Chemistry Assessment

DRY CELLS Dry cells are non-rechargeable batteries, which is also called a primary cell. Primary cells are a compact electrochemical cell, which supplies electricity at small currents to electronic devices. In a dry cell all the chemicals are in the form of a paste or solid, as the movement of ions is essential to the operation of the battery. Dry cells have been in use for over 100 years. Chemistry of the Dry Cell Although cell design varies slightly among from model to model, the most commonly used cell is comprised of a carbon rod of graphite which acts as the cathode the carbon rod is immersed into a moist electrolyte of aqueous ammonium chloride (NH4CL). Also present is magnesium oxide (MnO2) and powdered carbon Cathode reaction: 2MnO2(s)+H 2O (l)+2e- Mn2O3(s)+2OH-(aq) The paste is located between the cathode and the anode. The anode is usually composed of zinc and is present in the cell as the shell of the cell. The cell also consists of an insulating washer or seal, which ensures the circuit in the cell, cannot be bypassed. Anode reaction: Zn(s)+2OH-(aq) ZnO(s)+ 2eOverall reaction: Zn(s)+2MnO2 (s) ZnO(s) +Mn2O3(s) ECell = 1.5 V Cost and practicality The advantages associated with the dry cell are that it is: - Inexpensive - Zinc anode doubles as the container doubles The disadvantages associated with the dry cell are that it is: - Short shelf life due to acidic paste attacking the zinc - Non-rechargeable - Does not store much electricity for its size - Poor performance at low temperatures To improve upon the poor performance of the standard dry cell, the heavy duty dry cell was developed, it contains higher quality synthetic MnO2 and ZnCl2 in the electrolyte paste. Impact on society The dry cell is widely used, as it is suitable for low drain appliances such as torches, toys and portable radios/cd players. Short shelf life due to acidic paste reacting with the zinc (old batteries may leak their acidic paste into the appliance) Zinc-copper cells were used to provide direct current for many years. But sealed cells that contain no free liquid are more compact, portable and practical. Environmental impact The disposal of dry cells has minimal impact on the environment. Carbon, ammonium and low concentrations are considered as harmless to the environment. BUTTON CELLS Button cells were invented after the advances in military technology such as the wristwatch. The button cell is named because of its compact size and shape. The two most common button batteries are silver oxide-zinc and mercury (II) oxide-zinc cells. These batteries are non rechargeable. Chemistry of the cell Like the alkaline dry cell, button cells operate using a strongly alkaline electrolyte. The electrolyte consists of a potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. In the button cell, the anode consists of powdered zinc. The anode is separated from the cathode by an electrolyte soaked piece of paper. The anode involves the oxidation of zinc: Zn(s)+2 OH - (aq) ZnO(s)+H2O (l)+2e-

Zinc/Silver Oxide Batteries and Silver Zinc Batteries.http://www. 2010. calculators and watches.com. The exposure to mercury could be caused by the leak from the mercury button battery into waterways that affects the life in the water. Mercury is known to have permanent damage to the kidney and brain.mpoweruk. This caused for the production of mercury button batteries to cease.In the mercuric (mercury (II)) button cell the cathode consists of either pure mercury oxide or a mixture of mercury oxide and manganese dioxide. even fetus in pregnant women.htm. Button cells have an incredibly long shell life of up to 10 years. 27th Jan 2012 picture: http://www.gravitaexim. 23rd Jan 2012.au/productionof-materials/electrochemical-methods/comparison-of-battery-cells.The Ultimate Resource for HSC Chemistry: SyllabusBased Dot-Point Study Notes/Summaries.gov/Environmental+Protection/Mercury+Free/MercuryHealthHazards.3V The overall reaction for the silver cell is: Zn(s) + Ag2O (s)  ZnO(s) + 2Ag(l) ECell = 1. and More. http://www. Humans then are affected by eating the fish containing mercury. 27th January 2012 NIH Office of Research Facilities. Mercury Health Hazards.html.htm. Impact on society The use of mercury in batteries led to the discovery of the affects of mercury on the human body. 2005. 27th January 2012 Matt Schiller. Button batteries are used in small appliances requiring a small amount of electricity such as watches and calculators. HgO(s) +H2O (l) + 2e. Silver may be a better alternative to mercury however costs more in the production.6V Cost and practicality The button cell is non-rechargeable small. no date. Past Exam Papers.ausetute. This damages humans of all ages.com/silver_oxide.com/Battery-Recycling/Battery-History. 27th January 2012 AUS-e-TUTE. Chemistry Tutorial: Electrochemical Cells & Batteries. 2Ag(s) + 2OH-(aq) Therefore the overall reaction for the mercury cell is: Zn(s) + HgO(s)  ZnO(s) +Hg (l) ECell = 1. Environmental impact Mercury is a very toxic heavy metal.easychem. http://orf.au/battery.com.Hg (l) + 2OH-(aq) In the silver oxide button cell. which makes it useful in small appliances such as cameras. Mercury cells are no longer produced due to the obsolete technology and the concern of leaking mercury into the environment. http://www. the cathode consists of pure silver oxide Ag2O(s) + H2O (l) + 2e.od. Bibliography Woodbank Communications. Comparison of Battery Cells .nih.EasyChem .lyrics. lightweight and has a stable voltage over a long period of time.html .as/Dry_Cell-pictures http://www.

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