# Source: HVAC Systems Design Handbook

Chapter

1
HVAC Equations for Everyday Use
1.1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to place the frequently (and not so frequently) used equations for everyday HVAC calculations in one location. Have you ever needed to know how to calculate the brake horsepower of a pump quickly but don’t remember the equation for it? Or have you ever needed to calculate the EDR of a steam system in order to size a steam condensate return pump and receiver? It can be a tedious and time-consuming process to ﬁnd this information. Therefore, this chapter will give some of the most important as well as some of the least known HVAC equations for your use in one convenient location. The following equations are stated without derivation or example applications. Some of the equations will be used in examples in later chapters of this book. This chapter is divided into two parts. The ﬁrst covers frequently used equations. The second part contains equations that will not be frequently used but are needed for comprehensiveness. It is the responsibility of the user to understand and apply the equations in the proper and correct manner. We suggest that this chapter be used after basic HVAC knowledge has been attained by the reader.

1

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

2

Chapter One

PART 1—FREQUENTLY USED HVAC EQUATIONS 1.2 Air Side Equations

1.2.1 Abbreviations and Deﬁnitions for Air Side Equations

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

CFM cubic ft per min V velocity, ft/min TMIXED mixed air temperature, °F TOA outside air temperature, °F TRA return air temperature, °F TSAROOM supply air temperature to room, °F TSROOM desired sensible room temperature, °F TSACOIL supply sensible air temperature leaving coil, °F TSADUCT duct supply air temperature, °F EAT entering air temperature, °F LAT leaving air temperature, °F SP static pressure, in of H2O VP velocity pressure, in of H2O TP total pressure, in of H2O ACH air changes per hour BTU British Thermal Unit (1 BTU = energy to raise 1 pound of water 1°F) BTUH British Thermal Units per hour BTUHSROOM sensible load of the room/space MBH 1000 BTUH MAT mixed air temperature, °F BHP brake horsepower h enthalpy, BTU/lbm lbm pound mass density of air, lbm/ft3 L duct length, ft Dh hydraulic diameter, in pf total static pressure differential, in of water P perimeter of duct, in A area of duct, in2 a major axis, in b minor axis, in

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

3

32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

De SH dr te tl ta D L U d KA

equivalent duct diameter, in speciﬁc heat at design temperature and pressure, Btu/lb · °F density ratio for air compared to sea level temperature air entering duct section temperature air leaving duct section temperature air surrounding duct section diameter of duct, in length of duct, ft overall heat transfer coefﬁcient of duct wall, BTU/h · ft2 · °F density of insulation, lb/ft2 Dimensional constant for altitude

1.2.2 Air Side Equations

Supply CFM to room: CFM =

BTUHSROOM (TSROOM − TSAROOM ) × 1.08

(1.2.1)

Basic outside air requirement for the space breathing zone: Vbz = Rpz × Pz + Raz × Az1 uncorrected outside air to the breathing zone, CFM CFM/person (See Table 22.2) zone/room population CFM/ft2 of the zone/room (see Table 22.2) ﬂoor area of the zone/room, ft2 ⎛ ⎞ ( CFM ) × ⎜⎜ 60 minutes ⎟⎟ hour ⎠ ⎝ Air changes per hour: ACH = volume room (ft 3 ) Duct velocity (FPM): V= CFM or area ft 2 Where Vbz Rpz Pz Raz Az (1.2.1a)

(1.2.2) (1.2.3a) (1.2.3b) (1.2.4) (1.2.5a)

V = 4005 × VP Total pressure (in of H2O): TP = SP + VP VP(standard air): ⎛ V ⎞ VP = ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ 4005 ⎟
2

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

4

Chapter One

V(based on pressure): V(standard air): V(at given pressure):

V = 1096.7

VP

(1.2.5b) (1.2.5c) (1.2.5d) KA (1.2.5e)

V = 4005 VP V = K A VP 4005 dr

Where 4005 = dimensional constant at sea level Dimensional constant: See Table 4.3 for values of dr. CFM in duct: Mixed air temperature: CFM = area ( ft 2 ) × ( V KA =

(

)

)

(1.2.6)

⎛ CFM SA − CFM RA ⎞ ⎛ CFM SA − CFM OA ⎞ MAT = ⎜ ⎟ × TOA + ⎜ ⎟ × TRA (1.2.7) CFM SA CFM SA ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ Fan heat (motor in air stream): ⎛ watts ⎞ ⎛ BTUH ⎞ Q fan = BHP × ⎜ 745.7 ⎟ × ⎜ 3.413 watt ⎟ hp ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝

(

)

(1.2.8)

Fan heat air temperature rise: Δ t of =

(

Q fan

CFM fan × 1.08

) (

)

(1.2.9)

Where CFMfan is adjusted for altitude. See Table 4.3. Total cooling coil Load:

BTUH total = CFM × h( EAT ) − h( LAT ) × 4.5 × 0density .075 lbs
ft3

(

)

(1.2.10)

Where

density 0.075 lbs 3
ft

is the air density ratio adjustment based on altitude

or temperature. See Table 4.3 for elevation adjustment. Coil sensible load: BTUH sensible = CFM × (1.08 × ΔT) × 0density .075 lbs
ft3

(1.2.11)

Air factor: AF = (air density) SH 60 min/hr (1.2.12)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

5

VAV terminal unit coil heating capacity:
BTUH total = TSROOM − TSADUCT × Heating CFM space × 1.08 + BTUH SROOM

(

) (

) ( )

ft 3 × °F min See Table 4.3 for values at different elevations. Rectangular to round duct equivalent2: ⎛ ⎞ 1.3 × ( wh)0.625 ⎟ De = ⎜ ⎜ w + h 0.250 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Where 1.08

1.08

BTU/hr

(1.2.13) at sea level

Where

(

)

(1.2.14)

w duct width h duct height De equivalent round duct diameter, in See Chapter 6. Round to ﬂat oval duct equivalent2 De = 1.55 A0.625 P0.25 (1.2.15)

⎛ b2 ⎞ A=⎜ ⎟ +b a−b ⎝ 4 ⎠

(

)

(1.2.16) (1.2.17)

See Chapter 6.

P

b

2(a

b)

Duct insulation heat gain/loss2: ⎡ UPL ⎛ t + t ⎞⎤ Q=⎢ × ⎜ e l − ta ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 12 ⎝ 2 2 Duct leaving air temperature : tl = y= y= te y − 1 + 2ta y +1 2.4 A × Vd rectangular ducts U × P× L

(1.2.18a)

(

)

(1.2.18b) (1.2.18c) (1.2.18d)

0.6 D × Vd round ducts U×L See Chapter 6, Equation 6.11.

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

6

Chapter One

1.3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Fan Laws

1.3.1 Fan Law Abbreviations

CFM cubic ft per min D fan diameter, in SP static pressure (in of H2O) TP total pressure (in of H2O) RPM revolutions per min HP horsepower d density of air, lbs/ft3 CFMMAX maximum CFM of fan based at critical speed CFM1 original CFM of fan RPMMAX critical speed HPName Plate motor name plate horsepower Subscript1 original condition; subscript2 new condition; subscripttested actual ﬁeld-tested values 13. SE static efﬁciency
1.3.2 Fan Law Equations1

⎛ D ⎞ ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ CFM 2 = CFM1 × ⎜ 2 ⎟ × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ D1 ⎠ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠ ⎛ D ⎞ ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ ⎛ d2 ⎞ SP2 = SP × ⎜ 2 ⎟ × ⎜ 1 ⎟ ×⎜ ⎟ ⎝ D1 ⎠ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠ ⎝ d1 ⎠ ⎛ D ⎞ ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ ⎛ d2 ⎞ HP2 = HP × ⎜ 2 ⎟ × ⎜ 1 ⎟ ×⎜ ⎟ ⎝ D1 ⎠ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠ ⎝ d1 ⎠ ⎛D ⎞ CFM 2 = CFM1 × ⎜ 2 ⎟ × ⎝ D1 ⎠
2 5 3 2 2

3

(1.3.1)

(1.3.2)

(1.3.3)

RPM 2 d1 × RPM1 d2

(1.3.4)

⎛D ⎞ SP2 d1 × RPM 2 = RPM1 × ⎜ 1 ⎟ × SP d2 ⎝ D2 ⎠ 1 ⎛ D ⎞ ⎛ SP ⎞ 2 d1 HP2 = HP × ⎜ 2 ⎟ × ⎜ 2 ⎟ × 1 d2 ⎝ D1 ⎠ ⎝ SP ⎠ 1
2 3

(1.3.5)

(1.3.6)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

7

⎛ D ⎞ ⎛ CFM 2 ⎞ RPM 2 = RPM1 × ⎜ 1 ⎟ × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ D2 ⎠ ⎝ CFM1 ⎠ ⎛ d2 ⎞ ⎛ CFM 2 ⎞ ⎛D ⎞ SP2 = SP × ⎜ 1 ⎟ × ⎜ 1 ⎟ × ⎜d ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ CFM1 ⎠ ⎝ D2 ⎠ ⎛ CFM 2 ⎞ ⎛ d2 ⎞ ⎛D ⎞ HP2 = HP × ⎜ 1 ⎟ × ⎜ 1 ⎟ ×⎜ ⎟ ⎝ CFM1 ⎠ ⎝ d1 ⎠ ⎝ D2 ⎠ CFM based on critical speed of fan: ⎛ RPM MAX ⎞ CFM MAX = CFM1 × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠ New brake horsepower at critical speed: BHPmax rpm ⎛ RPM MAX ⎞ = HP × ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠
3 4 3 4 3

3

(1.3.7)

(1.3.8)

(1.3.9)

(1.3.10)

(1.3.11)

Maximum RPM of fan with original motor: RPM max horsepower = RPM tested × 3 HPnameplate BHPtested (1.3.12)

Maximum RPM of fan based on fan pressure class: RPM at max sp = RPM tested × SPmax fanclass SPtested (1.3.13)

Fan actual BHP based on total pressure and static efﬁciency: BHP = 1.4 1. 2. 3. 4. CFM × TP 6356 × SE (1.3.14)

Heat Transfer Equations2 Q heat, BTU/hr U U-value of material (conductance), BTU/h · ft2 · °F A area, ft2 SHGC solar heat gain coefﬁcient, dimensionless

1.4.1 Abbreviations and Deﬁnitions for Heat Transfer Equations

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

8

Chapter One

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

CLTD cooling load temperature difference, °F Tin interior air temperature, °F Tout exterior air temperature, °F L thickness, in Apf total area of glass, ft2 Et incident total irradiance, BTU/hr · ft2 SC glass shading coefﬁcient dimensionless MSHGF maximum solar heat gain factor for fenestration exposure CLF cooling load factor

1.4.2 Basic HVAC Heat Transfer Equations2

1. Basic conduction: Q U A (T1 T2) 2. Basic glass heat gain: Q U Apf (tout tin) (SHGC)Apf Et or Q U Apf (tout tin) A SC MSHGF 3. SC = SHGC 0.87 U A CLTD

(1.4.1) (1.4.2a) (1.4.2b) (1.4.3) (1.4.4)

CLF

4. Q 1.5
1.5.1

Fluid Handling
Abbreviations and Deﬁnitions for Fluid Handling1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

GPM gallons per min lbm /minute pound mass per min EWT entering water temperature LWT leaving water temperature ft hd head in ft of water T temperature difference, °F P pressure, lbs/in2 Z height above datum, ft P absolute pressure, lbs/in2 abs Pgage gauge pressure, lbs/in2 P atmospheric pressure, lbs/in2, 14.7 psia @ sea level atm SG or speciﬁc gravity, mass of liquid/mass of water at 39° F water 1, dimensionless 13. Cp = speciﬁc heat, BTU/lb · °F

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

9

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

SW speciﬁc weight at given temperature, lbs/ft3 Q Btu/hr BHP brake horsepower ft • lbs 1BHP = 33, 000 minute eff pump efﬁciency, dimensionless fraction 1 RPM speed, revolutions per min Subscript1 original condition; subscript2 new condition H feet of head, ft. hd. hg system pressure, ft. hd. V2 23. hv velocity head, , ft. hd. 2g T P abs 1 PSI EWT Pgage LWT P atm 1 (1.5.1) (1.5.2) (1.5.3)

1.5.2 Fluid Handling Equations

2.31 ft hd for clear water, SG

Calculating required GPM for all ﬂuids: ⎛ ⎞ (Q × 7.48 gallons ft 3 ⎟ GPM = ⎜ ⎜ C p × ( EWT − LWT × SG × SW × 60 min ⎟ hr ⎠ ⎝

)

(

)

)

(1.5.4)

Simpliﬁed required GPM required using clean water: GPM = Head loss for open system: H Pump brake horsepower: BHP = Z hg hv (1.5.6) Q 500 × EWT − LWT

(

)

(1.5.5)

(GPM ) × ( ft hd ) (3960) × ( eff )
⎛ GPM1 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ GPM 2 ⎠
2

(1.5.7)

Pump laws (based on constant impeller size, SG, piping system and variable pump speed): Change of ﬂow: H f1 Hf2 (1.5.8)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

10

Chapter One

Find new ﬂow based on pump speed: ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ GPM 2 = GPM1 × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠ New brake horsepower BHP: ⎛ RPM 2 ⎞ BHP2 = BHP × ⎜ (1.5.10) 1 ⎟ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠ Pump laws (based on variable impeller size, constant pump speed, SG and piping system): ⎛ Diameter2 ⎞ GPM 2 = GPM1 × ⎜ (1.5.11) ⎟ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠ ⎛ Diameter2 ⎞ H 2 = H1 × ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠
2 3

(1.5.9)

(1.5.12)
3

⎛ Diameter2 ⎞ BHP2 = BHP × ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ RPM1 ⎠ 1.6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Power and Energy Eff efﬁciency, dimensionless ratio Kw kilowatts VA volt · amps Amps amperes PF power factor, dimensionless real power watts P = = apparent power S volt • amps HP horsepower hpout output horsepower Wattsin input watts V volts 3 three-phase

(1.5.13)

1.6.1 Abbreviations and Deﬁnitions for Power and Energy

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1.6.2 Power Equations3

Efﬁciency: Eff =

(746) × ( hp )
out

Wattsin

(1.6.1)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

11

Three-phase power: Kw3 = V × Amps × PF × 3 1000 (1.6.2) (1.6.3) (1.6.4)

VA3 = V × Amps × 3 Amps3 = Eff3 = Single-phase power: Kw = 746 × HP 3 × V × Eff × PF 746 × HP V × Amps × PF × 3 V × Amps × PF 1000 746 × HP V × Eff × PF

(1.6.5)

(1.6.6) (1.6.7) (1.6.8)

Amps = Eff = 1.7
1.7.1

746 × HP V × Amps × PF

Steam Equations
Steam Abbreviations and Deﬁnitions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

hfg enthalpy of steam at given pressure (latent heat of vaporization) Q heating load in BTU/hr v speciﬁc volume t temperature, °F m mass ﬂow rate, lbs/hr hf 1 enthalpy of condensate before steam trap, BTU/lb hf 2 enthalpy of condensate at ﬂashed condensate pressure, BTU/lb hf g 2 latent heat of vaporization at ﬂashed condensate pressure, BTU/lb 9. P % of ﬂashed steam

1.7.2 Steam Equations

Heating coil required steam ﬂow rate: m= Q h fg (1.7.1)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

12

Chapter One

Where hfg = Latent heat of vaporization at speciﬁc operating pressure. See any steam tables for value of hfg. Steam condensate trap sizing: Steam trap capacity minimum 2 lb/hr requirement of steam heating coil capacity, heat exchanger or main piping drip locations. Steam ﬂash tank sizing: Percent of condensate ﬂashed to steam: hf 1 − hf 2 P= × 100 h fg 2 PART 2—INFREQUENTLY USED HVAC EQUATIONS 1.8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Air Side Equations duct roughness factor, ft v kinematic viscosity, ft2/s V duct velocity, ft/min pf duct friction loss, in of water f, f Colebrook equation duct friction factor, dimensionless Dh Hydraulic diameter, in Re Reynolds number, dimensionless TR temperature, °R Rankine T(°F) 459.67 PSIA absolute pressure, lb per sq in Ra gas constant for dry air (53.352 ft · lbf/lbm · °R) Rw gas constant for water vapor (85.778 ft · lbf/lbm · °R) WS humidity ratio at saturation, lba/ lbda W humidity ratio, lba/ lbda relative humidity, % degree of saturation pws saturation pressure, psia pws(t*) saturation pressure for t*, psia t* thermodynamic wet bulb temperature, °F t dry bulb temperature of moist air, °F W * humidity ratio at given t* s Mw mass of water vapor in air sample, lbm (1.7.2)

(1.7.3)

1.8.1 Air Side Abbreviations and Deﬁnitions

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

13

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Ma mass of dry air in sample, lbm q speciﬁc humidity, dimensionless va speciﬁc volume of dry air, ft3/lb R universal gas constant, 1545.32 ft · lbf/lb mol · °R density of air, lbm/ft3 P perimeter of duct cross-section, in

1.8.2 Duct Friction Loss2

Darcey equation for duct friction loss: ⎛ 12 fL ⎞ ⎛ V ⎞ pf = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Dh ⎠ ⎝ 1097 ⎠ Hydraulic radius for noncircular ducts: Dh 1 4A/P (1.8.2) Colebrook equation for duct friction loss: ⎛ 12 2.51 ⎞ = −2 log ⎜ + ⎟ f ⎝ 3.7 Dh Re f ⎠ ⎛ 12 68 ⎞ f = 0.11 ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝ Dh Re ⎠
' 0.25 2

(1.8.1)

(1.8.3)

Altshul/Tsal equation for duct friction loss: (1.8.4)

If f 0.018: f f If f 0.018: f 0.85f 0.0028 Reynolds number for all air conditions: Re = Reynolds number for standard air Re
1.8.3 Psychrometrics2

DhV 720v

(1.8.5a)

8.56DhV

(1.8.5b)

PSIA

gauge pressure

atmospheric pressure M humidity ratio W = W Ma

(1.8.6)

See Section 20.2.

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

14

Chapter One

speciﬁc humidity relative humidity Saturation pressure from ln( pws ) = =

q=

W (1 + W )

(1.8.7) (1.8.8)

1− 1−

(

)( f p /p )
s ws

148°F to 32°F

( −5.37657944 − 03)T + (1.92023769 − 07)T ( 3.55758316 − 10)T + ( −9.03446883 − 14 )T ( 4.1635019) ln (T )
R 3 R R

−1.021416462 + 04 + ( −4.89350301 + TR

)

2 4

R R

(1.8.9) +

Saturation pressure from 32°F to 392°F ln( pws ) = −1.044039708 + 04 + ( −0.112946496 + TR

)

( −2.7022355 − 02 )T + (1.2890360 − 05)T ( −2.478068 − 09)T + (6.5459673) ln T
R 3 R R

2

R

+

(1.8.10)

Humidity ratio at saturation temperature t*: Ws* Humidity ratio: ⎛ p t* ws = 0.62198 ⎜ ⎜ p − pws t * ⎝
* * s

( ) ⎞⎟ ( ) ⎟⎠ (

(1.8.11)

(1093 − 0.556t )W W=

− 0.240 t − t *
*

1093 + 0.444t − t

)

(1.8.12)

Humidity ratio at saturation: ⎛ pws t ⎞ Ws = 0.62198 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ p − pws t ⎠ = Volume of moist air mixture v W | Ws t , p

Degree of saturation:

() ()

(1.8.13)

(1.8.14)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

15

⎛RT ⎞ v = ⎜ a R ⎟ 1 + 1.6078W ⎝ p ⎠

(

)

(1.8.15)

Enthalpy of the moist air h

(BTU/lb): 0.240t W(1061 0.444t) (1.8.16)

Moist air sample water vapor partial pressure, psia: pw = 0.62198 + W

( pW )

(1.8.17)

Dew-point temperature for 32°F to 200°F: td 100.45 33.193ln(pw) 2.319ln(pw)2 0.17074ln(pw)3 1.2063(pw)0.1984 (1.8.18)

Dew-point temperature for less than 32°F: td 90.12 26.142ln(pw) 0.8927ln (pw)2 (1.8.19)

Adiabatic mixing of two air streams: h2 − h3 W2 − W3 ma1 = = h3 − h1 W3 − W1 ma 2 Where ma 1.9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. mass ﬂow rate of air, lb dry air/min. (1.8.20)

Fluid Handling1,2,3 Cp speciﬁc heat, BTU/lb · °F Hf head friction loss, ft of H2O f Colebrook equation friction factor, dimensionless K sum of resistance coefﬁcients for ﬁttings and valves in piping section, dimensionless L length of piping, ft D inside pipe diameter, ft d inside pipe diameter, in g gravitational constant 32.2 ft/sec2 V velocity, ft/sec Re Reynolds number e absolute roughness of pipe, ft

1.9.1 Abbreviations and Deﬁnitions

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

16

Chapter One

12. w density of ﬂuid, lb/ft3 13. dynamic viscosity lb/ft · sec 14. SG or speciﬁc gravity mass of liquid/mass of water at 39°F, water 1, dimensionless
1.9.2 Fluid Handing Equations

Piping friction loss (Darcy-Weisbach equation): Hf = f L V2 V2 +K 2g D 2g (1.9.1)

Colebrook equation for piping friction factor: 1 ⎛ e 2.51 ⎞ = −2 log10 ⎜ + ⎟ f Re f ⎠ ⎝ 3.7 D (1.9.2)

Reynolds number for piping: Re = VDw all ﬂuids, Re = 7742 Vd for water (1.9.3)

1.9.3 Steam Equation

EDR Where: EDR 1.10

(1.9.4)

Smoke Management Equations4 Q Δt Hc

Steady state ﬁre mass consumption: m= Where m Q t Hc (1.10.1)

total fuel mass consumed (lb) or (kg) heat release rate (BTU⁄sec) or (kW) duration of ﬁre (sec) heat of combustion of fuel (BTU⁄lb) or (kJ⁄kg)

t-squared ﬁre mass consumption: m= 333Δt 3
2 H ctg

(1.10.2)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

17

Where m tg t Hc total fuel mass consumed (lb) or (kg) growth time of ﬁre (sec) duration of ﬁre (sec) heat of combustion of fuel (BTU⁄lb) or (kJ⁄kg)

1.10.1 Smoke Layer Calculations

Steady state ﬁres (uniform cross section for height, A/H2 0.9 to 1.4, z/H 0.2, prior to smoke exhausting) ⎛ 13 ⎞ tQ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎟ z = 0.67 − 0.28 ln ⎜ H ⎟ (1.10.3a) A ⎟ H ⎜ ⎜ H2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ Where z distance from the base of the ﬁre to the bottom of the smoke layer (ft) H ceiling height above the ﬁre surface (ft) t time (sec) Q heat release rate for steady state ﬁre (BTU⁄sec) A cross-sectional area of the space being ﬁlled with smoke (ft2) ⎛ 13 tQ ⎜ 4 ⎜ 3 z = 1.11 − 0.28 ln ⎜ H H ⎜ A ⎜ H2 ⎝ Where z H t Q A distance from the base of the ﬁre to the bottom of the smoke layer (m) ceiling height above the ﬁre surface (m) time (sec) heat release rate for steady state ﬁre (kW) cross-sectional area of the space being ﬁlled with smoke (m2) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

(1.10.3b)

Unsteady ﬁres (t-squared ﬁres) (uniform cross section for height, A/H2 = 0.9 to 2.3, z/H > 0.2, prior to smoke exhausting)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

18

Chapter One
−1.45 4

⎛ z = 0.23 ⎜ H ⎜ t 25 H 45 ⎜ g ⎝ Where z H t tg A

⎞ 3 ⎟ ⎛ A ⎞ 5⎟ ⎜ H2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ t

(1.10.4a)

distance from the base of the ﬁre to the bottom of the smoke layer (ft) ceiling height above the ﬁre surface (ft) time (sec) growth time (sec) cross-sectional area of the space being ﬁlled with smoke (ft) ⎛ z = 0.91 ⎜ H ⎜ t 25 H 45 ⎜ g ⎝ ⎞ 3 ⎟ ⎛ A ⎞ 5⎟ ⎜ H2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ t
−1.45 4

(1.10.4b)

Where z H t tg A distance from the base of the ﬁre to the bottom of the smoke layer (m) ceiling height above the ﬁre surface (m) time (sec) growth time (sec) cross-sectional area of the space being ﬁlled with smoke (m)

The following are the empirical equations from NFPA 92B for atrium ﬁres that are not under balconies: 2 (1.10.5a) zl 0.533Qc ⁄5 when z zl, m when z Where zl Qc z m limiting elevation (ﬂame height) (ft) convective portion of heat release rate (BTU⁄sec) distance above the base of the ﬁre to the smoke interface layer (ft) mass ﬂow rate in plume at height z (lb⁄sec) m 0.071Qc ⁄3
1

(0.022Q ⁄ z ⁄ )
c
13 53

0.0042Qc
3

(1.10.5b) (1.10.5c)

z l, m

0.0208Qc ⁄5 z

z ⁄3
5

0.0018Qc

(1.10.5d)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

19

when z

zl, m when z

(0.022Q ⁄ z ⁄ )
c
13 53

0.0042Qc
3

(1.10.5e) (1.10.5f)

z l, m

0.0208Qc ⁄5 z

Where zl Qc z m limiting elevation (m) convective portion of heat release rate (kW) distance above the base of the ﬁre to the smoke interface layer (m) mass ﬂow rate in plume at height z (kg⁄sec) Qc (1 − ) mC p

The smoke layer temperature can be calculated from the following:4 Ts = To + Where Ts To Qc m Cp smoke layer temperature, °F(°C) ambient temperature, °F(°C) convective portion of HHR, BTU⁄sec (kW) mass ﬂow rate of exhaust air, lb⁄sec (kg⁄sec) speciﬁc heat of plume gases, BTU⁄lb (kg⁄kJ) wall heat transfer fraction (dimensionless) Qc Qc Q Xc XcQ (1.10.7) (1.10.6)

The convective portion of the HHR is determined by:4 Where

convective portion of heat release rate, BTU⁄sec (kW) heat release rate, BTU⁄sec (kW) convective heat fraction (0.7 default)

Density of the plume gases can be calculated from the following equation:4 T (1.10.8) = r r s Ts Where density of exhaust gases, lbm⁄ft (kg⁄m ) s Ts temperature of exhaust gases, absolute, °R (°K) Tr reference temperature absolute, °R (°K) density at reference temperature, absolute, lbm⁄ft (kg⁄m ) r
2 3 2 3

The following are the empirical equations from NFPA 92B for atrium balcony spill plume: 1 (1.10.9a) m 0.12 (QW 2) ⁄3 (zb 0.25H)

HVAC Equations for Everyday Use

20

Chapter One

Where m Q W zb H mass ﬂow rate in plume, (lb⁄sec) heat release rate (HHR) of ﬁre (BTU⁄sec) width of the plume under the balcony (ft) height above the underside of the balcony to the smoke layer interface (ft) height of the balcony above the base of the ﬁre (ft) m Where m Q W zb H mass ﬂow rate in plume (kg⁄sec) heat release rate (HHR) of ﬁre (kW) width of the plume under the balcony (m) height above the underside of the balcony to the smoke layer interface (m) height of the balcony above the base of the ﬁre (m) 0.36 (QW 2) ⁄3 (zb
1

0.25H)

(1.10.9b)

References
1. ASHRAE Pocket Guide for Air Conditioning, Heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration (Inch-Pound Edition), 1993. 2. ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals, 2005. 3. Engineering Cookbook, 1999, Loren Cook Company, Inc. 4. NFPA 92B Standard for Smoke Management in Malls, Atria, and Large Spaces, 2009.