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Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania
Historical and Geographical Considerations
Tc 8alkan Pcninsula, in thc southcast ol contincntal ¡uropc, with its
abundant lorcsts and mountains, and, accordingly, with rcmotc and hard
torcach placcs, lor a long timc was bclicvcd to bc a barcly acccssiblc rc
gion. Howcvcr, thc rcgion is crisscrosscd with vallcys, such as thosc ol thc
Morava, \ardar, Nišava, Timok, !bar, Toplica and Ðrim rivcrs, opcning up
obvious dircctions ol northward communication. Tc rivcrs, as il lollowing
a rulc, cut narrow gorgcs in thc rocks, connccting spacious and lcrtilc basins.
Òn thc rims ol thc basins, mountain rangcs oltcn rich in orcs oﬀcr a good
raw matcrial basc lor thc dcvclopmcnt ol mctallurgy as wcll as impctus lor
tradc. Hospitablc lcrtilc zoncs and othcr natural rcsourccs ol thc 8alkans
havc attractcd human communitics lrom thc carlicst timcs. Tc Ðardani,
a prcRoman pcoplc, had occupicd thc ccntral arcas ol thc 8alkans
Tc locus hcrc bcing on thc antiquc pcriod ol Ðardania,
thc cthnogcncsis ol thc Ðardani will not bc dcalt with. Terminus post quem
Tc ccntral part ol thc 8alkan Pcninsula, with thc basin ol Niš (Roman Naissus) in its
midst, is crisscrosscd with natural communications thc courscs ol which lollow somc
gcological constants both longitudinally and transvcrsally. Tc most important longi
tudinal courscs havc bccn thc vallcys ol thc Morava and thc Marica rivcrs, on thc onc
sidc, and thosc ol thc Morava and thc \ardar, on thc othcr. Tc main transvcrsal com
munication was bctwccn Scutari, thc basin ol Kosovo and Mctohija and thc Morava,
as thc most convcnicnt natural conncction bctwccn thc intcrior and thc Adriatic coast.
A scrics ol dcprcssions, scparatcd by low barricrs bctwccn thc mcntioncd thrcc arcas
ol this important routc, togcthcr with thc vallcy ol thc Ðrim rivcr, madc a clcar linc ol
communication. Vith all thc advantagcs ol thc conﬁguration takcn into account, it bc
comcs obvious that thc transportation ol goods and pcrsons havc lollowcd thc courscs
outlincd abovc lrom carly prchistoric timcs, antiquity and thc Middlc Agcs to modcrn
timcs. Òn natural communications in thc ccntral 8alkans, scc Cvijić +µ66, +¡+µ.
For thc arca ol protoÐardanian and prcÐardanian matcrial culturc, scc Tasić :oo¸,
8alcanica XXX\!! 8
lor this papcr will bc thc timc whcn Grcck authors ﬁrst took intcrcst in thc
Ðardani, an alrcady lormcd pcoplc cstablishcd in a tcrritory thcy wcrc to
inhabit throughout antiquity. ! bclicvc it important at this point to suggcst
that this papcr should bc sccn as an attcmpt to shcd somc light, lrom scv
cral pcrspcctivcs, on thc complcx issuc ol thc Ðardani and thcir socicty in
antiquity, and on thcir intcgration into thc tcrritorial and social lramcwork
ol thc Roman ¡mpirc. Historical dcvclopmcnts prior to Ðardania’s inclu
sion into thc Roman ¡mpirc will bc lookcd at, as wcll as thc qucstion ol
idcntilying thc boundarics and charactcr ol thc Ðardanian arcas within thc
Roman administrativc organization. Spccial attcntion will bc paid to thc
ways in which thc cstablishmcnt ol Roman rulc aﬀcctcd thc dcvclopmcnt
ol Ðardanian socicty, cconomy, scttlcmcnt and communications. Mcth
odologically, thc approach to thc subjcct will bc bascd on diﬀcrcnt classcs
ol matcrial, lrom thc availablc litcrary sourccs and cpigraphic cvidcncc to
somc valuablc rcsults ol archacological rcscarch.
Tc carlicst rclcrcncc to thc Ðardani can bc lound in Justin,
ing thc tribcs lorccd by Philip !! to rccognizc thc suprcmc powcr ol thc
Maccdonians, as suggcstcd by Fanula Papazoglu.
Ðuring thc wars ol thc
Ðiadochi, at thc timc Lysimachus crcatcd his cmpirc, lrom :8¡ to :8+ 8.C.,
thc Ðardani sccm to havc cvadcd Maccdonian rulc, and vcry soon thcy
bccamc a constant thrcat on thc northcrn bordcrs ol Maccdonia. Morc im
portant rclcrcnccs to thc Ðardani in thc sourccs datc lrom thc timcs ol thc
grcat Ccltic invasion, :¸µ 8.C., whcn thc Ðardanian land was ovcrrun by
numcrous Ccltic tribcs on thcir campaigns aimcd at looting thc trcasurics
ol Grcck tcmplcs. Tc Roman historian Livy givcs thc lollowing account ol
A large and mighty crowd of the Gauls, goaded on by the poverty
of their land or the desire to plunder, thinking that none of the peoples whose ter-
ritories they had to pass could rival their power in arms, led by Brennus, came
to Dardania. Tc Ðardanian king, whosc namc, unlortunatcly, was not rc
cordcd, oﬀcrcd thc Maccdonian king Ptolcmy Kcraunos his :o,ooo soldicrs
to countcract thc invading Cclts. Kcraunos dcclincd disdainlully thc oﬀcr ol
his barbarian cncmy, somcwhat undcrcstimating thc strcngth ol thc Ccltic
warriors, and hc himscll dicd ﬁghting thcm. !t is a wcllknown lact that thc
Cclts wcrc cvcntually stoppcd and dclcatcd only at Ðclphi. Vithdrawing
towards thc north, thcy passcd through Ðardania, whcrc, as thc sourccs
rccord, thcy wcrc complctcly dcstroycd. Justin rccounts thcsc cvcnts in thc
!ust. \!!! 6, :.
Òn thc political history ol thc Ðardani, scc Papazoglu +µ6µ, +o¡+¡¸.
Liv. XXX\!!! +6.
\. P. Pctrović, PrcRoman and Roman Ðardania µ
Te peoples and the tribes … squabbled about them, when
they would ﬁnd them wandering about the ﬁelds, worn out by hunger, cold and
exertion, as if they were spoils, whilc anothcr classical writcr cxprcssly statcs:
... and when passing through the Dardani land, they were all destroyed, so that
there was no one left to go back home.
Tis, howcvcr, is a scrious cxaggcration,
sincc wc know that smallcr groups ol Cclts scttlcd around thc conﬂucncc ol
thc Sava and Ðanubc rivcrs undcr thc namc Scordisci.
Tcrc arc no lurthcr rclcrcnccs to thc Ðardani until thc :¸os 8.C.
Tcn thcrc cnsucd thcir constant wars with thc Maccdonians. Vith thc
arrival ol thc Romans in thc tcrritory ol !llyricum in :oo 8.C., thc Ðardani
took thc sidc ol thc Rcpublic and signiﬁcantly strcngthcncd thcir positions
against Maccdonia by occupying thc arca ol Paconia. Howcvcr, altcr thc
dclcat ol Pcrscus in +68 8.C., and cspccially lrom +¡8 8.C., whcn Macc
donia ccascd to bc indcpcndcnt and lcll undcr Roman rulc, thc Ðardani,
lclt without constant raids against thcir southcrn ncighbour, now cntcrcd
into conlrontation with Romc. Tc Roman occupation and anncxation ol
Ðardania was not carricd out in a short timc – it was a proccss unlold
ing through scvcral war conﬂicts and, ! would say, with ccrtain rcluctancc.
Namcly, thc ﬁrst contacts ol thc Ðardani with thc Roman army arc thought
to havc takcn placc in thc carly ﬁrst ccntury 8.C., but it was not until Scri
bonius Curio’s campaign against thc Ðardani, bellum Dardanicum, lrom ¸¡
to ¸¸ 8.C., that Ðardania cxpcricnccd thc might ol thc Roman conqucr
ing lorcc. At thc hcad ol a hugc army ol about ¸o,ooo troops, Curio scizcd
thc wholc ol Ðardania, thus bccoming thc ﬁrst Roman military lcadcr to
rcach thc banks ol thc Ðanubc.
Curio was cxtraordinarily crucl in crush
ing thc rcsistancc ol thc most powcrlul pcoplc in thc inland 8alkans, but
this victory did not immcdiatcly rcsult in thc anncxation ol Ðardania to thc
Roman statc. Tcrc arc no rcliablc data as to whcn this actually occurrcd.
Cacsar’s data arc also worthy ol notc, inlorming us that in ¡8 8.C. Pompcy
rccruitcd thc Ðardani and 8cssi to his cavalry, both by lorcc and through
Howcvcr, it cannot bc clcarly undcrstood lrom this rc
port what thc status was ol thc Ðardani cavalrymcn uscd by Pompcy. !t
sccms quitc ccrtain that thc Ðardani had thc obligation ol providing troops
!ust. XXX!\ 8, +¸+6.
Ðiodor, XX!! 8.
Papazoglu, +µ6µ, ++o.
Fcst. Brev. c. ¸: Dardanos et Moesicos Curio proconsul subegit et primus Romanorum ducum
ad Danuvium usque pervenit. !n F. Papazoglu (+µ6µ, +¸µ ﬀ) all thc important sourccs on
this campaign arc quotcd and translatcd into Scrbian.
Cacs. Bell. civ. !!!, ¡, 6: Dardanos, Bessos partim mercenarios, partim imperio aut gratia
8alcanica XXX\!! +o
lor thc Romans, but thcy arc also likcly to havc bccn Pompcy’ mcrccnarics
or allics during thc civil war.
Littlc is known ol Mark Antony’s campaigning against thc Ðardani,
but thc lact that such a campaign was launchcd at all lcads to thc assump
tion that not all ol Ðardania was conqucrcd and dclcatcd. Tc wars Marcus
Crassus wagcd in thc Triballian lands and in Mocsia in :µ–:8 8.C. involvcd
Spcaking ol thc causcs ol Marcus Crassus’ campaign against
thc Ðacians and 8astarni in :µ 8.C., Cassius Ðio says: Bastarni, having then
crossed the Ister, conquered Moesia which was opposite their land, and then also
the Triballi who were her neighbours, and the Dardani living in their (Trib-
allian) land. And all the time they did that, they had nothing to do with the
Romans, but when they crossed Mount Haemus... (prcscntday Stara Planina
or thc 8alkan Mountains).
Tis rcmark about thc Ðardani living in thc
Triballian land may rclcr only to thc arca ol thc Južna (South) Morava and
Nišava rivcrs, which thcn mcans that this tcrritory was not ol immcdiatc
intcrcst to thc Romans until Crassus’ campaign. Tcrc arc no rcports in thc
wakc ol this campaign cithcr on thc Ðardani, or on thc Romans ﬁghting
thcm. !t sccms quitc probablc that thc Ðardani actually lost indcpcndcncc
in :8 8.C. Tus, thc ﬁnal occupation ol Ðardania by Romc has bccn con
ncctcd with thc bcginnings ol Augustus’ rulc, whilc its administrativc inclu
sion into thc ¡mpirc to lorm thc provincc ol Mocsia appcars to havc takcn
placc in +¡ 8.C.
As a rcsult ol thc division ol Mocsia undcr Ðomitian, thc
Ðardanian tcrritory bccamc part ol thc ncwlycstablishcd provincc ol Up
pcr Mocsia or Moesia Superior.
Howcvcr, it is virtually unknown whcn Roman lcgions wcrc trans
lcrrcd lrom Maccdonia to Ðardania.
!t may bc assumcd that no pcrma
ncnt garrisons had bccn stationcd in Ðardania prior to +6 8.C., thc ycar thc
last Scordisci attack against Maccdonia mct with no organizcd rcsistancc in
Marcus Crassus’ campaign was provokcd by thc 8astarnian attack. Cassius Ðio (Cass.
Ðio L! :¸, : ﬀ) rcports that thc 8astarni crosscd thc Ðanubc and occupicd Mocsia,
thc Triballi and thc Dardani living in the Triballian territory, until thcir dclcat by thc
Romans. !t was not until thcy attackcd a Roman ally, thc Ðcnthclcti, that thc Romans
dccidcd on military intcrvcntion. According to Fanula Papazoglu (+µ6µ, +¡:+¡¸), thc
arca around thc Južna Morava and thc lowcr coursc ol thc rivcr Nišava should bc con
sidcrcd as thc Triballian land inhabitcd by thc Ðardani.
Cass. Ðio L! :¸, :.
Mirković +µ68, ::.
Somc authors suggcst that thc lcgions stationcd in thc north ol Maccdonia at thc bc
ginning ol thc Principatc wcrc undcr thc command ol onc lcgatus Augusti pro praetore,
cl. Patsch, Beiträge \, +, 86, Mirković +µ68, :¸ ﬀ, Symc +µ¸+, 6o, n. ¸:.
\. P. Pctrović, PrcRoman and Roman Ðardania ++
Tc movcmcnt ol lcgions may havc lollowcd thc crushing ol a
Tracian rcvolt in ++ 8.C., and it ccrtainly took placc bclorc a Ðalmatian–
Pannonian uprising in A.Ð. 6–µ, at thc outbrcak ol which Caccina Scvcrus
camc to thc aid ol thc Romans bcsicgcd in Sirmium.
As to thc location
ol thc ﬁrst Roman military camps in thc provincc ol Mocsia, ol lcgions
IIII Scythica and V Macedonica, opinions divcrgc.
!t is quitc rcasonablc to
assumc that such camps must havc bccn at stratcgically important points,
such as Naissus
lrom whcrc thc conqucrcd pcoplcs, Ðardani,
Mocsi and Scordisci, could bc controllcd. Howcvcr, thc ﬁrst military in
scriptions lrom thc tcrritory ol Mocsia Supcrior, il wc disrcgard thc carlicst
oncs lrom thc Limes, datc lrom thc maturc Flavian agc and mostly comc
lrom thc sitcs connccting Naissus with thc Ðanubian basin (Timacum Mi-
Tc provincc ol Mocsia Supcrior, which includcd, as alrcady mcn
tioncd, thc arca ol Ðardania, cxistcd lor a rclativcly short timc, lrom A.Ð.
86 to :¸:, and had a spcciﬁc history and spcciﬁc military and administrativc
Namcly, thc circumstanccs in Mocsia Supcrior dcpcndcd to a
largc cxtcnt on its cthnic divcrsity, its gcographic position along thc main
road connccting !taly with thc ¡ast, and also on its divcrsc tcrrain and un
usual shapc (it strctchcd lrom thc Ðanubc lar to thc south), but mostly on
its rich and varicd mincral rcsourccs.
According to thc notcs ol thc Roman sccondccntury lcgislator
Saturninus, Uppcr Mocsia was thought to bc a land rich in orcs,
thc samc way as Alrica proconsularis was callcd thc granary.
Cass. Ðio L!\, :o, ¸.
Cass. Ðio L\, :µ, ¸.
For thc translcr and accommodation ol thc ﬁrst Roman lcgions in thc tcrritory ol
Ðardania, and lor thc oldcst military inscriptions, scc Pctrović +µ¸µ, ¸o¸+ (with thc
carlicr bibliography). As rcgards thc stay ol lcgion IIII Scythica in Mocsia (Ðardania)
and its translcr to Gcrmania, scc Ðušanić +µ¸8b, ¡¸o ﬀ.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, 8µ, Pctrović +µ¸µ, ¸¸¡+.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ++:, ÐragojcvićJosilovska +µ8:, :o¡o.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, +:¡, Pctrović +µµ¡, ¸¸¡o.
T!R, L¸¡, Aquincum µ¡.
T!R, L¸¡, Aquincum +oµ, \učkovićTodorović +µ6µ, +:¡+¸¡, Popović +µ8:, :6¡
Ðušanić :ooo, ¸¡¸.
Ðušanić :oo¸, :¡¡, n. ¡¡.
Ðig. ¡8.+µ.+6. µ+o (Saturninus): evenit, ut eadem scelera in quibusdam provinciis
gravius plectantur, ut in Africa messium incensores, in Mysia (!) vitium, ubi metalla sunt,
8alcanica XXX\!! +:
to Slobodan Ðušanić,
apart lrom military (lcgionary) and municipal tcr
ritorics and privatc cstatcs, Uppcr Mocsia was dividcd into lour major units
namcd altcr thc local tribcs: thc Ðardani (Ðardania) in thc cntirc south ol
and thc arcas ol Tricornicnscs (Tricorncnscs), Pinccnscs (Pi
ccnscs) and Mocsi in thc north.
¡ach ol thc lour subdivisions combincd
two typcs ol tcrritorics: thosc rich in orcs bclongcd to thc impcrial trcasury,
ﬁscus, and thc rcst to tribal scttlcmcnts, civitates peregrinae. Tc lact that thc
civitates peregrinae and ﬁscal cstatcs (or at lcast thc mincs) borc thc samc
namcs is cxplaincd by thc ﬁscal domains bcing namcd altcr thc tribal com
munitics lrom which thcy had bccn scizcd. Òn thc othcr hand, thosc who
bclongcd to civitates peregrinae doubtlcssly had thc obligation ol labour on
thc cstatcs, cspccially in thc mincs. Tc unity ol pcrcgrinc and ﬁscal organi
zations was cnsurcd by military administration. !t is ol intcrcst to point to
thc rolc ol thc army in scrvicing thc res metallica, which basically was dual. !t
primarily protcctcd thc mincs, but it also took part in orc proccssing and was
involvcd in administration. Tc mincs nccdcd protcction duc to an incrcas
ing thrcat not only to thc orc pits but also to thc roads uscd lor transporting
prccious loads, cspccially altcr A.Ð. :¡o. Military prcscncc in thc tcrritory
ol Ðardania, such as cohorts ! Aurelia Dardanorum (bascd at Naissus) and !!
as local militias, was ncccssary bccausc ol thc dangcr
ol raidcrs – latrones Dardaniae, robbing caravans and mcrchants, and raid
ing cstatcs in thc vicinity ol lortiﬁcd stations.
!nlormation on latrones can
bc lound in thc biography ol Marcus Aurclius.
!n this papcr Ðardania will not bc lookcd at as a Latc Roman prov
incc, a rcsult ol Aurclianus’ rclorms. Tc Ðardania to which this papcr rc
lcrs is thc arca that constitutcd a compositc ﬁscal domain (analogous to
an agricultural tractus dividcd into regiones) within thc provincc ol Uppcr
Mocsia. !n Mocsia Supcrior, thc division ol ﬁscal domains which includcd
adulteratoris monetae. For morc dctail about Saturninus’ notcs, cspccially conccrning
coin minting in mining districts, cl. Ðušanić +µµ¡, +¸¡+¸6.
Ðušanić :ooo, ¸¡¡.
According to Pliny and Ptolcmy, Ðardania occupicd thc cntirc south ol thc provincc
ol Uppcr Mocsia, Plin. Nat. !!! +¡µ, Ptol. !!!, µ, :, !!!, µ, ¡.
Òn thc division ol Mocsia Supcrior into lour major cntitics, scc Ðušanić :ooo, ¸¡¡.
According to Ðušanić :oo¸, :¡6, thc tcrritory ol Mocsia Supcrior was dividcd into two
largc zoncs: Dardania in thc south, and thc arca namcd Ripa Danuvii in thc north ol
Òn two cohorts Aureliae Dardanorum, scc Ðušanić +µ¸8a, :¸¸:¡¸, Pctrović +µ¸µ,
Òn latrones Dardaniae, scc Mócsy +µ68.
SHA, vita Marci, :+, ¸: latrones etiam Dalmatiae atque Dardaniae milites fecit.
\. P. Pctrović, PrcRoman and Roman Ðardania +¸
mincs was idcntical to thc organization ol thc military, portoria and civitates
peregrinae in thc sccond and carly third ccnturics, until thc major uphcav
als that shook thc ¡mpirc bctwccn :¡o and ¸oo.
A mining arca (tractus),
such as Ðardania, was govcrncd by a procurator, thc procurator metallorum.
Gcncrally, thc impcrial mincs in Ðardania all bclongcd to thc ﬁscus, and
thus wcrc govcrncd indircctly by thc comes metallorum per Illyricum, who in
turn wcrc undcr thc comes sacrarum largitionum, judging by thc inlormation
lrom thc Notitia Dignitatum.
Administration ol ﬁscal tcrritorics such as Ðardania rcquircd a ccrtain
lorm ol ccntralization, which also involvcd portorium.
Tus Ðardania may
wcll havc constitutcd an administrativc cntity, but not a scparatc provincc
undcr thc Principatc. Spccial typc ol administrativc ccntrc was at Ulpiana,
and thc arca ol Ðardania consistcd ol scvcral ccntrcs unitcd into a lcw arcas,
Tcrc wcrc at lcast ﬁvc subdivisions, in closc conncc
tion with thc cconomic intcrcsts ol thc ﬁscus, and abovc all with thc mincs
constituting thc Metalli Dardanici complcx. Tcir ccntrcs wcrc: +) Sočanica
:) Ulpiana, ¸) in thc vicinity ol thc villagc
Ðušanić +µ8o, :¡:6.
Not. Ðig. Or. X!!! ++.
Ðušanić +µ¸¸a, ¸o, n. µ¸.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, +:µ, Čcrškov +µ6µ, ParovićPcšikan +µ8:, Fidanovski +µµ8, :¡8
¸¡µ. Res publica Ulp(iana) appcars as thc dcdicant ol inscriptions on thrcc monumcnts
lound in thc arca ol Rcmcsiana, cl. Pctrović +µ¸µ, +o++o¸. n. 6µ, ¸o, ¸+. !t is gcncrally
thought that this was thc town ol Ulpiana in prcscntday Kosovo (Mommscn, CIL, !!!,
¸68, Patsch +8µ8, :8¸ ﬀ, \ulić +µ6+, :µ). !t is a lact that Ulpiana sct up thcsc monu
mcnts in Remesiana with thc approval lrom thc provincial govcrnor, which is cxplaincd
in thc scholarly litcraturc in various ways. Mommscn bclicvcd that thc monumcnts had
bccn simply translcrrcd lrom Ulpiana to Remesiana. Tc largc distancc bctwccn thc two
placcs makcs such an assumption unacccptablc. Starting lrom thcsc inscriptions, Patsch
concludcd that thc concilium ol thc provincc could havc bccn hcld in Remesiana and
that thcsc monumcnts had bccn sct up at thc timc ol thc conlcrcncc ol thc towns ol
Moesia Superior. N. \ulić bclicvcd that thc prcscncc ol thcsc dcdications in Remesiana
could bc cxplaincd by thc town’s bordcr position, and hc linkcd thcir crcction with thc
passing through ol Scptimius Scvcrus and Caracalla. Tc cnvoys ol Uppcr Mocsian
towns, Ulpiana includcd, arrivcd in Remesiana to grcct thc ¡mpcrors whcn thcy cntcrcd
thc provincc. S. Ðušanić proposcs an intcrcsting and acccptablc thcsis pointing to thc
lact that Ulpiana and Remesiana wcrc mining ccntrcs and that thcy most probably wcrc
administrativc and tcrritorial communitics ol thc samc ﬁscal domain. Such an cxplana
tion shcds light on thc rcasons lor res publica Ulpiana to sct up an oﬃcial inscription
in Remesiana with thc provincial govcrnor’s approval (Ðušanić +µ¸¸a, µ+, +µ¸¸b, +¸:,
:ooo, ¸¡¡, n. +µ).
Ðušanić :ooo, ¸¡¡, n. +8.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, 8µ, Čcrškov +µ6¡, Čcrškov +µ6µ.
8alcanica XXX\!! +¡
ol Lopatc (Lamud(um):),
or Kratovo (Kratis
¡) 8cla Palanka (Rcmcsiana),
and ¡) Ravna (Timacum Minus:).
Vith rcgard to that, judging by thc gcological constants and thc availablc
data on vici metallorum, on scvcral toponyms Ad Fines, or customs stations
dcpcndcnt on thc mining tcrritory, thc Ðardanian mincs may bc classiﬁcd
into thc lollowing districts: !. !bar (Sočanica), !!. Janjcvo (Ulpiana), !!!.
!\. 8cla Palanka (Rcmcsiana), \. Ravna (Timacum
Minus:). Tc administrativc position ol district \!, which is probably thc
arca: east Kopaonik–Kuršumlija
rcmains rathcr un
Tc cxtcnt ol Uppcr Mocsian Ðardania is lor thc most part known,
and it coincidcd with thc southcrn parts ol thc provincc ol Mocsia Supcrior.
Tcrclorc, according to Fanula Papazoglu,
it was an arca with its wcstcrn
boundarics wcst ol thc prcscntday linc Ðjakovica–Pcć–NoviPazar–!van
jica–Čačak, and probably idcntical to thc bordcr ol thc Roman provincc.
!n thc southwcst ol Ðardania was thc tribordcr ol thc provinccs Mocsia,
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, 8o.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ¸:¸¸. T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ¸:¸¸.
!t is unccrtain whcthcr thc arcas ol Kratovo and Zlctovo should bc assigncd to Ðarda
nia or to thc provincc ol Uppcr Mocsia. According to Ðušanić +µ8o, :¸, n.+¸¡, Kratovo
mining rcgion lormcd part ol Tracc rathcr than Ðardania, but thc othcr hypothcsis
cannot bc complctcly ignorcd, cl. Patsch +µ¸¸, +, ::¸, Kcramitčicv +µ¸¸, +¡¸+¡¡. Tc
inscriptions lrom Kratovo–Zlctovo rcgion (Kcramitčicv, +µ66) wcrc mostly in thc Latin
languagc, ÐragojcvićJosilovska +µ8:, ¡+, n. 6. From thc arca ol Kratovo originatcs a lc
malc statuc madc ol volcanic rock, prcsumably Libcra. Òn thc classiﬁcation ol thc ﬁnd
and on thc conncction ol thc cult ol Libcra with mincral rcsourccs, scc Pilipović :oo¡.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, +o8, Pctrović +µ¸µ, ¡+¡¸, Pctrović :oo¡b, :¸¸:8¡. :8¡..
Ðušanić :oo¸, :¡¸, :¡8.
!n thc placc ol Lopatc thcrc was a tcmplc dcdicatcd to Jupitcr Ðolichcnus, whosc
rcligious lunction may bc vicwcd in thc contcxt ol thc mining panthcon, cl. Ðragojcvić
Josilovska +µ8:, n. :o8. Òn thc conncction ol Ðolichcnus’ cult with mining, scc Ðušanić
+µµµ, +¸¡, Pctrović :oo¡a, :+¸::¡.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ¸¸.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ¸8.
Ðušanić :oo¸, :¡µ.
Òn thc boundarics ol Ðardania within Uppcr Mocsia, scc Papazoglu +µ6µ, +¡¸+6+.
According to cpigraphic tcstimonics (\ulić +µ¸+, nо. ¸:+ VII Claudia, no. ¸:¡ IV
Flavia: lrom thc placc Ðobrušta or Ðobrudža) and gcomorphology, thc bordcr bctwccn
Uppcr Mocsian Ðardania and Ðalmatia in thc tcrritory ol prcscntday Mctohija was
idcntical to thc natural and modcrn bordcr ol Scrbia on onc sidc, and Albania and
Montcncgro on thc othcr, cl. Papazoglu +µ6µ, +¡o.
\. P. Pctrović, PrcRoman and Roman Ðardania +¡
Ðalmatia and Maccdonia, which sccms to havc bccn idcntical to thc prc
Roman Maccdonian–Ðardani–!llyrian tribordcr. According to Ptolcmy,
this tribordcr was Mount Scardus, idcntiﬁcd as thc prcscntday mountain
rangc ol Šar with Korab and othcr highlands conncctcd to it in thc dircc
tion ol Ðcbar
and Kičcvo. Tc southcrn Ðardanian bordcrs sccm to havc
lollowcd thc bordcr bctwccn thc Roman provinccs ol Mocsia Supcrior and
Maccdonia, which was also thc bordcr bctwccn Grcck and Latinspcaking
arcas. Tcy wcrc, thus, thc arcas bctwccn Mount Šar and lurthcr on, along
thc bordcr ol Mocsia Supcrior, to 8ylazora,
an ancicnt town to thc north
ol prcscntday \clcs. Tc castcrn bordcrs ol Ðardania should bc lookcd
lor cast ol thc linc Kumanovo–\ranjc–8cla Palanka, that is in thc vicinity
ol antiquc Remesiana, on thc rivcr Nišava, thc limit ol thc Latinspcaking
zonc in Roman timcs. Tc Ðardani, unlikc thcir prcRoman ncighbours,
prcscrvcd autochthonous traditions and rcmaincd nonHcllcnizcd. Vith
thc Roman conqucst, thcy adoptcd thc Latin languagc.
Tc northcrn bor
dcrs ol Ðardania arc vcry diﬃcult to idcntily but it is bclicvcd, bascd on thc
vicw ol Fanula Papazoglu, that it was thc arca cncompasscd by thc rivcr Za
padna (Vcst) Morava and thc limits ol thc antiquc Naissus arca, cast ol thc
rivcr \clika Morava. As a contribution to this issuc wc should also mcntion
Ptolcmy’s inlormation on Naissus as onc ol thc lour towns ol Ðardania.
idcntilying thc arca ol Naissus in Ðardania thc cpigraphic cvidcncc is also
important, notably thc tcxt Naisso Dardaniae
lrom thc ¡arly ¡mpirc pc
riod, lound in Romc, which supports Ptolcmy’s tcstimony. As lor thc limits
ol thc Naissus arca in thc north, it is also important that Marcus Aurclius,
at thc timc ol thc wars with thc Marcomanni, cstablishcd cohort II Aurelia
Dardanorum, bascd in Naissus. According to thc cpigraphic cvidcncc, this
cohort also staycd in lorts Praesidium Pompei
(ncar Alcksinac) and Tima-
cum Minus (Ravna), ncar thc rivcr Timok.
Tat thc tcrritory ol Ðardania could havc cxtcndcd cvcn lurthcr
north ol thc Zapadna Morava and antiquc Naissus is indicatcd by scvcral
Ptol. !!, +6, +, !!! µ, +.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ¡o.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ¸:.
Tc castcrn bordcr ol Ðardania most probably lay altcr thc station mutatio Latina
(T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ¸¸¸8), on thc Roman road Viminacium–Naissus–Serdica–Con-
stantinopolis (!tincrarium Hicrosolymitanum ¡6¡.+¡66.8), thc ﬁrst station cast ol Re-
mesiana. Mutatio Latina was thc last placc whcrc, at lcast according to toponymy, Latin
was in usc, unlikc thc Grcckspcaking rcgions lurthcr cast, cl. Pctrović :oo¡, 6¸.
Ptol. !!! µ, ¡.
CIL \!, ¸:µ¸¸.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, +o¸, Pctrović +µ¸6 and +µ¸µ, :¡. Pctrović +µ¸6 and +µ¸µ, :¡. +µ¸6 and +µ¸µ, :¡. +µ¸µ, :¡.
8alcanica XXX\!! +6
intcrcsting lacts. Namcly, as is known, Pliny statcs that thc rivcrs Margus
(Morava), Timachus (Timok) and goldbcaring Pingus (Pck) ﬂow lrom
Furthcrmorc, an cpigraphic piccc ol inlormation, which ac
cording to thc intcrprctation by Slobodan Ðušanić rclcrs to Dea Dardania,
originatcs lrom a placc larthcr to thc north, Kamcnica bctwccn Kragujcvac
and Gornji Milanovac.
!n parallcl with thc cstablishmcnt ol thcir rulc in thc ncwlycon
qucrcd tcrritorics, thc Romans dcvotcd thcmsclvcs to incorporating thcsc
arcas, through carclul and cautious planning, into thc cconomic systcm ol
thc ¡mpirc. Tc Ðardanian socicty ol thc timc had scvcral strata: thc land
cd aristocracy, indcpcndcnt or scmidcpcndcnt larmcrs and cattlcbrccdcrs,
mincrs, tradcrs and craltsmcn. Scttlcmcnts that may bc intcrprctcd as urban
wcrc vcry rarc, and lunctioncd as thc scats ol thc local aristocracy, tradcrs
and craltsmcn. Tcy wcrc built on hilltops and cncloscd with carthcn walls,
so in timcs ol war thcy scrvcd also as salc havcns or refugia lor thc inhabit
ants ol ncarby villagcs.
Tc surviving toponymy ol Roman Ðardania tcsti
ﬁcs to thc antiquity ol thc scttlcmcnts in Ðardanian arcas. !n addition to
vcriﬁcd Grcck and Latin toponyms, thc namcs ol thc largcst numbcr ol
scttlcmcnts draw thcir roots lrom thc prcRoman inhabitants ol Ðardania.
As wc movc lrom thc cast towards thc wcst, thc widcsprcad toponymy ol
Tracian origin is gradually rcplaccd by thc toponymy ol Ðardanian and
!llyrian origin in thc lar wcst. Somc namcs, such as thosc ol thc towns Nais-
sus and Scupi, prcscrvcd thcir Ccltic roots.
8ascd on this bricl onomastic
obscrvation, thc cxistcncc ol many scttlcmcnts may bc assumcd cvcn prior
to thc Roman conqucst.
Gradual Romanization, involving thc planncd scttlcmcnt ol Roman
citizcns, rcsultcd in thc lormation ol urban ccntrcs with limitcd scllgovcrn
mcnt in ccrtain arcas ol Ðardania. Altcr thc Roman conqucst, duc to mili
tary, cconomic and administrativc rcasons, thc original prcRoman refugia
Plin. Nat. !!!, +¡µ: Flumina clara e Dardanis Margus, Pingus, Timachus, Papazoglu
Mirković and Ðušanić +µ¸6, n. +6¸. Howcvcr, cvcn il this inscription was dcdicatcd
to Ðardania, it docs not ncccssarily mcan that Kamcnica ncar Kragujcvac was in Ðarda
nia. Ðardanian scttlcrs in Apulum in Ðacia dcdicatcd two rclicls to thc samc goddcss,
pcrsoniﬁcation ol Ðardania, cl. CIL !!!, µµ¡, ¸8¡¸.
Tcy wcrc !ron Agc dclcnsivc hilllort scttlcmcnts. 8uilt on hilltops, thcy providcd
control ol thc surrounding arca. For thc archacologically attcstcd rcmains ol prcRo
man Ðardanian scttlcmcnts and lortiﬁcations, such as thc hilllorts at 8claćcvac, Gornjc
Gadimljc, Hisar, Kulinc, Samodrcža (Tcncš Ðo) in thc wcst ol Roman Ðardania, scc
Tasić, +µµ8, +¡¸::¡.
Papazoglu +µ6µ, +8µ:o+.
\. P. Pctrović, PrcRoman and Roman Ðardania +¸
and vici grcw into urban ccntrcs ol largcr arcas, such as Scupi and Naissus.
Tc inhabitants ol towns wcrc morc cxposcd to thc proccss ol Romaniza
tion than thc rural population, as a rulc morc conscrvativc and rcluctant to
adopt a ncw culturc. Tc ncwlylormcd urban ccntrcs wcrc sourccs lrom
which Roman inﬂucncc and culturc sprcad among thc local population,
morcovcr, thcy wcrc also thc military, cconomic, administrativc and rcli
gious ccntrcs ol cntirc rcgions.
Tc rcasons lor an carly Romanization ol thc Ðardanian arcas lic
abovc all in thc Roman ¡mpirc’s incrcasing nccds lor orcs containing silvcr,
gold, zinc, coppcr and lcad, ncccssary lor maintaining thc cmpirc’s monctary
stability. Tcrclorc, thc arcas rich in orcs, such as thc slopcs ol Stara Planina,
Svrljig and Kopaonik, wcrc organizcd into mining rcgions and impcrial do
mains. Tcn thc ccntrcs likc Municipium Dardanorum at thc conﬂucncc ol
thc Sočanička and !bar rivcrs, and Ulpiana in thc vicinity ol Gračanica, ap
pcarcd. Tc risc ol scttlcmcnts was causcd by thc prcscncc ol othcr natural
rcsourccs as wcll, such as thc lcrtilc vallcys ol thc Nišava and Morava rivcrs
(Margus), or thc wcalth ol thcrmal springs suitablc to bccomc spa ccntrcs
(Niška 8anja, Mcdiana,
). Howcvcr, thc largcst num
bcr ol scttlcmcnts was cstablishcd along thc roads, both main and local.
Tc roads rccordcd in Roman itincrarics
sus–Scrdica–Constantinopolis, Naissus–Ratiaria, Naissus–Lissus, Naissus–
Scupi) wcrc built vcry carly, pcrhaps as carly as thc ﬁrst dccadcs ol thc ﬁrst
ccntury A.Ð. Howcvcr, it is quitc probablc that thc Roman roads lollowcd
thc coursc ol carlicr, prcRoman, roads, and that in that scnsc thc Roman
conqucst ol thc Ðardani arcas brought no discontinuity.
tion ol thc road nctwork in Roman timcs is cxplaincd by thcir grcat stratc
gic importancc. Tc oldcst Roman roads conncctcd Stobi
with Scupi in thc
south ol Ðardania, and thcn with thc Morava rivcr vallcy and northwards to
thc Ðanubc, whcrc thc army was translcrrcd. !nnumcrablc lcgions travcllcd
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, 8¡, 8¡, Pctrović +µµ¡.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ¸¸.
Tc tcrm itinerarium is dcrivcd lrom thc Latin word iter (routc) and dcnotcs a routc
map with dcscriptions ol Roman communication lincs. !tincrarics indicatcd scttlcmcnts
(stations) and thc intcrvcning distanccs. For thc tcrritory ol Roman Ðardania thc lol
lowing itincrarics arc ol importancc: Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum, ¡6¡.+¡66.8, Itin-
erarium Antonini, +¸¡+¸¡.¡, Tabula Peutingeriana, scgm. \! and Ravennatis anonyimi
cosmographia (Anonymi Ravcnnatis) !\, ¸. !\, ¸..
PrcRoman Ðardania maintaincd intcnsc contacts with thc Grcck colonics on thc
Adriatic coast (Apollonia, Ðyrrhachium) along thc Ðrim rivcr vallcy, and in thc cast,
with Maccdonia, along thc \ardar and Strumica rivcr vallcys, cl. Tasić +µµ8, :+¡.
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus, ++µ+:o.
8alcanica XXX\!! +8
thcsc roads at thc timc thc Romans wcrc consolidating thcir rulc in thc ccn
tral 8alkans, and at thc timc thcy wcrc ﬁrming up thc ¡mpirc’s bordcrs on
thc Ðanubc. Tc grcat antiquity ol Ðardanian roads is also supportcd by thc
abscncc lrom thc itincrarics ol somc important towns, such as Municipium
and Ulpiana in wcst Ðardania. !t is obvious that thcsc towns,
bcing primarily cconomic ccntrcs, grcw altcr thc main communication lincs
had bccn constructcd. Namcly, upon Ðardania’s incorporation into thc ¡m
pirc, thcrc lollowcd a last dcvclopmcnt ol various cconomic activitics, abovc
all thc intcnsc cxploitation ol mincral raw matcrials. !n thc vicinity ol thc
alrcady known or ncwlycstablishcd mining arcas ncw urban ccntrcs wcrc
built, so that thc communications lincs constructcd in thc carly ﬁrst ccntury
and during thc sccond and third ccnturics gaincd grcat cconomic signiﬁ
cancc, though originally intcndcd lor military purposcs. Sincc ccrtain rc
gions rich in natural rcsourccs wcrc oltcn lar away lrom thc originally built
communication lincs, vcry soon an cntirc nctwork ol local roads dcvclopcd
lor thc purposc ol transporting orcs and othcr raw matcrials.
Although thc Romans rcgularly maintaincd thc roads, it sccms quitc
rcasonablc to assumc that in particular hcavy loads wcrc transportcd in oth
cr, chcapcr ways. !n addition to land modcs ol transport wc should takc into
account hcrc also thc possibility ol ﬂuvial transportation, or, morc prob
ably, a combination ol road and rivcr transport. For highly practical rcasons
transportation by watcrways would havc bccn uscd whcncvcr possiblc, cs
pccially sincc it is known that in antiquity, duc to a morc humid climatc and
dcnsc lorcsts, many rivcrs, cvcn smallcr oncs, wcrc navigablc. According to
Strabo, thc rivcr Ðrim was navigablc lrom its mouth upstrcam to Ðarda
and thc rivcr Nišava was also navigablc in onc scction, according to thc
inscription ol a rccruit ol thc rivcr classis ol lcgion VII Claudia lrom Nais-
Goods could casily havc bccn transportcd by watcrways to thc ncarcst
sca ports, whcrc thcy would bc rcloadcd to largcr vcsscls to bc distributcd to
distant parts ol thc ¡mpirc. Tis can bc supportcd by thc ﬁnd ol a sct ol lcad
ingots lrom Caesarea in modcrn !sracl.
Namcly, during thc archacologi
cal invcstigation in +µµ¸ ol thc vcstigcs ol a Roman mcrchant ship, which
obviously had sunk just oﬀ thc port, lcad ingots wcrc discovcrcd, two ol
which still borc clcarly visiblc stampcd inscriptions. Ònc inscription rclcrs
to ¡mpcror Ðomitian with thc namc Ger(manicus), which clcarly suggcsts a
Fidanovski +µµ8, :¡8¸¡µ.
Strab. \!!, ¡, ¸. Strab. \!!, ¡, ¸. . \!!, ¡, ¸. \!!, ¡, ¸.
A soldicr ol lcgion VII Claudia scrvcd as Disce(n)s epibeta in thc rivcr classis, according
to thc inscription lrom thc lortrcss ol Niš, cl. Pctrović +µ¸µ, ¸+.
S. Ðušanić, Dardanian Lead Ingots at Caesarea Palestinae, lorthcoming.
\. P. Pctrović, PrcRoman and Roman Ðardania +µ
datc bctwccn A.Ð. 8¸, whcn Ðomitian gaincd that namc owing to his mili
tary victorics in Gcrmania, and A.Ð. µ¸, thc last ycar ol his rcign. Tc othcr
stampcd inscription, ol intcrcst to our issuc, rcads: Met(alli) Dard(anici),
indicating thc Ðardanian origin ol thc prccious shipmcnt.
Unlortunatcly, thc traccs ol Roman roads in thc arca ol Ðardania arc
illprcscrvcd in our timcs. Tc rcason lor that lics in thc lact that thcy wcrc
lor thc most part ovcrlaid by latcr, mcdicval and modcrn roads, and also that
thc vcry conﬁguration ol thc tcrrain has bccn unlavourablc lor thc prcscr
vation ol visiblc traccs.
Such a poor statc ol prcscrvation should also bc
attributcd to continuous dcvastation by local populations, givcn that similar
latc also bclcll othcr structurcs ol Roman datc in towns and villagcs.
´ ´ ´
!t sccms important to rcitcratc thc kcy idcas stcmming lrom our considcr
ations ol this complcx thcmc, attcmpting to outlinc somc important mo
mcnts in thc history ol prcRoman Ðardania, as wcll as to show all thc
complcxity, spcciﬁc position and particular structurc ol Roman Ðardania
undcr thc provincial organization ol thc ¡mpirc. 8y shcdding light on thc
issuc ol dclincating thc cxtcnt ol Roman Ðardania within thc provincc ol
Uppcr Mocsia and pointing to ccrtain cpigraphic data and writtcn sourccs,
it has bccn shown that Ðardania’s boundarics may bc movcd lurthcr north
ol thc rivcr Zapadna Morava, thc arca ol antiquc Naissus and Timacum Mi-
nus. Vhcn thc Romans appcarcd on thc historical stagc ol Ðardania, thcy
did not intcrlcrc much into thc stratiﬁcd and stablc social structurc and hi
crarchy ol thc ncwlyconqucrcd arcas.
Attractcd by thc mincral rcsourccs
ol Ðardania and sccking to cxpand thc bordcrs ol thc ¡mpirc to thc Ðan
ubc, thc Romans ﬁrst constructcd main roads, rccordcd by thc itincrarics, in
continuity with thc courscs ol prcRoman communications. Howcvcr, thc
lact that, in contrast with Scupi and Naissus, somc important towns, such
as Ulpiana and Municipium Dardanorum, do not occur in thc itincrarics,
suggcsts thc antiquity ol Ðardanian scttlcmcnts and communications. 8y
simplc dcduction, thc lollowing phascs in thc dcvclopmcnt ol Ðardanian
scttlcmcnts and communication lincs may bc outlincd: I. Pre-Roman phase
– charactcrizcd by vici and rarc urban scttlcmcnts in thc lorm ol refugia,
as scats ol thc local aristocracy, tradc and cralts. Tc road nctwork was dc
tcrmincd by thc natural lcaturcs ol thc tcrrain and thc human nccd lor
movcmcnt and tradc. Tcsc communication lincs wcrc travcllcd by armics,
but thcy also carricd inﬂucnccs ol morc advanccd Grcck and Maccdonian
Čcrškov +µ6µ, ¡¸¡µ.
Fidanovski +µµ8, :88.
8alcanica XXX\!! :o
culturcs, II. Early Roman phase – markcd by thc risc ol thc ﬁrst urban ccn
trcs ol largcr arcas. Communication lincs mostly lollowcd thc wcllprovcn
courscs ol prcRoman roads, and such roads wcrc uscd mostly by armics
and logistic support to thc troops on thc Limes (ﬁrst ccntury A.Ð.), and III.
Developed Roman phase – lrom as carly as thc sccond and third ccnturics
A.Ð., whcn thc dcvclopmcnt ol scttlcmcnts was signiﬁcantly inﬂucnccd by
thc cxploitation ol mincral and othcr rcsourccs ol Ðardania. Tc main roads
in Ðardania assumcd a prcdominantly commcrcial and cconomic charactcr.
Ðuc to abundant mincral rcsourccs and intcnsivc cxploitation ol thc impc
rial mincs, thc roads carricd rich loads ol mctals towards othcr parts ol thc
statc. Such loads attractcd robbcrs, latrones, making military prcscncc in thc
stations along thc roads ncccssary, cvcn altcr thc “ﬁrm” bordcr ol thc Limes
!n thcsc last considcrations it is also important to bring attcntion to
thc point that, rcgardlcss ol thc wcllorganizcd protcction and maintcnancc
ol thc road nctwork, it is hardly imaginablc that hcavy loads (orcs) could
havc bccn transportcd solcly by land. !t appcars logical to assumc, cspc
cially in thc light ol thc lacts mcntioncd, that watcrways wcrc partly uscd
lor transporting goods towards thc ncarcst Adriatic and Acgcan scaports.
Hopclully thc assumption proposcd hcrc will ﬁnd lurthcr scholarly cor
roboration in thc timcs to comc.
Institute for Balkan Studies
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
!ust. Iuniani Iustini Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum
Ðiodor. Diodorus Siculus
Fcst. Festi breviarium rerum gestarum populi Romani
Cacs. Bell. civ. C. Iuli Caesaris Commentariorum de bello civili
Cass. Ðio Cassi Dionis Historiae Romanae epitome
Not. Ðig. Notitia Dignitatum
Plin. Nat. Naturalis historia
Ptol. Geogr. Ptolemaei geographia
Strab. Strabonis geographia
Liv. Titi Livi ab urbe condita
ANRV Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, 8crlin–Ncw York
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Jahres vorrömischer und römischer Geschichte Südosteuropas bis
zur Festzetzung der Römer in Transdanuvien. \icnna +µ¸:
\. P. Pctrović, PrcRoman and Roman Ðardania :+
SHA Scriptores Historiae Augustae
T!R, K¸¡, Naissus Tabula Imperii Romani, Naissus−Dyrrachion−Scupi−Serdica–
Tessalonice. Ljubljana +µ68
T!R, L¸¡, Aquincum Tabula Imperii Romani,Aquincum−Sarmizegetusa−Sirmium.
ŽA Živa antika. Skopjc
Cvijić, J. +µ66. Balkansko poluostrvo i južnoslovenske zemlje. 8clgradc.
Čcrškov, ¡. +µ6¡. Municipium D.D. kod Sočanice. 8clgradc.
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Ðušanić, S. +µ¸¸a. “Aspccts ol Roman Mining in Noricum, Pannonia, Ðalmatia and
Mocsia Supcrior”, ANRW !!/6, ¸¸¸¡.
— +µ¸¸b. “!z istorijc rimskog rudarstva u Gornjoj Mcziji”, Arheološki vestnik XX\!!!
— +µ¸8a. “Mountcd Cohorts in Mocsia Supcrior”, Akten des XI Internationalen
Limeskongresses (8udapcst), :¸¸:¡6.
— +µ¸8b. “A Military Ðiploma ol A.Ð. 6¡”, Germania ¡6 (Franklurt a. M.), ¡6+¡¸¡.
— +µ8o. “Òrganizacija rimskog rudarstva u Noriku, Panoniji i Gornjoj Mcziji”, Istorijski
glasnik +: (8clgradc), ¸¡6.
— +µµ¡. “Kovanjc novca u rudničkim distriktima rimskog !lira”. !n Radionice i kovnice
srebra. 8clgradc, +¸++¡¡.
— +µµµ. “Tc Mincrs’ Cults in !llyricum”. !n Mél. C. Ðomcrguc, PALLAS ¡o, +:µ
— :ooo. “Army and Mining in Mocsia Supcrior”. !n Kaiser, Heer und Gesellschaft in der
Römischen Kaiserzeit. Stuttgart, ¸¡¸¸6¸.
— :oo¸. “Roman mining in !llyricum: historical aspccts”. !n Dall ’ Adriatico al Danubio
— L’Illirico nell ’età greca e romana. Cividalc dcl Friuli, :¡¸:¸o.
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région de Kumanovo. 8clgradc: Ccntar za antičku cpigraﬁku i numizmatiku.
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tohije: od neolita do ranog srednjeg veka, : vols, cd. N. Tasić. 8clgradc: Gallcry ol thc
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\. P. Pctrović, PrcRoman and Roman Ðardania :¸
Map ol Uppcr Mocsian Ðardania
oﬀered the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos his . see Papazoglu . thinking that none of the peoples whose territories they had to pass could rival their power in arms. the approach to the subject will be based on diﬀerent classes of material. and he himself died ﬁghting them. somewhat underestimating the strength of the Celtic warriors. It is a well-known fact that the Celts were eventually stopped and defeated only at Delphi. I believe it important at this point to suggest that this paper should be seen as an attempt to shed some light. as suggested by Fanula Papazoglu. where. Methodologically. when the Dardanian land was overrun by numerous Celtic tribes on their campaigns aimed at looting the treasuries of Greek temples. whose name. During the wars of the Diadochi. unfortunately. Balcanica XXXVII for this paper will be the time when Greek authors ﬁrst took interest in the Dardani. the Dardani seem to have evaded Macedonian rule. from the available literary sources and epigraphic evidence to some valuable results of archaeological research. settlement and communications..C. on the complex issue of the Dardani and their society in antiquity. from to B.C. XXXVIII . soldiers to counteract the invading Celts. B. The Roman historian Livy gives the following account of these events: A large and mighty crowd of the Gauls. they passed through Dardania. led by Brennus. More important references to the Dardani in the sources date from the times of the great Celtic invasion. Keraunos declined disdainfully the oﬀer of his barbarian enemy. as well as the question of identifying the boundaries and character of the Dardanian areas within the Roman administrative organization. and very soon they became a constant threat on the northern borders of Macedonia. The earliest reference to the Dardani can be found in Justin. from several perspectives. Historical developments prior to Dardania’s inclusion into the Roman Empire will be looked at. came to Dardania. goaded on by the poverty of their land or the desire to plunder. . an already formed people established in a territory they were to inhabit throughout antiquity. and on their integration into the territorial and social framework of the Roman Empire. listing the tribes forced by Philip II to recognize the supreme power of the Macedonians. Justin recounts these events in the Iust. On the political history of the Dardani. The Dardanian king. as the sources record. they were completely destroyed. .. Special attention will be paid to the ways in which the establishment of Roman rule aﬀected the development of Dardanian society. VIII . Liv. was not recorded. Withdrawing towards the north. -. economy. at the time Lysimachus created his empire.
. At the head of a huge army of about . when Macedonia ceased to be independent and fell under Roman rule.. ﬀ ) all the important sources on this campaign are quoted and translated into Serbian. and especially from B. cold and exertion. but this victory did not immediately result in the annexation of Dardania to the Roman state. : Dardanos et Moesicos Curio proconsul subegit et primus Romanorum ducum ad Danuvium usque pervenit. I would say.C. Bell. since we know that smaller groups of Celts settled around the conﬂuence of the Sava and Danube rivers under the name Scordisci. Pompey recruited the Dardani and Bessi to his cavalry. they were all destroyed. now entered into confrontation with Rome. ..C. civ.. with certain reluctance. It seems quite certain that the Dardani had the obligation of providing troops Iust. However. from to B. c. bellum Dardanicum. This.V. There are no reliable data as to when this actually occurred. is a serious exaggeration. troops. With the arrival of the Romans in the territory of Illyricum in B. informing us that in B..C. and when passing through the Dardani land. Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania following passage: The peoples and the tribes … squabbled about them. In F. Papazoglu. Then there ensued their constant wars with the Macedonians. however. Caes. the Dardani. thus becoming the ﬁrst Roman military leader to reach the banks of the Danube. the Dardani took the side of the Republic and signiﬁcantly strengthened their positions against Macedonia by occupying the area of Paeonia. XXXIV . as if they were spoils. . the ﬁrst contacts of the Dardani with the Roman army are thought to have taken place in the early ﬁrst century B. Papazoglu (. partim imperio aut gratia comparatos.C. . after the defeat of Perseus in B. Diodor.C. Caesar’s data are also worthy of note. so that there was no one left to go back home. P. III. Namely. Bessos partim mercenarios. However. that Dardania experienced the might of the Roman conquering force. Petrović. XXII . : Dardanos. Curio seized the whole of Dardania.. Brev. left without constant raids against their southern neighbour. Fest.C. when they would ﬁnd them wandering about the ﬁelds. worn out by hunger. . but it was not until Scribonius Curio’s campaign against the Dardani. it cannot be clearly understood from this report what the status was of the Dardani cavalrymen used by Pompey.. Curio was extraordinarily cruel in crushing the resistance of the most powerful people in the inland Balkans. while another classical writer expressly states: . There are no further references to the Dardani until the s B.C. -. both by force and through friendly relations. The Roman occupation and annexation of Dardania was not carried out in a short time – it was a process unfolding through several war conﬂicts and.
C. that the Romans decided on military intervention. ﬀ ) reports that the Bastarni crossed the Danube and occupied Moesia. involved the Dardani... the Triballi and the Dardani living in the Triballian territory. This remark about the Dardani living in the Triballian land may refer only to the area of the Južna (South) Morava and Nišava rivers. until their defeat by the Romans. n. Patsch. (present-day Stara Planina or the Balkan Mountains). It was not until they attacked a Roman ally. It may be assumed that no permanent garrisons had been stationed in Dardania prior to B. And all the time they did that. Dio LI . while its administrative inclusion into the Empire to form the province of Moesia appears to have taken place in B. . However. Cass. which then means that this territory was not of immediate interest to the Romans until Crassus’ campaign. Little is known of Mark Antony’s campaigning against the Dardani. According to Fanula Papazoglu (. Dio LI . Speaking of the causes of Marcus Crassus’ campaign against the Dacians and Bastarni in B.C. the area around the Južna Morava and the lower course of the river Nišava should be considered as the Triballian land inhabited by the Dardani. the year the last Scordisci attack against Macedonia met with no organized resistance in Marcus Crassus’ campaign was provoked by the Bastarnian attack. they had nothing to do with the Romans. As a result of the division of Moesia under Domitian. and the Dardani living in their (Triballian) land.C.. it is virtually unknown when Roman legions were transferred from Macedonia to Dardania. . Thus. Balcanica XXXVII for the Romans. . .C. Syme . and then also the Triballi who were her neighbours. Cassius Dio says: Bastarni. having then crossed the Ister. the Dentheleti. -). but they are also likely to have been Pompey’ mercenaries or allies during the civil war. ﬀ. Some authors suggest that the legions stationed in the north of Macedonia at the beginning of the Principate were under the command of one legatus Augusti pro praetore. but the fact that such a campaign was launched at all leads to the assumption that not all of Dardania was conquered and defeated. The wars Marcus Crassus waged in the Triballian lands and in Moesia in – B. .. Beiträge V. . or on the Romans ﬁghting them. There are no reports in the wake of this campaign either on the Dardani. Mirković . the ﬁnal occupation of Dardania by Rome has been connected with the beginnings of Augustus’ rule. Mirković . the Dardanian territory became part of the newly-established province of Upper Moesia or Moesia Superior. conquered Moesia which was opposite their land.C. Cassius Dio (Cass. . cf. It seems quite probable that the Dardani actually lost independence in B. but when they crossed Mount Haemus.
from where the conquered peoples. ut eadem scelera in quibusdam provinciis gravius plectantur. Petrović . Dio LV. in Mysia (!) vitium. –. L-. Dušanić . . TIR. . Upper Moesia was thought to be a land rich in ores. Naissus. For the transfer and accommodation of the ﬁrst Roman legions in the territory of Dardania. . K-. According to the notes of the Roman second-century legislator Saturninus. . As regards the stay of legion IIII Scythica in Moesia (Dardania) and its transfer to Germania. and had a speciﬁc history and speciﬁc military and administrative structure. Cass. . -. ubi metalla sunt. TIR. - (with the earlier bibliography). Aquincum . . -. Dio LIV. As to the location of the ﬁrst Roman military camps in the province of Moesia. n.D. could be controlled. Popović .. However. . Dardani. see Dušanić b. see Petrović . Naissus. which included. at the outbreak of which Caecina Severus came to the aid of the Romans besieged in Sirmium. date from the mature Flavian age and mostly come from the sites connecting Naissus with the Danubian basin (Timacum Minus. . the circumstances in Moesia Superior depended to a large extent on its ethnic diversity. as already mentioned. . Vučković-Todorović . and it certainly took place before a Dalmatian– Pannonian uprising in A. . the area of Dardania. According Cass. -. Namely. and also on its diverse terrain and unusual shape (it stretched from the Danube far to the south). if we disregard the earliest ones from the Limes.. TIR. ﬀ. Aquae/Prahovo. . existed for a relatively short time.. Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania Dardania. Taliata). L-. but mostly on its rich and varied mineral resources. in much the same way as Africa proconsularis was called the granary. of legions IIII Scythica and V Macedonica.V. from A.D. opinions diverge. its geographic position along the main road connecting Italy with the East. . P.C. TIR. such as Naissus or Scupi. Dragojević-Josifovska . and for the oldest military inscriptions. Dig. the ﬁrst military inscriptions from the territory of Moesia Superior. Dušanić . It is quite reasonable to assume that such camps must have been at strategically important points. The movement of legions may have followed the crushing of a Thracian revolt in B. The province of Moesia Superior. TIR. Moesi and Scordisci. K-. ut in Africa messium incensores. Petrović. Petrović . K-. -. Naissus. Aquincum . . to . - (Saturninus): evenit.
such as cohorts I Aurelia Dardanorum (based at Naissus) and II Aurelia Dardanorum. those who belonged to civitates peregrinae doubtlessly had the obligation of labour on the estates. . In Moesia Superior. Dardania occupied the entire south of the province of Upper Moesia. The fact that the civitates peregrinae and ﬁscal estates (or at least the mines) bore the same names is explained by the ﬁscal domains being named after the tribal communities from which they had been seized. According to Dušanić . Ptol. Nat. On the division of Moesia Superior into four major entities. -. For more detail about Saturninus’ notes. Plin. SHA. On two cohorts Aureliae Dardanorum. robbing caravans and merchants. It primarily protected the mines. . . The Dardania to which this paper refers is the area that constituted a composite ﬁscal domain (analogous to an agricultural tractus divided into regiones) within the province of Upper Moesia. It is of interest to point to the role of the army in servicing the res metallica. Balcanica XXXVII to Slobodan Dušanić. Information on latrones can be found in the biography of Marcus Aurelius. . especially concerning coin minting in mining districts. and the area named Ripa Danuvii in the north of the province. see Mócsy . civitates peregrinae. the territory of Moesia Superior was divided into two large zones: Dardania in the south. . The unity of peregrine and ﬁscal organizations was ensured by military administration. III . According to Pliny and Ptolemy. III. : latrones etiam Dalmatiae atque Dardaniae milites fecit. see Dušanić a. but it also took part in ore processing and was involved in administration. as local militias. Dušanić . In this paper Dardania will not be looked at as a Late Roman province. the division of ﬁscal domains which included adulteratoris monetae. -. Petrović . Upper Moesia was divided into four major units named after the local tribes: the Dardani (Dardania) in the entire south of the province. see Dušanić . On latrones Dardaniae. Dušanić . III. . ﬁscus. vita Marci. a result of Aurelianus’ reforms. Pincenses (Picenses) and Moesi in the north. On the other hand.D. especially in the mines. was necessary because of the danger of raiders – latrones Dardaniae. The mines needed protection due to an increasing threat not only to the ore pits but also to the roads used for transporting precious loads. . which basically was dual. especially after A. Each of the four subdivisions combined two types of territories: those rich in ores belonged to the imperial treasury. . cf. . and the areas of Tricornienses (Tricornenses). apart from military (legionary) and municipal territories and private estates. -. . and the rest to tribal settlements. Military presence in the territory of Dardania. and raiding estates in the vicinity of fortiﬁed stations.
n. was governed by a procurator. portoria and civitates peregrinae in the second and early third centuries. Administration of ﬁscal territories such as Dardania required a certain form of centralization. and above all with the mines constituting the Metalli Dardanici complex. Thus Dardania may well have constituted an administrative entity. Dušanić . Čerškov . III. b. Starting from these inscriptions. ﬀ. . Their centres were: ) Sočanica (Municipium Dardanorum). The large distance between the two places makes such an assumption unacceptable. Naissus. Ulpiana included. Or. the imperial mines in Dardania all belonged to the ﬁscus. ) in the vicinity of the village Dušanić . K-. Such an explanation sheds light on the reasons for res publica Ulpiana to set up an oﬃcial inscription in Remesiana with the provincial governor’s approval (Dušanić a. cf. Special type of administrative centre was at Ulpiana. the procurator metallorum. Naissus. in close connection with the economic interests of the ﬁscus. ) Ulpiana. Mommsen believed that the monuments had been simply transferred from Ulpiana to Remesiana. The envoys of Upper Moesian towns. . -. but not a separate province under the Principate. who in turn were under the comes sacrarum largitionum. Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania mines was identical to the organization of the military.V. CIL. until the major upheavals that shook the Empire between and . and thus were governed indirectly by the comes metallorum per Illyricum. TIR. Dig. Parović-Pešikan . . There were at least ﬁve subdivisions. which is explained in the scholarly literature in various ways. which also involved portorium. It is a fact that Ulpiana set up these monuments in Remesiana with the approval from the provincial governor. and he linked their erection with the passing through of Septimius Severus and Caracalla. Fidanovski . Dušanić a. n. . . such as Dardania. n. . . ). XIII . and the area of Dardania consisted of several centres united into a few areas. -. . Dušanić proposes an interesting and acceptable thesis pointing to the fact that Ulpiana and Remesiana were mining centres and that they most probably were administrative and territorial communities of the same ﬁscal domain. Petrović. Vulić believed that the presence of these dedications in Remesiana could be explained by the town’s border position. . It is generally thought that this was the town of Ulpiana in present-day Kosovo (Mommsen. Vulić . . . N. P. . Patsch . Patsch concluded that the concilium of the province could have been held in Remesiana and that these monuments had been set up at the time of the conference of the towns of Moesia Superior. arrived in Remesiana to greet the Emperors when they entered the province. civitates Dardanicae. Not. Petrović . n. S. Čerškov . . A mining area (tractus). ). Generally. K-. . . TIR. . judging by the information from the Notitia Dignitatum. Res publica Ulp(iana) appears as the dedicant of inscriptions on three monuments found in the area of Remesiana. Čerškov .
Keramitčiev . Naissus. TIR. Kumanovo (Lopate). According to Dušanić . Naissus. see Pilipović . or Kratovo (Kratiskara?). the border between Upper Moesian Dardania and Dalmatia in the territory of present-day Metohija was identical to the natural and modern border of Serbia on one side. K-. -. . Janjevo (Ulpiana). . Naissus. II. which is probably the area: east Kopaonik–Kuršumlija–Veliki Jastrebac–Lece. Petrović b. Naissus. and ) Ravna (Timacum Minus?). -. In the southwest of Dardania was the tri-border of the provinces Moesia. TIR. According to epigraphic testimonies (Vulić . . Balcanica XXXVII of Lopate (Lamud(um)?). The inscriptions from Kratovo–Zletovo region (Keramitčiev. The administrative position of district VI. Kratovo mining region formed part of Thrace rather than Dardania. Petrović . and it coincided with the southern parts of the province of Moesia Superior. TIR. . In the place of Lopate there was a temple dedicated to Jupiter Dolichenus. TIR. but the other hypothesis cannot be completely ignored. judging by the geological constants and the available data on vici metallorum. Bela Palanka (Remesiana). cf. IV Flavia: from the place Dobrušta or Dobrudža) and geomorphology. On the boundaries of Dardania within Upper Moesia. . Dragojević-Josifovska . n. . III. and probably identical to the border of the Roman province. Ravna (Timacum Minus?). n. Patsch . Naissus.. . Konjuh (Vizi(anum)?). . VII Claudia. DragojevićJosifovska . nо. cf. it was an area with its western boundaries west of the present-day line Djakovica–Peć–Novi-Pazar–Ivanjica–Čačak. -. -. -. according to Fanula Papazoglu. . . K-. On the classiﬁcation of the ﬁnd and on the connection of the cult of Libera with mineral resources. . From the area of Kratovo originates a female statue made of volcanic rock. With regard to that. . presumably Libera. . V. Therefore. Petrović a. The extent of Upper Moesian Dardania is for the most part known. K-. see Papazoglu . Papazoglu . K-. Dušanić . IV. It is uncertain whether the areas of Kratovo and Zletovo should be assigned to Dardania or to the province of Upper Moesia. . . K-. remains rather unclear. -. or customs stations dependent on the mining territory. -. on several toponyms Ad Fines. and Albania and Montenegro on the other. the Dardanian mines may be classiﬁed into the following districts: I. see Dušanić . TIR. Ibar (Sočanica). no. ) Bela Palanka (Remesiana). ) were mostly in the Latin language. cf. . whose religious function may be viewed in the context of the mining pantheon. On the connection of Dolichenus’ cult with mining. n. . Dušanić .
. The eastern borders of Dardania should be looked for east of the line Kumanovo–Vranje–Bela Palanka. Naissus. The eastern border of Dardania most probably lay after the station mutatio Latina (TIR. established cohort II Aurelia Dardanorum. III . TIR. TIR. Naissus. at the time of the wars with the Marcomanni. it is also important that Marcus Aurelius. In identifying the area of Naissus in Dardania the epigraphic evidence is also important. the ﬁrst station east of Remesiana. P. cf. which seems to have been identical to the preRoman Macedonian–Dardani–Illyrian tri-border. east of the river Velika Morava. . -). they adopted the Latin language. Ptol. TIR. which supports Ptolemy’s testimony. K-. identiﬁed as the present-day mountain range of Šar with Korab and other highlands connected to it in the direction of Debar and Kičevo. Naissus. unlike the Greek-speaking regions further east. CIL VI. based in Naissus. Petrović. along the border of Moesia Superior. that it was the area encompassed by the river Zapadna (West) Morava and the limits of the antique Naissus area. at least according to toponymy. found in Rome. Naissus. The Dardani. that is in the vicinity of antique Remesiana. K-. The southern Dardanian borders seem to have followed the border between the Roman provinces of Moesia Superior and Macedonia. on the river Nišava. They were. II. K-. an ancient town to the north of present-day Veles. According to Ptolemy.). on the Roman road Viminacium–Naissus–Serdica–Constantinopolis (Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum . .and Latin-speaking areas. III .-. Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania Dalmatia and Macedonia. the limit of the Latin-speaking zone in Roman times. As for the limits of the Naissus area in the north. . based on the view of Fanula Papazoglu. . . unlike their pre-Roman neighbours. Mutatio Latina was the last place where. That the territory of Dardania could have extended even further north of the Zapadna Morava and antique Naissus is indicated by several Ptol. which was also the border between Greek. As a contribution to this issue we should also mention Ptolemy’s information on Naissus as one of the four towns of Dardania. . Petrović and . preserved autochthonous traditions and remained non-Hellenized. . Latin was in use. Petrović .V. According to the epigraphic evidence. K-. notably the text Naisso Dardaniae from the Early Empire period. near the river Timok. thus. . . The northern borders of Dardania are very diﬃcult to identify but it is believed. this tri-border was Mount Scardus. . With the Roman conquest. this cohort also stayed in forts Praesidium Pompei (near Aleksinac) and Timacum Minus (Ravna). the areas between Mount Šar and further on. to Bylazora.
Settlements that may be interpreted as urban were very rare. so in times of war they served also as safe havens or refugia for the inhabitants of nearby villages. Timachus (Timok) and gold-bearing Pingus (Pek) ﬂow from Dardania. independent or semi-dependent farmers and cattle-breeders. even if this inscription was dedicated to Dardania. and functioned as the seats of the local aristocracy. due to military. : Flumina clara e Dardanis Margus. Nat. personiﬁcation of Dardania. For the archaeologically attested remains of pre-Roman Dardanian settlements and fortiﬁcations. . The Dardanian society of the time had several strata: the landed aristocracy. involving the planned settlement of Roman citizens. traders and craftsmen. Some names. After the Roman conquest. the Romans devoted themselves to incorporating these areas. Dardanian settlers in Apulum in Dacia dedicated two reliefs to the same goddess. In addition to veriﬁed Greek and Latin toponyms. miners. Samodreža (Teneš Do) in the west of Roman Dardania. . Pingus. III. The surviving toponymy of Roman Dardania testiﬁes to the antiquity of the settlements in Dardanian areas. Papazoglu . Balcanica XXXVII interesting facts. . originates from a place farther to the north. CIL III. Based on this brief onomastic observation. Hisar. Kuline. an epigraphic piece of information. they provided control of the surrounding area. -. preserved their Celtic roots. . . In parallel with the establishment of their rule in the newly-conquered territories. -. as is known. Mirković and Dušanić . They were Iron Age defensive hillfort settlements. the original pre-Roman refugia Plin. Furthermore. Pliny states that the rivers Margus (Morava). As we move from the east towards the west. However. the existence of many settlements may be assumed even prior to the Roman conquest. the names of the largest number of settlements draw their roots from the pre-Roman inhabitants of Dardania. see Tasić. They were built on hilltops and enclosed with earthen walls. Papazoglu . cf. through careful and cautious planning. Namely. Built on hilltops. resulted in the formation of urban centres with limited self-government in certain areas of Dardania. n. it does not necessarily mean that Kamenica near Kragujevac was in Dardania. the widespread toponymy of Thracian origin is gradually replaced by the toponymy of Dardanian and Illyrian origin in the far west. into the economic system of the Empire. traders and craftsmen. Kamenica between Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac. such as the hillforts at Belaćevac. . Gradual Romanization. which according to the interpretation by Slobodan Dušanić refers to Dea Dardania. Timachus. such as those of the towns Naissus and Scupi. economic and administrative reasons. Gornje Gadimlje.
-. The roads recorded in Roman itineraries (Viminacium–Naissus–Serdica–Constantinopolis. such as Scupi and Naissus. such as the fertile valleys of the Nišava and Morava rivers (Margus). Pre-Roman Dardania maintained intense contacts with the Greek colonies on the Adriatic coast (Apollonia. The inhabitants of towns were more exposed to the process of Romanization than the rural population. Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania and vici grew into urban centres of larger areas. Then the centres like Municipium Dardanorum at the conﬂuence of the Sočanička and Ibar rivers. However.-. . appeared. Naissus. Therefore. .V. Mediana. K-. and in the east. TIR. However. . . K-. The newly-formed urban centres were sources from which Roman inﬂuence and culture spread among the local population. perhaps as early as the ﬁrst decades of the ﬁrst century A.. The rise of settlements was caused by the presence of other natural resources as well. and then with the Morava river valley and northwards to the Danube. as a rule more conservative and reluctant to adopt a new culture. moreover. such as the slopes of Stara Planina. gold. K-. with Macedonia. administrative and religious centres of entire regions. Tasić . and that in that sense the Roman conquest of the Dardani areas brought no discontinuity. copper and lead. they were also the military. The term itinerarium is derived from the Latin word iter (route) and denotes a route map with descriptions of Roman communication lines. Early consolidation of the road network in Roman times is explained by their great strategic importance. it is quite probable that the Roman roads followed the course of earlier. or the wealth of thermal springs suitable to become spa centres (Niška Banja. both main and local. where the army was transferred. Tabula Peutingeriana. Petrović. Dyrrhachium) along the Drim river valley. -. TIR. For the territory of Roman Dardania the following itineraries are of importance: Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum. segm. . were organized into mining regions and imperial domains.. cf. The reasons for an early Romanization of the Dardanian areas lie above all in the Roman Empire’s increasing needs for ores containing silver. Naissus–Ratiaria. roads. VI and Ravennatis anonyimi cosmographia (Anonymi Ravennatis) IV. and Ulpiana in the vicinity of Gračanica. pre-Roman. along the Vardar and Strumica river valleys. the areas rich in ores. Naissus–Lissus. zinc. Petrović . Kuršumlijska Banja). . necessary for maintaining the empire’s monetary stability. the largest number of settlements was established along the roads. Innumerable legions travelled TIR. Svrljig and Kopaonik. Itineraries indicated settlements (stations) and the intervening distances. Naissus– Scupi) were built very early. Naissus. The oldest Roman roads connected Stobi with Scupi in the south of Dardania. P. Naissus. economic. . Itinerarium Antonini. .D.
where they would be reloaded to larger vessels to be distributed to distant parts of the Empire. Dardanian Lead Ingots at Caesarea Palestinae. even smaller ones. more probably. Petrović . In the vicinity of the already known or newly-established mining areas new urban centres were built. or. Balcanica XXXVII these roads at the time the Romans were consolidating their rule in the central Balkans. For highly practical reasons transportation by waterways would have been used whenever possible. so that the communications lines constructed in the early ﬁrst century and during the second and third centuries gained great economic signiﬁcance. above all the intense exploitation of mineral raw materials. being primarily economic centres. cf. lead ingots were discovered. . according to the inscription of a recruit of the river classis of legion VII Claudia from Naissus. Strab. Namely. though originally intended for military purposes. many rivers. grew after the main communication lines had been constructed. . forthcoming. which clearly suggests a Fidanovski . A soldier of legion VII Claudia served as Disce(n)s epibeta in the river classis. Namely. two of which still bore clearly visible stamped inscriptions. This can be supported by the ﬁnd of a set of lead ingots from Caesarea in modern Israel. Dušanić. Goods could easily have been transported by waterways to the nearest sea ports. the river Drim was navigable from its mouth upstream to Dardania. and the river Nišava was also navigable in one section. S. The great antiquity of Dardanian roads is also supported by the absence from the itineraries of some important towns. In addition to land modes of transport we should take into account here also the possibility of ﬂuvial transportation. cheaper ways. One inscription refers to Emperor Domitian with the name Ger(manicus). It is obvious that these towns. especially since it is known that in antiquity. Although the Romans regularly maintained the roads. Since certain regions rich in natural resources were often far away from the originally built communication lines. VII. According to Strabo. were navigable. due to a more humid climate and dense forests. . very soon an entire network of local roads developed for the purpose of transporting ores and other raw materials. which obviously had sunk just oﬀ the port. according to the inscription from the fortress of Niš. -. such as Municipium Dardanorum and Ulpiana in west Dardania. a combination of road and river transport. there followed a fast development of various economic activities. it seems quite reasonable to assume that in particular heavy loads were transported in other. . . and at the time they were ﬁrming up the Empire’s borders on the Danube. during the archaeological investigation in of the vestiges of a Roman merchant ship. upon Dardania’s incorporation into the Empire.
as seats of the local aristocracy. they did not interfere much into the stratiﬁed and stable social structure and hierarchy of the newly-conquered areas. Unfortunately.V. the Romans ﬁrst constructed main roads. the traces of Roman roads in the area of Dardania are ill-preserved in our times. recorded by the itineraries. indicating the Dardanian origin of the precious shipment. The reason for that lies in the fact that they were for the most part overlaid by later. * * * It seems important to reiterate the key ideas stemming from our considerations of this complex theme. in continuity with the courses of pre-Roman communications. of interest to our issue. By shedding light on the issue of delineating the extent of Roman Dardania within the province of Upper Moesia and pointing to certain epigraphic data and written sources. Attracted by the mineral resources of Dardania and seeking to expand the borders of the Empire to the Danube. but they also carried inﬂuences of more advanced Greek and Macedonian Čerškov . speciﬁc position and particular structure of Roman Dardania under the provincial organization of the Empire. Petrović. When the Romans appeared on the historical stage of Dardania. The road network was determined by the natural features of the terrain and the human need for movement and trade. suggests the antiquity of Dardanian settlements and communications. . such as Ulpiana and Municipium Dardanorum. However. Pre-Roman phase – characterized by vici and rare urban settlements in the form of refugia. medieval and modern roads. reads: Met(alli) Dard(anici). . the fact that.D. as well as to show all the complexity. The other stamped inscription. in contrast with Scupi and Naissus. and also that the very conﬁguration of the terrain has been unfavourable for the preservation of visible traces. when Domitian gained that name owing to his military victories in Germania. P.D. By simple deduction. and A. . do not occur in the itineraries. Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania date between A. These communication lines were travelled by armies. Fidanovski . attempting to outline some important moments in the history of pre-Roman Dardania. -. . some important towns. Such a poor state of preservation should also be attributed to continuous devastation by local populations. trade and crafts. given that similar fate also befell other structures of Roman date in towns and villages. the last year of his reign. it has been shown that Dardania’s boundaries may be moved further north of the river Zapadna Morava. the following phases in the development of Dardanian settlements and communication lines may be outlined: I. the area of antique Naissus and Timacum Minus.
In these last considerations it is also important to bring attention to the point that.D. Developed Roman phase – from as early as the second and third centuries A. Communication lines mostly followed the well-proven courses of pre-Roman roads. and such roads were used mostly by armies and logistic support to the troops on the Limes (ﬁrst century A.:](/Dardania) . Nat. making military presence in the stations along the roads necessary. especially in the light of the facts mentioned. Literature ANRW CIL Patsch.. latrones. even after the “ﬁrm” border of the Limes was established. Early Roman phase – marked by the rise of the ﬁrst urban centres of larger areas. Beiträge zur Völkerkunde von Südosteuropa. Liv. Balcanica XXXVII cultures. The main roads in Dardania assumed a predominantly commercial and economic character. Iuli Caesaris Commentariorum de bello civili Cassi Dionis Historiae Romanae epitome Notitia Dignitatum Naturalis historia Ptolemaei geographia Strabonis geographia Titi Livi ab urbe condita UDC . Diodor.D. Dio Not. Vienna Iuniani Iustini Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Diodorus Siculus Festi breviarium rerum gestarum populi Romani Bell. Ptol. Beiträge Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. when the development of settlements was signiﬁcantly inﬂuenced by the exploitation of mineral and other resources of Dardania. Caes. Patsch. Geogr. : Aus Jahres vorrömischer und römischer Geschichte Südosteuropas bis zur Festzetzung der Römer in Transdanuvien. it is hardly imaginable that heavy loads (ores) could have been transported solely by land. Cass. C. II. Institute for Balkan Studies Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Belgrade Abbreviations Sources Iust. It appears logical to assume. and III. Plin. Such loads attracted robbers. Fest. Due to abundant mineral resources and intensive exploitation of the imperial mines. that waterways were partly used for transporting goods towards the nearest Adriatic and Aegean seaports. Hopefully the assumption proposed here will ﬁnd further scholarly corroboration in the times to come. Strab. Dig. civ.). V. regardless of the well-organized protection and maintenance of the road network. the roads carried rich loads of metals towards other parts of the state. Berlin–New York Corpus inscriptiorum Latinarum C.
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Pre-Roman and Roman Dardania Map of Upper Moesian Dardania . P. Petrović.V.
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