Antiquarianism, the History of Objects, and the History of Art before Winckelmann
Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann
To the Memory of Franklin LeVan Baumer.
In light ofpostmodernist and poststructuralist trends in the humanities which have contested notions of originality and of authorship, it might seem surprising that one outstanding myth of the eighteenth century has not yet been thoroughly challenged. This is the claim made by Johann Joachim Winckelmann in the foreword to the Geschichte der Kunst des Alterturns, originally published in 1764, that he had created a new history of art which was distinct from a history of artists and also different fi-omwhat had previously been written about antiquities (Alterturner): The history of the art of antiquity, which I have undertaken to write, is no mere account of the chronological order and change of art, but I take the word history in the wider sense, that it has in the Greek language, and my intention is to offer an attempt at a system .... But the essence of art is in every part the most eminent aim, in which the history of artists has little influence, and this [sort of history of artists], which has been compiled by others, is therefore not to be sought here ... those who have treated antiquities, examine either only such where erudition was to be applied, or, if they speak of art, this happens in part with common eulogies, or their judgment is built on peculiar, false grounds.'
' Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Geschichte der Kunst des Alterturns (Sarntliche Werke 3, ed. Joseph Eisebein) (Donaueschingen, 1825), 10-11: "Die Geschichte der Kunst des Alterturns, welche ich zu schreiben untemommen habe, ist keine blolje Erzahlung der Zeitfolge und der Veranderung in derselben, sondem ich nehme das Wort Geschichte in der weitem Bedeutung, dasselbe in der griechische Sprache hat, und meine Absicht ist, einen Versuch eines Lehrgebaudes zu liefem ...Das Wesen der Kunst aber ist in diesem sowohl, als in jedem Theile, der vomehmste Endzweck, in welches die Geschichte der Kiinstler wenig Einflulj hat, und diese, welche von anderen zusammengetragen worden, hat man also hier nicht zu suchen ... diejenigen, welche von
Copyright 2001 by Journal of the History of Ideas, Inc.
Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann
Wolf Lepenies once described this claim as one of the many foundational myths of the Enlightenment and presented instead some parallels between the writing of art history and natural history in the eighteenth ~ e n t u r yAs interest .~ in the historiography of art has revived, publications have continued to pour forth on Win~kelmann.~ the critique suggested by Lepenies has largely not Yet been followed. Winckelmann's claim to originality remains a starting or major turning point for most accounts of the history of the discipline of art hist01-y.~
Altertiimern handeln, verhoren entweder nur dasjenige, wo Gelehrsamkeit anzubringen war, oder wenn sie von der Kunst reden, geschiehet es theils mit allgemeinen Lobspriichen, oder ist ihr Urtheil auf fremde falsche Griinde gebauet." All translations are the author's. See Wolf Lepenies, "Fast ein Poet: Johann Johann Joachim Winckelmanns Begriindung der Kunstgeschichte," in Autoren und Wissenschajiler im 18. Jahrhundert (Munich, 1988), 91120, and "Der andere Fanatiker. Historisierung und Wissenschaftlichung der Kunstauffassung bei Johann Joachim Winckelmann," Ideal und Wirklichkeit der bildenden Kunst im spaten 18. Jahrhundert (FranhfiurterForschungen zur Kunst, XI), ed. Herbert Beck, Peter C. Bol, and Eva Maek-Gerard (Berlin, 1982), 21-29. See Alex Potts, Flesh and the Ideal: Winckelmann and the Origins ofArt History (New Haven, 1994), "Political Attitudes and the Rise of Historicism in Art Theory," Art History (1978), 191-213; "Winckelmann's Construction of History," Art History, 5 (1982), 377-406; "Vie et mort de l'art antique: Historicite et beau ideal chez Winckelmann," in Winckelmann: la naissance de l'histoire de l'art a I'ipoque des Lumidres. Actes du cycle de conferences prononcees a 1'Auditorium du Louvre du 11 decembre 1989 au 12fevrier 1990, ed. Edouard Pommier (Paris, 1991), 9-38; and "Winckelmann's Interpretation of the History of Art in its Eighteenth Century Context" (Ph. D. diss., Warburg Institute, University of London, 1977). See also Herbert von Einem, "Winckelmann und die Wissenschaft der Kunstgeschichte," and Max L. Baeumer, "Klassizitat und republikanische Freiheit in der auRerdeutschen Winckelmann-Rezeption des 18.Jahrhunderts," in Johann Joachim Winckelmann 171 7-1768, ed. Thomas W. Gaehtgens (Hamburg, 1986), 3 15-26, and 195-2 11; Michael Fried, "Antiquity Now: Reading Winckelmann on Imitation," October, 37 (1986), 87-97; Francis Haskell, "Winckelmann et son influence sur les historiens," and Michel Espagne, "La diffusion de la culture allemande dans la France des Lumieres. Les amis de J.-G. Wille et l'echo de Winckelmann," in Winckelmann, ed. Pommier, 83-99 and 101-35; Maria Fancelli, "Winckelmann nel giudizio di Goethe," in J.J. Winckelmann tra letteratura e archeologia (Venice, 1993), 31-45; Whitney Davis, "Winckelmann Divided: Mourning the Death of Art History," in Whitney Davis et al. (ed.), Gay and Lesbian Studies in Art History (New York, 1994), 141-59 (originally published in Kunstlerischer Austausch/Artistic Exchange, ed. Thomas Gaehtgens [Berlin, 19931, 673-80); I1 Manoscritto Fiorentino di J.J. Winckelmann: Das Florentiner Winckelmann-Manuskvipt, intro. Maria Fancelli, ed. Max Kunze (Florence, 1994); Heinrich Dilly, "1738: Vers une topographie de la notion d'art," Histoire de 1 'histoire de I'art de I'Antiquite au xviii' sidcle, ed. Edouard Pommier (Paris, 1995), I, 303-26; Edouard Pommier, "Winckelmann: des vies d'artistes a I'histoire de l'art," in Les Kes d'artistes, ed. Matthias Waschek (Paris, 1996), 207-36; Jeffrey Morrison, Winckelmann and the Notion of Aesthetic Education (Oxford, 1996); Barbara Steindl, "Zwischen Kennerschaft und Kunsthistoriographie. Zu den Werk-beschreibungen bei Winckelmann und Cicognara," in Johann Dominicus Fiorillo und die romantische Bewegungen von 1800 (Gottingen, 1997), 96- 113. The thesis that Winckelmann created a completely new history of art is for example restated in the most recent edition of Udo Kultermann, Geschichte der Kunstgeschichte.Der Weg einer Wissenschaji (Munich, 19903), 53ff, and Germain Bazin, L'histoire de I'histoire de l'art (Paris, 1986), 94ff. Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann, "Before Winckelmann: Towards the Origins of the History of Art," Knowledge, Science and Literature in the Early Modern Period, ed. Gerhild Scholz Williams and Stephan K. Schindler et al. (Chapel Hill, 1996), 71-89, and "Antiquarian Connoisseurship and Art History before Winckelmann: Some Evidence from Northern Europe,"
. which was fostered by the philosophes and This their counterparts in other countries. Jahrhundert (Berlin. See the work of Franqoise Waquet.9These approaches. But the contrast between philosophy. Ian Kinnes and Gillian Varndell (New York. despite the rise of critical theory among other trends in recent scholarship. even if it is also one that has continued to dominate many views of the history of eighteenth-century scholarship. however. Adorno. 1997). Historisierung. The present essay utilizes some material from these essays. Schnapp. offer information on Winckelmann's antecedents that support Lepenies's initial observation. 307ff. 1999). are much more bound up with late humanism and encyclopedism than their promulgators might have wished to admit. tr. 130-32. The case at hand suggests that supposed innovations of the eighteenth century in the historiography of art. and it is echoed in current discussions where empirical scholarship is disparaged in favor of what is often now called T h e ~ r yThus while in the twentieth . as in many other fields of study. "Main trends in Historical-Method Literature: Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries. "Ancient History and the Antiquarian." in Hans Sedlmayr. The Discovery ofthe Past." History and Theory. Zur Theorie und Methode der Kunstgeschichte (Mittenwald. however. 12 (1972). See Amaldo Momigliano. that between "philosophy.1° Winckelmann's situation in the
in Shop Talk: Studies in Honor of Seymour Slive (Cambridge.4ufklarung (Amsterdam. Cassiano dal Pozzo und die Archaologie des 17. says that Winckelmann "destroyed the antiquarian model which
. 56ff. Kunst und Wahrheit. 1978). credits Wincklemann with replacing series of histories (Geschichten)with a unified history and with binding art into a general cultural history. 2000). "Zu einer strengen Kunstwissenschaft. Jahrhunderts (Munich. and erudition makes a distinction that is ultimately untenable. See Francis Haskell. 1993). Peter Miller. moreover. among others. The Renna School Reader: Politics and Art Historical Method in the 1930s (New York. have left Winckelmann's position largely untouched. also Christopher S. Adorno. 1998). has gained in fashion. reprinted as "Kunstgeschichte als Kunstgeschichte. Dialektik der . Art and the Interpretatiorz of the Past (New Haven. Gabriele Bickendorf. For earlier examples see Hans Sedlmayr. has been frequently heard in scholarly debates. Gabriela Valera. Anthony Grafton. have primarily dealt with Italian and French writers and. ' Max Horkheimer and Theodor W." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. and erudition.' this is one Enlightenment opinion which. especially in the English-speaking world." Kunstwissenschaftliche Forschungen. History and its Images. Mass. Discovery of the Past. and Astrid Witschi-Bernz. Wood. Die Historisierung der italienischen Kunstbetrachtung im 17. 275. 1995). or critique.~ century the Enlightenment came in for heavy going starting with at least the critique of Max Horkheimer and Theodor W.Antiquarianism
It may be that Winckelmann's claim has remained largely unchallenged because his differentiation of his accomplishment from that of Gelehrsamkeit in particular coincides with and helps to support another distinction made at his time. 49-80. 13 (1950). 262. 'O Bickendorf.~ teenth centuries-those who dealt with A l t e r t ~ m e rSome recent studies of the historiography of art have pointed to some connections between the antiquarian tradition and that of the historiography of art. the latter being at best necessary but inferi~r. and Alain Schnapp. 1947).~ distinction. 1 (1931). 340. Ingo Herklotz." or criticism. und 18. Scholars of a number of disciplines have begun to revise interpretations of the role of the so-called antiquarians of the sixteenth to eigh.
of the "arts as an index of society. l 5 Wilhelm Waetzoldt.13 A reassessment of Winckelmann's German predecessors may begin with a reconsideration of the first major book in the German language that discussed the history of art. they may well establish an even more direct and primary context for Wincklemann's ideas than do the more familiar French. als was sie aus Biichern. by northern European and especially German authors. Scultura & Pittura: Oder TeutscheAcademie der Edlen Bau. But his three-volume opus contained much more: it was an extensive compendium of art theory and practical advice meant to aid the artist. English." I ' Winckelmann. German. 1675-1679).14 Since Wilhelm Waetzoldt's Deutsche Kunsthistoriker (192 1) Sandrart has rightly been regarded as a forerunner of Winckelmann.. remain largely unexamined. Joachim von Sandrart's Teutsche Academie (Academia Todesca) of 1675-79. but he brought
made history subservient to object" and "set out to explain a culture by its objects. ed. cit. in a sense not so far from Winckel-mann's before his book appeared.g. 21 7 .Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann broader European historical and geographical context also remains relatively unclear so long as the beginnings of the historiography of art in the Germanspeaking world. and it is for these that his book is largely remembered.. and Haskell. whose outlines have been adumbrated elsewhere. Both for its biographical contents and for its apparently antiquarian character Sandrart's work has however been contrasted with history writing of the eighteenth century. that is earlier than Winckelrnann. Nuremberg. and Italian sources which have been previously adduced in reference to his writings. "Winckelmann's Interpretation". and connoisseur. 10: "Es sind einige Schrifen unter dem Namen einer Geschichte der Kunst an das Licht getreten: aber die Kunst hat einen geringen Antheil an derselben.12Indeed..15Sandrart opened the path to Winckelmann in more ways than one: he not only initiated a serious literature of art in German which provided artists' biographies. History and its Images.Bild. An das Wesen und zu dem Innern der Kunst fiihret fast kein Scribent .. Winckelmann even grudgingly admitted the existence of some such writings but denied that any previous writer had said anything penetrating about art." l 3 E. in Latin. a sign of the continuation of humanist and encyclopedic traditions. Kunstgeschichte). in which he was born and educated. Potts. Geschichte der Kunst. scholar. "Before Winckelmann. This essay reconsiders some aspects of a large body of literature in German and...und Mahlerey-Kiinste ( 3 vols." These traditions. und konnten also nicht geben. l 4 Joachim von Sandrart. oder von Sagenhoren halten. L 'Academia Todesca della Architectura. which included guides to Ovid's Metamorphoses and to artistic symbolism and descriptions and illustrations of antique sculpture and ancient and contemporary Roman buildings. nevertheless belong to a larger group of sources for Winckelmann's work.
." l 2 Kaufmann. denn ihre Verfasser haben sich mit derselben nicht genug verkehrt." Haskell also draws Winckelmann into his account. Sandrart published lives of the ancient.23-42. Deutsche Kunsthistoriker (Berlin. and Netherlandish artists. Italian. 19863). History and its Images. The traditions they represent not only evolved into but may also be related to publications which specifically employed the term history of art (Geschichte der Kunst.
this is not to be regarded as a
Waetzoldt. and Salvini also noted that Sandrart's writing was a product of the later seventeenth century. 1976). Deutsche Kunsthistoriker. *O Klemm.
" Kultermann. Karel van Mander. Nevertheless. including the presence of antiquarian materials not found in earlier works that may be related to the historiography of art. eighteenth-centuryphilosophes. the author of artists' biographies: the German painter-historian is noteworthy mainly as the translator of the work of Vasari and of his Netherlandish equivalent. "L'eredita del Vasari storiografo in Germania: Joachim von Sandrart.Antiquarianism
together much of the sort of material out of which a later criticism and history of art could be constituted. as the third in the triad of historiographers begun by his sources. author of the best monograph on Sandrart's paintings. 1986). 9-32.
. Kunst Werke und Lebens Lauf (Berlin. by which an earlier generation assembles materials that are employed for later constructions. Klemm also traces the impact on the text of Sigismund von Birken. Geschichte der Kunstgeschichte. the Nuremberg poet and member of the order of the Pegnitzscha~er.I8 Christian Klernm. standard works such as Udo Kultermann's Geschichte der Kunst-geschichte have thus described Sandrart as the Vasari of the north.19 has elaborated these themes in a comprehensive introduction to the first two volumes of a facsimile edition of the Teutsche Academie. and distinguished Sandrart's erudition (Gelehrsamkeit) from the true Mssenschaft of art history. Vasari and van Mander. 1994)." in Joachim von Sandrart Teutsche Academie der Bau. Joachim von Sandrart. He emphasized the shortcomings of Sandrart's biographies. ~ ~ Yet like Waetzoldt's comparison of Sandrart's to other contemporary scholarly accomplishments of the seventeenth century. In gathering together an even larger amount of visual and textual information than his humanist and antiquarian predecessors had done. 30-3 1. and he also relates him to the intellectual currents of his time. Klemm recounts Sandrart's sources and his role in the continuation and translation of the tradition of artists' biographies.Bild. relates the and composition of Sandrart's compendium to the tradition of the p o l y h i s t ~ r s ." in I1 Vasari storiografo e artista (Atti del congress0 internazionale nel IV centenario della morte 1974) (Florence.I6 Subsequently. 759-7 1. Sandrart's accomplishment has been distinguished from Winckelmann's and that of his contemporaries by twentieth-century scholarship in a way that echoes what Winckelmann himself." In an important essay Roberto Salvini treated Sandrart similarly. For Waetzoldt Sandrart's erudition represented a prescientific (vowissen-schaftlich) condition which would only change with Winckelmann. l8 Roberto Salvini. 42. Klemm thereby recognizes some of the newer historiographical content found in Sandrart's book. and some nineteenth-century Gelehrte might have said. with bibliography. his effort may be related to a pattern which has become familiar from other areas of scholarship. "Pfade durch Sandrarts Teutsche Academie. Waetzoldt set the tone for subsequent interpretations when he criticized Sandrart's accomplishment. l9 Christian Klemm.und Mahlerey-Kiinste Niirnberg 1675-1680 in urspriinglicher Form neu gedruckt mit einer Einleitung von Christian Klemm (Nordlingen.
~ ~ The method of the Teutsche Academie is not uncontrolled. Sandrart's manner of presentation may have been eclectic. The eclecticism it represented was h o m o g e n e o u ~ . also compares Sandrart to Samuel von Pufendorf and Hermann Conring." 12. According to Klemm. but this eclectic approach was also like that of many other antiquarians in the way that Wilhelm SchrnidtBiggemann has explained. While it is correct that Sandrart's book resembles that of the polyhistors as well as the antiquarians in its treatment of a variety of topics and its learned accumulation of materials. rather than systematic like the Encyclopidie of the eighteenth century. "so we must class Sandrart as a writer of history indeed with the 'polyhistors' of his century. Sandrart's work supplied visual material as illustration. too. the bloated expansion of antiquarian knowledge without criticism" ("polyhistorische Charakter. 19: "so miissen wir denn Sandrart als Geschichtsschreiber wohl zu den halb dilettantisch Material haufenden 'Polyhistoren' seines Jahrhunderts rechnen. 148. "Pfade. completely untouched by those currents which pointed to the future and which at that time were being prepared in Pari~. earlier seventeenth-century works in Latin on the theory of art and the history of artists. Klemm concludes his assessment with a negative comparison of Sandrart's historiography to the dilettantic pedantry of the polyhistors. The relation of Sandrart's writings to learned traditions may be further amplified by other. Klemm. De Arte Pingendi: Latin Art Literature in Seventeenth-century Sweden and its International Background (Uppsala.
."'~ Klemm's description of the "polyhistoric character. also 28.. Much of what has long been recognized as distinctive in Sandrart can be regarded as a positive and not negative product of his time. and poets. but it may be considered to be restricted in the sense that the material that Sandrart gathered
Waetzoldt. too." 20. and he. 24 Allan Ellenius. die sich damals in Paris anbahnten. He also repeated some of the themes found in other contemporaneous scholarly treatises on art. philologists. 24. n. his version of polyhistoric antiquarianism can be characterized differently and more favorably than Klemm has done. was familiar with the work and persons of a variety of antiquarians. ohne K~-itik")~~ of Sandrart's second volume deserves further scrutiny. historians. ganz unberiihrt von den zukunftweisenden Stromungen. describes and utilizes contemporary collections. 1960). 1983). Sandrart's work is "encyclopedic" in an older sense.528
Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann
favorable e v a l u a t i ~ nKlemrn is sympathetic neither to Sandrart's form of schol. Topica Universalis. "Pfade. Sandrart resembles a scholar like Franciscus Junius in certain respects: he. Eine Modellgeschichte humanistischer und barocker Wissenschaft (Hamburg.." 25 See Wilhelm Schmidt-Biggemann. Not just a painter. describes this genre as a "schwer verdaulichen Literaturgattung" but also establishes the direct contacts that Sandrart had with polyhistors. who half-dilettantishly pile up material. Like some of the antiquarian compendia on which he drew. das aufschwernmend Ausbreiten von antiquarischen Wissen . and Klemm.24 Sandrart's volumes thereby also provide an important foundation for future scholarship and even anticipate certain French eighteenth-century developments.~~ arship nor to his style of literary expression." 23 Klemm. "Pfade.
and Reproductions (Studies in the History ofArt. 1963). including that of the Encyclopidie. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Literaturkritkzwischen Quintilian und Thomasius (Leiden. "Measures of Authenticity: The Detection of Copies in Early Literature on Connoisseurship. 9 (1968 ). he can hardly in any instance be called a dilettante. 29 See Herbert Jaumann. Inasmuch as Sandrart also checks theses against observations of medals and of paintings. I disagree with Klemm's negative assessment of Capucci's observations in relation to Sandrart. 30 See Jeffrey M. since Sandrart was an extremely successful practicing artist and since he sets a practical aim for artists as the goal of his book. and Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann." Studi Secenteschi." 295ff. 36.29He makes frequent comments about authorship of drawings and paintings that may be described as a process of connoisseurship. historica et art: un ajout en guise de commentairel Juridica. 1999)." in History and Theory. 12 (1972). it has its own system. 89-125. Crises de I'image religieuse/Krisen religioser Kunst (Paris. and more recently Markus Volkel. 1 1 93." in Retaining the Original: Multiple Originals. If his work does not appear to be systematic in the sense of later centuries. Moreover. Furthermore the TeutscheAcadernie possesses its own sort of organization. 20) (1989). "Juridica. Acts of the XYth International Congress of the History ofArt) (Princeton. Note sulla formazione dell storiografia artistica nel Seicento. to empirical observation of obje~ts. 141-49. Copies. as Klemm also recognizes.26 For this and further reasons Sandrart's antiquarianism cannot simply be called an uncritical piling up of facts. sculpture. argues for "ispezione oculare" and "l'accertamento della verit8" as among the innovations of seicento historiography. and architecture)." in Olivier Christin and Dario Gamboni (ed. Deutsche Kunsthistoriker. Martino Capucci.Antiquarianism
together pertains not to all aspects of experience or history but to the making and monuments of art.~~ plies methods to the evaluation of objects that may be compared to those of contemporaneous Kritik.). 1987). historica und Kunst: Ein Annex in Form eines Kommentars. the second book deals more with the antiquarian and historical origins of the arts." Latin American Art and the Baroque Period in Europe (Studies in Western 1. see also Astrid Witschi-Bernz. 28 See Arnaldo Momigliano. painting. For example. "Dalla biografia alla storia. The first two books of the work deal with the theory and practice of the three arts of design (as in the arti del disegno. "The Early Appreciation of Drawings.~' procedure is one that can be identified with some of the pracThis tices developed by antiquarians in the early modem era. "Pfade. " Die Entwicklung der deutschen historischen Methodologie unter dem Gesichtspunkt der historischen Skepsis (New York. 28 1-300. Muller." 19. It has also been suggested that the introduction of a method employing visual materials as a touchstone for authentication and historical dating such as Sandrart utilizes was a positive product of early modem historical scholarship: it was one response to the impact of Pyrrhonism on the problem of historical credibility @des h i ~ t o r i c a ) Sandrart in fact offers a refined version of this approach: he ap. he relates and compares theses about history.
. 63ff.30The employment of these empirical methods has furthermore usually
Waetzold. "Ancient History and the Antiquarian. inherited from earlier literature. Sandrart provides an index for each of his sections. Critica. "Pyrrhonismus historicus" und 'pdes historica. 103-5. to whatever degree of consistency. 1995). Art. "Main Trends in Historical-Method Literature: Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries. Julius Held. and the third with the symbolism of art.
as Klemm has also noted.. and them. pt. stocked further by his discus~' sion of where they can be seen in collections. pt. with their temper they outlast everything imaginable. Therefore the most excellent scholars have all had recourse to lessons in metal.. . Ja sie dauren mit der Harte uber alles was zu ersinned und zeigen zugleich die reine Warheit/ mit dervortrefflich.32 example. and are worth quoting: All the famed [writers] who have experience with history have made known to the world how highly necessary is the study and knowledge of medals. Sie entrichten die zweifelhaftige Sachen1 finden die Geschichte mit der reinen Warheit 1 und schweigen nimmermehr. 71ff. Sandrart also describes at some length both the antiquities and contemporary art objects that were to be found in Kunstkammers. pt.. See Sandrart's procedure and his use of materials described as being in various collections for forming judgments. Sandrart refers his judgment of the decline of art in late For antiquity to the observation of medals. Sandrart's store of antiquarian materials. Indeed. because they alone give the stamp of truth in the history of the ancients. 81: "Es ist bey allen beriihmten Historien-Erfahmen 1 weltkiindigl wie hochnotig sey die Wissenschaft und Erkantnis der Medaglienl weil sie allein in den Historien der Alteni den Ausschlag der Warheit gebeni und ist oft einer einigen Medaglie mehr Glauben zuzusetzen 1 als unterschiedlichen Authoren oder Buchem. 11.33This point should be emphasized. 1 . 11. with comparanda for a critical assessment of history. and more credence is often to be placed in a medal. as in Teutsche Acadernie. 2 . and they were claimed by Winckelmann as his own innovations.. which
Teutsche Acadernie..und Unsterblichkeit der Bildkunsti in einem kleinen Stuck Metal1 beysammen. because it includes descriptions of collections in a work that otherwise contains theoretical and historical materia l ~ . 2. 2. contemporary collections: this section of his book is innovative. than in diverse authors or books. 33 See Klemm.530
Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann
been seen as essential for the development of the discipline of art history."
. They settle accounts in dubious matters. still their forms and reverses speak with more certainty. not only directs readers to them but also supplies him. Sandrart's comments on the use of medals resemble the opinions of contemporaneous antiquarians. For even though they are no doubt mute. 78. because Sandrart does not merely take over the familiar account of artistic decline setting in with the end of the Roman Empire which had been repeated since the Renaissance. Dan ob sie schon stumrn sind I so reden doch ihre Ausbildungen und Riversen mit mehrer Sicherheit. 83. 34 Teutsche Acadernie. 81. and show at the same time pure truth together with the excellence and immortality of the art of imagery in a small piece of metal." 20-22. Dahrer dann die vortrefflichste Gelehrten alle ihre Zuflucht zu den metallinen Lehrem genommen haben . and they never are silent. they light upon history with pure truth. "Pfade.34 Sandrart's application of method here involves a fresh empirical examination of medals for the purpose of analysis of the variety of their appearance.
pt. 1309-88. Maur. e.. as exemplified by Athanasius Kircher.~~ Sandrart seems to realize more fully than other earlier writers had done the promise that theorists of universal history had hypothesized: one could construct a history of all the arts in all times and places and thus a history of the visual arts. He also expanded his account geographically. 1. the lives of the known artists usually begin with the biography of C i r n a b ~ eThus before the various . independent of his accumulations of artists' lives. he contributed to the study of East Asia as well. as well as to bring the story up to date. pt. 11.
. 55. had
35 TeutscheAcadernie. 7. Bartholomaeus Keckermann. as elsewhere in his book. I . I. 93ff.g. Wessel Reinink and Jeroen Stumpel (Dordrecht.. j6 See Erik Iversen. illustrata (Amsterdam. Sandrart's account was also novel because he traced the onset of decline of art to the second Nicaean council. sculpture. p. 1667). Sandrart expandedthe view inherited from earlier treatments of the historiography of art.Antiquarianism
he here.~~ Parisian schools like that of St. or for that matter the Italian eruditi. e. It has long been recognized that Sandrart expanded the biographical coverage of artists past Vasari and Van Mander to include many more Germans. also Kaufmann.37 Sandrart's extension of previous accounts of the history of European art is also important.. col. 88fE Kircher's compendium is his Oedipus Aegyptiacus (3 vols. 1614). As Klemm recognized. Like Vasari and others Sandrart provides relatively brief accounts of the history of painting. De Natura et Proprietatibus Historiae Commentarius. China monumentis .. 38 Klemm. 5-10. 5. 2. and architecture. Genoa. Sandrart moreover includes accounts of ancient Egyptian s y m b ~ l i s mThus . as they have subsequently been called. I . 1999).38 But Sandrart did more than that. 1652-54). pt. 11. "Eurocentrism and Art History? Universal History and the Historiography of the Arts before Winckelmann. basing this judgment in humanistic antiquarian manner on the study of coins.. 1 0 0 e and see Michael Sullivan. 3. pt. j7 See. 1. 39 Teutsche Acadernie. The Meeting ofEastern and WesternArt (London. His interpretation of objects for a construction of cultural history is again something that is supposed to have begun only with Winckelmann and other eighteenth-century authors. pp. ed. cited by Sandrart in Teutsche Acadernie. as in Vasari's compendium. when. not to the assaults of the Goths. The Myth ofEgypt and its Hieroglyphs in European Tradition (Princeton. 35-42. Rome. because in this respect he is also more far-reaching than his predecessors.~~ pean involvement not only with East Asia but also with the Near East. to mention the C h i n e ~ eReflecting contemporaneous Euro. he also expanded the treatment of medieval art in Europe. He filled in the history of medieval art and architecture up to the thirteenth century. whom Sandrart indeed cites in this regard. 2." in Memory and Oblivion: Proceedings of the XYIXth International Congress of the Histoiy ofArt held in Amsterdam 1-7September 1996. "Pfade. and pt. especially for periods before the thirteenth century.g. utilizes to construct a fuller historical account. 1993*).. when biographical material becomes more generally available. 1973)." 12 with reference to Teutsche Acadernie. p. in Opera Omnia (2 vols.
"Die Augsburger Akademien. 1989]). his treatment of architecture through illustrations. antiquarianism and approaches to the history of medieval art are the topics of continuing research by Ingo Herklotz. and see Bruno Bushart. which culminates in the appearance of Fischer's own works. Yet in Sandrart's work there are also illustrations and discussions of antique vases: these indeed occupy a place in his opus that is similar to that found in Fischer's (Figure 2). in the establishment of criticism.532
Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann
begun writing on such subjects. The importance of his contribution is indisputable." in Barock in Nurnberg (Anzeiger des Germanischen National-Museums) (Nuremberg. "Joachim von Sandrart und Niirnberg." 45 Teutsche Academie." in Academies ofArt Between Renaissance and Romanticism (Leids Kztnsthistorische Jaarboek. Romains. Fischer's universal theme. Grecs. ~ ~ One detail in Fischer's book speaks not just for coincidence but for a direct use of Sandrart. 332 ff. This is Fischer's treatment of vases.^' Sandrart's impact was also felt on other late seventeenth. Die Historisierung. In the Teutsche Academie the presentation of vases (and related matter) completes the second.d. for example. however. as having a predecessor and possibly even a direct source in Sandrart. Sandrart's treatment of China is picked up by Fischer. 5 : "Divers Vases Antiuqes Egyptiens. 3: "Von unterschiedlichen antiquischen oder uralten Gefassed 1 Gebauden/Ruinen/Homern u. Ludwig Grote. pt. may be regarded. even inexplicable. and Sandrart's treatment of the medieval period can in a way be compared to the surprisingly tolerant comments in F i ~ c h e r . 1962)." EntwurJf einer historischen Architektur.and early eighteenthcentury developments in the historiography of art. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach's Entwurff einer historischen A r ~ h i t e k t u rFischer von Erlach sketches a history of architecture not accord." although I am in disagreement with aspects of his account of Sandrart's ' historiography. account of the Middle Ages. if turned by the Austrian architect into a more positive direction. (Vienna. 14ff. just as he played a key role in establishing the first academies of art in germ an^. and not entirely negative. illustrated at the end of his volume in the last book of his compendium44(Figure 1).~~ ing to architects but by a sequence of illustrations of buildings. of the text."
40 See Bickendorf.. 1721). In so doing Fischer also presents the recognizable pattern of a broad universal history. theory. "Pfade. Coming as they do after a sequence of illustrations of buildings. and prosopography of art in the vernacular. & modemes: avec Quelques uns de l'invention de I'Auteur. many aspects of Sandrart's work also directly established foundations for the future literature of art. 1 . 42 EntwurJf einer historischen Architektur. 43 See Kaufmann. the appearance of vases at the end of a history of architecture might otherwise seem extraneous. Sandrart also provided an extended. Bk.a. "Eurocentrism and At History? Universal History and the Historiograr phy of the Arts before Winckelmann.40 Hence far from failing to point to the future. 5-6 [1986-87. arranged chronologically and according to regions. Sandrart seems not just to have preceded but also to have provided some direction and some material for the first book published on the history of architecture. 4 Klemm. and thus the historical section.
1995).. manuscripts. Altdorf. like Martin Schmeitzel. and certainly before Winckelmann. 48 Schwarz's writings on manuscripts are collected in De ornamentis librorum et varia rei librariae veterum supellectile dissertationum antiquarium . disquisitions and dissertations on objects were in fact being written at universities in Germany. Unvop~eiffliches edencken von Kunst.^^ Later scholarship has usually categorized the approach represented by these sorts of endeavors as antiquarian. Jahrhunderts. diss.Antiquarianism
It is also possible to associate Sandrart with further historiographic developments in his immediate milieu in Nuremberg. Leipzig. A.. In the later seventeenth and early eighteenth century theses were presented on topics including crowns. D. G. Major)50even Kunstkammers could become the subject of university dissertation^. quam Modernis . who had written his own dissertation on manuscripts. can be linked with artistic interests in the In Altdorf at the beginning of the eighteenth century Christoph Gottlieb Schwarz.49 Hence long before the establishment of the first academic chairs in art history at Gottingen and Berlin. where much was later to be written on the visual arts.1756). symbolism. 50 D.~~ jects they discussed by describing them. Other dissertations are discussed in "Before Winckelmann.. the materials with which they are made. diptychs. B 1674). D. and see Frank Wolf Eiermann. 1712). Friedrich-AlexanderUniversitat Erlangen-Niimberg. see also Gustav Philipp Negelein. thesis. he also acted later as the promoter of a dissertation on ivory d i p t y c h ~Schwarz and others like him handled the ob. 1992). lectured on the subject. recounting their inscriptions. Johann Christian Leuschner (Leipzig.. ed." Friihneuzeit-info. as it has the presentation of some of the
46 Frank Wolf Eiermann. G.1771)" (M. John Roger Paas (Wiesbaden. Moller: "Dissertatio de Technophysiotameis-von Kunst-und Naturalien-Kammem" (Altdorf. 9 (1993). diss.. 1704). 47 See Christian Klemm. 289-3 13." in Der Franken Rom. Roland statues." 76-78.. and illuminations. B.ztnd Naturalien-Kammern (Kiel. "De Vetusto Quodam Diptycho Consulari et Ecclesiastico" (Ph. Angelicae et Apostolica Regni Hungariae Coronae (Jena. their form. "Die Veroffentlichungen der Niimberger Mahler-Academie von Jacob von Sandrart bis Johann Justin Preisler (1662. In turn Altdorf.
. "Die Niimberger Mahler-Academie und die Universitat Altdorf im 17/18. the university of Nuremberg. handwriting. 49 Commentatio Historica de Coronis tam Antiquis. Another contemporary dissertation on the crown of Hungary was written at Altdorf and promoted by D. 5 1 At Altdorf in 1704 Friedrich Sigismund Wurffbain defended a dissertation on Kunstkammers and the history of collecting that had probably been written by thepraeses. "Sigmund von Birken und Joachim von Sandrart. who wrote about crowns and described when and how objects had been made and fared through later years. Speciatim de Origine et Fatis Sacrae. B. Jahrhundert. "Disputatio Circularis de Corona Hungarica" (Ph. Professor D. and Jena. After Sandrart (and his German contemporary. Zur Entstehung der Teutschen Academie und zu anderen Beziehungen von Literat und Maler.46Sandrart was connected with literary and learned figures in the town. Altdorf. Moller: Conrad Deichler. 1742). Major. not only at Altdorf. bindings. ed. where a number of professors were involved. D. 97-98. in his case.. 1709). Niirnbergs Bliitezeit in dev zweiten Halfte des 17. and manuscripts in various faculties. Schwarz and writers on similar subjects. but also at such universities as Frankfurt an der Oder.
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Teutsche Academie. Marquand Library. courtesy.Antiquarianism
Figure 2: Ancient Vases. from Joachim von Sandrart. Nuremberg.
and antiquarianism with art history. Lambert in Liege. 1659). and Bickendorf. Clues. 96-125." in Myths. He identifies a building represented in a diptych as Gothic.54
'' See Carlo Ginzburg. we would say art-historically specific: he compares the structure on a diptych to what he calls the Gothic Cathedral of Reims. 1990). 261. Tedeschi (London. it is nevertheless the case that antiquarians supplied Winckelmann both with most of the matter for his books. n. which has been discussed elsewhere.53Furthermore. and also with much of his method. Instead this term is to be understood as historically. Numerous texts reveal the existence of a host of other northern antecedents to Winckelmann in addition to Sandrart in this regard as well. Die Historisierung. see Kaufinann "Antiquarian Connoisseurship and Art History before Winckelmann"."
. and Appendix ad Diptychon Leodiense (Likge. in one seventeenth-century publication on ivory diptychs. It is mistaken to dismiss too hastily his sort of scholarship and antiquarianism more generally as belonging to a type that is different in its method from Winckelmann's-that is. Sandrart's work further suggests that Winckelmann's relation to his antecedents can be traced not only in regard to archaeological or iconographic content. namely. set into a historical framework. not an analytical or narrative manner of procedure.536
Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann
materials in Sandrart. which is now identified with that of art history. For example.
See Momigliano. He then dates the work correctly by association with the church of St. Sandrart's work and the link it provides between art history and antiquarianism suggest that these distinctions are too sharply drawn. 54 Alexandri Wilthelmi. "Clues: Roots of an Evidential Paradigm. John and Anne C. a concern with the visual particularities of objects of art. The term antiquarian as used here describes an activity or interest that is concerned with documents and objects of the past in an effort to reconstitute their appearance and nature. Emblems." 76-77.
tr. In a manner that uncannily anticipates Giovanni Morelli's discussion of the connoisseur's method two centuries later. the analysis of the formal or stylistic particularities of objects in order to place them in historical context.52Sandrart is contrasted with Winckelmann. Although Winckelmann wanted to distinguish himself from his predecessors and his mode of presentation and literary style differ from Sandrart's and from those of other antiquarians. Wilthelm also dates an ivory according to assumptions of stylistic history. Wilthelm presents illustrations demonstrating the dating of diptychs according to details such as the shape of hands. Diptychon Leodiense ex Consulari Factum Epicopale et in Illud Cornrnentarius(Liege. "Before Winckelmann. Antiquarianism is thus thought to provide a basis for historical research. which are similar to those associated with Winckelmann's supposed inventions. He states that he means by this not the Goths who destroyed Rome. but also in what is often regarded as Winckelmann's special contribution to art historical method. 52. "Ancient History and the Antiquarian. the Liege Jesuit Alexander Wilthelm dates them according to their stylistic qualities. for which he drew upon material compiled by antiquarians. not to represent real historiography itself. 1660).
in history according to the way they look.
. where he studied in the years 1738-39.^^ Since it is known that Winckelmann studied with him at the time. and for Baumgarten and Winckelmann see Dilly.Antiquarianism
Through writings such as Sandrart's and Wilthelm's methods. Bickendorf. "1738: Vers une topographie de la notion d'art. Einladungs-Schrift zu einem Collegio Privato uber die Muntz. who notes that the reprinting of Wilthelm's work in Thesaurus Diptychorum (Rome. and Kaufmann. Schulze thus probably taught Winckelmann how to date objects on the basis of what we would call their visual style or forms. he uses it to construct a historical scheme like that Winckelmann was later to develop: he says that the study he teaches illuminates how there is a decline of arts in restless and suffering times and how they have soon recovered in peaceful times thereafter.~~ A posthumous publication by Schulze indicates that he taught how to distinguish copies or fakes from originals.. It is further interesting to note that these points are also anticipated by Sandrart. loc. 58 Schulze. Winckelmann admitted
55 Cf. Winckelmann und seine Zeitgenossen (Leipzig.PV7ssenschaft und die daraus erlaiiternde Griechische und Romische Alterthiimer (Halle.55 This sort of instruction has a direct importance for Winckelmann. "Antiquarian Connoisseurship and Art History". just as his treatment of medals also antedates Schulze's. however. not just in French and English texts mentioned by Winckelmann. the importance of this contact has until recently been ~nderestimated. 1 8982). the founder of philosophical aesthetics so important for the redefinition of the meaning of art. 1759) made this "weitgehend vergessene Text" accessible again to the republic of letters. Schulze's announcement for a seminar he offered in 1738-39 also indicates that he was then teaching how one could learn by experience to situate objects. when Winckelmann left Halle to begin his own career as a scholar." 57 Johann Heinrich Schulze.52-54. This approach to a history of objects according to physical appearance is similar to the method that Winckelmann would later develop. Anleitungzur altern Munmisssenschaft worin die dazu gehorigen Schriften beurtheilet und die Alterthiimer au Miinzen erleutert werden (Halle. namely. coins. 56 Justi. It has been known that at Halle Winckelmann met Alexander Baumgarten. suggests that the text was known in the earlier eighteenth century in Germany. Geschichte der Kunst or Kunstgeschichte) had also become current in the German language. 1766).57More important. dating them not merely according to what they depict. 1738). also entered into German university education in the earlier eighteenth century. the term "history of art" (or art history. and that he attended lectures given by Johann Heinrich Schulze on numismatics and antiquities. By the 1740s. because he personally encountered it at the university of Halle. comparable to what later generations have called visual analysis and connoisseurship. Schulze indeed specifically relates his instruction in numismatics not merely to supposedly antiquarian pursuits. The existence of treatments of ivories in German dissertations. cit. While it has been recognized that Schulze was probably the first to have introduced Winckelmann to the study of ancient objects. or their inscription^.
~ und Naturalien-Cabinett in D r e ~ d e nA~periodical of the later 1740s. "Kurtze Nachricht. Waetzoldt. ~ ' At approximately the same time in Leipzig. Johann Friedrich Christ envisioned what he called a history of painting based on the study of objects. Sammlung von Natur. wegen derer am Altar zu Ehrenfriedersdorff befindlichen merckwiirdigen Alterthiimer. 1919). Christ's history was also to be organized according to style periods. prints.Schneeberg. 1748). then the publishing capital of Germany. bis auf unsere Zeiten (Leipzig. contains accounts of artistic inventions. 45ff. 60 Neue Versuche nutzlicher Sammlungen zu der Natur. 493ff. Geschichte der Natur und der Kunst that had been published in Breslau (now Wroclaw) between 1717 and 1720. and drawings. Die deutsche Litterargeschichte der Kunst im 18. which he criticized as being merely histories of artists." Neue Versuche. and site of a major university. in which there appear several mentions of painting and porcelain production and an account of the installation of the Kunst.62Christ constructed the life of Lucas Cranach he published in 1726 not only on the basis of earlier biographies. Sachs Baumeister. It has long been known that earlier than Winckelmann. Wie auch hierzu gehorigen Kunst und Literatur-Geschichten. another comparatively well known author with whose work Winckelmann was familiar was also writing explicitly about a history of art as a history of genres or objects. Miillers' Bericht. also discuss Christ as a forerunner ofwinckelmann. e. 14. Christ says that his biography of Cranach was conceived not as part of a series of artists' lives.und Medicin." Neue Versuche.538
Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann
that the term existed in foreign-language titles. and essays on "Gothic" altarpieces.'jO Another book of the late 1740s employing the title "history of arts" also treats the history of the visual arts as part of a history of all the arts and s ~ i e n c e s . Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kunstwissenschaft (Karlsruhe. 19673). 1747ff. 6 (1 749). archival studies of some important artists. "M. La Letteratura artistica (Florence.g. Jahrhundert.. "Sammlung von Neuen Natur und KunstErfindungen. but as an introduction to what was to be a history of painting. but through the study of archival information and of paintings that he had actually seen and describes. Deutsche Kunsthistoriker. Nebst einer Figur. 371-77. See. on the manufacture of paint (1718).
. von dem Leben. 5 (1748). 25-31. 62 See Kurt Karl Eberlein. Churfirstlichen. including pictures. for example. G. Vom Anfang der Welt. Christ's statement indicates that like Winckelmann he specifically distinguished between a history of
59 Geschichte der Natur und Kunst. but in fact much before him the word Kunstgeschichte was already being used in German publications in reference to historical studies of objects. 491. commercial center of Saxony. such as that now attributed to Master HW (Hans Witten?) in Ehrenfriedersdorf near Leipzig. This is Johann Friedrich Christ. as Winckelmann's was later. Although this work was never completed.und Kunstgeschichte. The term had been employed for the title of a periodical. F. und andem Kunst-Stiicken.und Kunst-geschichte sonderlich von Obersachsen. des beriihmten Johannes Mariae Nosseni. such as the architect Giovanni Maria Nosseni. and Waetzoldt also discusses his method." Neue Versuche. Neue Versuche nutzlichen Sammlungen zu der Natur.481. 1 (1747). 61 Kern-Historie aller Freien Kunsten und Schonen Wissenschajien. and Julius von Schlosser. 730.
on which latter subject he published one of the earliest standard reference works.65 Beginning in the 1740s the architect Friedrich August Krubsacius also anticipated Winckelmann's ideas in his own publications. schools. Dan. e. formerly a government building and now the museum of the history of the city of Dresden. In Christ's teaching and later publications the object assumed a central role in his project.
. Dactylothecae Universalis Signorum Exemplis Nitidis Redditae . 1776). 1739).64Christ's book of 1747 on monograms was compiled from his observation of original objects. many of them found in the graphic collection that Christ had accumulated for purposes of teaching and research. Christ indicates. Long ago in his magisterial study of Winckelmann and his contemporaries Carl Justi brought Krubsacius into discussions of W i n ~ k e l m a n nbut~the architect's importance . 1755).. More than that. His opinions would therefore have been of consequence for an aspiring young critic like Winckelmann. The compilation of such a collection and reference text obviously served the interests of a connoisseurship concerned with the discrimination of individual works. The most famous building designed by Krubsacius is the Saxon Landhaus. again anticipating what Winckelmann later tried to provide for ancient art. Christ regularly lectured on aspects of sculpture and painting. (Leipzig..g. 1729). Noctium Academicarum libri sive specimina quattuor (Halle. Christ.Antiquarianism
art and a history of artists. intro. 287. also Phil. and individual masters. 1747). because when Winckelmann came to Dresden in the mid-1750s... (Leipzig. "Johann Friedrich Christ.g. Christ expressly states that his work on monograms was meant to provide one of the bases for the construction of what was to be a history of art based on epochs. Arzzeige und Auslegung der Monogrammisten . Krubsacius's writings would probably have been noted by Winckel-mann. This history moreover would be organized. court architect. he was a leading figure on the artistic and cultural scene in the Saxon capital. the year in which Winckelmann published his famous Gedanken uber die Nachahmung in Dresden. in 1759. 66 Justi. x-xi. Specimen I1 "quo ex antiquitate quaedam monumenta illustrantur".63More significant for the construction of a history of art are Christ's comments on seals and his publication on artists' monograms. Lippert.. In 1755. according to a framework of schools.~ can be hrther reassessed. Krubsacius published his Gedanken von dem Ursprung. Krubsacius would have gained further attention in the city by his appointment to the position of Saxon Hofbaumeister. page 114.. While holding a chair as professor of literature.. Anzeige und Auslegung. Wachstum und Verfall der Verzierungen in den schonen Kunsten.
63 See. In his writings he employed monuments in various ways to support historical accounts. Four years later. page 112. e. (Leipzig. I . Imagines Musarum . nations. that were to be arranged chronologically according to a history of style.. Winckelmann und seine Zeitgenossen. and the posthumously collected Abhandlungen iiber die Litteratur und Kunstwerke vornernlich des Altertums (Leipzig.
Krubsacius deals primarily with architectural ornament. Many other writers who anticipate aspects of the approach to the study of objects in a historical manner that is
67 Gedanken von dem Ursprung. The publication of Krubsacius's book on ornament. In his own book Krubsacius repeats notions that he had apparently already expressed in the 1740s. in Germany as elsewhere. This is an important indication that there seems to have been an ongoing discussion of historiography of the arts in the eighteenth century.. Krubsacius presents not only a critique of designs found in the past as well as in present-day Europe but also a chronological account of his subject established around the description of a category of objects that is accommodated to a historical schema. that antedates Winckelmann. Krubsacius's is the first history of the "decorative" arts. to have presented a history of objects that antedates Winckelmann's. familiar as well as little known.67 Krubsacius thus presents a history of objects within an argument whose aesthetic biases resemble those of Winckelmann.Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann
where ideas critical of certain forms of eighteenth-century decoration are to be found which resemble the anti-rococo classicizing remarks of Winckelmann's own Gedanken iiber die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke. antedates the appearance of Winckelmann's Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums by five years. Ibid. and often gives descriptions of individual monuments to point up the critique explicit in his history. rise. Krubsacius imposes this pattern onto a universal historical scheme. Krubsacius presents material found throughout the world. This essay has discussed but a few figures active in the German-speaking world. 15-16.68 Krubsacius's allusion to Fischer von Erlach is important (though hardly unique) as evidence for Fischer's reception in the eighteenth century. His description of the Arch of the Goldsmiths in Rome (the Arcus Argentarii) as an example of late antique decadence in design is one characteristic example of his classicizing his to^-y. This is the familiar scheme of origin. indeed was considered. who antedate Winckelmann in their contributions to the historiography of art.
. even more directly pertinent to questions of historiography. his account also anticipates Winckelmann's history. Krubsacius also expressly cites as a source Fischer von Erlach's Entwurff einer historischen Architektur of 1721. Wachstum und Verfall der Verzierungen in den schonen Kunsten (Leipzig. Like Winckelmann. and fall. He traces the development of ornament from its origins to the present. And Fischer von Erlach also leads back to Sandrart. thus independent of and antecedent to Winckelmann. 2 1. More significant. Fischer's visual history of architecture can thus be considered. 1759). one that moreover specifically adopts materials from various lands and countries. as did Winckelmann. While he does mention individual architects. his account is primarily of forms of decoration itself.
according to the redefinition of the artistic and the aesthetic. It is therefore not a postmodem urge to deny Winckelmann authorial originality but a desire to offer a fuller and more balanced story that calls attention to the need for further reconsideration of the significance of the so-called antiquarian tradition. Such reconsideration not only helps fill in a chapter in the history of scholarship but creates a firmer foundation on which his own contribution to the origins of discussions of the history of art. with whose work he was familiar. he created an attractive combination out of already existing concepts and methods. especially in regard to method or treatment of subject matter.
. 1994). He set his discussion of monuments and objects under the rubric of art. especially in the vernacular. M. Anfa'nge modernen historischen Denkens. including antiquarianism and encyclopedism. can be assessed. Jom Riisen.
"Before Winckelmann: Towards the Origins of the History of Art. Winckelmann came on the scene at a moment that had been well prepared for him in Germany as elsewhere. specifically its presumed revolution in historiography. In any event. 95-119.'O What then was distinctive about Winckelmann's accomplishment? Like many other apparent innovators. and more generally to the supposed eighteenth-century revolution in historiography." in Geschichtdiskurs. in comparison with other writers on similar topics has also often been acknowledged. This circumstance also helps account for the generally favorable reception his writings received in his own time. and earlier forms of scholarship. He offered a comprehensive account that connected them by historical narrative in a universal framework (according to the standards of the time)..Antiquarianism
associated with Winckelmann could also be named.69Enough may however already have been presented to suggest that much of the novelty attributed to Winckelmann is actually envisioned by earlier figures." See Henning Wrede. and Emst Schulin (Frankfurt a. He provided useful compendia of monuments and objects. and that as a consequence established his fame in later ages. The power of Winckelmann's writing. The evidence presented here also suggests that a revision of interpretations which hypothesize a rupture between the supposedly modem pursuits of the eighteenth century. as effected in the eighteenth century by such thinkers as the Abbe Dubos and Baumgarten. The combination of these features. rather than the originality of many of his ideas about historiography. is in order. is among the elements which make Winckelmann distinctive. Wolfgang Kiittler. Princeton University. and it would seem that his eloquence was something else that made his approach accessible. ed. 2. "Die Entstehung der Archaologie und das Einsetzen der neuzeitlichen Geschichtsbetrachtung.
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Antiquity Now: Reading Winckelmann on Imitation Michael Fried October.
http://links.org/sici?sici=0018-2656%281972%2912%3C51%3AMTIHLS%3E2. 1986). Vol.0.
Stable URL: http://links.org/sici?sici=0022-5037%28200107%2962%3A3%3C523%3AATHOOA%3E2. (Summer. the History of Objects. 87-97.org/sici?sici=0075-4390%281950%2913%3A3%2F4%3C285%3AAHATA%3E2.org/sici?sici=0162-2870%28198622%2937%3C87%3AANRWOI%3E2. and the History of Art before Winckelmann Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann Journal of the History of Ideas.0.0.jstor. (Jul. No. No. pp.jstor.jstor. (1950). Please visit your library's website or contact a librarian to learn about options for remote access to JSTOR. pp.CO%3B2-V
Ancient History and the Antiquarian Arnaldo Momigliano Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes.