Army TRADOC Analysis Command AMTN: ATRC-WSR White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002-5502 Commandant U.S. Army Infantry School ATTN: ATSH-WCB-O Fort Benning, GA 31905-5000 Aberdeen Proving Ground 2 Dir, USAMSAA ATTN: AMXSY-D AMXSY-MP, H. Cohen Cdr, USATECOM ATTN: AMSTE-TC Dir, USAERDEC ATTN: SCBRD-RT Cdr, USACBDCOM ATIN: AMSCB-CII Dir, USARL ATTN: AMSRL-SL-I Dir, USARL ATTN: AMSRL-OP-AP-L

1

I

1 I 1 1 5

35

No. of HQDA (SARD-TRIMs. K. Kominos) WASH DC 20310-0103 HQDA (SARD-TRADr. R. Chait) WASH DC 20310-0103 Adminisiator Lckheed Missiles and Space Co. Org. 89-10, Bldg. 157 ATIN: Y. Choo Sunnyvale, CA 94088-3504

Aberleen Proving Ground 8 Dir, USARL ATI'N: AMSRL-WT-T, T. Wright AMSRL-WT-TB,

F. regory
W. Hillstrom 0. Lyman J. Watson J. Starkenberg AMSRL.WT-TD, J. Walter AMSRL-WT-PE, D. Kooker

36

USER EVALUATION SHEET/CHANGE OF ADDRESS This Laboratory undertakes a continuing effort to improve the quality of the reports it publishes. Your comments/answers to the items/questions below will aid us in our efforts. 1. ARLReportNumber 2. Date Report Received 3. Does this report satisfy a need? (Comment on purpose, related project, or other area of interest for which the report will be used.) ARL-TR-584 Date of Report October 1994

4. Specifically, how is the report being used? (Information source, design data, procedure, source of ideas, etc.)

5. Has the information in this report led to any quantitative savings as far as man-hours or dollars saved, operating costs avoided, or efficiencies achieved, etc? If so, please elaborate.

6. General Comments. What do you think should be changed to improve future reports? (Indicate changes to organization, technical content, format, etc.)

Organization CURRENT ADDRESS Name Street or P.O. Box No. City, State, Zip Code 7. If indicating a Change of Address or Address Correction, please provide the Current or Correct address above and the Old or Incorrect address below.

Organization OLD ADDRESS Name Street or P.O. Box No. City, State, Zip Code (Remove this sheet, fold as indicated, tape closed, and mail.) (DO NOT STAPLE)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful