Effective teaching is not about a method. It is about understanding and implementing principles of learning.

What Is Communicative Language Teaching?
Communicative language teaching (CLT) is generally regarded as an approach to language teaching (Richards and Rodgers 2001). As such, CLT reflects a certain model or research paradigm, or a theory (CelceMurcia 2001). It is based on the theory that the primary function of language use is communication. Its primary goal is for learners to develop communicative competence (Hymes 1971), or simply put, communicative ability. In other words, its goal is to make use of real-life situations that necessitate communication.

Defining communicative competence
Communicative competence is defined as the ability to interpret and enact appropriate social behaviors, and it requires the active involvement of the learner in the production of the target language (Canale and Swain 1980; Celce-Murcia et al. 1995; Hymes 1972). Such a notion encompasses a wide range of abilities: the knowledge of grammar and vocabulary (linguistic competence); the ability to say the appropriate thing in a certain social situation (sociolinguistic competence); the ability to start, enter, contribute to, and end a conversation, and the ability to do this in a consistent and coherent manner (discourse competence); the ability to communicate effectively and repair problems caused by communication breakdowns (strategic competence). As frequently misunderstood, CLT is not a method per se. That is to say, it is not a method in the sense by which content, a syllabus, and teaching routines are clearly identified (see Richards and Rodgers 2001). CLT has left its doors wide open for a great variety of methods and techniques. There is no single text or authority on it, nor any single model that is universally accepted as authoritative (Richards and Rodgers 2001). By and large, it uses materials and utilizes methods that are appropriate to a given context of learning. CLT has spawned various movements

Communicative Language Teaching Objective: To become communicatively competent, use appropriate language for social context, and negotiate meaning. Process: Activities are communicative through the use of authentic materials. Speakers choose what to say and how to say it, usually working in small groups. Roles: The teacher manages activities and sets up communicative situations (not scripted). Language Emphasized: Function is emphasized over form and students work at discourse level focusing on negotiating meaning. View of Language and Culture: Culture is part of daily communication. Role of Students¶ Native Language: The students¶ native language does not play a role.

Lesson Sequence: Dialogues Oral Practice Questions and Answers (oral. which include communicative functions. Errors: Errors are natural. restate.Evaluation: Informal evaluation is part of communication. Students with incomplete knowledge can still succeed. Student¶s role: improviser. extend and predict) Dialogue Copy Written Homework Evaluation Communicative Language Teaching is: A set of principles about: goals of language teaching how learners learn a language classroom activities that best facilitate learning roles of teachers and learners The goal of language teaching : To develop communicative competence Communicative competence contrasted with linguistic competence Teacher¶s role: needs analyst. task designer Teacher is a facilitator: climate conducive to language learning opportunities for Students to use and practice language opportunities for Students to reflect on language use and language learning Some shools of methology see teachers as background facilitator and classroom colleague to the learners. based on dialogue) Basic Communicative Expressions Generalizations (language/grammar) Oral Recognition/Interpretative Activities (Pictures/questions) Oral Production Activities (Practice dialogue. negotiator Language learning facilitated by activities involving: inductive or discovery learning language analysis and reflection . Formal evaluation includes integrative tests.

Discovery learning-analytic and reflective learning 6. Teacher as a facilitator 10. Creativity and trial and error 7. Students: y Take part in meaningful conversation y Expand their language base Are facilitated in interpersonal exchange y 3. Processing content for relevance and interest 4. CLIL is long-term learning. Learners develop their own routes to language learning. progress at different rates.Language awareness . Language is facilitated by interaction and meaningful communication 2. Strategizing learning 9. CLIL is based on language acquisition rather than enforced learning.Language learning is gradual creative use of language and trial and error errors are normal while learning goal is to use new language accurately and fluently 7. Collaborative sharing . Holistic Process 5. Learners find their methodologies 8. Fluency is more important than accuracy. Learning is improved through motivation and the study of natural language in context. Language is seen in real-life situations. Reading is essential. Learning claims Grammatical syllabus not needed Grammatical knowledge built around task performance Reverses the standard P-P-P lesson format and replaces it with one consisting of: Task .Follow up activity 1. and have different needs and motivations for language learning The classroom is a community where learners collaborate and share Language is integrated into the broad curriculum.

the 1980s. Communicative language teaching (CLT) is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. and communicative language teaching. The communicative approach could be said to be the product of educators and linguists who had grown dissatisfied with the audiolingual and grammar-translation methods of foreign language instruction. . psychology. insofar as one teaching methodology tends to influence the next. proficiency-based instruction.Where does communicative language teaching come from? Its origins are many. They felt that students were not learning enough realistic. the communicative approach has been adapted to the elementary. Fluency is an important dimension of communication. Communication involves the integration of different language skills. 2002). CLT is based on the idea that learners are capable of more than imitation and in fact that they generate and manage their own meanings. and post-secondary levels. or expressions. philosophy. linguistics. they were at a loss to communicate in the culture of the language studied. sociology. Hinkel & Fotos. secondary. these methods in turn came to be overshadowed by more interactive views of language teaching. and the underlying philosophy has spawned different teaching methods known under a variety of names. Communicative Language Teaching advocates subscribed to a broad set of principles such as these: y y y y y Learners learn a language through using it to communicate. gestures. Communicative language teaching derives from a multidisciplinary perspective that includes. authentic language use and classroom exchanges where students engaged in real communication with one another became quite popular. that fluency is as important as accuracy. that communication is often a negotiated and iterative process between the participants in an interaction (Richards & Rodgers. 2001. Hymes s focus was not language learning but language as social behavior. teaching for proficiency. middle. The focus has been the elaboration and implementation of programs and methodologies that promote the development of functional language ability through learners participation in communicative events. It is also referred to as ³communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages´ or simply the ³communicative approach´. at the least. in brief. which collectively came to be known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error. Interest in and development of communicative-style teaching mushroomed in the 1970s. and educational research. including notional-functional. Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities. In the intervening years. They did not know how to communicate using appropriate social language. whole language.

thus putting CLT clearly on the approach rather than the method end of the spectrum. CLT advocates avoided prescribing the set of practices through which these principles could best be realized.However. .

Function over form. Primary responsibility is with S. How are students¶ feelings dealt with? Ss have fun in a nonstressful situation. Language function over linguistic form. Task oriented. reflection. 6. Functional competence. Director. Facilitate acquisition by providing comprehensible input (i+1). Language in social context. What skills are emphasized? Ss determine syllabus by what they what to say. becomes independent of T. 9. Integrative tests. Role of L1? Used in the beginning. S-centered. Gradual emergence of speech. Ss are motivated to learn thru usefulness of language functions. Manager of learning activities. L2). Communicative Language Teaching Communication in social context. Fluency over accuracy. View of language/ culture? Spoken over written. Appropriacy. aggression. Activities include information gap. Ss respond nonverbally. Not used. Security. T as facilitator. for communication. discrimination. Selfevaluation. feedback. Communicative tests. T arranges tasks for communication. Promotes communication among Ss. Goals Communication. 4. Comprehension precedes production. As S assumes more responsibility. 7. How does evaluation occur? By observation. Culture integrated with language. retention. Facilitator.Community Language Learning 1. Optimal learner has low affective filter. Both initiate interaction. S/S interaction in pair and small group activities. no separation of intellect and feelings. T "understands´ Ss. Discourse and sociolinguistic competence + all 4 skills. less in later stages. Language as a tool for communication. Later. Importance placed on cooperative relationship between T/S and S/S. Comprehension±e earlyproduction±s speech emergence. Generally not used. Teaching/ Learning Process Comprehension before production. Communicative effectiveness. . Later role reversal. S/S interaction. Grammar and vocabulary (initially via imperatives). Language for developing critical thinking. T provides model of L2 for imitation. Ss learn to communicate by negotiating meaning in real context. Natural Approach Communicative competence. Promote nondefensive learning. Fluency and accuracy. . Modelling by T followed by performance. 3. attention. 8. . Role of the teacher/student? Counselor/client. Task oriented. Comprehension before production. Function over form. 5. S viewed as whole person. . Nature of student/teacher interaction? Changes over time. Ss initiate speech in L1. choice. T speaks. Ss verbalize. T supplies L2. Total Physical Response Communication. Vocabulary over grammar. Developing model approximates L2 (L1. L1 can be used in preproduction (comprehension) activities. Affective factors over cognitive factors. 2. Learning L1= learning L2.

Cooperative Language Learning. Berns. writes in explaining Firth's view that "language is interaction. Content-Based Teaching. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. Treatment of errors? Nonthreatening. p. and Task-Based Teaching. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Various. or situational. what their social roles are.10. Stephen Krashen No error correction unless errors interfere with communication. Margie S. which relies on repetition and drills. 5). Associated with whom? Charles Curran James Asher Communicative Language Teaching has spawned a number of off-shoots that share the same basic set of principles. No error correction unless errors interfere with communication. In this light. an expert in the field of communicative language teaching. the communicative approach can leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise. it is interpersonal activity and has a clear relationship with society. but which spell out philosophical details or envision instructional practices in somewhat diverse ways. which will vary according to their reactions and responses. why they have come together to speak)" (Berns. Unobtrusive correction. These CLT spin-off approaches include The Natural Approach. Correction by modelling. context (who is speaking. 1984. . What is communicative language teaching? Communicative language teaching makes use of real-life situations that necessitate communication. Tracy Terrell. both its linguistic context (what is uttered before and after a given piece of discourse) and its social. Unlike the audiolingual method of language teaching. Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics. 11. language study has to look at the use (function) of language in context.

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