Segregation of waste Segregation is the essence of waste management and should be done at the source of generation of Biomedical waste

e.g. all patient care activity areas, diagnostic services areas, operation theaters, labour rooms, treatment rooms etc. The responsibility of segregation should be with the generator of biomedical waste i.e. doctors, nurses, technicians etc. (medical and paramedical personnel). The biomedical waste should be segregated as per categories mentioned in the rules. . Transportation Within hospital, waste routes must be designated to avoid the passage of waste through patient care areas. Separate time should be earmarked for transportation of bio-medical waste to reduce chances of it's mixing with general waste. Desiccated wheeled containers, trolleys or carts should be used to transport the waste/plastic bags to the site of storage/ treatment. Trolleys or carts should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected in the event of any spillage. The wheeled containers should be so designed that the waste can be easily loaded, remains secured during transportation, does not have any sharp edges and is easy to clean and disinfect. Hazardous biomedical waste needing transport to a long distance should be kept in containers and should have proper labels. The transport is done through desiccated vehicles specially constructed for the purpose having fully enclosed body, lined internally with stainless steel or aluminium to provide smooth and impervious surface which can be cleaned. The drivers compartment should be separated from the load compartment with a bulkhead. The load compartment should be provided with roof vents for ventilation. 4. Treatment of hospital waste Treatment of waste is required: · · · · to disinfect the waste so that it is no longer the source of infection. to reduce the volume of the waste. make waste unrecognizable for aesthetic reasons. make recycled items unusable.

4.1 General waste The 85% of the waste generated in the hospital belongs to this category. The, safe disposal of this waste is the responsibility of the local authority. Management and administration Heads of each hospital will have to take authorization for generation of waste from appropriate authorities as notified by the concernedState/U.T. Government, well in time and to get it renewed as per time schedule laid down in the rules. Each hospital should constitute a hospital waste management committee, chaired by the head of the Institute and having wide representation from all major departments. This committee should be responsible for making Hospital specific action plan for hospital waste management and its supervision, monitoring and implementation. The annual reports, accident reports, as required under BMW rules should be submitted to the concerned authorities as per BMW rules format. 8. Measures for waste minimization As far as possible, purchase of reusable items made of glass and metal should be encouraged. Select non PVC plastic items. Adopt procedures and policies for proper management of waste generated, the mainstay of which

provision of facilities for testing. transfusion transmitted diseases. have compelled the authorities to think seriously about hospital waste and the diseases transmitted through improper disposal of hospital waste. and HIV. generated in Indian hospitals. Now it is a well established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings which are caused by the "Hospital waste" generated during the patient care. The principles of segregation . In case of doubts regarding the waste group. · · · Author is the Associate Medical Superintendent at the Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences. Development of non-PVC plastics as a substitute for plastic which is used in the manufacture of disposable items. Co-ordination with Pollution Control Boards: Search for better methods technology.is segregation to reduce the quantity of waste to be treated. 9. rising incidence of Hepatitis B. to search for suitable materials to be used as containers for bio-medical waste requiring incineration/autoclaving/ microwaving. Hydrochloric acid etc. Hospital waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers.(webmaster@isebindia. public and flora and fauna of the area. independent of the organisational position of the generator (Duty of care principle). that means if a classification of the waste unclear or not recognizable. multidisciplinary system which consumes thousands of items for delivery of medical care and is a part of physical environment. This problem has now become a serious threat for the public health and. the waste must be classified in the highest to be expected risk group. Also. Air pollution due to emission of hazardous gases by incinerator such as Furan. Dioxin. Hospital acquired infection. hospital should have constant interaction with municipal authorities so that this category of waste is regularly taken out of the hospital premises for land fill or other treatment. A modern hospital is a complex. The advent and acceptance of "disposable" has made the generation of hospital waste a significant factor in current scenario. the Central Government had to intervene for enforcing proper handling and disposal of hospital waste and an act was passed in July 1996 and a bio-medical waste (handling and management) rule was introduced in 1998. The correct segregation is the clear responsibility of every waste generator. approval of certain models for hospital use in conformity with standards 'aid down. The last century witnessed the rapid mushrooming of hospital in the public and private sector.com) Hospital is a place of almighty. a place to serve the patient. All these products consumed in the hospital leave some unusable leftovers i.e. ultimately. belong to general category (non-toxic and non-hazardous). hospital waste. the precautionary principle must be followed. The segregation should be carried out by the producer and close as possible to the . the hospitals are known for the treatment of sick persons but we are unaware about the adverse effects of the garbage and filth generated by them on human body and environment. Coordination between. hospital and outside agencies · Municipal authority : As quite a large percentage of waste (in India upto 85%). Since beginning. To search for cost effective and environmental friendly technology for treatment of bio-medical and hazardous waste. Establish effective and sound recycling policy for plastic recycling and get in touch with authorised manufactures. Lucknow. increasing land and water pollution lead to increasing possibility of catching many diseases. dictated by the needs of expanding population.

minimisation.g. container. The segregation must be applied from the point of generation. at the bedside. participants will:Knowledge · Describe the sources. Frank Murkowski ReaThe only way forward. transport.g. Segregated waste should not be mixed during transport and storage. I firmly believe that we can have a healthy environment and a sustainable timber industry. Segregation and identification instructions should be placed at each waste collection point. segregation. etc.Correct segregation will only be achieved through a rigorous training of all hospital staff and waste generators inside the hospital (this includes patients and visitors). the entire mixture must be considered and treated as hazardous waste. transportation. If hazardous and non hazardous wastes are mixed. if we are going to improve the quality of the environment. storage and handling. . The segregation should be carried out first under the ³polluter pay´ principle and second under the ³precautionary´ principle. on the ward. · Explain the techniques and practices for effective management of hospital waste. and must be carried out by the person generating the waste e. that means segregation must take place at source. Richard Rogers Read more:http://www. This means the generator must segregate as good as possible and shall only in unclear situation follow the precautionary principle. · Explain the socio-economic dimensions and legal requirements in the context of hospital waste. laboratory.place of generation.brainyquote. physician (proximity principle). nurse. bag holder. etc. is to get everybody involved. operation theatre. covering collection. e. storage and final disposal Every place of generation should have the necessary equipment for the types of wastes that are generated at that place like bags.com/quotes/topics/topic_environmental3.html#ixzz1lmgT6fXe Hospital Waste Management Training objectives: On completion of the course. composition and characteristics of hospital wastes and the likely health hazards from improper management of hospital wastes. treatment and disposal of hospital wastes. Skill · Initiate action for facilitating safe collection and disposal of hospital waste. during collection.

The consequences of such practices would prove disastrous in the long run and pose serious threats to the entire community. treatment and disposal of hospital waste and institutions dealing with health care. The TNA report identified the need for installing appropriate hospital waste management systems. including top administrators. Top and middle level administrators and doctors including housekeepers and engineering personnel attached to hospitals and nursing homes. NGOs involved in collection. This includes among other things. hospital wastes also act a s a source of income for rag-pickers. wastes emanating from hospitals and nursing homes. It also recommended a training programme on hospital waste management. transportation. Attitude · Consistently promote safe practices and systematic approaches for the collection. segregation. This training programme is intended to benefit not only the top and middle management cadres in municipalities at whom it is targeted. the staff were unaware of the application and implications of various hospital waste treatment technologies like incineration. especially in terms of infection and disease spreading. Toxic waste can seep into the ground and contaminate our water supplies. some kinds of waste. transportation. thus making it imperative for hospital and municipality officials and NGOs. The Ministry of Environment & Forests. must be properly disposed of according to law set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency. Government Of India. to enable development and implementation of appropriate systems. At present. treatment and disposal of hospital waste During the Training Needs Assessment (TNA) conducted for the municipalities for the ETIs at Chennai and Bangalore. it was observed that while hospital waste was considered as a key problem by the municipalities. since many of the materials are recycled. storage and handling. officers in charge of solid waste management and health officials. by hospitals. Other participants benefiting from this course include senior and middle senior level officers in Pollution Control Boards. has notified the Biomedical Waste Management Rules 1995. in co-operation with the municipalities. deserve special attention for on-site storage. urban solid wastes have traditionally been handled by the municipal authorities in most cities and towns. treatment and disposal of hospital wastes. handling. treatment and ultimate disposal. to acquire the necessary know-how and skills for tackling the issues relating to the safe collection. Importance of waste segregation Properly disposing of waste is not just a personal responsibility. and sometimes cause widespread disease. Detailed Training Plan Background and rationale of the course: In India. these two categories require distinct waste management options. having realised the gravity of the situation. however. without much effort being taken for separating them. In addition. Unfortunately. which generate both clinical and non-clinical wastes. Even non-toxic waste causes pollution that contributes to global warming and a general negative impact on the public health. usually hazardous.· Evaluate and streamline hospital waste management practices and procedures. but also senior hospital staff attending the programme. Participants Target population Top and middle management cadre from municipalities and municipal corporations of major towns and cities. under non. EPA studies suggest that global warming could make earth almost inhospitable by the Governance . Non-clinical wastes can be handled by the municipal authorities in the traditional manner similar to that of usual garbage. both clinical and non-clinical wastes are collected and disposed together.training interventions. Clinical wastes. · Identify factors relevant for planning and implementing hospital waste management systems for a region. There is also a higher public awareness on these matters.

like the through the proper disposal of waste. Economic Benefit y Some waste. collect and where possible recycle the waste produced. Each colour is used to collect one type of waste. Proper waste disposal uses liners to catch toxic chemicals that can leach into the ground. according to the EPA. green and red recycling bins. and cleaner water lessens the risk of drinking dangerous chemicals. Unless the world reduces greenhouse gases. Public Health y When people dispose of waste properly and protect the environment.com http://www. all of which occurred after 1998. Reducing pollution lowers the chances of respiratory illness. Some of the most important laws include the 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Climate Change y Greenhouse gases such as carbon monoxide and methane trap heat and have contributed to the eight warmest years in recorded history. can easily turn into a vital part of a garden or farm through composting. Also. a major part of global warming theory. blue for paper and cardboard and so on. the world could warm up to seven degrees Fahrenheit by 2100. By law certain industries can¶t simply dump their waste as they wish. 2011 Segregation is probably the most important step of waste management and recycling services. Toxic chemicals can leak from hazardous products and eventually find their way into water sources and soil. An effective waste management service commences with the encouragement of segregation of individual waste streams through the supply of suitable containers. A classic example of suitable containers for the segregation of waste streams are the blue.S. A good example of the potential dangers of illegal and unregulated dumping occurred in New Jersey during the late 1980's.ehow. this almost always carries with it added improvements to the public health. red are for metal cans. The Importance of Segregation for Waste Management and Recycling May 20. too much warmth hurts most creatures. be it for households or industrial sites. environment policy and protects the general health of the public. Wind carried chromium from a nearby dump to a local school and caused an epidemic of chromium poisoning. according to the Environmental Protection Agency. That is when the job of a waste management company comes into play aiding businesses alike to properly segregate. . which grants the EPA the authority to oversee the proper disposal of hazardous waste. and safely contain methane burned from trash. The EPA also sets general U. it can even save communities money from having to buy commercial landfill covers. Composting replenishes soil nutrients and mitigates the need to purchase soil reclamation services. yellow. such as yard trimmings and wood chips. Read more: Importance of Proper Waste Disposal | eHow. not only does a compost pile divert organic waste from a landfill.y The Environmental Protection Agency enforces and regulates most of the laws related to waste disposal. Environmental Health y Unregulated dumping grounds pose a serious risk to the health of the environment.com/about_5529186_importance-proper-waste-disposal. Although the life cycle of plants and animals need greenhouse gases to keep that earth warm.html#ixzz1lmhFep2Dend of the century. For industrial waste management services segregation gets a little more complex due to the simple fact that each type of industry produces a different type of waste that sometimes requires special containers. The burning of garbage also contributes greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The decision of an efficient waste management pick-up also represents a really good part in making the people understand of the importance of recycling efforts. store. There are numerous types of recycling containers but they all have the same functionality: separate. As aforementioned it starts with the supply of adequate recycling containers. store and facilitate waste handling and transportation.Regarding industrial waste management segregation things get a little more complicated for the simple fact that companies produce unique types of waste that need to dumped in special containers. it¶s very important in which after the collection of waste materials there must be an effective waste management pick up services which will make sure that this stuff reach their destinations securely and organized. That is precisely what a waste management company does with distinct refuse streams. As afore mentioned it is done by supplying a given organisation with the adequate recycling containers. whether it is regarding homes. blue for paper. green and red recycling bins.Industrial waste segregation is simple and easy to accomplish. store and facilitate waste handling and transportation. That is exactly what a waste management company does with different waste streams.As defined by the Cambridge Dictionary to segregate means to keep things separated from one another and treat them differently. Such companies can help businesses alike properly segregate. All the waste segregation which we do within our work environment and also household locations are extremely much valued these days. Unlike the example of the multi-coloured recycling bins. industrial waste segregation require different types of recycling containers but in general they are all aimed to separate. Industrial waste segregation is not as complicated as the name sounds. collect and when possible recycle the waste produced.com/6368218 . red for metal. Article Source: http://EzineArticles. These kinds of cleanup services will be a priority for people who will be taking care of waste disposal work in towns as well as other areas. It is therefore important to select a waste disposal pick up service that will fulfill the standards of the people and offer the required functionality for proper waste management and security. commercial or industrial sites.A classic illustration regarding ideal containers for the segregation of waste streams are the blue. it separates them and applies a different treatment to each of them.To segregate means keep things separated from one another in order to treat them differently. green for glass and yellow for food wastes. yellow. An effective waste management and recycling program starts with the segregation of waste streams with the use of adequate recycling containers. The majority of the waste produced by industrial site can not be dumped on landfills. Whenever there are appropriate recycling facilities.That is when the knowledge and expertise of a waste management company is mostly required. These kinds of vehicles are accompanied with a waste management dumpster which will be simple to use and is also environment friendly. the public may find it simpler to follow waste management procedures. it provides recycling containers for segregation to facilitate collection and apply unique treatment to each one of them. Each and every colour is employed to collect a type of waste. Segregation is simply the most critical stage regarding waste management and recycling processes.

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