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Spring 2012

BACKGROUND A Venturi meter is a tube with a constricted throat that increases velocity and decreases pressure (see Figure 1). Venturi meters are used for measuring the flowrate of both compressible and incompressible fluids in a pipeline. There is an example of a Venturi meter in the Houghton Wastewater Treatment Plant.

2 VA 2g

2 VD 2g

hA hD

AA

AD

Figure 1. Ideal conditions for a Venturi meter Using the continuity and energy equations between the upstream section (cross-section A) and the throat (narrowest pipe section cross-section D) it can be shown that

Q = Cd AD

2 g (hA hD ) A 1 D AA

2

where Q = Cd = hA = hD = AA = AD =

discharge, discharge coefficient, head at upstream section, head at throat section, pipe cross-sectional area at upstream section, and pipe cross-sectional area at throat section.

The discharge coefficient (Cd), otherwise known as the coefficient of the Venturi meter, typically has a value between 0.92 and 0.99. The actual value is dependent on a given Venturi meter, and even then it may change with flow rate. LAB OBJECTIVES Show the relationship between flow area, pressure head, velocity head, and head loss through an expansion. Calculate the flow rate given the drop in pressure through the contraction and the area of the two cross-sections.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 1. Look at the schematic located on the back on the Venturi meter. It shows the crosssectional areas and distances to each point in the Venturi meter. Record these areas in Table 1 on the attached data sheet. 2. Turn the pump on and adjust the flow rate to a constant level using the valve on the tub. To adjust the flowrate for the rest of the lab, use the valve located on the Venturi meter. 3. Set the discharge as high as possible (water in all piezometers must be readable on the each of their scales) making sure there are no air bubbles in the piezometer tubes. Record the water heights in all of the piezometers in Table 1. 4. Find the flow rate using the Mag Meter. Record the results in Table 2. 5. Readjust both valves so that a difference in water heights in cross-sections A and D is of what it was in step 3. Record all levels and find the discharge. 6. Repeat step 5 two more times with the difference in water levels between and of what it was in step 3. 7. For a final check, shut off the flow into the Venturi meter and make sure all of the water levels are the same. RESULTS Compare the measured flow rates to those calculated using the theoretical formula derived by applying the continuity and energy equations. Also, show the total head loss for each flow. Record measurements taken during lab in the tables provided on the attached data sheet. Type these results up in a spreadsheet and include them in the report. CALCULATIONS Show sample calculations for one flow rate (one trial) as outlined below. Label variables and use units in your calculations. Compute Qtheory using the equation above with Cd = 0.935. Add the appropriate values to Table 2 on the attached data sheet. Compute the values of the Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL), the Energy Grade Line (EGL) and the Total Energy Grade Line (TEGL) at each section with a piezometer for use in constructing graphs as indicated below.

The HGL is the level to which the water rises in the meter. This is equivalent to the head level readings recorded in Table 1. EGL = HGL + V2/(2g) The TEGL is equal to the energy (or EGL) at the upstream section. This is a constant value for a given flow rate and thus plots as a horizontal line.

GRAPHS For each flow rate, plot the length (x-axis) vs. the hydraulic grade line, the energy grade line, and the total energy grade line (y-axis). Use measured data only. Also include the table of values used to construct the graph in the report. DISCUSSION 1. Do you have any suggestions for improving this apparatus? 2. How would you adjust the piezometer readings if the Venturi meter were not perfectly horizontal? If, so, what adjustments should be made? 3. What would be the procedure for determining Cd for a particular Venturi meter if you did not know it?

DATA SHEET Table 1. Head values for each discharge Piezometer A B C D E F G H J K L Diam (mm) 26.00 23.20 18.40 16.00 16.80 18.47 20.16 21.84 23.53 25.24 26.00 Dist (mm) 54 34 22 8 7 22 37 52 67 82 102 Area (mm2) H (Q1) (mm) H (Q2) (mm) H (Q3) (mm) H (Q4) (mm)

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