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Student: Name: Student nr.: MSc. 3: Studio: E-mail: Tel.: Allan Pinheiro 1276271 Architecture + Urbanism Urban Acupuncture allanpinheiro32@hotmail.com 06 ---- ----

Main studio teachers: Name: Faculty: Chair: Sub-chair: Room: E-mail: Tel.: Name: Faculty: Chair: Sub-chair: Room: E-mail: Tel.: Dr. L.M. Calabrese Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences Urbanism Stadsontwerp 01WEST620 L.M.Calabrese@tudelft.nl +31 (0)15 27 84147 Ir. W.W.L.M. Wilms Floet Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences Architecture Typologie van Gebouwen 01OOST700 W.W.L.M.WilmsFloet@tudelft.nl +31 (0)15 27 89310 2

Table of Contents
Orientation Problem Statement Aims of the project Research questions Societal and scientific relevance Theoretical framework Methodology Expected final product Involved disciplines and proposed mentors Preliminary Literature Theoretical Framework Theory Paper Research: Greater Urban context Stadvisie Rotterdam 2030 / City-Vision Rotterdam 2030 Vision Kop van Feijenoord Framework of development Spatial criteria Programmatic criteria Plandescription Program Research: Inherent Identity; People and Program COS Reports; Neighbourhood analysis for Feijenoord: Veldacademie Research; Livingspheres analysis Research: Inherent Identity; Program and Space Rijksmonumenten/National Monuments, Icons and Environmental structures Wijkcollege The status and role of the public space: SWOT Analysis Distilling the actual identity Design: Utilizing Inherent Urban Identity Recapitulation Angle of approach Representative examples; youngsters and Allochthonous adults/parents Initial program, summurized The active social network Spatial locations/nodes The Persoonshal Additional Analysis for the architectural assignment Summurized SWOT Concepts; social, buildind and material concepts Focus Intervention and Program Summarized Program overview, new building (PVE): The square and its composition Actively developing the flexible zones within the frame Shellzone Construction and Stability Additional: Construction to Street, Phasing, Fitness, Helofiet-filters Power schematic, Installations, summarized energy Calculations, Sustainability and Materialisation Segment and functioning Back coupling Appendix Old building setup and CAD-poster overview Full research conducted at Veldacademie (seperate report) 3 5 6 8 9 20 22 23 23 24 25 27 28 35 36 37 37 38 39 40 41 43 44 49 53 54 56 58 60 62 67 68 69 70 71 72 74 75 76 78 79 81 81 81 82 84 86 87 88 92 94 96 99 101

Orientation

Materializing Identity:
Utilizing inherent urban identity as a main design factor in the inner city regeneration of Rotterdam 1) Problem Statement
Rotterdam is the second largest city in the Netherlands, with a relatively strong economy and rich culture. However, when it comes to urban regeneration, the municipalitys planning agency often tends to develop ambitious plans that are bluntly imposed on their respective locations. To be more specific, the governing body of Rotterdam (Dutch: Burgemeester en Wethouders, B&W) strives to stimulate the citys economy by realizing a shift towards more knowledge based enterprises (Gemeente Rotterdam 2007). In this process, a large role of the municipalitys planning agency can be interpreted as the planning of the housing stock in which the new, highly educated, population is to take residence. In order to maximize the effectiveness of such intensive urban developments, the interventions are often planned for decaying inner-city locations. This is intended to have two benefits. First of all, viewed from an economical perspective, a higher efficiency in activity can be reached due to the already urbanized location. And secondly, viewed from a sociocultural point of view, decaying areas can also be regenerated. As such, at first glance, the municipalitys development plans seem to be thoroughly thought out and beneficial to all inhabitants. However, in practice, an increasing number of these plans is being met with opposition from the current inhabitants. This is due to the actual socio-cultural effect that these interventions have on their respective neighbourhoods. For, in reality, it is not so much regeneration that is taking place, but sooner a return to tabula rasa and redevelopment from there on out. In other words, due to a prioritization of economic gain over socio-cultural relevance, entire neighbourhoods are being demolished an rebuilt to house a new, economically more attractive, group of inhabitants. As a result the original socio-cultural quality of the neighbourhood, or its urban identity, is also lost. This includes the neighbourhoods communities, its culture and history; resulting also in many protests of the original inhabitants that have grown attached to these places (fig. 1). Examples can be given by various neighbourhoods, among which Lijnbaan, Crooswijk and Pendrecht. Another example of such a case is the neighbourhood of Vreewijk, in which a large number of social housing was scheduled for demolishment and replacement with more expensive private housing. As a result of the higher costs, the original inhabitants would be unable to buy their home back. This meant that they would be forced to relocate and make place for the new highly educated population; the negative form of gentrification. Luckily for these inhabitants they found a strong ally in the political party S.P. with whos help the development plans were put to a halt (Socialistische Partij 2007) (fig. 2). Thus, urban identity forms an important aspect when dealing with the regeneration of neighbourhoods. This relevance is more extensively discussed in the chapter Scientific and Societal Relevance.

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At this point it suffices to note that urban interventions, comparable to the one described here, are also extensively debated and discouraged in literature (see Theoretical Framework). As many scholars point out, the consequence is often the loss of the connection between the inhabitants and their environment (Oktay 2002)(Jacobs 1992). As such, even when these plans are set through, the result is often merely a relocation and possibly intensification of deeper lying socio-cultural problems of the original neighbourhood (Socialistische Partij 2007). Nevertheless, in general, planners decide to continue on their present heading. This is largely do to the illusive nature of identity. For how can something be factored into a design, when its spatial form is unknown? (ed. Bell & Tyrwhitt 1972)

Fig. 2: Protest also take place during various events. The banner in this image, for instance, utilises the City Marathon to reach the public. The banner reads: You walk fast, Rotterdam demolishes too fast. (image: S.P., Rotterdam)

Fig. 1: Inhabitants of the neighbourhoods in question often utilize public protests to reach a larger crowd. Large events such as the City Marathon are also utilised as opportunities for exposure. This specific banner reads: You walk fast, Rotterdam demolishes too fast. (image: S.P., Rotterdam)

Fig. 2: Inhabitants of the neighbourhood Vreewijk protest against the municipalitys plans to demolish part of their neighbourhood. The texts on the banners read: Demolishment, sheer madness and Save Vreewijk. (image: S.P., Rotterdam)

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2) Aims of the project


The question at the end of the problem statement already hints at the aim of this project, namely: Factoring-in urban identity as an element of the design process. This can also be understood as: Solving the imbalance between the relevance of economy (top-down) over socio-cultural aspects (bottom-up) (see fig.3). For the sake of a clear project focus, the sociocultural aspects are also taken as the starting point of the graduation project. Hence the subtitle: urban identity as a main design factor.

Fig. 3: Schematiuc representation of the projects aim (image: by author)

To be more specific, the goal of the project is to: (A) Identify and evaluate the current state of urban identity in the neighbourhood Feijenoord (fig. 4); (B) determine how one can develop it, in balance with the other urban developments; and (C) translate the findings on urban identity to an actual urban strategy and architectural design: Materializing Identity (title). (See also Expected Final Product)

To this end a main research question has also been formulated.

Fig. 4: The neighbourhood of Feijenoord, which forms the spatial framework for the project Materializing Identity. (image: Google Earth 2010)

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3a) Main Research question


Formulated as one question which drives the entire research behind the project, the main research question can be read as: How can the current neighbourhood of Feijenoord be regenerated to meet future requirements in relation to the municipalitys vision, while maintaining the disadvantaged groups currently residing in the area, so the inhabiting social structures/communities and the emergence/consolidation of the local culture is also stimulated? In order to provide a clear frame in which to conduct the following research, it is wise to first elaborate on this main question and its crucial parts. A first step in elaborating the question is its splitting up into two parts, being:

Relevance

Problem Statement

Aims of the project

Main Research Question

MRQ Part 1 MRQ Part 2

Fig. 5: The setup, or frame, of the thesis, up till this chapter (image: by author)

1)

How can the current neighbourhood of Feijenoord be regenerated to meet future requirements in relation to the municipalitys vision, while maintaining the disadvantaged groups currently residing in the area? How to stimulate the inhabiting social structures/communities and the emergence/consolidation of the local culture?

2)

Part 1 of the main research question


The first part places local urban identity in the broader context of other, more dominant processes, that are driven by national economy and planning. Thus, this question expounds on the problem as described in the earlier Problem Statement. To do so, this question investigates the perspectives of two parties on the matter of the inner-city regeneration of Rotterdam (subtitle). On the one hand, the municipalitys point of view is evaluated, on the other, the situation of the inhabitants is researched. Thus, this first part enables one to find initial similarities between both perspectives, which can then be further evaluated in part 2 of the research.

Part 2 of the main research question


In the second part of the main research question the attention continues to shift more towards the neighbourhood of Feijenoord, as a subject of research onto itself. The research on urban identity, in the form of inhabiting social structures and communities, is what forms the focal point of this research question. As such, utilizing a bottom-up approach, this question also represents the inherent urban identity as described in the subtitle. And combined with the research conducted in part 1, it also forms the second step towards the Utilizing of urban identity as a main design factor (fig. 5).

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3b) Sub Research questions


Sub-Question 1:
Continuing with the structuring of the research, one can go on to split both main questions into sub-research questions. As we can recall, part one of the main question evaluates two perspectives on the matter of inner-city regeneration. Namely the view of the municipality and the situation of the inhabitants: How can the current neighbourhood of Feijenoord be regenerated to meet future requirements in relation to the municipalitys vision, while maintaining the disadvantaged groups currently residing in the area? As such, sub-questions one and two also focus on these two perspectives. The view of the municipality is researched first, seen as it provides the greater context: - What are the future requirements that the neighbourhood of Feijenoord needs to meet, in the spatial and social context, with respect to the municipalitys vision? Direction of study: Issues that come into play, when asking such a question are: Is there a need to attract certain population groups? If so: Which groups? High income people? Creative people? And why: What are the qualities that they bring with them? What issues are they suppose to solve? What goals do they help the city achieve? And, is this actually the wise course of action? How about jobs: Is there a need for more jobs in the neighbourhood? How many? Which types? What will there spatial impact be? A need for more buildings? A need for more infrastructure?

Fig. 6: Taking Rotterdams City-Vision 2030 as the largest scale of research; what are the requirement that have to be met by zone 11, which includes Feijenoord? (image: Stadvisie Rotterdam, 2030)

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Methodology and possible sources: The main method to answer this sub-question will have to be a study of the literature currently available on the position of Feijenoord in Rotterdam. Preliminary sources are: 1 - Rotterdam Vooruit: A masterplan for the entire Rotterdam region, developed by the national government, the province South Holland and the municipality of Rotterdam. Studying this masterplan can help determine which elements of the neighbourhood-level plans are deemed crucial for the regions general welfare. 2 - Stadsvisie Rotterdam 2030 (2007): A vision for the municipality of Rotterdam by the municipalitys planning agency (fig, 6). This document addresses the city as a whole. As such, it can provide a more detailed insight in the role that Feijenoord is to fulfil according to Rotterdams planning agency. 3 - Vision Kop van Feijenoord (2008): A vision that is specifically made for Feijenoord by B.S.G.V. (Dutch: Bureau voor Stedebouw) (fig. 7). This vision is still in its conceptual phase, but already it provides a good insight in the municipalitys views concerning the neighbourhood. 4 - 4th Binnale Rotterdam IABR (2009): An exposition concerning architecture that is held every two years. In doing so this exposition shows the image that the city strives to emanate. Thus, studying this, and similar, expositions also provides an insight into the municipalities architectural preferences.

Fig. 7: What parts of the City-Vision are to be realised in Feijenoord and what does this exactly imply for the neighbourhood? (image: visie Kop van Feijenoord)

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Sub-Question 2:
In sub-question two the focus shifts to the situation of the inhabitants. while maintaining the disadvantaged groups currently residing in the area? To be more specific, the research of sub-question two assists in determining what the shared interests are of the municipality and the inhabitants, by expounding on the situation of the inhabitants. To this end a more specific sub-question is also formulated: - Which type of people make up the population of the neighbourhood Feijenoord? (And why are they called disadvantaged?) Direction of study: When investigating the situation of the current inhabitants, specific questions that can be researched are: What is the economical capability of the inhabitants? Low income? If so, how come? Low education? Bad control of language? How about the domestic situation? Small families? Big families? Lots of children? If so then the neighbourhood also has a lot of children, with all the necessary spatial implications (playgrounds, child friendly streets, etc.) Which (other) age groups does Feijenoord house? Elderly? Teenagers? What is the general evaluation of the inhabitants health? Which ethnicities and cultures reside in Feijenoord?

absence of discrimination adequate mastery of language

absence of discrimination adequate mastery of language

adequate housing adequate facilities

adequate income good health adequate facilities

adequate housing

adequate income good health

living environment Littering and hindrances Social Index work and school participation social contacts social and cultural activities

capacities adequate schooling Littering and hindrances

living environment

capacities adequate schooling Social Index

work and school social connectivity perceived connectivity participation social contacts social and cultural activities social connectivity perceived connectivity

social effort

mutations

social effort

mutations

Fig. 8: The Social Index gives an indication of a neighbourhoods social state which is based on statistical data. On which specific themes is Feijenoord in the red (negative) and why? (image: Rotterdam Data)

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Methodology and possible sources: Methods an possible sources that can provide an answer to these questions are: 1 - Rotterdam Data and GisWeb 2.0: Two databases that are maintained by the municipality and provide demographic an statistical data on the entire city and its neighbourhoods. 2 - C.O.S. (Dutch: Centrum voor Onderzoek en Statistiek): A independent research institution that conducts research on various aspects of Rotterdam (demographics and statistics). This institution is also known to publish detailed research on specific neighbourhoods (fig. 8&9). As such, a report on Feijenoord can provide a crucial insight into the situation of the inhabitants. 3 - Interviews with the inhabitants of Feijenoord can also provide a very bottom-up view on the situation in the neighbourhood. 4 - In addition to the bottom-up view of the inhabitants, interviews with the human geographers, that actually map(ped) the neighbourhood, can also provide a more objective point of view. 5 - The Living-spheres analysis (Dutch: Leefvelden analyse): This can be considered as the structuring element for the data acquired in sub-question two. As such, this L.S.-analysis is actually also a tool/method that allows the researcher to clearly structure his data and even find correlations. The L.S.-analysis can be developed as a spreadsheet and/or a collection of maps.

Fig. 9: Reports of COS can provide an additional insight into the inhabitants situation. In the above situation the red areas, for instance, visualize inadequate housing. (image: COS wijkanalyse Feijenoord)

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Intermission: At this point in the research it is wise to insert a break in order to combine the data acquired in sub-questions one and two (fig. 10). This enables one to find the correlations between the municipalitys wishes and the needs of the original inhabitants, which ultimately answers the initial question: How can the current neighbourhood of Feijenoord be regenerated to meet future requirements in relation to the municipalitys vision, while maintaining the disadvantaged groups currently residing in the area? In practice this combing of data will (of course) be taking place during the research. As such, up to this point the research can be visualised as depicted in figure 10.

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Fig. 10:As described in the chapter Main Research Question the goal of the intermission is to find correlations in the data from sub-questions 1 & 2. These correlations can then be utilised to determine a more accurate direction of study for sub-questions 3 and (eventually) s.r.q. 4. (image: by author)

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Sub-Question 3:
Having found the correlation in the interests of the municipality and the inhabitants, the research continues in search of elements that can function as the catalysts, or crystallization points, for the process of urban regeneration. As has been explained before, any intervention will aim to: stimulate the inhabiting social structures/communities and the emergence/consolidation of the local culture? As such, the crystallization points will also have to be spatial elements, or activities, that have a certain significance to the inhabitants. In other words, the interventions need to address the general culture of the neighbourhood (utilizing urban identity). Before this can be done however, one first needs to clarify what the current general culture, or urban identity, of Feijenoord is. Sub-question three thus reads: - What makes up the culture of the disadvantaged groups currently residing the neighbourhood of Feijenoord? Direction of study: Additional questions that can direct this research are: How does the local culture express itself in spatial forms? Sports(fields) for the young inhabitants? A community centre for the elderly? A mosque or church for religious purposes? What spatial elements are crucial for the local culture? (fig. 11) Perhaps a specific sports field itself is not crucial, as long as somewhere there is a field to play on. However, a specific mosque in a specific place might be important. What position do more pragmatic factors have in the local culture? Have the people (referring to the disadvantaged groups in Feijenoord) for instance grown attached to a shop or caf in a certain place? Do the people desire more or less of such facilities? How about public transport connections? Infrastructural connections? What spatial and programmatic elements need to be improved or added in order to better answer to the wishes/customs of (primarily) the local disadvantaged groups? (fig. 12)

Fig. 11: What is the value of a seemingly abandoned park at the edge of the neighbourhood? (image: by author)

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Methodology and possible sources: As has been stated by various scholars, culture and identity are complex issues to research. An investigation that needs to be conducted from the ground up would therefore also require to much time, in reference to the master track. Luckily, in the past few years, Rotterdam has been paying an increasing amount of attention to the issue of culture. Consequently a lot of research has already been conducted on the matter and various institutions have also been founded. Examples are: 1 - De Stad als Muze: A project, set up by the Historical Museum Rotterdam, which aims to map the various ways in which Rotterdams inhabitants use and value their city. Seen as this research is also being conducted on neighbourhood scale, it is potentially a very significant contribution to my own research on Feijenoord. 2 - Monumentenzorg: In terms of spatially valuable elements, Monumentenzorg can also provide a significant input. This is an institution which aims to preserve buildings and sites that are considered as relevant for the general culture and achievements of the Dutch society. In order to do so, Monumentzorg will also have setup general criteria for the evaluation of buildings. The intent is to apply these criteria to Feijenoord, thereby determining which spatial element of the neighbourhood are valuable. Of course a review of possible prior evaluations can also be utilized. 3 - Workshops Mental Mapping: Workshops in Mental Mapping can be utilised as a tool to approach inhabitants and stimulate them in giving their own opinion on their neighbourhood. It is after all the original inhabitants that form the main target group of the project. Similar workshops are also utilised by the Historical Museum and the Field-Academy Rotterdam (a field division of ExploreLab). Approaching these parties and learning from their experiences beforehand thus also seems a wise course of action. 4 - Community Groups: Community groups provide another angle from which to approach the inhabitants. Examples are the religious organisations, sports organisations and the community housing association (Dutch: Bewonersorganisatie). 5 - Newspaper articles: A more indirect way to acquire information could also be the review of newspaper articles. Articles in the local newspaper, in which inhabitants for instance protest to certain development plans, can point out the sensitive aspects of the neighbourhood. 6+7 - Questionnaires + Interviews (with the local inhabitants) add to the above methods.

Fig. 12: What does a facility like a sports hall (left) add to the neighbourhood? And if necessary, how can it be improved? (image: by author)

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Sub-Question 4:
Sub-question four forms the last question of the research. Prior to this question the conducted research will have pointed out which urban issues need to be addressed in the regeneration project (sub-questions 1 and 2) and which elements of the neighbourhood can play a crucial role in this regeneration (sub-question 3). The aim of sub-question four is to determine how these results can be developed into an actual urban and architectural design (Materializing Identity). Thus, sub-question 4 in a way forms the actual design question: How can the valuable (cultural) aspects of Feijenoord be developed along with the new requirements in a harmonious/liveable way, which benefits both the original inhabitants and the newcomers? Direction of study: In reference to the Problem Statement, sub-question four can also be interpreted as the point in the research where the solution to the current imbalance between the economic and sociocultural aspects is actually materialized as a design. Questions that need to be addressed while actually developing such a design are: What exactly can be considered harmonious/liveable, in terms of combining the found sociocultural values (bottom-up) with the desired city-scale developments (top-down)? - Does it, for instance, suffice to simply preserve all the spatial elements that were labelled as valuable by the local inhabitants (in sub-q. 3)? - Or is change desirable, which can then be combined with the city-scale developments on a local, neighbourhood scale? If change, in the form of transformations or additions, is desirable by the inhabitants of Feijenoord; then till what extent are these changes allowed to take shape? - Till what point does the actual target-group (of Feijenoord inhabitants) perceive spatial changes as an evolvement or uplift of their local society/culture ? - And when do these changes cross the line and are they considered incursions, thus stating that they are undesirable by the primary target-group?

Fig. 13: How did a case like the new Lijnbaanflats handle the various issues of culture and identity? What lessons can be applied to the neighbourhood of Feijenoord? (image: top10.nl)

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Methodology and possible sources: Seen as sub-question four has a more design related character than the other sub-questions, the respective methodologies and sources adapt to this characteristic. Useful methodologies and sources thus become: 1 - Literature reading: The evaluation of literature that discusses the spatial characteristics of similar designs and their underlying approaches and theories. For specific example reference is made to the Preliminary Literature list and the Theoretical Framework. 2 - Case-studies of reference projects, among which: - Evaluating previous research conducted by Palmboom&Bout office on the inner city of Rotterdam, concerning the development of additional housing units in an already populated area. (New Lijnbaan-flats) (fig. 13) - Evaluating previous research conducted by KCAP office concerning the development of a large public facility (a new football stadium), which is located near the neighbourhood of Feijenoord. (fig. 14) 3 - Developing specific case oriented insight, by conducting Research by Design on the neighbourhood of Feijenoord. A more extensive description of the expected products is also included in the chapter Expected Final Product.

Fig. 14: What implications do large facilities have for their surrounding location? And what effect do large urban projects, near Feijenoord, have on the neighbourhood. (image: KCAP; New soccer stadium)

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4) Societal and scientific relevance


As is often stated by the many scholars that have preceded in a comparable study, the issue of identity is a most illusive one. Thus, prior to elaborating on the relevance of this issue, a definition is needed. Following the path of one of these predecessors (Oktay 2002) one can turn to a dictionary for a preliminary definition. The Miriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2010) for instance defines identity as the distinguishing character or personality of an individual. A more urban natured definition is given by Kevin Lynch (1981) whom defines identity as the extent to which a person can recognize or recall a place as being distinct from other places.

Societal relevance:
Thus, like individuals, places in cities can obtain an identity though the people that inhabit or visit these places. Consequently however, seen as the identity of each individual is unique, the identity of one specific place can also consist of numerous characteristic elements. Furthermore, the form/appearance and programming of a place also play a defining role in the identity of the inhabitants; identity here also implying the wellbeing of the inhabitants. Thus Identity of place and identity of the individual become intertwined and affect each other in an ongoing interaction. The relevance of this ongoing interaction, or the need for identifiable places is best summarized by Relph (1976, p 147): A deep human need exists for associations with significant places. If we choose to ignore that need, and follow the forces of placelessness to continue unchallenged, then the future can only hold an environment in which places simply do not matter. If, on the other hand, we choose to respond to that need and transcend placelessness, then the potential exists for the development of an environment in which places are for man, reflecting and enhancing the variety of human experience. One can also interpret the above explanation as the reason why neighbourhoods decay over time. For, with the passing of time, it is not only the buildings that degrade, but it is also the ability of the place to facilitate in the inhabitants cultural and societal needs that becomes outdated. This can also be found as one of the reasons why the financially better off (and higher educated) move away. In other words, the place looses its significance to the inhabitants; its ability to reflect and enhance the variety of human experience. As has been explained in the problem statement, the result of such movements in population can have a negative impact on the urban economy. However, what is even more relevant is the solution that is imposed by the municipality: Regeneration through gentrification; with a prioritization of economic gain over the relevance of the socio-cultural aspects. This often leads to a further destruction of the few significant qualities that the neighbourhood had left and it leads to a forced displacement of the inhabitants that werent financially able, or desiring, to relocate. Thus we get to the societal relevance of Materializing Identity through the utilization of inherent urban identity. Namely, the stimulation of the inhabiting social structures/communities and the emergence/consolidation of the local culture (main R.Q.). 18
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Scientific relevance:
As is stated by Oktay (2002), in his evaluation of Place and Placelessness, discovering and enhancing the identity of a place or city can yield many advantages. The connection between people and place can be strengthened; local inhabitants can be stimulated to participate in the communal welfare; vandalism can be wiped out; problematic neighbourhoods can become attractive residential areas, etc. However, as stated before, the main issue with identity is that it consists of numerous characteristics and varies by place and time; it is illusive by nature (Fortuin & Van der Graaf 2006). Consequently, the exact method(s) by which to discover, evaluate and then enhance urban identity has also eluded scholars and scientists for considerable time (ed. Bell & Tyrwhitt 1972). Developing such a methodology then poses a most challenging, tempting and relevant research subject. Nonetheless, however scientifically relevant, the development of such a methodology may be, it is not the fitting task for this specific thesis. The scientific relevance of urban identity however persists, undiminished. This thesis thus also continues striving to shed some additional light on the issue. The neighbourhood of Feijenoord, in a sense, becomes a frame that provides a more solid basis for research. Limiting the main target-group to that of the local inhabitants of Feijenoord further strengthens the grip on the illusive issue of identity. In other words, this thesis is scientifically relevant, in that it provides an additional insight into the utilization of urban identity, in case study form.

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5) Theoretical framework
The theory which forms the framework for this graduation project is extensively discussed in the attachment. At this point it suffices to state some of the most relevant theoretical contributions to the framework. Namely, Relphs (1976) assessment of the need for human places in his work Place and Placelessness; Christopher Alexanders assessment of a city as being a complex structure (or semi-lattice) of overlapping social networks and public nodes; and Derya Oktays (2002) dissertation on neighbourhoods as a vital element in urban development. These sources are relevant in forming the theoretical framework of the graduation project, in that they all evaluate and underline the importance of the socio-cultural and low-scale aspects of urbanism. Relph, for instance, strongly stresses the need for an approach in which the inhabitants assessment of his/her environment is addressed and improved (see Societal Relevance). Derya Oktay and Christopher Alexander both evaluate the role of the neighbourhood as a key (low-scale) element of the city. Alexander takes this evaluation somewhat further than Oktay, in that he also investigates the various networks that exist within a neighbourhood; social networks and otherwise. An example is his research on the Waterloo Road neighbourhood in Middlesbrough, England. Finding that neighbourhoods house complex networks resembling complex semi-lattices (fig. 15), Alexander states that an inappropriate handling of these complex networks is also what causes new development plans to be so incursive (fig. 16). As such, his theory and recommendations play a vital role in determining what type of development plans are appropriate. Lynchs (1960) The Image of the City, forms a good addition to this, seen as his theories and approaches have a more direct relation to the spatial aspects of urbanism and architecture (fig. 17 & 18). Other contributors to the theoretical framework are, for example: Fortuin & Van der Graaf (2006), Urry (2003) and Castells (1996). However, for a more indebt evaluation of these theories I again refer to chapter two.

Fig. 15: The actual complex structure of Waterloo Road as found by Alexander (Alexander 1972)

Fig. 17: Lynchs assessment of Bosten;s image related problems (Lynch 1960)

Fig. 16: The new, incursive, tree-like scheme for Waterloo Road as suggested by Ruth Glass (Alexander 1972)

Fig. 18: According to Lynch, large infrastructural elements play an important role in the image of the city (Central Artery, Bosten; Lynch 1960)

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6) Methodology
As has been elaborated in previous chapters, the methodology behind this research on urban identity consist of various techniques and source types. The implementation of these techniques therefore will also vary depending on which subelement of urban identity is being researched. An overview of these sub-elements is provided in the form of the previously discussed research questions.

7) Expected final product


As has already been discussed in the relevance section, the issue of identity is a most complex and illusive one. Nevertheless, a product in the form of a spatial design, that deals with this issue, needs to delivered. Setting up a spatial frame in the form of the neighbourhood Feijenoord and focussing the research on one target group, namely the inhabiting population, helps narrow down the variables. Even so, one can already predict that numerous and divers variables will still play a decisive role in the spatial form of the design. Variables that will be clarified through the research questions. Therefore, at this stage, only a prediction and some examples can be given as to what the final product might become. In order to give such a prediction one might look back at the various elements of identity as stated in this thesis. As one might recall, evaluating the basic characteristics of identity, it has been concluded that identity is 1) divers and 2) constantly evolving. From this it can already be stated that the eventual design therefore should also A) appeal to the divers characters/identities of the local inhabitants and B) should be able to facilitate changes in these characteristics over time, in spatial terms. These two qualities will be applied both to the urban plan as to the architectural design. Of these two, the architectural design will most likely be the more flexible one, seen as buildings are often more easily adapted then urban structures. Additionally, seen the nature of the design is to be a materialization of identity, the adaptability of the architectural work will also have to be included in its very nature. Here the Hybrid Building design offers an outcome. For assistance in this design-style a teacher has also been provided, namely Ir. W.W.L.M. Wilms Floet. In addition Ir. H. Mihl will assists in the area of construction. The most challenging and interesting aspect of such a Socio-Cultural Hybrid Building will however not only lie in its design and construction, but sooner in the question of how adaptable it will be. Will the building for instance strive to facilitate all the wishes of every individual? If so then one building most likely will not be enough. Every individual would need his/her own building. It would therefore be more effective, not to facilitate each and every individual characteristic, but to discover and spatially strengthen a shared characterising denominator (Dutch: gemeenschappelijke noemer) of the local inhabitants. What this shared characteristic denominator is (religion, sports, landscape?) will follow from the earlier proposed research.

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10)

Involved disciplines and proposed mentors

Studio mentors: - BK; Urbanism; Stadsontwerp; Dr. L.M. Calabrese L.M.Calabrese@tudelft.nl; Kamer : 01WEST620 - BK; Architecture; Typologie van Gebouwen; Ir. W.W.L.M. Wilms Floet W.W.L.M.WilmsFloet@tudelft.nl; Kamer : 01OOST700 - Veldacademie; Explore Lab; Urbanism/Architecture; Otto Trienekens otto@vertex-online.nl; Grondherendijk 13 - BK; Building Technology; Bouwconstruc. Integr. & Coord.; Ir. H. Mihl H.Mihl@tudelft.nl; Kamer : 01WEST110

Additional Contacts: - BK; Urbanism; Environmental Design; Dr.ir. M.J. van Dorst M.J.vanDorst@tudelft.nl; Kamer : 01WEST620 - BK; Urbanism; Spatial Planning and Strategy; R.C. Rocco de Campos Pereira R.C.Rocco@tudelft.nl; Kamer : 01WEST600 - BK; IHAAU; IHAAU; Dr. C. Wagenaar C.Wagenaar@tudelft.nl; Kamer : 01OOST700 - BK; Urbanism; Ruimtelijke Planning; Dr. A. van Nes A.vanNes@tudelft.nl; Kamer : 01WEST620

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11) Preliminary Literature


Alexander, C. 1972, A City Is Not a Tree, in G. Bell & J. Tyrwhitt (ed.), Human Identity in the Urban Environment, Butler & Tanner Ltd., London, pp. 401-428. Bell, G & Tyrwhitt, J (ed.) 1972, Human Identity in the Urban Environment, Butler & Tanner Ltd., London. Bureau voor Stedebouw 2008, Visie Kop van Feijenoord: fase 2 Kop van Zuid, Bureau voor Stedebouw, Rotterdam. Gemeente Rotterdam 2007, Stadsvisie Rotterdam: Ruimtelijke onwikkelingsstrategie 2030, Gemeente Rotterdam, Rotterdam. Fortuin, K & Van der Graaf, P 2006, De stad verhaalt van de stad: Rotterdamse lokale identiteit en cultuur als hulpbron, Verwey-Jonker Instituut, Utrecht. Jacobs, J 1992, The death and life of great American cities, 2nd edn, Vintage Books, New York. IABR, 2009, Open City: Designing Coexistence, Veenman Drukkers, Rotterdam. Kostof, S 2009, The city shaped, 2nd edn, Thames & Hudson Ltd, London. Lynch, K 1960, The Image of the City, M.I.T. & President and Fellows of Harvard Collage, U.S.A. Lynch, K 1981, A Theory of Good City Form, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge. Oktay, D 2002, 'The quest for urban identity in the changing context of the city: Northern Cyprus ', Cities, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 261-271, viewed 8 march 2010, <http://sciencedirect.com/>. Relph, E 1976, Place and Placelessnes, Pion, London. Venturi, R, Brown, DS & Izenour, S, 1977, Learning from Las Vegas, Rev. edn, The MIT Press, Massachusetts. Socialistische Partij 2006, 'Vreewijk: 94 procent tegen sloop, SP Rotterdam, vol. 56, no. 1, viewed 10 February 2010, < http://rotterdam.sp.nl/>.

Significant Additions
Veldacademie Rotterdam/Rotterdam Vakmanstad, 2011, De Nieuwe Belangstelling, Veldacademie, Rotterdam. Novem, 2000, Vademecum, 2nd edn, Novem & Boom, Utrecht/Maastricht 23
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Theoretical Framework

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Materializing Identity

Allan Pinheiro

Materializing Identity
Utilizing urban identity as a main design factor in inner city regeneration

Allan Pinheiro
1276271 _ a.pinheiro@student.tudelft.nl Delft University of Technology, Department of Urbanism 6th Graduation Lab Urbanism Conference June 17th 2010

Abstract In order to create good urban environments city planners need to start addressing the issue of urban identity (Oktay 2002). According to Oktay, people should again feel that some part of the environment belongs to them, individually and collectively, some part for which they care and are responsible, whether they own it or not. For, as Oktay also states, people use their environment not only in a functional way, but also identify and express themselves through it. In a sense people form their environment and their environment forms them and it is exactly this role of spatial form that is being forgotten in the urban planning (Fortuin & Van der Graaf 2006). In addition Fortuin & Van der Graaf point out that increasingly such issues, of socio-cultural nature, take a backseat to the economic issues. Such projects often limit their impact on identity to that of the economical relevance of the image or brand. Municipalities thus tend to develop ambitious plans that are bluntly imposed on their respective locations, in order to sell the city (Jacobs 1992). In doing so however, any trace of the original urban identity is wiped out, including the communities, the culture and history. Consequently also the connection between the original inhabitants and their environment is lost, resulting in undefined, undesirable, useless and unliveable spaces (Oktay 2002). Nevertheless, in general, planners decide to stay this course. This is largely do to the illusive nature of identity. For how can something be factored into a design, when its spatial form is unknown (ed. Bell & Tyrwhitt 1972)? This paper thus provides a solid grip on the issue of identity. More specifically, the goal is to identify and evaluate the spatial form of urban identity in inner cities, through its sub-elements of public space and the neighbourhood. In doing so, this paper assists in the building of the theoretical framework of the authors graduation project, which proposes strategies and interventions for the regeneration of problem-neighbourhoods (dutch: probleemwijken) in the inner city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Key words Urban identity, community, spatial form, architectural form, urban planning, inner city 1 Introduction: Definition and problem statement
Identity can be defined as the distinguishing character or personality of an individual according to the The Miriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2010). A more urban natured definition is given by Kevin Lynch (1981) who defines identity as the extent to which a person can recognize or recall a place as being distinct from other places. Thus, like individuals, places in cities can obtain an identity through the people that inhabit or visit these places (Oktay 2002). Consequently however, seen as the identity of each individual is a distinguished or unique one, the identity of one specific place can also consist of numerous characteristic elements. Nonetheless the need for identifiable places persists. This need, or relevance is best summarized by Relph (1976, p. 147): A deep human need exists for associations with significant places. If we choose to ignore that need, and follow the forces of placelessness to continue unchallenged, then the future can only hold an environment in which places simply do not matter. If, on the other hand, we choose to respond to that need and transcend placelessness, then the potential exists for the development of an environment in which places are for man, reflecting and enhancing the variety of human experience. Hence, discovering and enhancing the identity of a place or city can yield many advantages (Oktay 2002): The connection between people and places can be strengthened; local inhabitants can be stimulated to participate in the communal welfare; vandalism can be wiped out; problematic neighbourhoods can become attractive residential areas, etc.

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However, as stated before, the main issue with identity is that it consists of numerous characteristics; it is illusive by nature. Consequently, the exact method(s) by which to discover, evaluate and then enhance urban identity has also eluded scholars and scientists for considerable time (ed. Bell & Tyrwhitt 1972). The graveness of this illusive nature is also expressed by Pinxten & Verstraete (ed. 1998, pp. 35-37), who state that: Each attempt to base a national or other identity on basic characteristics fails, when we approach the matter geographical, historically or even psychologically. Identities change, shift, grow and constantly adapt to the situation in which the person or group finds itself. Identity is a continuous process of self realisation. Each image, each well-defined shape of identity is merely a snap-shot of this continuous process. [..] Identity is a layered and dynamic phenomenon. For this reason we preferably speak of identity dynamics, in the plural and with the emphasis on the process aspect in stead of the products of these processes. Thus, following this formulation, identity has to be approached as an ongoing process. It is not, so much its physical form, but its development that needs to be addressed. As is stated by Fortuin & Van der Graaf (2006) this development of identity takes place through the exchanging of meanings in social interaction. This exchange of meanings, or perceptions, is most intensive on the interfaces between different communities. It is here that the role of space and the relevance of urbanism and architecture becomes apparent. To be more specific, Fortuin & Van der Graaf go on to state that the most general platforms for interaction is that of the urban public space. It is there that ones own identity is profiled against numerous others and where it is most susceptible to debate. It is also there that the process of self realisation is most intense. Thus, according to Fortuin & Van der Graaf, the exact shape of the urban space is not only a product of the identity dynamics as described by Pinxten & Verstraete. Nor does it merely obtain identity through its users. Urban space is also a key player in the actual forming of identities. As such, expounding on the characteristics of urban space and evaluating their role in forming a staging ground for the ever changing process of identity is the goal of this paper. Additionally recommendations are also made as to how one can best address the issue of urban identity on its various complexities. In order the structurally evaluate these various complexities of urban identity the focus will also be on specific aspects of the urban environment, among which: The public space and the neighbourhood.

Additionally, an evaluation is also made on the effect of globalism on urban identity. In doing so this paper also provides an crucial insight on the relation between urban space and identity. This insight will be utilised in building the theoretical framework for the authors graduation project, which proposes strategies and interventions for the regeneration of problem-neighbourhoods (dutch: probleemwijken) in the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands.

2 The role of public space


2.1 Introduction to public spaces When urban identity is considered, many scholars and theorist agree on the crucial role of the public space. Oktay, for instance, describes the way in which we perceive and interpret the visual forms that provide the physical context for the public domain as an important factor associated with the urban experience (Oktay 2002, p. 263). In addition to providing an arena for public circulation, Oktay however also describes the public domain as a provider of many spaces for a wide range of additional functions and activities. In a more definitive description, public space is also considered the common ground where people carry out the functional and ritual activities that bind a community, whether in the normal routine of daily life or in periodic festivities (Carr et al. 1992, cited in Madanipour 1996, p. 146). The best evidence for the vital importance of the public urban space is perhaps historical. As Oktay brings forward, from the times of the earliest cities, there is evidence of a basic human impulse to govern streets and open spaces, to make them more useful in the necessary and desired activities of the old and to make them more beautiful and to make them more beautiful and restorative to the citizens of the community (Oktay 2002, p. 263). As such, the focal points of this basic human impulse, being the streets and squares, are often considered the most vital components of the public space (Oktay 2002) (Jacobs 1992, ed.). 2.2 The role of streets The street can be defined as the prime exterior space of the city and an intrinsic component of the urban pattern (Oktay 2002, p. 263). According to Oktay the street also has two main characteristics directly related to form. The first is that it is, at one and the same time, both path and place. The aspect of place is elaborated in reference to history, in which the street has provided urban communities with public open space right outside there door. Norberg-Schulz (1971, p. 21) symbolic definition of the path, puts an additional emphasis on the relevance of the street. As he states On the plane, man chooses and creates paths which give his existential space more particular structure. Mans taking possession of the environmental

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always means a departure from the space where he dwells, and a journey along a path which leads him in a direction determined by his purpose and his image of the environment. [..] The path, therefore, represents a basic property of human existence, and it is one of the great original symbols. As such, the path can be interpreted as a route that is unique for each individual. At the same time however, it also needs to noted that, as unique as ones path might be, all paths exist within the same framework (Alexander 1972). This framework of urban public space is the second characteristic of the street, or more accurately: streets (Barnett 1982) (Moughtin 1992). It is the way in which the characteristics of both path, place and frame are combined that make the street such a vital element in ones perception and urban identity (Oktay 2002). In reference to Fortuin & Van der Graaf (2006) One can also interpret it as the shared characterising denominator (dutch: gemeenschappelijk noemer) which links the numerous and divers identities of an urban population. To be more specific, it is the social interface in which identities interact, be it actively or passively, and through which they change, grow, shift and adapt. As such, the public framework of streets play a key role in identity dynamics (Fortuin & Van der Graaf 2006). Streets however also play a vital role in the image of the city as a whole. As Jane Jacobs (1992, p. 29) puts it: Streets and their sidewalks, the main public places of a city, are its most vital organs. Think of a city and what comes to mind? Its streets. If a citys streets look interesting, the city looks interesting; if they look dull, the city looks dull. The importance of this image forming quality of streets and its role in the orientation of people is also stressed by Kevin Lynch (1960) through various mental mapping sessions among city inhabitants. 2.3 Recommendations concerning streets According to Oktay (2002) the primary quality of a street can be narrowed down to the handling of volume; the mood or character is created by the architecture. The role of the architecture or building is also included in what Oktay considers the optimum definition for the street: An enclosed, three-dimensional space between two lines of adjacent buildings (Oktay 2002, p. 264). As he goes on to state, a sense of place in a street design is best achieved if the spatial volume defined by the frontages is perceived as the positive form, the figure seen against the general ground of the surrounding architecture. However, the observation is also made that it is exactly these vital characteristics that are increasingly lacking in present day streets. As Oktay (2002, p. 264) puts it, the street is generally lost and reduced to a means of traffic, lacking threedimensional qualities, as a consequence of the

current scattering of the buildings and the increasing motorised traffic [..] and the square, Lynchs distinct and unforgettable place, has become a traffic island. 2.4 The role of squares The square is characterised as the most distinct element of the urban space (Oktay 2002). Paul Zucker (1959, p. 1) also describes the square as a psychological parking place within the civic landscape. As such squares can also be considered as goals for movement in the larger public framework, that is formed by the streets. Accordingly, squares should also induce a stronger sense of place than streets. Following Oktays earlier definition of the street, one can define a square by using the same formal factors, but in different proportions to one another. To be more specific , the buildings should form a continuity around the space, so as to emphasize the placeness of the squares surface, as Relph would state. The placeness of a square should however not be considered as a quality entire onto itself, which merely emphasizes the square. Oktay (2002, p. 264) states, the dimensions of the square should also be such that it provides the necessary perspective in which to admire the main buildings of the town, whose functions as physical and psychological landmarks are thereby accentuated. As such, although the squares and streets share the characteristics of placeness, the square should be considered as a place on a greater urban scale (Oktay 2002). In reference to Unwin (1909) one can also explain the importance of the square through its conceptualization as a centre in the larger frame of the streets. According to Unwin such a view corresponds to the needs to emphasize some parts of a composition and subordinate others. The relevance of properly addressing this human desire for structure is also discussed at length by Christoper Alexander (1972). At this point however it suffices to state that there is more to becoming familiar with a place than merely walking through its streets and squares Oktay (1998). One needs also to address the way in which an inhabitant approaches the vast public platform from a local, and even private, point of view. The key to doing this is the development of locally appropriate places (Oktay 1998).

3 Locally appropriate spaces:


3.1 Relevance of the neighbourhood Considering the local urban context, or the appropriateness of places, the neighbourhood can be seen as the identifying symbol both for the evaluation of the city, and for the new urban extensions, [..] it is also fundamental for sustainable development (Oktay 1998). Moughtin (1996) also states that a creative design response to the context of the neighbourhoods, by

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strengthening them, can heighten local distinctiveness and create memorable places; places that are for man, if you will (Relph 1976). As such, how to give a neighbourhood its own physical identity and how to make it a place with its own character, distinct from other places, becomes the first challenge in the design of neighbourhoods (Oktay 2002). Comparable to the issue of identity, before one can act, it is first necessary to define the actual neighbourhood. This can be done in a number of ways. 3.2 The typological analysis A first method is that of the typological analysis. Following Benevelos (1968) discourse, one finds the neighbourhood as a basic urban residential type which combines place and activity. It is related specifically to a unique urban identity, different from the entire city. Benevelo (1968, p. 732) also considers the neighbourhood a modern conception, which is part of the modern architectural/urban effort to accommodate contemporary residential needs by the mediation of scale between the single house and the entire city. As such, one can see the neighbourhood as a unit onto itself, an area which is designated primarily to enable governmental and organisational control. 3.3 The neighbourhood as shared characterising denominator More recent approaches to the concept of the neighbourhood, such as practised by Kallus & LawYone (1997) take certain themes as the ordering elements for the understanding and intervening in a neighbourhood. Examples of such ordering element are healing, welfare, association, order participation, meaning and identity. With respect to the identity element, the neighbourhood is not seen merely as means for participation, but as a vehicle for strengthening the bonds between the residents and those between them an their environment. As such, the neighbourhood becomes the shared characterising denominator in the complex and varied structure of identities. In a sense the neighbourhood also becomes a mediator through which planners can address the real needs of the residents (Oktay 2002). 3.4 The complexity of the neighbourhood However, as is warned by Christopher Alexander (1972), the task of designing for a neighbourhood community and its respective identity is not one to be underestimated. In his work A City Is Not a Tree Alexander clarifies on this view by discussing various projects, among which Ruth Glasss redevelopment plan for the city of Middlesbrough, England. As Alexander explains, in essence, what Glass proposed was a division of the city into 21 separate

neighbourhoods, by determining where the sharpest discontinuities of building type, income and job type occur. Having determined these 21 neighbourhoods, Glass continued to ask the question: If we examine some of the social systems which actually exist for the people in such a neighbourhood, do the physical units defined by these various social systems all define the same neighbourhood? In other words, do the social processes correspond with the neighbourhood edges determined by Glasss research? The answer to this question was no. As Alexander explains, all the social systems that were examined by Glass proved themselves to be a nodal system. To be more specific, the social systems, be it a elementary school, public school, youth club, post office or greengrocers, functioned as central nodes to which specific users were attracted. This relationship between nodes and user groups is also visualised in the picture below.

Illustration 1; Middlesbrough, Waterloo Road neighbourhood, England (Alexander 1972, p. 415)

The crucial elements of this image that needs to be recognised are the Waterloo Road neighbourhood, represented by the continuous white line; the various solid icons representing the social systems; the dotted, dashed and encircled areas representing the user groups. What is immediately visible in this image is that the user groups do not directly coincide with their respective nodes. In addition various groups are also overlap each other, while in other cases they are not even part of the neighbourhood zone in question.

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Thus, as Alexander states, the case of Middlesbrough perfectly visualises the complexity one faces when designing for the neighbourhood. In other words, like a city is not a tree, nor are neighbourhoods strictly determined areas, or containers, which function as a perfectly ordered, tree-like scheme, nor should one try to make them as such (Alexander 1972).

The new tree-like scheme for Waterloo Road as suggested by Ruth Glass (Alexander 1972, p. 415)

The actual semi-lattice shaped structure of Waterloo Road as found by Christopher Alexander (Alexander 1972, p. 415)

hard-and-fast entities are always comprised of rapid movement, and there is no structure that is separate from process. In particular, time and space are not to be regarded as containers of phenomena, but rather all physical and social entities are constituted through time and through space. (in Urry 2003, p. 7) Following this quote, there are various superficial similarities to be discovered between identity dynamics and the process of globalisation, in terms of complexity. As Urry however goes on to state, globalisation should not be interpreted as an additional layer over that of the city, region or nation. Globalisation changes the very nature of all that is subjected to it, be it processes of economical trade or those of identity dynamics (Urry 2003). As such, Urry also states, the global situation becomes one that is irreversible and increasingly complex: Small changes result in large consequences, whereas intensive exertions produce little to no result. Fortuin & Van der Graaf sketch an additional image of this global situation as a staging ground in which various processes, occurring parallel to each other, can also influence one another in an untraceable fashion. Various phenomena can play a role in different occurrences while the geographical distances no longer seem to play a role. Consequently, according to Urry, it is also no longer possible to make educated predictions on how the current situation is to develop in the future, be it socially, economically or other wise. In correspondence to Castells space of flows, Urry describes this complex situation as a flowing reality. 4.2 The relevance of places in light of globalisation Discussing the dominance of flows over places it seems that in the light of globalisation, places (streets, squares and neighbourhoods) lose any relevance they had in the sense of urban identity. However, according to Fortuin & Van der Graaf (2006), this is not the case. As they continue to postulate, it is exactly the distinct local qualities that make places functional for global developments. An example is given in the form of a footloose company: In the vast global network there are various places that can accommodate the companys pragmatic needs. Such places become interchangeable from the companys point of view. That which distinguishes the various locations becomes a means for places to distinguish themselves and compete with other places. And it is exactly the identity of places that provide this unique signature (Van der Wouden 2004). As such, the relevance of a place, and consequently the relevance of urban identity, not only persists under globalisation, but also goes beyond the social aspect of a city, entering the realm of economics.

4 Places and globalisation


4.1 The ongoing process of globalisation As can be concluded form previous chapters, places, be it streets, squares or neighbourhoods, play a vital role in urban identity. Fortuin & Van der Graaf (2006) call this approach to urban identity the space of places. In additional to the space of places approach, and as a reaction to the ongoing processes of globalisation, Castells (1996) introduced a new concept to approach urban identity. In this new concept, called the space of flows, it is not so much the places, but the flows (of people, finances, images, products, etc.) that determine the image of a city. As such, Fortuin & Van der Graaf conclude that the space of places approach loses dominance to the space of flows. This impacts a variety of urban process, among which the processes of urban identity or identity dynamics(Fortuin & Van der Graaf 2006). The process of globalisation is also extensively researched by John Urry (2003), who quotes Rifkin (2000): [C]ontemporary science no longer sees anything as static, fixed and given. The observer changes that which is observed, apparent

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Such an increase in the role of urban identity hints at the changes in its nature, as suggested by Urry. Droogers (2001) elaborates somewhat further on this issue of the changing nature of urban identity. According to him, one of the biggest effects globalisation has on urban identity is that it changes in the way people position themselves in society. More specifically, do to ever faster shifts in the context of a persons life, people are increasingly confronted with different identities. People are constantly required to re-evaluate their position do to changes in their context. According to Doogers, the result is that identities become more fluid. This eventually also leads to the breaking up of traditional group up to the point of the individual (Fortuin & Van der Graaf 2006). As Fortuin (1998) also describes it, the issue of dealing with different ethnicities, religions and other groups is broadened to dealing with different individuals. As a result, the city, as a physical and geographical enclosed container (or place) in which events take place, fades in its relevance towards urban identity (Fortijn & Van der Graaf 2006). The city continues to become a node in a complicated network of various flows: financial, products, tourism, etc. As Fortuin & Van der Graaf and Van der Wouden state, the identity of a specific place starts to fulfil a new function. It becomes the distinguishing element, through which to promote the nodes, as it were. And public spaces, such as streets and squares, the vital elements in the development of identity, become the calling cards of the city and meeting places of the global community.

physical and spatial task one easily underappreciates the space of flows and increased complexity that accompanies it. Jane Jacobs (1992) also discusses such urban interventions as being some of the most destructive incursions in urban societies. 5.2 Acknowledging and mapping flows As such, Fortuin & Van der Graaf also continue to suggest two changes in the approach of urban identity. The first is a change in the way specific projects are worked out. At the moment, they conclude, this approach is still to much oriented on places as specific bordered areas. This orientation is to be shifted more to that of the flows that pass through a place, seen as it is the flows that have a great impact on the place. Fortuin & Van der Graaf also conclude that, in order to address the flows, new methods need to be implemented. Possible methods are also discussed by Alexander (1972) and Lynch (1960) who discuss the approach of involving the citizens themselves and evaluation how they see the city, how they view their own urban identity. A specifics tool that is discussed is for instance the mental map. The best scale on which to work out such a map is that of the neighbourhood (Oktay 2002). In reference to Alexander, it needs to be explicitly noted that the exact borders of the neighbourhood in question are of subordinate relevance. 5.3 Moving with the flow The second change that is deemed necessary by Fortuin & Van der Graaf corresponds with Alexanders assessment of human beings as having a mental need for structure and control. As Fortuin & Van der Graaf explain, such a desire for structure not only undermines the complex social structures which result from globalisation, but it also undermines relatively less complex structures of the more locally oriented urban identities. As such, professionals dealing with the issues of urban development and regeneration are advised to detach themselves form such static notions of control and order. As Fortuin & Van der Graaf put it, the key to utilizing urban identity is to move with its flows, coming to understand it and only then addressing it.

5 Recommendations
5.1 Recapitulation As has been discussed in chapter two, public spaces, in the form of streets and squares, play a vital role in the forming of urban identity (Oktay 2002). Accordingly, recommendations have also been made for these vital element of urban identity. This is also the case for the neighbourhood, which can be considered the identifying symbol [..] for the evaluation of the city (Oktay 1998). Therefore this part of the paper will focus on recommendations concerning the previous chapter. As one can recall, in this previous chapter, Fortuin & Van der Graaf (2006) and Van der Wouden (2004) discuss the changing role of urban identity as one that increasingly fulfils the task of calling card of the city. Fortuin & Van der Graaf conclude that, apart from the increasing complexity, in itself this development does not necessarily have a negative impact on society. However, in addition, they also conclude one should not develop an area based mere on this calling card aspect of places. As Fortuin & Van der Graaf state, developing a place, merely as an

Acknowledgements
I want to express my greatest gratitude towards my Studio mentor Luisa Calabrese for her encouragement in reviewing the issue of urban identity; Dr.ir. Machiel van Dorst and ir. Ruth Hppner for sharing their critical view on the matter of urban identity and I want to thank Dr. Ana Maria Fernandez-Maldonado and Dr.ir. Remon M. Rooij for their guidance in writing this paper.

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Bibliography
Alexander, C. 1972, A City Is Not a Tree, in G. Bell & J. Tyrwhitt (ed.), Human Identity in the Urban Environment, Butler & Tanner Ltd., London, pp. 401-428. Barnett, J. 1982, An Introduction to Urban Design, Harper & Row, New York. Bell, G & Tyrwhitt, J (ed.) 1972, Human Identity in the Urban Environment, Butler & Tanner Ltd., London. Benevolo, K. 1968, The History of the City, Scolar Press, London (1968). Castells,M. 1996, The Rise of the Network Society, volume 1 of the trilogy, The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 407-459. Doogers, A. 2001, A Social Science View, paper prepared for the workshop on Religion, Conflict and Reconciliation, Amersfoort, 30 March 2 April. Fortuin, K. 1998, Sociale processen en sturing, in W. Schakenraad, G. Hettinga, E. Plember, A. Raspe, K. Vos (ed.), Dynamiek in drievoud: Onderzoek voor burgers, instellingen en overheden, Jan Van Arkel/Verwey-Jonker Instituut, Utrecht, pp. 179-200. Fortuin, K & Van der Graaf, P 2006, De stad verhaalt van de stad: Rotterdamse lokale identiteit en cultuur als hulpbron, Verwey-Jonker Instituut, Utrecht. Jacobs, J 1992, The death and life of great American cities, 2nd edn, Vintage Books, New York. Kallus, R. & Law-Yone, H. 1997, Neighbourhood: the metamorphosis of an idea, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 107. Lynch, K 1960, The Image of the City, M.I.T. & President and Fellows of Harvard Collage, U.S.A. Lynch, K 1981, A Theory of Good City Form, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge. Madanipour, A. 1996, Design of Urban Space, Wiley, New York. Moughtin, C. 1992, Urban Design: Street and Square, Butterworth Architecture, Oxford. Moughtin, C. 1996, Urban Design: Green Dimensions, Butterworth Architecture, Oxford. Norberg-Schulz, C. 1971, Existence, Space and Architecture, Studio Vista, London. Oktay, D. 1998, Urban spatial patterns and local identity: evaluations in a Cypriot town, Open House International, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1723. Oktay, D 2002, 'The quest for urban identity in the changing context of the city: Northern Cyprus ', Cities, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 261-271, viewed 8 march 2010, <http://sciencedirect.com/>.

Pixten, R. & Verstraete, G. (ed.) 1998, Cultuur en Macht: over identiteit en conflict in een multiculturele wereld, Houtekiet, Antwerpen. Relph, E 1976, Place and Placelessnes, Pion, London. Unwin, R. 1909, Town Planning in Practice, Fisher Unwin, London. Urry, J. 2003, Global Complexity, Polity, Cambridge. Van der Wouden, R. 1999, Gestalten van stedelijkheid: Een verkenning van veranderingen in de openbare ruimte, in R. van der Wouden (ed.), De stad op straat: de openbare ruimte in perspectief, Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau/Elsevier, Den Haag, pp. 17-37. Zucker, P. 1959, Town and Square, Oxford University Press, London.

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Sub-Question 1: What are the future requirements that the neighbourhood of Feijenoord needs to meet in the spatial and social context, with respect to the Rotterdam city-vision?

VIP-Projects

Stadvisie Rotterdam / City-Vision Rotterdam 2030: To answer this first sub-question, a review is being made of the city-scale developmentplans as described in the City-Vision Rotterdam 2030. This vision consists of 13 so called VIP-zones, or Very Important Poject zones. As the name suggests, the municipalitys planning agencies consider these zones as priorities in development. As such, the plans for these zones spearhead all other developments in the city. In order to get a better understanding of what this implies for Feijenoord, the focus of the evaluation will be on zone 11, of which the neighbourhood is a part.

source: Stadsvisie Rotterdam, 2030

Living environments

Viewing zone 11 in the context of the greater CityVision 2030, in terms of housing environments, the area is designated as an area for peaceful urban living as opposed to the nearby Kop van Zuid which bears the label central urban living. Housing is also considered an essential means by which to solve the imbalance in the citys workplace-workforce relationship. In the following chapters it is also discussed what this will imply for the neighbourhood of Feijenoord. The City-Vision 2030 however goess far beyond the issue of housing. Examples are the issue of traffic/connectivity and environment. For the specific approaches to these and other issues, reference is made to the actual City-Vision 2030.

source: Stadsvisie Rotterdam, 2030

Workplaces v. Workforce

Planning concerning the environment

source: Stadsvisie Rotterdam, 2030

source: Stadsvisie Rotterdam, 2030

36

Vision Kop van Feijenoord: The plans which effect the neighbourhood of Feijenoord however go further then merely the large scale of the City-Vision 2030. A specific developmentplan concerning Feijenoord has also been drawn up, the Vision Kop van Feijenoord. As of yet, this vision is still being considered a concept. Nonetheless, preparations for its development are already underway in the form of evictions, demolishments and the like. Before one continues, it should be noted that it is not the intent of this specific subquestion to determine if the propositions made by the Vision Kop van Feijenoord are either good or bad in light of urban identity. Such an answer can only be given with addition of research done in the following sub-questions. As such, this subquestion will evaluate the Vision Kop van Feijenoord based on its own criteria: 1) Framework of development, 2) Spatial and Programmatic criteria, 3) Plandescription, 4) Program. For specifics on these criteria, reference is again made to the actual vision. 1) Framework of development: Concerning proposals for development, the Vision Kop van Feijenoord sets up a framework that makes a distinction into various sub-visions, being: the City-vision (discussed earlier); the Neighbourhoodvision; Housing-vision; Recreational and Educational Vision; Vision Economical dev. Entrepot-area; and Vision on public space. In terms of Public space, for instance, a special Stylecommittee (2007) is setup to evaluate the neighbourhood and propose interventions. Such interventions concern various aspects of the neighbourhood: from greenstructures and waterfronts, to the connectivity of the area (as visualized in the images to the left).
source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

dS+V vision on Public Space

Intended North-South

Intended West-East

Analysis on Education

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

37

2a) Spatial criteria:

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

Concerning the spatial criteria, specific goals that have been layed out for Feijenoord are: - The addition of new housingblocks - Maximum utilization of icons on the Kop van Feijenoord - A contrast with the Kop van Zuid - Strenghtening of the internal qualities of Koningshaven - Offering space to new facilities To this end, various reference project are also cited; a study is done of different building typologies that can contribute in meeting the set goals; and the intended restructuring of the public space is stated:

Desired result

Studies

Restructuring of public space

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

38

2b) Programmatic criteria:

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

Concerning the programmactic criteria, a distinction has been made in criteria for: Housing environments, Facilities and Job oppertunities. The organisation of the first, the housing environments, can be viewed in the above picture, in which: - Blue = Housing on the waterfront; - Green = Housing near facilities and large boulevards; - Red = Groundconnected housing (dutch: grondgebonden) According to the KvF vision, the facilities are to be clustered in various themes, as is also depicted in the lower left picture. The lower right pictures visualize the various methods by which such facilities can be included in the developmentplans.

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

39

3) Plandescription: In the Plandescription of the vision KvZ and additional step is made towards specific on site developments in the neightbourhood. Two main clusters can be determined from the proposed interventions. The first is the area located near the Willemsbrug and the Hef. This area can also be designated as the actual Kop of Feijenoord. The second cluster is located more inward to the neighbourhood. At this point it should be noted that the focus of the graduation project is more towards this second area and the soutern part of cluster 1. Concerning the proposed interventions, a distinction is made in 3 catagories, being: Building mass, Public space and Connectivity.

Development cluster 1: Building mass

Connectivity Public space


source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

Development cluster 2:

Building mass

Connectivity (car)

Public space
source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

40

4) Program: The program that is to be included in Kop van Feijenoord is one of a wide range: Housing, parking, commercial infill of plints, recreational facilities and sports, education. When it comes to the specifics however, no further explanation is given. This is especially the case for commercial infill. This is not surpring, seen as the developmentplan is still in its vision-fase. Nonetheless it is striking that the concept does already include a overview in the amount of housing. This is most likely a result of the greater City-Vision, which also largely concerns the development of new housing for high-income, high-educated people. Thus, further study of both these visions and cross-referencing to the data collected in the following sub-question should point out if such developments form the most effective course of action, when it concerns the current population of Feijenoord.

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

41

42

Research: Inherent Identity; People and Program

43

Sub-Question 2: Which type of people exactly make up the population of the neighbourhood Feijenoord? (And why are they called disadvantaged?)

COS Report; Neighbourhood analysis for Feijenoord: In order to formulate a tailor made answer to sub-question 2, one can turn to various sources of information, among which: Rotterdam DATA (the statistics database of Rotterdam) and GisWeb 2.0 (a spatially oriented database of the city, including demographics, facilities, etc.). However, seen as both these sources provide an over-whelming amount of objective data, at this point in the thesis it would be more appropriate to discuss the findings of the COS-report (Centrum voor onderzoek en statistiek). This COS-report utilizes both of the above mentioned sources, in combination with the Sociale Index, the Buurtsignalering and the (Jeugd)Veiligheidsindex, to provide a site-specific insight to the neighbourhood. As such, this part of the thesis will discuss the findings of COS. In addition reference is also made to De nieuwe belangstelling (2011) a report developed within Veldacademie Rotterdam, which also provided a internship considering the graduation subject.
Demographic Characteristics

source: COS, buurtanalyse Feijenoord, may 2009


Potential Workforce

Type of Households

A first step towards understanding the neighbourhood can be taken by looking at its demographic composition. In doing so, a first characteristic that comes to light is the relatively young population. As is stated by COS, this offers a geat potential for the citys future workforce. Looking at the type of households, one can also find that (logically) a large part of the households has children. However, nearly half of these child bearing households also has only one parent. This is twice as much as in the entire city and 1,5 times a much as in the the sub-municipality Feijenoord. In comparison to the rest of the city, Feijenoord houses a large number of immigrants. A very large part (83%) of these immigrants is also of a non-western origin. The largest part is made up of Turkish immigrants, in addition also a large number of Marroccan and Surinam people inhabit the neighbourhood.

Etnical composition

source: COS, buurtanalyse Feijenoord, may 2009

44

Sociale Index / Social Index Moving on to the problems of the neighbourhood (left), one can view the Social Index to get a better vantage point. The problematic situation in the neighbourhood is immediatey visible through the large red sections, as apposed to relatively greener diagram of the city (right).

source: COS, buurtanalyse Feijenoord, may 2009

Critical indicators Of all these themes on which the neighbourhoods has a low score the COS singles out the themes that play the largest role. Indicators of such decisive themes are also called Critical Indicators. For the neighbourhood of Feijenoord these themes and indicators are:

Other problematic themes and indicators Next to the above stated plroblems however, there are also other themes on which the neighbourhood scores extremely low. As such, these themes also (should) become focal points for the future developments:

source: COS, buurtanalyse Feijenoord, may 2009

45

Summed up Following COSs previous diagrams, one can now state that Feijenoord is a socially weak neighbourhood. On virtually all themes it scores lower than the average of Rotterdam. The primary problem-themes are: the capacities of the inhabitants, de participation in the community, de living environment and the social connectivity to the neighbourhood. The people are low-educated or havent finished their education. Nearly half of the youngsters has no starters-qualification. This means that a large amount of the earlier discussed, potential workforce is actually missing the credentials to get highered for a job. In addition, the potential workworkforce in general also considers its own health to be relatively poor. Another problem is also noted in the form of limited knowledge of the Dutch language. This again has a negative influence on the chances to find a job. Thus, a large part of the population also consists of non-working job-seekers. More than half of the inhabitants has a low income and the percentage of inhabitants on welfare is twice the average of the city. With respect to the housing environment it is especially the need for adequate housing that forms an issue. There is a relatively large amount of overpopuplation to be found (twice as much as the average of Rotterdam). Consequentially, the satisfaction of the inhabitants with their home is relatively low. In addition the neighbourhoods is also troubled by safety-issues. Veiligheidsindex / Safety Index In terms of safety Feijenoord scores a 6.3. This is lower than the citys 7.3, which earns the neighbourhood the position of special attention-neighbourhood (dutch: aandachtswijk). The graph below shows how the neighbourhood scores on various topics, in comparison to the scales of the sub-municipality and the city.

As is visible, the neighbourhoods safety issues primarily concern the elements: burglary, vandalism, nuisances, and matters of orderliness. In the graph below, further specifics are stated concerning these safety issues. In the Jeugdveiligheidsindex (excl.) it becomes clear that youngster play a large role in these issues of safety.

source: COS, buurtanalyse Feijenoord, may 2009

46

Buurtsignalering/ Neighbourhoodprofile Buurtsignalering or Neighbourhoodprofile is the last tool that is utilized by the COS to provide a site-specific insight into Feijenoord. Here the PPC-map (left) gives summary of a housing blocks status through an overview of their Potential Problem Cumulation. The more dark-yellow a block is colored, the higher its PPC-value. It is immediately visible that a large amount of Feijenoords blocks scores quite low. Slighty less than half of the blocks scores just higher than the city average (light-green). And only one small cluster scores far higher than the city average and is thus of significantly higher quality then the city-average (dark-green). One can also continue to split the PPC overview up into its smaller inputs. It is then that the specific issues of Feijenoord become more visible. A first step in this more specified overview can be the vacancymap (dutch: leegstand). As vacancies are visualized by red hatches, it becomes clear that their are virtually no vancant living spaces. More specifically, at the time this map was made there was merely one housing block vancant due to evictions. In between the setup of the COS-report and the writing of this Progress Report, the block in question has also been torn down.

In addition to the issue of limited vacancies, it can be found that there is actually a problem of over-occupation of households in the neighbourhood. This was already indicated in previous sections. In this map however, we can now see the actually severity of this issue. For, virtually all households suffer from overoccupation. Thus, this also forms an important issue in the neigbourhoods liveability and has an great impact on the earlier discussed Social Index.

As a final step one can also look at the exact location of the inhabitants which face specific challenges. In the map to the left, the example of the jobless job-seekers is visualized. Here one finds the largest concerntration of this group along the the Oranjeboomstraat (western edge) and the Eastern edge of the neighbourhood. As such, any intervention concerning employment should also keep the spatial location and connectivity of this inhabitantgroup in mind.

source: COS, buurtanalyse Feijenoord, may 2009

47

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Wonen

Economie, Marinestr. ins ik Pr der in e le Fr p

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48

Grondgebonden Etage / portiek woning Eigendom: privaat Eigendom: bewoner Eigendom: gemeente

Bron: -

geschikte woningen wooncentrum woonzorgcomplex verpleeghuis zorg At this point in the research a large zorgvoorziening amount of data has been collected in order to answer subquestions one and two; respectively the goals of the municipality and the current status of Onderwijs Welzijn & Hulpverlening the inhabitants.
Bron: - Infolijn politie T

.............. Intermission; Livingspheresanalysis / Lifestylesanalysis: Bouwperiode werkpleinen / stageplekken

Eigendom: corporatie

palliatief-terminale

Wonen
Bron: - Wijkvisie Feijenoord (2006-2016)

Economie, werk & inkomen

Veiligheid

Seniorenwoningen Verkoop Renovatie (gevel+) Sloop Toewijzingscriteria Toewijzingscriteria


(leeftijd max. 28 jaar)

winkelcluster supermarkt levensbehoefte spec. solitaire winkels

Bron: - Google maps - GisWeb 2.0 - Observaties VA

Politiebureaus

INVENTARISATIE

ok

OK-punten hangplekken

- Site OK-punten

- Onderzoek VA - Onderzoek TOS

- Wijkvisie Feijenoord (2006-2016) - GisWeb 2.0

bedrijven terrein bedrijf co eeshops restaurant

(inkomen min. 27.500 euro)

- Wijkvisie Feijenoord (2006-2016)

belhuizen terras / snackbar

nancl adv.

SZ SoZaWe

BELEID

BELEID

INVENTARISATIE
Bron: - Wijkvisie Feijenoord (2006-2016)

BELEID
................... ...................

INVENTARISATIE

BELEID
................... ...................

INVENTARISATIE

Seniorenwoningen Verkoop Renovatie (gevel+) Sloop Ontwikkelingslocaties

As proposed earlier in the 0-4 K.d.v. tandarts 2-4 Voorscholen thesis, an intermission is 4-12 Basisscholen huisarts 12+ V.O. included in the research-process, in 12+ Beroepsondw. andere zorgvoorz. order to combine these two datasets. Brede Scholen This combination is also known as the Samenwerking gesloten zorginstell. Intensieve samenw. leefvelden-analyse or lifestylesanalysis;bibliotheek a multilayered documentation method used by the Veldacademie e - centra e Rotterdam that maps a neighbourhood INVENTARISATIE INVENTARISATIE based BELEID on: Housing, Economy/work/ BELEID B income, locaties Mogelijke Safety, Education, Healthcare, nieuwe school Residential En-vironment and Participation.
Leeftijd: Type:
- Google maps - Onderzoek VA - GisWeb 2.0 - Onderzoek VA Bron: - Visie Kop van Feijenoord (2008)

Schoolgebouwen:

Bron: - GisWeb 2.0 - Google maps - OnderzoekVA - Schoolgidsen

apotheek

Bron: - Google maps

...................
- Wijkvisie Feijenoord (2006-2016) - GisWeb 2.0 - Visie Kop van Feijenoord (2008)

...................

................... geschikte woningen ................... wooncentrum woonzorgcomplex verpleeghuis


T

hoofdstructuur groen

Additionally, this method also makes a distinction in the current status of the inhabitants (inventarisatie/SQ2) and the policy of the municipality (beleid/ SQ1).
sportvoorziening/club opzoomer depot festival / markterrein

palliatief-terminale zorg zorgvoorziening

speelplekken speeltuin

eid

Onderwijs

Welzijn & Hulpverlening


apotheek tandarts huisarts andere zorgvoorz. gesloten zorginstell.
- Google maps - Onderzoek VA

Woonomgeving
toegankelijke hoven vuilcontainers papierbakken hondenuitlaatzones

Participatie & Vrije tijd


wijkgebouw christelijke instelling islamitische instelling collectieve tuin sport & recreatie

Bron: - Infolijn politie

Schoolgebouwen:
Leeftijd: Type:

- Site OK-punten

- Onderzoek VA - Onderzoek TOS

0-4 2-4 4-12 12+ 12+

K.d.v. Voorscholen Basisscholen V.O. Beroepsondw.

Bron: - GisWeb 2.0 - Google maps - OnderzoekVA - Schoolgidsen

Bron: - Google maps

Bron: - Gisweb 2.0 - Google maps - Onderzoek VA

Brede Scholen Samenwerking Intensieve samenw. bibliotheek


- GisWeb 2.0 - Onderzoek VA

T B

tramlijn buslijn spoorlijn metrolijn

- Site RET

cultuur / evenementen bewonersorganisatie andere organisaties

e - centra

INVENTARISATIE

BELEID

INVENTARISATIE
Bron: - Visie Kop van Feijenoord (2008)

BELEID

INVENTARISATIE

BELEID
.............. ..................

INVENTARISATIE

BELEID

INVENTARISATIE
Bron: - Visie Kop van Feijenoord (2008)

BELEID

Mogelijke locaties nieuwe school

Nieuwe sportfaciliteiten Mogelijke locaties MFA

Nieuwe tramlijn (visie Kop van Feijenoord) ............ Brug Koningshaven (visie Kop van Feijenoord)

Parkontwikkeling

source: Veldacademie, leefveldenanalyse Feijenoord, march 2011

49

Lifestylesanalysis/Livingspheresanalysis, sub-layers:
Olivier van Noortstraat
yter De Ru

As one can probably deduce from the legend, the lifestylesanalysis can also be split up into its various sub-layers in order to provide a clearer insight into Feijenoord. In reference to the data collected in SQ2 one

can now, for instance, review the issue of the healthcare and the low level of experienced health (map 4). We see that the neighbourhood has a relatively low amount of gsn healthcare facilities. This leads to the hypothesis that the oni K quantity of the healthcare facilities has a direct relation to the experienced health. aven poth Entre The detailed sub-layers however also suggest more complex relationships between various processes. An example is the status of Residential Environment (map Sp 7). As one can recall from SQ2, the neighbourhood scoresoorwe Kop van Zuid - Entrepot gh Bin av ne en relatively low when it comes to littering. This despite the nh av en numerous garbage bins, containers and other collections points. As such a more indirect cause or relationship must exist. As explained in the initial chapters of the thesis (pp. 4-25) the hypothesis is that a lack of mutual connection between the inhabitants and a lack of connection to their neighbourhood causes these and other issues. A lack of urban identity, if you will. Thus, the research moves on to SQ3&4 in order to elaborate on this urban identity.
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Middelbare School De Passie (disl.)

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o rso Pe

aat kstr Pie

Kinderopvang De Zonneschijn nd Bibliotheek Feijenoord

La eterm aat str

oo

Sto

ot

blo

J.B

e
Bu rgd or ers

ka ns

.B

ak

tra

at Feijenoord

e-Center

Stip - Kinderdagverblijf Sjakie

ns

de

n ve ha

em

ak

ad

PC - Basisschool Heemskerk

Pik etk

itt

e ad

sh on rso Pe

np

lein

O - Basisschool De Clipper

Bin
Rij tu ig w eg

terWa sstr. pa

nh ne

av h en of
Middelbare School De Passie (evangelisch)

n ave

Rosebrug

k Pie

Hillekopplein

Sch

ietl

oo

dstr

aat

bru g

Ro

Hil

les

illes rte H

tr.

tra

at

Sp

oo

rw

eg

nis

tstr

aat

Station "Rdam Zuid"


Passer straat

Hil

Voorschool ...

Co nd uc te urh of

ses tra at

ROC - Albeda College (sport, sociaal, horeca)

Mallegat

Le

eu

led

St

we

ijk

Rosetunnel

ein

Ja

ns

co

we

te

schaal: 1: 500

250m

LA

in

on

gs

in

AN

Bo

str

tr

js

as

th

aa

tra

O - Basisschool Nelson Mandela

OP

tra

as

Bloemfonteinstraat

See also De Nieuwe Belangstelling (2011)!


Olivier van Noortstraat
De Ru

1) Education
er str aa t
Olivier van Noortstraat
De Ru

Jo

at

at

tra

ZU

ub

at

er

Bibliotheek Afrikaanderwijk

ID

Ma

lleg

at

t-

De

la

Re

Ch

ys

tra

ris

Sc ha lk Bu rg

str aa t

tia an de

at

Rie

be

ek

st

t raa

Tw ee bo sst raa t

Br

Br

yter

yter

Wonen
g

ins ik Pr der in e Fr ple

Economie, werk & inkomen Marinestr.


d k rik ad e
str aa t

Veiligheid

Onderwijs

Welzijn & Hulpverlening

Woonomgeving

Particpatie & Vrijetijd

Wonen
g

ins ik Pr der in e Fr ple

Economie, werk & inkomen Marinestr.


d en sH in Kantoor SoZaWe k rik ad e
str aa t

Veiligheid

Onderwijs

Welzijn & Hulpverlening

Woonomgeving

Particpatie & Vrijetijd

ug

ug

Noordereiland

we
Fe ije

we

Pr

in

sH

en

SZ
ds tra at

Fe ije

v ha
"De Hef"

en
N s as

Pr

Nassaubrug

Nassaubrug

at

Ko

Zinkerweg

ST
Bin

IEL

TJ

ES

ST

at

Entrepotblok

Ha
nh av

o lf r

nd

Hand

elsple

in

St

ev

en

Ho

og

d en

ij

Zinkerblok/ Nijverheidsstraat

Spie
Pers sstr

km

anst

raa

ne

en

br

eg

sw

sw

eg

ug

Entre
ge rka

Vijf W

ereldd

elen

poth
Ca

aven
Factor

o Kop Rosepark (A) on


Oranjeboom 1

Zanzibar

aat

Jalo

nst

raa

Rijksbo

om

Pers

oon

sda

Feijenoord
m

Jalontorens: 55+ label

ST
Bin

IEL

TJ

ES

A TR

Zinkerweg

n ni

s-

Br au tig

Hefblok Stieltjesplein:

Ro

g nt

toewijzingscritera leeftijd Stieltjesplein Stieltjesstraat: 55+ label AT Entrepotstra RA Stieltjesblokken

St

am

pio

en

str

t aa

Nassauhaven: toewijzingscritera inkomen

Stampioen 4

tr ks

rdoo en - nZuidereiland: v rd ije toewijzingscritera inkomen oFe ha en no hav ije Fe t raa pst koo Heij

Ko

n ni

Ro
Stieltjesplein

g nt

Br au tig

en

str

am

s-

en

am

aa

st

no ije Fe rug b

st

ord

str

aa

at

ra

ra

inc o

kP

Lo de

at

od s

ps

at

ps

Kro

Damstra

Kro

in

in

Ple

Ple

Oranjepunt (A)

Eric

Eric

Sp

oo

rw

eg

Kop van Zuid - Entrepot


sw

eg

eg

ha

co

co

Mo le ple nbr in oek

.B

aij va str nger aa t

kst

oe

ew

ew

oe

kst

ijk

ijk

ad

aij va str nger aa t

ak

Mo le ple nbr in oe

raa

Bu

raa

Pin

Pin

ak

em

en
at pla ur

o rgd

rs r e

sw

ve

n
Lo d

Bin

nd La eterm aat str

Sp

oo

J.B

ne

Sto

nh

ot

Doorbraak Damstraat

rw

blo

eg

Kop van Zuid - Entrepot


Afhaalrestaurant Mie Lobie

- Belhuis P.C.O. - Belhuis Kaz

Damstra

at

Lodewijk Pinco s plein

tra

tra

od s

at

isc

Lo de

de

24

hij

24

Dr

aa

Pers

wij

wij

ge

kP

uis

Pre

rg ad oo rsk ad e Pin Lod co ew sb ijk rug

Kop Rosepark (B)

oo

nsd

am

inc o

Lo

Lo

Br

led d str eru saa t

Lo d

Br

pla

poorstr

R.H

R.H

Vu

ee

Rose-S

V str ries aa t -

de V str ries aa t -

laa s

H.P .J.

.M aa

str

str

r.

es

H.A

pla a

w str. ars-

m tra m

led

Hil

Hil

les

Ma

ve

e Bred Bred

Hilled

ijk
tra at

ve

e Hill

edijk
Be

ye

rss

Steinweg hof

Hil
str

Mallegat

e Bred Bred

Hilled

ijk
tra at

led

ijk
250m

Rosetunnel

e Hill

edijk
Be

ye

rss

Steinweg hof

Ma

Ko

ill rte H

ch

ha

Ko

ha

ch

estr.

tra

at

Sp

oo

rw

eg

nis

tstr

aat

Station "Rdam Zuid"


st Passer

Hil

oo

oo

eg

led

Vu

Vu

elw

Steenplaat: Intramuraal

elw

eg

m tra m

rall

w str. ars-

rall

pla a

ur

ur

Hillekopplein

Pa

Sch

eg

Pa

eg

ietl

oo

Lo

Persoonshaven: toewijzingscritera leeftijd

Winkelcluster Vuurplaat

Lo

dstr

co

co

aat

ot

Jac

Jac

ot

Steenplaat: Aanleunwoningen

H.A

qu

qu

ie

ie

Rosebrug

es

r.

.M aa

Ny

aa

Ny

aa

tu

H.P .J.

co

co

sk

ig

Oranjeboom 5.1

sk

Rij

laa s

an

an

terWa sstr. pa

Rose-S

np

tst raa

tst raa

lein

ee

Vu

itt

ev

itt

ev

poorstr

.v

.F

.v

W.G

aat

aat

an

.F

J.H

J.H

ur

.W

an

.W

at

Oranjepunt (B)

W.G

led d str eru saa t

de n

de n

Kra

Kra

de

fst

fst

St

St

no or
Lo

no or

Fe
gs tra

au

ka

de
Nassauhaven: 55+ label

ije no at or

dOranjeboom

le Dil

r bu

dk

ad

Zin
Nijv

r ke

str

t aa

v ha
"De Hef"

en
N s as

- Unilever

ds tra at

Fe
gs tra

au

ka

de

at

ije

no

or

le Dil

r bu

dk

ad
t

Na ss au str aa

Na ss au str aa

Zin
Nijv

r ke

str

aa

Nassau

Nassau

KO NI NG

KO

Nassauhaven

Nassauhaven

NI NG

Caf/Bar Kale

Caf Gurbet

Caf Nieuw Feijenoord m

AT

St

pio

en

str

t aa

Fe

ord - no n rd ije ve oFe ha en no hav ije

no ije Fe rug b

ord

Na ssa

Na ssa

2) Housing
rg er str aa t

source: report De Nieuwe Belanstelling, march 2011

N IN EB
Bloemfonteinstraat

N IN

us tr.

us

EB

tr.

erh

erh

RU G
Cr j on aa str
Ja co m in

RU

eid stra

eid

stra

Fe

Fe

en pio . m str enSta ars io . 2e dw mprsstr Sta wa at 1e d tra gs tin os Jo

en pio . m str enSta ars io . 2e dw mprsstr Sta wa at 1e d tra gs tin os Jo

at

at

ijen

ijen

hav

hav

Entrepotstraat

Ha
nh av

o lf r

nd

Hand

elsple

in

Winkelcluster Entrepot

o Slagerij Metin St ev en H

og

d en

ijk

str

Heij

koo

pst

raa

oo

oo

rdk

rdk

Feij

Feij

e ad

e ad

ord eno

ord eno

en

en

Supermarkt Semt

Ko ehuis Pinar

Spie
nst raa t

km

anst

raa

dijk

dijk

SE RO ST AT RA
Ceylon

SE RO ST AT RA

Persoonsdam

ne

en

br

ug

Entre
rka

Vijf W

ereldd

elen

poth
Ca

aven
Factor

Pers

oon

sstr

aat

Jalo

Rijksbo

om

Pers

oon

sda

Feijenoord
m
nsd am

Nass auh

Nass auh

ij
Le eu we ns te in

ij

n ave

n ave

Piekstraat

Lo

Ko ehuis Barbados

uis

Pre

de

Rosepark

rg ad oo rsk ad e Pin Lod co ew sb ijk rug

Dr

aa

Lodewijk Pinco s plein

isc

Pers
hij f

oo

Or an o jeb om str aa t

Or an

Rosepark Islamitische Supermarkt Sahan

- Hunter Douglas - Stadstoezicht - KCAP - etc.

o jeb

Pe rso
on Pe rso

Pe

Pie kstr aat

Pie

om str

Caf De Ketel

av

tra

at

ha

ve

Bin
ak

J.B

.B

ne
ak ad

S Dienstverlening Oya Fin Fiscale to

em

nh

ot

or ers tra at

nd La eterm aat str

kstr

rso

aat

aa t

Pe

rso

on

on av sh en
Pik etk ad e

on

ska

ska

- Groenteboer Ali Baba - Slagerij Zuid - Shoarma & Pizzeria Il Mare - Snackbar ...

blo

de

de

av sh

av

en

Bu

rgd

Slagerij Zafer Co eeshop Ras Elma

en
Pik etk ad e

rs Pe

rs Pe

np

lein

Caf Taxim

Bin
eg

Bin

Rij

tu

Bakkerij Gul Firini

terWa sstr. pa

oo

oo

ne nh e av nh of
Co nd uc te urh of

ne nh

nsh

nsh

e av

ave

ave

nh

ig

eg

Caf Stadion Zuid

Rosebrug

of

n
Pie ru kb g
Hillekopplein

ABB Administratiebeheer en belastingadviezen

Pie ru kb g

Sch

aat dstr Wim oo de Hek ietl Vleesleverancier

ses Ro a tra t

ses Ro

Hil

les

raat

ill rte H

estr.

tra

at

Sp

oo

rw

eg

nis

tstr

aat

Station "Rdam Zuid"


Passer straat

Co nd uc te urh of

a tra t

Hil
str

Mallegat

Le

eu

led

ein St g we

ein St

we ns

schaal: 1: 500

LA

ijk
250m

Rosetunnel

Ja co

g we

Cr j on

te in

AN

OP

schaal: 1: 500

LA

m in

AN

Bo as th

Bo

str aa t

str

as tra

as

as th

aa

aa str

tra

ZU

ID

OP

Jo ter ub

Jo

at

at

tra

tra

lle Ma

ga

ZU

ter ub

at
De la a tra ys Re
Ch t ris

at
De

ID

Bloemfonteinstraat

Ma

lleg

at

la a tra ys Re
Ch t ris

Sc lk ha Bu

Sc

str aa t

str

lk ha

aa

iaa nd e

iaa

Rie

be

ek

str

aa

3) Economy/work/income
Rie be ek
ee

str

aa

Tw ee bo sst raa t

Tw

nd

Bu

rg

bo

er

sst

str

aa

raa

50

Olivier van Noortstraat

Olivier van Noortstraat

yter De Ru

yter De Ru

st ra at

ig am

Ko

Zinkerweg

ST
Bin

IEL

TJ

T SS

RA

Zinkerweg

n ni

gs

n Beschermde opvang Prostituees; ge IBW Nassaukade nt e Ro


Stieltjesplein
Mediq Apotheek Noordereiland

AT

St

am

pio

en

str

at

Fe

- bru ord - no n rd ije ve oFe ha en no hav ije

au t

Entrepotstraat

Coperatieve Vereniging Huisartsenpraktijk Jansen UA

Half
nh av

ro

nd

Hand

elsple

in

St

ev

en

o Ho

d en

ijk

. str

Heij

koo

pst

raa

Tandarts A. Ene

Spie
Pers oon sstr
Artsengroep Persoonsstraat

km

anst

raa

Ko

n ni
ST
Bin

gs
TJ E

e Ro
Stieltjesplein
Muziekcaf De Slingerick

Br

ok
A RA T

St

am

pio

t Hang overlast aa bron: medewerker TOS str en

Br

au t

Fe

ije

ig am

str

aa

no g

ord

g nt

en

str

aa

st ra at

ug Br
Ple in
Eric

ug Br

Wonen

ins ik Pr der in e Fr ple

Economie, werk & inkomen Marinestr.


d k rik ad e
aa str t

Veiligheid

Onderwijs

Welzijn & Hulpverlening

Woonomgeving

Particpatie & Vrijetijd

Wonen

ins ik Pr der in e Fr ple

Economie, werk & inkomen Marinestr.


d k rik ad e
aa str t

Veiligheid

Onderwijs

Welzijn & Hulpverlening

Woonomgeving

Particpatie & Vrijetijd

g we
Lo o Kro ds 2 4 ps tra at
ds or no ije Fe at tra

g we

Pr

in

sH

en

h
KO
ne en br ug
"De Hef"

e av

n
N s as au ka

Pr

in

sH

en

ds or no ije Fe

Nassaubrug

Nassaubrug

Fe
g ur str

de

aa

ije n t oor

dk

ille

nb

ad

Grand Caf Sole Mare

Zin
a stra eid erh Nijv

st er

t aa

e av

n
N s as au ka

at tra

Fe
g ur str

de

aa

ije n t oor

dk

ille

nb

ad

Na ss str au aa t

Na ss str au aa

"De Hef"

Zin
a stra eid erh Nijv

st er

ra

at

en hav Nassau

hav Nassau

KO

Nassauhaven

Nassauhaven

eg

sw

inc o

de wij kP

Tandarts C.M.K. Brning g

at

at

hij Kop van Zuid s f Lodewijk PincoAcupunctuur plein

Lo o Kro ds 2 4 ps tra at

erk

Lo

Lo

ad

Damstra

Ple in

Damstra

ad e Pin Lod co ew sb ijk rug

rsk

Dr

aa

isc

Pers

ge

de wij kP

uis

Pre

rg

ad

oo

oo

nsd

am

inc o

Lo

Ca

???

Lo

uis

Pre

Ca
rka de

sw

eg

Eric

B NE IN NG NI G RU

B NE IN NG NI

Fe

- bru ord - no n rd ije ve oFe ha en no hav ije

Fe

ije

no g

ord

tr. us ssa Na
en pio . m str enSta ars io . 2e dw mprsstr Sta wa 1e d at tra

tr. us ssa Na

G RU

o ijen Fe

o ijen Fe

en pio . m str enSta ars io . 2e dw mprsstr Sta wa 1e d

T SS

Entrepotstraat

IEL

Entre

Vijf W

er

poth

en elddel

aven
om

aat

Jalo

a stra

Rijksbo

Pers

oon

sda

Feijenoord
m

Half
nh av

ro

nd

Hand

elsple

in

St

ev

en

o Ho

d en

ijk

str

Heij

koo

pst

raa

ord

ord

Feij

Feij

Jo os

Jo

kad

kad

os

eno

eno

gs tin

gs tin

en

tra

ord dijk

ord

at

Spie
Pers oon sstr

km

anst

raa

dijk

A RA ST SE RO T
ij Factor

A RA ST SE RO

ne

en

br

ug

Entre

Vijf W

er

poth
rg

en elddel

aven
om

aat

Jalo

a stra

Rijksbo

Pers

oon

sda

Feijenoord
ok
nsd am

ave auh Nass n

ave auh Nass

ij Factor

Wijkaccommodatie De Nieuwe Persoonshal

ad

Rosepark

ad e Pin Lod co ew sb ijk rug

oo

rsk

Dr

aa

Lodewijk Pinco s plein

isc

Pers
hij f

oo

a tra ms oo jeb an Or

a tra ms oo jeb an Or

Rosepark

ok

Stadstoezicht Piekstraat

rs Pe

rs Pe

aat kstr Pie

aat kstr Pie

Sp

oo

rw

eg

Kop van Zuid - Entrepot


Stichting Zorg & Integratie Tandarts R. Houtho

sw eg

J.B

Pin co

Pin co

Mo le ple nbr in oek

Mo le ple nbr in oek

.B

raa

str nger aa t

de nB ro ek st

wij k

va

wij k

de nB ro ek st

ad

str nger aa t

Bu

raa

ak

em

ak

av

Stichting Zorg & Integratie

en
at pla ur

rg

r do

a rstr

sw eg

ha

ve

n
de Lo

Huisarts Rlm Laschet

Bin

ne

Sto

nh

ot

blo

Maatschappelijk Werk De Doorbraak/Punt 50

nd La eterm aat str

Sp

oo

rw

eg

Kop van Zuid - Entrepot


ve n
de Lo

ok
at

at

ha

Bin
ak

nd La eterm aat Bibliotheek Feijenoord str

o rso Pe

o rso Pe

oo ns n ve ha
de

oo

J.B
t

.B

ne
ak ad

Sto

ka ns

ka ns

em

nh

ot

blo

ns

de

k
rgd or ers

av

tra

n ve ha

en
pla at ur

Bu

aij

d str eru saa t

aij

va

Rose-S poorstr aat

Rose-S poorstr aat

an

led

an

.F

J.H

ev

J.H

de V str ries aa t -

de V str ries aa t -

raa

nt st

nt st

s-

s-

raa

lein Arts & Acupuncturist C.D. Hammudoglu


laa
ka

ee

np

ev

.F

.W

R.H

R.H

Vu

ee

Vu

itt

.W

led

Tandartsparktijk Top Dent

.v

.v

W.G

W.G

d str eru saa t

Kra

Kra

Pik etk e ad

Pik etk

itt

e ad

Ny

aa

Ny

Ma

aa

fst

fst

H.A .

H.A .

qu

qu

eg

Ma

uig Mediq Apotheek De Vuurplaat

co

co

H.P

H.P

as

as

Rij

laa

terWa sstr. pa

np

lein
ka

ok
of

sh on rso Pe

sh on rso Pe

Bin nh ne

Bin nh ne

Anadolu Moskee

Rij

terWa sstr. pa

av h en

av h en

.J.

.J.

str

str

r.

es

ie

w str. ars-

w str. ars-

pla

tra

led

Hil

Hil

les

Ma

ve

Br

Hill ede

edijk edijk
Be rss tra at

ve

Bred

e Hill

Steinweg hof

Interculturele Zorgorganisatie Anour

ye

Hil
gs tr

Mallegat

Br
Stichting ANMO

Hill ede ede

edijk ijk
Be ye rss tra at

led

ijk
250m

Rosetunnel

Tandarts Jalink & Jalink-Krens

schaal: 1: 500

LA

Br ok

Hilled

Steinweg hof

Ma

Ko

illes rte H

ch

ha

Ko

ha

ch

tr.

tra

at

Sp

oo

rw

eg

nis

tstr

aat

Station "Rdam Zuid"


stra Passer at

Hil

oo

oo

eg

led

eg

Vu

Vu

tra

rall

elw

rall

pla

elw

ur

ur

Hillekopplein

Pa

Sch

eg

Pa

eg

ietl

at

at

oo

Lo

Lo

dstr

co

co

aat

ie

Rosebrug

es

r.

tu

n ave

n ave

ig

of

eg

Rosebrug

k Pie

k Pie

???

Hillekopplein

Sch

ietl

oo

dstr

aat

ot

Jac

Jac

ot

bru

bru

Ro

Ro

Zorgcentrum Steenplaat

Hil

les

illes rte H

tr.

tra

at

Sp

oo

rw

eg

nis

tstr

aat

Station "Rdam Zuid"


Passer straat

Co

Co

ses

ses

St

St

nd uc te urh of

nd uc te

tra at

tra

urh of

at

Hil
gs tr

Mallegat

Le

Le

eu we ns

eu

led

St ein

St ein

we

AN

OP

schaal: 1: 500

ok
la Re

ijk
Roteb 250m locatie Paul Krugerstraat

Rosetunnel

Ja co

Ja co

ns

we

we

Cr on js tra
Bloemfonteinstraat

Cr

te in

te

LA

m in as tra

in

on

in

AN

Bo th as

Bo

str aa t

str

js tra

as

th

aa

tra

ZU

ID

OP

as

Gezondheidscentrum Afrikaanderwijk

4) Healthcare
er str aa t
Olivier van Noortstraat
De Ru

Jo

Jo

at

at

at

at

tra

tra

Ma

lleg

at

ZU

ub

ub

at

at

er t-

er t-

ID

Bloemfonteinstraat

Ma

lleg

at

De la Re
Ch ris

De

Rie

be

ek

st

t raa

ok

Ch

ys tra

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Bibliotheek Afrikaanderwijk

5) Safety
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Economie, werk & inkomen Marinestr.


d k rik ad e
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Veiligheid

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Welzijn & Hulpverlening

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Economie, werk & inkomen Marinestr.


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sst

str

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raa

51

52

Research: Inherent Identity; Program and Space

53

Sub-Question 3: What exactly is part of the culture of the disadvantaged groups currently residing the neighbourhood of Feijenoord?
Answering this subquestion enables one to shift the research into a more indept and quality-oriented phase in order to elaborate on the urban identity of the neighbourhood. To be more specific, the research shifts its focus to the more experiential value of the neighbourhood. As such, this phase of the research however contains an inherent complexity, in that it is of a more subjective nature. Thus, in order to expound on the urban identity, one needs to approach the neighbourhood from a different angle. One angle of approach is that of the Rijksmonumenten, which states the areas or built works that are generally agreed upon as being characteristic for the citys urban character. Another angle can be provided by literature works such as Fortuin & Van der Graafs De Stad Verhaalt van de Stad (2006), in which a more up to date view on urban identity is provided.

Rijksmonumenten/National Monuments, Icons and Environmental structures In terms of rijksmonumenten, the area of the Bend in the River has a lot of valuable structures to offer:

In the case of the neighbourhood Feijenoord however there is only one national monument to be found. Het pand van Waaning (top right).

source: http://www.top010.nl

54

In addition to Het pand van Waaning however, the area also contains other characteristic elements of a more recent past. Among these elements are the Willemsbrug (top-left), Office building De Brug (top-right), The Erasmusbrug (lower-left) and the Wilhelminapier (lower-right). According to Fortuin & Van der Graaf such elements have the tendency to become strong elements of the urban identity in that they develop an iconic-status through their architecture.

source: http://www.top010.nl

However, as Fortuin and Van der Graaf also state, one needs to carefully evaluate the socio-cultural value of such an iconic/monumental element. For, an icon might give one a sense of pride an connection to his/her city, however, it does not necessarily stimulate social cohesion. Thus, the value/characteristics of the elements found in this subquestion will also be evaluated at the end of this chapter.

Characteristic Waterstructures

Characteristic Greenstructures

source: visie Kop van Feijenoord

For now we move on to research the other elements that are stated as being characteristic. One other angle is that of the municipality, which includes larger water- and greenstructures. This angle however still doesnt provide an adequate enough insight into Feijenoords urban identity.

55

Wijkcollege: A more direct angle towards acquiring indept information on the existing urban identity of Feijenoord was the wijkcollege (10-9-2010). An informal neighbourhood meeting in which various people involved with Feijenoord came to tell about there experiences in the neighbourhood. Next to providing a momentary platform for a dialog, the wijkcollege also enabled one to gain some additonal insight in the various other activities and organisations in the neighbourhood. Thus a basis could also be laid for future contacts as visualised in the interview sheet on the right page. The wijkcollege itself provided contact with: John: An inhabitant of Feijenoord which has lived in the neighbourhood his whole life. John provided a good impression of the historic identity of Feijenoord and how it developed over the years from a more harbour oriented region to a more housing based neighbourhood. According to John Feijenoord is so problematic because all those that gained any wealth from the harbour activities moved away without ever significantly investing in the area. This also goes for companies currently active in the neighbourhood. Zafia: An employee at the local Anadolu mosk. As Zafia states the mosk doesnt only serve religious purposes, but also provides recreational activities for its visitors. These activities range from pool/biljarts, to a playground for the young children. In addition to recreation, educational courses are also provided, such as linguistics or typing. Zafia states that the mosk has a hard time reaching the youngsters (15-20j.). The recreational activities do attract some, but usually they prefer to hangout on the streets with friends, where saidly some of them also get involved in mischiefs. Ewout van t Verlaat: Ewout is an employee at TOS (thuis op straat). TOS provides the younger children in the neighbourhood with various toys to play with in the public space. As such every child in the neighbourhood has the possibility to play and enjoy him/herself despite there domestic/financial situation. In addition to this TOS also provides social control on the various playgrounds, thereby ensuring a safe situation. TOS is active on school playgrounds, on the soutern park of Feijenoord and in courtyards such as that of the Stampioenblok. There local HQ is situated in Eefje Peddemors: Eefje works for Creatief Beheer. An organisation which is generally involved with the tranformation of often neglected areas of the public space. When doing so, the goal is to involve the local inhabitants an stimulate them to take the initiative. Following this method of work Eefje has also succesfully setup a temporay neighbourhood garden on an inactive buildingsite. With time Eefje believes the garden has increasingly come to attract some possitive attention of the inhabitants. Dirk Veldhoen: Dirk is the locationmanager of sportshal De Nieuwe Persoonshal. As Dirk states the buildings doesnt only function as a mere sportshal. With time it has actually grown to something closer to a community centre. This is a choice that was consciously made, seen as Dirk wanted to stimulate a sense of community. As such, Dirk also states that he doesnt see himself as owner of the building: The people are the owners, all the people, all ages, all ethnicities. As a result the building facilitates a wide range of activities: from theatrical plays, to elementary school gymlessons; from soccertournaments to wijkcolleges. Dirk and his collegees however do cope with a few issue, in that the building has become outdated, overpressured an understaffed.

56

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Paul Zuidgeest - |25/11/10 De Tuigcommissie Estatic 5e e WONEN & WOONOMGEVING 6 e ss Pin Lod hij ur rd f Lodewijk Pinco s 4 oo co w Na nb 3 en sb ijk 5 Dille plein Rosepark eij g 24/10/10 schaal: 1: 500 Ecokinderpark Creatief beheer | F u rug 250m 1. t ---------------------6 Le d- br am aa r ov e nsd 7 1 11 r 7. Anadolu Moskee | F. Karaaslan - no in V Eefje Peddemorske-str11/11/10 soo rd ije have orst e "De Hef" 8 Per OVERIG dn ka ooF Spen de an terZi vo 1 9 8/11/10 ha o 2. BOF | Marianne van Es enLmetraat anderen rd2 t 10 s rw 4 o OVERIG at aa no 8. Anadolu Moskee | S. Demir Roseparkra e 5 - 15/11/10 str pst ije Sto gh6 Fe rug Bin koo en ot 3 b WTC | Marco van den Berg - 29/11/10 Heij blo tg a7 11 4 25/10/10 ne ve k 3. Speeltuin de Feijenoordse d-ijenoovrednen at 8n J.B r e ha Ro at nh tra EUR | Robbert de & 24/10/10 d. B tra ers ooF -ven 9. Marco van Haandel VriezeKooiman SWF | Jos da Silva - Jan - 17/10/10 an teras L e av r Middenstip |gRicardo Haakmatha n 9 do 2 enkem AA at ije at m ra2 Stieltjesplein 10 o en ra ak ur Gemeentewerken - 12/11/10 Fe 3 pi st nst N ad t 2/12/10 B e OP piekma raa am pst St 12 SZ Barbara van Steen - 28/10/10 koo UI 3 3 Heij tr. 4. Skateland | eigenaar T OVERIG s4 D A ijk W.G t Anja van der Sijde - 11/10 nd Entrepotstraat raa .W 5. SWF Funzone De Koepels | Daniel ge rst itt oo ev r e t 7 H 13e aa e do rstadstoezicht | Hasan Sagir - 15/11/10 np ven Monteiro - 24/10/10 nst 8 in Burg 3 leite ma Feijenoord Salon | Robbert de Vrieze elsple r4 Sn iek Hand tedS+V | Albert van Eer - 18/10/10 d Wa sstr. 6. De Tuigcommissie | Estatic - O Sp 17/11/10 on pa 1 Fe 2P Ri ije jtu ers 24/10/10straat elen oon no ig TOS | Christa Zwanenburg - 25/11/10 reldd e nw sstr t or Vijf W aat Jalo eg aa en dk Rosebrug tr av 7. Anadolu Moskee | F. 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"RdamoZuid" lle er Heij Bred Feijenoord Salon | Robbert de Vrieze yat str dij Rosetunnel Moerkerke - 18/11/10 t ea 3. Speeltuin de- Feijenoordse Sp 1. Jongen (16) 8/11/10 sBr ijk Sto t k d oo nis Bi ot traat rw 3 en rs LA 17/11/10 blo nn eg SWF | (20) 8/11/10 Passe 4 2. og Middenstip |-Ricardo Haakmat AN JongenBelinda van Mossel & Hans k ha at Ho en at ve tra TOS | Christa Zwanenburg - 25/11/10 OP J.B n tra ans ha .B ers 3. 2/12/10Paulides - 24/11/10 Mohammed - 11/11/10 km ZU ak or em ve Spie ID t 7Burgd ak 5 3 4. Skatelandall|egeigenaar ad 1n jongen (21) a 2P e M Bloemfonteinstraat Mallegat t ers oon raa r st 6 5. SWF Funzone De Koepels | Daniel Speeltuinvereniging | Roewand atestr. sstr lon W s aat Ja Rosetunnel pa 1 am t W.G 6. Monteiro - 24/10/10 Ali (16) - 20/10/10 aa 4 nsd str .W LA ek 2 itPersoo 9 10 t be AN 5 tev 6. De Tuigcommissie | Estatic aa 7. 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SWF | Jos RDS Silva - 24/10/10 straat da P La ete elw Groen 2 r OVERIG m raat Ma EV ge eg 3. 10 tHeemskerk school PCBO | Tom Kros st rsla IAD Laan pe 11/11/10 3.pstraa Groen Heemskerk school PCBO | Tom Kros 3. Mohammed - aat Station tjesw Ko UC eg 10Hillest aa 7 Heemskerk school PCBO | Tom Kros r K 3. - 11/11/10 "Rdam Zuid" T 5 4. jongen (21)kerst tstraat OVERIG 10 raat Mallegat - 11/11/10 3 4 n Sp Marco van Haandel & Jan Kooiman Kli t oo bie at 10r. 4. - 11/11/10 de dukdalf | Charlot nis est raa rw rstra 6 basisschool bie rst eg 4. basisschool de dukdalf | Charlot V 5. Speeltuinvereniging .| Roewand Passe Gemeentewerken - 12/11/10 ha r e o bie - Rosetunnel 4. urgdbasisschool - 30/11/10 | Charlot van Helden de dukdalf AR 6. Ali (16) ven20/10/10 erstr van Helden - 30/11/10 rk 3 KE Feijenoord Salon Steen - 28/10/10 Barbara van | Robbert de Vrieze we 1/10 illedijk 5. B van Helden - 30/11/10 ISOS | Gerdie Verheijden nk eH Ba 7.NOOSamira (21) - 24/10/10 1/10 5. ISOS |Steinweg Verheijden Gerdie 5 7 Anja van der Sijde - 11/10 Bred 17/11/10 RD at 11/10 1/10 ledijk 5. ISOS | Gerdie Verheijden 17/11/10 hof tra Mallegat at SE 8. Walid (22) - 23/10/10 slagers 11/10 tra 17/11/10 Hi TOS | Christa Zwanenburg - - 15/11/10 6 VIA ss e Hil stadstoezicht | Hasan Sagir 25/11/10 lle ergat 11/10 Bred er 11/10 Laan y17/11/10 p dij Rosetunnel DU tjesw Ko Be lle 9. 8 jongeren - 17/10/10 11/10 k Ma eg dS+V | Albert van Eer - 18/10/10 7 CT L 11/10 8 OVERIG O 10. AAN Marokkaanse jongeren 25 Fe 4 OVERIG er- . ije t OP no Wa sstr OVERIG 24/11/10 pa ZU at ord Ri ka tra jtu ID at de r ig MedewerkergsZadkine - 5/11/10 lleg w bu Ma e Medewerker Zadkine - 5/11/10 Bloemfonteinstraat g en ill Stichting deDMeeuw Rosebrug 5/11/10 | Brecha Medewerker Zadkine - Broeder - t at Stichting de Meeuw s|raBrecha Broedertraa 1/10 t 1/10 6/10/10 Stichting de Meeuwr | Brecha rBroeders d t e Other interviews conducted in the neighbourhood aa PARTICIPATIE & VRIJE TIJD loo t nk 6/10/10 1/10 st iet Zi a tra ek rsKuiper - 2/12/10 Sch JOS | Sabien e 6/10/10 R 2/12/10 be at nk dBEWONERS ra JOS | Sabien Kuiper - ie Kli or (See De Nieuwe Belangstelling(2011) no rst JOS | Sabien Kuiper - 2/12/10 e ije Fe rug 1. Ecokinderpark Creatief beheer | ug
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Caf / Bar Kale - 11/11/10 OVERIG Caf Nieuw Feijenoord 11/11/10 Sigarenboer - 11/11/10 Marco van Haandel & Jan Kooiman Beaty & Kapsalon - 11/11/10 Gemeentewerken - 12/11/10 Supermarkt Sahan - 11/11/10 Barbara van Steen - 28/10/10 Surinaams restaurant Mie 11/10 Anja van der Sijde - Lobie 11/11/10 stadstoezicht | Hasan Sagir - 15/11/10 7. Sigarenboer KINO B.V. - 11/11/10 dS+V | Albert van Eer - 18/10/10 8. Ali Baba Groente & fruit - 11/11/10 9. NaamlozeONDERWIJS11/11/10 Broodjeszaak 10. Shoarma & pizza El Avivaa 1. 11/11/10 Agnesschool | Annet Dries PARTICIPATIE & VRIJE 11. Caf de Ketel -Feijenoord | AdaTIJD 2. Bibliotheek 11/11/10 WONEN & der Born, Vincent de WOONOMGEVING 12. Hans van Groen 1. ---------------------EcokinderparkWijk - 19/11/10| Creatief Taapken, Paul school PCBObeheerKros 3. Heemskerk van | Tom Eefje Peddemors - 11/11/10 13. Paul Zuidgeest - 25/11/10 - 11/11/10 2. BOF | Marianne van Es en anderen OVERIG 4. basisschool de dukdalf | Charlot - 15/11/10 OVERIG van Helden 30/11/10 3. Speeltuin -de Feijenoordse Marco van HaandelRicardo Haakmat 5. ISOS | Gerdie Verheijden Middenstip | & Jan Kooiman Gemeentewerken - 12/11/10 2/12/10 WTC |17/11/10 den Berg - 29/11/10 Marco van Barbara van Steen - 28/10/10 4. Skateland eigenaar EUR | Robbert de|Vrieze - 17/10/10 5.Anja van der Sijde -Koepels | Daniel SWF Funzone De 11/10 OVERIG Monteiro - 24/10/10 stadstoezicht | Hasan Sagir - 15/11/10 6. Albert van Eer - | Estatic dS+V |De Tuigcommissie18/10/10 Medewerker Zadkine - 5/11/10 24/10/10 Stichting de Meeuw | Brecha Broeder 7. Anadolu Moskee | F. Karaaslan 8/11/10 6/10/10 ECONOMIE, WERK & INKOMEN 8. JOS | Sabien KuiperS. 2/12/10 Anadolu Moskee | - Demir 25/10/10 1. PARTICIPATIE 11/11/10 TIJD Caf / Bar Kale - & VRIJE 9. GEZONDHEID & SWF | Jos da Silva 24/10/10 2. Caf Nieuw Feijenoord -11/11/10 3. Ecokinderpark11/11/10beheer | Sigarenboer - Creatief HULPVERLENING 1. OVERIG 4. Eefje Peddemors --11/11/10 Beaty & Kapsalon 11/11/10 -----------------------5. Supermarkt Sahan 11/11/10 2. BOF | Marianne van -Es en anderen Feijenoord 6. - 15/11/10 restaurant Mie Lobie - Surinaams Salon | Robbert de Vrieze OVERIG 17/11/10 11/11/10 de Feijenoordse 3. Speeltuin TOS | Christa Zwanenburg - 25/11/10 7. Middenstip | KINO B.V. - 11/11/10 Sigarenboer Ricardo Haakmat SWF | Eus Hehanussa & Jolanda 8. 2/12/10 Groente & fruit - 11/11/10 Ali Baba Moerkerke - 18/11/10 9. Skateland |Broodjeszaak 11/11/10 Naamloze eigenaar 4. SWF | Belinda van Mossel-& Hans 10. Shoarma & pizza Koepels 5. SWF Funzone De El Avivaa| -Daniel Paulides - 24/11/10 11/11/10 Monteiro - 24/10/10 11. De Tuigcommissie | Estatic Caf de Ketel - 11/11/10 6. 12. 24/10/10 der Born, Vincent Hans van BEWONERS Taapken, Paul van F. Karaaslan 7. Anadolu Moskee | Wijk - 19/11/10 13. 8/11/10 Paul Zuidgeest - 25/11/10 8. Anadolu Moskee-|8/11/10 2. Jongen (20) S. Demir 3. Mohammed - 11/11/10 25/10/10 OVERIG 4. Jos da Silva 9. SWF |jongen (21) - 24/10/10 WTC5. Marco van den Berg - |29/11/10 | Speeltuinvereniging Roewand 6. Ali (16) 20/10/10 EUR | Robbert -de Vrieze - 17/10/10 OVERIG
7. Samira (21) - 24/10/10 8. Walid (22) - 23/10/10 Feijenoord Salon | Robbert de Vrieze 9. 8 jongeren - 17/10/10 17/11/10 10. 25 Marokkaanse jongeren 24/11/10 TOS | Christa Zwanenburg - 25/11/10 1. Jongen (16) - 8/11/10

Rose-S

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11/11 11. Caf 12. Hans Taapk ECONOM Medew 13. Paul

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1. Jongen (16) - Sahan - 11/11/10 5. Supermarkt 8/11/10 2. SWF | Eus Hehanussa &Mie Lobie 6. Jongen (20) restaurant Jolanda Surinaams - 8/11/10 3. Mohammed - 11/11/10 Moerkerke - 18/11/10 11/11/10 4. SWF | Belinda van Mossel 11/11/10 7. jongen (21) KINO B.V. - & Hans Sigarenboer 5. Speeltuinverenigingfruit - 11/11/10 Paulides - 24/11/10 8. Ali Baba Groente & | Roewand 6. Ali (16) - 20/10/10 9. Naamloze Broodjeszaak - 11/11/10 7. Samira (21) -pizza El Avivaa 10. Shoarma & 24/10/10 8. Walid (22) - 23/10/10 11/11/10 9. 8Caf de Ketel - 11/11/10 11. jongeren - 17/10/10 10. 25 Marokkaanse jongeren 12. Hans van der Born, Vincent 24/11/10 Paul van Wijk - 19/11/10 Taapken, 13. Paul Zuidgeest - 25/11/10

ECONOMIE, WERK & INKOMEN GEZONDHEID & HULPVERLENING 1. Caf / Bar Kale - 11/11/10 -----------------------2. Caf Nieuw Feijenoord 11/11/10 BEWONERS 3. Sigarenboer - 11/11/10 OVERIG 4. Beaty & Kapsalon - 11/11/10

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Eefje Peddemorst - 11/11/10 1. Jongen (16) - 8/11/10 aa st 2. BOF | Marianner van Es ker 2. Jongen (20)K-n8/11/10 en anderen li - 15/11/10 - 11/11/10 V3. Mohammed r. A3. Speeltuin de rst R rke 4. KENjongen (21) Feijenoordse we nk OO Ba Middenstip | Ricardo Roewand Haakmat 5. Speeltuinvereniging | t RD raa SE rst 2/12/10 ge V6. Ali (16)IA 20/10/10 rsla pe DU 4. 7. SkatelandC 24/10/10 57 Samira (21) |T-eigenaarKo 5. SWF (22) - 23/10/10 8. Walid Funzone De Koepels | Daniel
n dio we
IJz er

Sta

OVERIG
WTC | Marco van den Berg - 29/11/10 EUR | Robbert de Vrieze - 17/10/10

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The status and role of the public space: The various interviews provided a good more indept insight into Feijenoord. However, the research is not limited to merely interviews. As part of a greater study on littering in the public space the research also goes on to evaluate the status of various locations in the public space. These locations largely follow from references made during the interviews (both positive and negative). As such also the public space, the place that theoretically should provide a platform social cohesion, is evaluated on various aspects.

RECREATION; (SEMI-)PUBLIC COURTYARDS


1) Openbaar; Zuidereiland; : - schoon: ja - heel: ja - beheerd: ja - gedefineerd: nee - aansluiting tuinen: nee - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 3, matig weinig zwerfvuil begroeing oogt echter rommelig gem. is verantwoordelijke weinig gedef. dmv. enkele speeltoest. rommelige, hoge erfafscheidingen (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed)

2) Openbaar; Persoonshaven; : - schoon: ja - heel: ja - beheerd: ja - gedefineerd: nee - aansluiting tuinen: nee - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 3, matig

geen zwerfvuil geen gebreken gem. is verantwoordelijke weinig gedefineerd t.o.v. formaat rommelige, hoge erfafscheidingen (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed)

3) Openbaar; Stampioenplein; : - schoon: ? - heel: ? - beheerd: ja - gedefineerd: ja - aansluiting tuinen: ? - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 3, matig

gem. is verantwoordelijke o.a. sportveld, speeltoestellen, etc. (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed)

4) Semi-Openbaar; Steven Hoogendijkstraat-Nassauhaven-Persoonsstraat: - schoon: ? - heel: - beheerd: ? gem. is verantwoordelijke - gedefineerd: ja weinig gedef. dmv. enkele speeltoest. - aansluiting tuinen: nee rommelige, hoge erfafscheidingen - nadere uitleg: nee - cijfer: (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed) 3, matig 5) Semi-Openbaar; Oranjeboomstraat-Rosepark: - schoon: ja geen zwerfvuil - heel: ja geen grote gebreken - beheerd: ? - gedefineerd: ja o.a. speeltoestellen, banken, etc. - aansluiting tuinen: nee rommelige, hoge erfafscheidingen - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 3, matig (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed)

58

SPECIFICALY INTENDED FOR RECREATION


1) Nassauhavenpark; Nijverheidstraat: - schoon: nee - heel: ja - beheerd: ja - afgebakend: nee - gedefineerd: nee - doelgroep: geen specifieke - populair: ja - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 3, matig vuil straatmeubilair geen grote gebreken gem. is verantwoordelijke geen sterke ruimtelijke grenzen weinig gedefineerd t.o.v. formaat geen specifieke etniciteit, leeftijd, etc. maar voornamelijk in de zomer (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed)

2) Buurttuin, Creatief Beheer; Zinkerweg: - schoon: nee klein zwerfvuil - heel: ja oogt rommelig, maar geen grote gebr. - beheerd: ja creatief beheer is verantwoordelijke - afgebakend: nee geen sterke ruimtelijke grenzen - gedefineerd: ja o.a. speeltoestellen, picknicktafels, etc. - doelgroep: geen specifieke geen specifieke etniciteit, leeftijd, etc. - populair: ja voornamelijk bij 4-12 jarigen en ouders - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 3, matig (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed) 3) Speeltuin BSW, De Feijenoordse Middenstip; Persoonsdam: - schoon: ja schoon meubilair, geen zwerfvuil - heel: ja geen gebreken - beheerd: ja BSW is verantwoordelijke - afgebakend: ja hekwerk bakent ruimte af - gedefineerd: ja o.a. speeltoestellen en materialisatie - doelgroep: 4-12 jarigen geen specifieke achtergrond - populair: ja hele jaar door - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 4, goed (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed) 4) Speelplaats; Persoonsdam: - schoon: nee - heel: ja - beheerd: ja - afgebakend: nee - gedefineerd: ja - doelgroep: 4-12 jarigen - populair: ja - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 3, matig 5) Speelplaats; Mallegat: - schoon: ja - heel: ja - beheerd: ja - afgebakend: nee - gedefineerd: ja - doelgroep: 4-12 jarigen - populair: ja - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 4, goed 6) Speelplaats; Rosepark: - schoon: ja - heel: ja - beheerd: ja - afgebakend: nee - gedefineerd: nee - doelgroep: 4-12 jarigen - populair: nee - nadere uitleg: - cijfer: 4, goed klein zwerfvuil geen gebreken gem. is verantwoordelijke (+ TOS) speelplaats fungeert als doorloopplein dmv. sport, spel en chill activiteiten en leerlingen Agnesschool in pauze voornamelijk in bijzijn van TOS (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed) geen zwerfvuil geen gebreken gem. is verantwoordelijke geen sterke ruimtelijke grenzen o.a. speeltoestellen en materialisatie oudere kinderen op sportvelden de sportvelden wel (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed) geen zwerfvuil geen gebreken gem. is verantwoordelijke (ruimtelijk helder?) weinig gedefineerd t.o.v. formaat oudere kinderen op sportvelden de sportvelden echter wel (zeer slecht - 1,2,3,4,5 - bijzonder goed)

59

SWOT Analysis: Combining the data acquired from organisations such as Rijksmonumenten with the input of the inhabitants and the more indept research of the public space one is now able to compose an overview of the numerous elements of Feijenoord and their relevance for the urban identity. This overview thus contains the location, the effect and the characteristics of the elements.

Strengths

Qualitative; Qualitative;

SWOT Analysis; Strengths: SWOT Analysis; Strengths:


B) Characteristics of the elements B) Characteristics of the elements

A) Relevance for Urban Identity A) Relevance for Urban Identity

e e

Positive influence Positive influence

Monumental value Monumental value Pragmatic value Pragmatic value Industrial Industrial Recreational value Recreational value

The strong elements are those that have a positive effect on the general urban identity of the neighbourhood. These are the elements to which either psoitive reference is often made in relation to the neighbourhood. An example is the sportshal, to which people refer as a positive and pleasant place to meet their acquintances for instance. The SWOT however also contains monumental elements as the Hef-bridge. As such, in reference to the subchapter 3.1, this SWOT not yet contains the usefulness of the elements.

Weaknesses
Qualitative; Qualitative;

A) Relevance for Urban Identity A) Relevance for Urban Identity

Little/no positive influence Little/no positive influence

SWOT Analysis; Weaknesses: SWOT Analysis; Weaknesses:


B) Characteristics of the elements B) Characteristics of the elements


els pels oe p e e Ko De K D

Elements documented under weakness are the elements that are either having a negative effect on the residential environment or elements that are inhibiting (re-creational) activities. An example is the barrier that cuts the Rose-park of from the Oranjeboomstraat. As such two recreational activities that can strengthen eachother (rec. shopping and rec. greenery) are now cutoff from eachother. Another example are the industries that utilise heavy truck traffic, causing emissions and safety issues.

Industrial Industrial Recreational value Recreational value Little/No significant development Little/No significant development

60

Oppertunities
Qualitative; Qualitative;

SWOT Analysis; Oppertunities: SWOT Analysis; Oppertunities:


B) Characteristics of the elements B) Characteristics of the elements

A) Relevance for Urban Identity A) Relevance for Urban Identity

Underdeveloped Underdeveloped

Monumental value Monumental value Pragmatic value Pragmatic value Industrial Industrial Recreational value Recreational value River related value River related value

In reference to the weaknesses, as stated before, this SWOT is mainly an overview of the effect that an element has on the urban identity. Thus heavy industry might currently not possitively influence the neighbourhood, but it doesnt exclude the possibility of utilising this industry to the advantage of the neighbourhood. Exploration of these possibilities is however better left for SQ4. Other more apparent oppetunities are the development of the wateredges and the development of the public space, especially those directly adjacent to popular, but overpressured facilites such as the sportshal.

Threats

Qualitative; Qualitative;

SWOT Analysis; Threats: SWOT Analysis; Threats:


B) Characteristics of the elements B) Characteristics of the elements
Gentrification?! Gentrification?!

A) Relevance for Urban Identity A) Relevance for Urban Identity

Concerning the threats, the biggest threat the urban identity of Feijenoord is currently facing is that of the municipalitys developmentplans. Currently, a part of the community has already been displaced (negative gentrification); greenstructures planted by inhabitants are threatened to be built over; popular facilities are being relocated in order to facilitate housing for newcomers.

Monumental value Monumental value Pragmatic value Pragmatic value Industrial Industrial Recreational value Recreational value Careful development needed Careful development needed

61

Distilling the actual identity: Having made the an overview of the effect various element have on the urban identity of Feijenoord, one can now start to distill the the strongest and most useful elements. As one can understand the layers strengths and oppertunities provide an initial collection of strong elements of the identity. Further distillation towards the elements with a socially active program/character leads us to the map as visualized on the right page. In this identity map the elements of Participation&Recreation with a green sphere are the strongest elements of Feijenoords urban identity.

-----

Strengths Oppertunities

-------------

Monumental Pragmatic (econ.) Industrial Recreational River related Little/No significance

62

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63

A A C B C B

The process of deepening the research continues with the evaluation of spatial characteristics of these areas. To be more specific: - sectional/proportional studies of these locations are made - respective programs are mapped spatially - 3D mapping is included site-specifically

Section AA

Section AA Section BB Section


housing housing Rose-park housing housing

housing housing housing housing

housing yard shops

housing

Section AA Section BB

housing

Next to the spatial compostition of the Oranjeboomstraat shopping street, which is considered to be a string characteristic of Feijenoord, this section also shows how a wallbarrier seperates this street from a nearby park. Redesigning of this barrier thus becomes an oppertunity for future development.

Se

Section BB
Section

Se Se

housing housing yard housing housing industry

Section B deals with the the large bodies of water and the potential they have to become strengthening elements of the neighbourhood. A first step towards utilisation is the section-mapping as conducted here.
1 2

Se Se Se

Section
housing housing housing

Se Se

yard

skateland

industry

Mapping of these bodies of water in various places also visualises the spatial relationschip they have with various other element. Section C shows the current spatial relationship between water, housing/courtyard and skateland (an element with a potential to stimulate neighbourhood cohesion).

Se

64

Section AA Section BB
D D E F F E

Section BB Section CC

Section AA Section
housing housing housing housing monum.

Section CC
1 2
Nassauhavenpark

housing

Section DD
The Nassauhavenpark is also an elementSection BB that positively stimulates neighbourhood cohesion.Section DD Moreover, the park was also developed as a joint effort of all who were involved with the neighbourhood at the time. With the passing of time however investing in the park has comeEE Section to a crawl. Nonetheless the park is still an element of neighbourhood ID.

Section

Section EE
housing

Sec

Sportshal

tech.

Another very strong element of the neighbourhood ID is Section F the sportshal De Nieuwe Persoonshal. As discussed in Sec the interview-paragraph, this facility provides activities for a broad group of inhabitants and is open to anybody. The building itself however is a relative isolated whole, Section FF resulting also in an isolation from the surrounding space and bypassers.

Section

Sec
elementary school

Sportshal

A A E A
1

EF

F E D

As with section E section F also deals with the spatial composition of edges. Here however the section focusses on the quality/lifeability of the open public space as an case onto itself. One finds that a good spatial definition helps to make a place more pleasant and clear, thus making it also more susceptible to programming and use (1). This however isnt the case for al the public spaces/squares in Feijenoord (2).

B F

D D C 65

66

Design: Utilizing Inherent Urban Identity

67

When investigating the situation of the current inhabitants, specif researched are: What is the economical capability of the inhabitants? Low income? If so, how come? Low education? As we have learned throught the research conducted in chapter 4 / subquestion 2, Feijenoord is a neighbourhood that deals with a lot of issues. These issues rangeBadlittering and other language? public space, to tensions befrom control of hindrances in the
Recapitulation: tween various ethnicities and age groups; from social isolation and depression, to physical health issues; from teenage mothers and unemployed adolescents without a startersqualification/diploma, to illiterate (allochtonous) adults that all find themselves restrained from pursuing their interest (see image below). Thus, as the status of a neighbourhood is measured by the wellbeing of its inhabitants, Feijenoord carries the lable of a problematic neighbourhood.

How about the domestic situation? Small families? Big families? Lots of children? If s also has a lot of children, with all the necessary spa In addition to the amount of issues, a large number of these issues also prove to be intertwined and relatively intagible (playgrounds, child friendly streets, etc.) in their nature. As a result, the complexity of the assignment steadily increases. For how does one adress such complex, seemingly intangible socio-cultural issues within the spatially oriented disciplines of architecture and urbanism?

More specifically:

Which (other) age groups does Feijenoord house? Elderly? Teenagers?

How can the inherent valuable aspects of the neighbourhood be developed along with the new requireWhat is the general evaluation of the mentsin a harmonious/liveable way, which benefits both what is there inhabitants health? ADD (the inherent socio-cultural aspects of Feijenoord (sub-q. 2&3)) and that which is to come (the natural occurring changes in socio-cultural aspects, and the desired developments as described in the Which ethnicities and cultures reside in Feijenoord? Rotterdam city-vision(sub-q. 1&3))?

Feijenoord
absence of discrimination adequate mastery of language

adequate housing adequate facilities Littering and hindrances

adequate income good health adequate facilities Littering and hindrances

adequate housing

ab of mi

living environment

capacities

living environment

adequate schooling Social Index

work and school participation social contacts social and cultural activities social connectivity perceived connectivity

work and school

participation social contacts social and cultural activities

social effort

mutations

so e

Fig. : The problem; a complex interlinked network of problems, often of an intangible nature. Legend: from Violet, to Pink, Grey, Light Green and Dark Green; Violet being the most problematic source: COS, buurtanalyse Feijenoord, may 2009

Fig. 8: The Social Index gives an indication of a neighbourhoods social s data. On which specific themes is Feijenoord in the red (negative) and why?

10
68

Angle of approach: Essentially this final thesis question forms the step towards an actual design. Inherent to the nature of this thesis, such a design will have to focusses on the complex relationship between space, individual and wellbeing. This relationship has also been researched within Veldacademie, the knowledge center for neighbourhood transformation. In collaboration with practical philosopher Henk Oosterling an approach was also formulated that not only translates the illusive term identity to more practical terms, but also ties individual wellbeing to actual space or environment (see image below). Furthermore, by adressing the various interests of the inhabitants and linking these interests the potential arises to create an integral social network that stimulates the emergence and consolidation of the inhabitants inherent potential, thereby regenerating the neighbourhood in a sustainable way. As such, not only the link with architecture and urbanism becomes apparent, but also their far reaching relevance when it come to the wellbeing of the individual. For, architecture and urbanism provide the actual programmatic and physical environment for the development of the individual. More specifically, it is the capacity and appropriateness of this physical and programmactic environment to facilitate the inhabitants sence of purpose, recreation, work, material security, etc. that determine wether its compostion in an adequate one. Based on Alexander (1972) and Lynch (1960) we have already determined that this role of the programmatic and physical environment is most relevant at the scale of the neighbourhood. Thus we can conclude that Feijenoords spatial and programmatic setup is still lacking the appropriate composition to support a number of its inhabitants. This is in part due to the method by which the municipality governs its neighbourhoods at determines their spatial and programmatic setup (see subquestion 1/ chapter 3). As such, in the broader sense, a series of interventions should also take place within the governance of the municipality and their undelying politics. This part of the matter is however better suited for a different type of thesis and studio. The focus of this thesis will remain that of the programmatic and spatial composition of the environment as a basic ingredient for the inhabitants wellbeing.

WELZIJN
zelfontplooing

samenleven
wonen zorg woonomgeving

sociale netwerken

behoefte aan waardering en erkenning behoefte aan sociaal contact behoefte aan veiligheid en zekerheid lichamenlijke behoeften

waardering en zingeving

arbeid, prestatie en vrije tijd

werk

bewoner

onderwijs

materile zekerheden
recreatie media culturele activiteiten

lichaam en geest

Fig. : The angle of approach: From Maslows approach of the individual to the Livingspheres approach; source: report De Nieuwe Belanstelling, march 2011

69

Representative examples Every individual is unique, as such the specific problems, desires and interests can also differ per individual. This poses an issue, seen as one can not adress every individuals specific problems in detail. Thus, the strategy is to find the commonality between these individual problems and adress them form there on out. This yields a series of representatieve groups in theElement(s): neighbourhood of Feijenoord, which weSCDs discuss here. For a will Specifying Strategic more extensive overview reference is made to the report De Nieuwe Belangstelling (2011) developed within Veldacademie Rotterdam.
kengetallen werk en inkomen
kengetallen onderwijs samenleven
kengetallen werk en inkomen

wonen zorg

werk

bewoner

recreatie

culturele activiteiten

Youngsters The youngters of Feijenoord (age 14-22) form one of the most characteristic groups in that they are large in number, but also deal with a variety of interlinked issues. Often the education level is found to be quite low. This can have a broad range of reasons that are not always easily tracked down. These range from a troubled domestic situation, to drug use, etc. This often also results in a number of school drop-outs or vsv-ers (see table). The problems however dont stop there. In general what one learns; from both data-research and interviews; is that the low level of education forms a limit in terms of joboppertunities. With no job, no easily accesible forms of recreation and an unpleasant domestic situation these youngsters often decide to spend their time outside, in the living-environment. Here they are quickly seen as a nuisance and are labeled the loitering youth.
bron: buurtmonitor 2009, Sociale Index 2010, Feitenkaart Inkomen 2007 bron: buurtmonitor 2009, Sociale Index 2010, Feitenkaart Inkomen 2007

aantal wijk % wijk % dlgm. % Rotterdam Oranjeboomstraat kengetallen onderwijs 1) aantal wijk % wijk % dlgm. % Rotterdam beroepsbevolking opleidingsniveau bevolking opleidingsniveau % wijk % dlgm. % Rotterdam wijk % % dlgm. % Rotterdam beroepsbevolkingbevolking potentielle en hoger opgeleiden 67% 67% 67% middelbaarberoepsbevolking 15 - 64 middelbaar en hoger opgeleiden 45% 62% 45% 62% potentielle beroepsbevolking 15 - 64 67% 67% 67% bevolking z. startkwalificatie 23% 25% 15% thema voldoende opleiding thema voldoende opleiding bevolking z. startkwalificatie 23% 25% 15% inkomensverdeling moeite met Nederlands moeite met Nederlands 33% 24% 14% 33% 24% 14% inkomensverdeling laag inkomen (onderste 70% 61% z. zwak 5 54% goede taalbeheersing 40%; 24.300) laag inkomen (onderste 40%; 24.300) z. zwak goede taalbeheersing soc. 3,1 3,7 soc. 3,1 3,7 70% 61% 54% 5 woonlaag Monitor gestandariseerd (18.200) laag inkomenRotterdam 2009 (cijfers uit 2007/08) 73% 63% % Rotterdam 51% VSV inkomenRotterdam 2009 (cijfers uit 2007/08) VSV Monitor gestandariseerd (18.200) 73% 63% % Rotterdam 51% midden (middelste naar etniciteit, 24% 30% 34% met startkwalificatie40%; 45.000) 2008 (voorstartkwalificatie naar45.000) 2008 (voor heel Rotterdam) met heel Rotterdam) omgeving midden (middelste 40%; etniciteit, 24% 30% 34% midden gestandariseerd (29.100) 23% 28% 34% Nederlands Nederlands 61,1% 61,1% midden gestandariseerd (29.100) 23% 28% 34% hoog (bovenste 20%; v.a.45.000) 6% 24% 13% 2) Antilliaans Antilliaans 37,1% Persoonshal 37,1% hoog (bovenste 20%; v.a.45.000) 6% 24% 13% hoog gestandariseerd (v.a.29.100) 4% 9% 15% Kaapverdisch Kaapverdisch 34,7% 34,7% hoog gestandariseerd (v.a.29.100) 4% 9% 15% lage inkomens Marokkaans nader bekeken Marokkaans 34,0% 34,0% lage inkomens nader bekeken Surinaams die moeilijk rondkomen Surinaams huishoudens 40,4% 40,4% 36% 26% 17% huishoudens die moeilijk rondkomen 36% 26% 17% Turks Turks 34,0% 34,0% tot 105% sociaal minimum 790 27% 22% 16% tot 105% sociaal minimum 790 27% 22% 16% overige rijke landen overige rijke landen 65,9% 65,9% onderwijs waarvan: eenpersoonshuishouden 360 waarvan: eenpersoonshuishouden 360 in Nederland geboren allochtonen in Nederland geboren allochtonen meis. 46,7% jong. 35,3% meis. 46,7% jong. 35,3% eenoudergezinnen 200 eenoudergezinnen 200 1e generatie-allochtonen 1e generatie-allochtonen meis. 45,1% jong. 36,4% meis. 45,1% jong. 36,4% paar met kinderen 90 paar met kinderen 90 vsv-er autochtoonmet 105% sociaal minimum autochtoonmet 105% sociaal minimum vsv-er 11,9% 11,9% kinderen in gezin 19% 17% kinderen in gezin 19% 17% 3) vsv-er allochtoon 1e generatie vsv-er allochtoon tot 6 jaar 22,2% Skateland 22,2% waarvan kinderen tot 6 jaar 24% waarvan kinderen1e generatie 24% kengetallen woonomgeving kengetallen woonomgeving woonomgeving kengetallen woonomgeving kengetallen vsv-er allochtoon 2e generatie vsv-er allochtoon tot 6 -12 jaar 15,2% 15,2% waarvan kinderen tot 6 -12 jaar 26% waarvan kinderen2e generatie 26% afkomstigkinderen tot 12 - 18 jaar afkomstig uit MBO 59,7% % wijk %% wijk 28% % Rotterdam Rotterdam % wijk % Rotterdam 28% % wijk 59,7% % Rotterdam waarvan uit MBO waarvan kinderen tot 12 - 18 jaar schoon VO schoon en uit (score: probleem) schoon en heel (score: probleem) afkomstig uit en heel (score: probleem) afkomstig heel 20,7% 20,7% media schoon en heel (score: probleem) VO bron inkomen bron inkomen aantalen jong. n. onderwijspositie Feijenoord op straat t/m 22) aantalen jong. (17 t/m op buurtprobleem vervuiling op straat buurtprobleem vervuiling wijkwinst vervuiling op straat Feijenoord wijk% wijk 22) straat buurtprobleem n. onderwijspositie buurtprobleem vervuiling 46% % dlgm. 36% % Rotterdam wijk 56% 56% 36% 36% 56% 36% aantal wijk 61% 56%46% % dlgm. % aantal wijk loon of winst 56% loon of (17 56% % Rotterdam 61% buurtprobleem hondenpoep buurtprobleem straat buurtprobleem hondenpoep op buurtprobleem hondenpoep op straat 35% 45% 45% 35% 35% 32% 45% 35% jongeren met startkwalificatie op hondenpoep op met startkwalificatie straat jongeren straat 187 28% 32% 187 43% 45%21% 28% 43% pension 21% 20% 23% pension 20% 23% buurtprobleem vuil naast container buurtprobleem startkwalificatie buurtprobleem container 63% 38% 63% 38% 38% 48% 63% 38% jongeren zonder startkwalificatie vuil naast container vuil naast container buurtprobleem vuil naast 31% jongeren zonder 337 51% 48% 337 40% 63%31% 51% 40% werkloos/ bijstand/arbeidsongeschikt werkloos/ bijstand/arbeidsongeschikt 22% 14% 22% 14% buurtprobleem wildplassen buurtprobleem wildplassen buurtprobleem wildplassen buurtprobleem wildplassen 25% 19% 25% 19% 19% 20% 25% 19% vsv-ers vsv-ers 133 20% 20% 133 17% 25% 20% 17% uitkeringen 35-55 uitkeringen 35-55 20% 16% 10% 20% 16% 10% buurtprobleem bekladding muren buurtprobleem bekladdingscholen met leerlingen uit Feijenoord wijk 24% 17% 24% 17% 24% 17% VO muren VO scholen met leerlingen uit Feijenoord buurtprobleem bekladding muren buurtprobleem bekladding muren aantal wijk 17% 24% aantal niet werkend werkzoekend niet werkend werkzoekend 18% 15% 9% 18% 15% 9% vernield vernield kapot vernield vernield kapot straatmeubiliar 21% 13% 21% 13% 21% 13% 21% 13% CSG Clavijn CSG Clavijn kapot straatmeubiliar straatmeubiliar kapot straatmeubiliar 173 173 geregistreerde werkloosheid 5% geregistreerde werkloosheid van groepen overlast van groepen jongeren 10% 5% De Koepels / 20% 10% Kans 4) 31% Nieuwe overlast van groepen jongeren jongeren overlast van groepen jongeren 31% 20% 31% 20% 31% 20% Zuiderpark College Zuiderpark College overlast 679 679 % 8% 6,3% 4,3% % > 1jr niet-werkend tevredenheid met buurt ber.bev met buurt werkzoek. tov potent. > 1jr niet-werkend werkzoek. tov potent. ber.bev buurt 8% 6,3% 4,3% tevredenheid tevredenheid met bron: Buurtmonitor 2009, vsv monitor 2009, Veldacademie, JOS 2009, Sociale Index Islam SGM Ibn Ghaldoun Islam tevredenheid met buurt SGM Ibn Ghaldoun 34 34 aantal aantal uitkeringen detevreden met de eigen buurt uitkeringen tevreden met eigen buurt tevreden met de eigen buurt tevreden met de eigen buurt 57% 73% 57% 73% 57% 73% 57% 73% 2010; Feitenkaart Inkomen 2007; Veiligheidsindex 2010, Jeugdveiligheidsindex 2010. Grafisch Lyceum R'dam Grafisch Lyceum R'dam 22 22 totaal aantal uitkeringsontvangers tevredenheid openbaar groen 730 4,9 totaaltevredenheid openbaar groen openbaar groen aantal uitkeringsontvangers 730 tevredenheid tevredenheid Gymnasium probleem 20 probleem 4,3 probleem 4,9 4,3 4,3 probleem 4,9 4,3 4,9 Erasmiaans openbaar groen Erasmiaans Gymnasium 20 aantal uitkeringsontvangers 41 4,3 aantal uitkeringsontvangers groen recreatief groen jaar tevredenheid recreatief van 20 tm 24tevredenheid recreatief groen van 20 tm 24 jaar 41 probleem 4 tevredenheid tevredenheid recreatief groen probleem 10 probleem 4,3 4 4 probleem 4,3 4 4,3 De Passie Rotterdam De Passie Rotterdam 10 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van tevredenheid over speelplaatsen 75 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 25 tm speelplaatsen over speelplaatsen 25 tm 29 jaar 75 probleem jaar tevredenheid over speelplaatsen 29tevredenheid tevredenheid over 4,6 probleem 4,9 4,6 probleem 4,9 4,6 4,9 basisschoolleerlingen in Feijenoord basisschoolleerlingen in Feijenoord probleem aantal wijk % wijk aantal wijk 4,9 wijk % 4,6 aantal aedequate voorzieningen 30 tm 34aedequate voorzieningen uitkeringsontvangers van thema jaar 92 92 aantal uitkeringsontvangersaedequate voorzieningen jaar thema aedequate voorzieningentm 34thema thema van 30 in wijk op school in wijk op school 709 75% 709 75% aantal tevredenheid over buurthuizen tm buurthuizen pleinen buurthuizen pleinen tevredenheid over 39tevredenheid over tevredenheid buurthuizen voldoende 6,5 5,1 6,5 6,5 voldoende 5,1 6,5 5,1 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 35pleinen jaar uitkeringsontvangers van 35 tm 39 jaar overvoldoende pleinen voldoende 127 5,1 127 buiten wijk op school buiten wijk op school 183 25% 183 25% aantal Sociale Index 2010, Sociale Index 2010 44 jaar 94 94 bron: veiligehidsindex 2010, Jeigdveiligehidsindex 2010,uitkeringsontvangers van 40 tm veiligehidsindex 2010, Jeigdveiligehidsindex 2010, Sociale Index 2010 bron: veiligehidsindex 2010, jaar Jeigdveiligehidsindex 2010 veiligehidsindex bron: aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 40 tm 44bron:Agnesschool 2010, Jeigdveiligehidsindex 2010, Sociale Index 2010 K - Agnesschool K281 281 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 45 tm 49 jaar 99 99 aantal uitkeringsontvangers jaar PC - Heemskerschool I en II van 45 tm 49PC - Heemskerschool I en II 206 206 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 50 tm 54 jaar 68 68 aantal uitkeringsontvangers jaar PC - Groen van Pinkesteren van 50 tm 54PC - Groen van Pinkesteren 158 158 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 55 tm 59 jaar 79 79 aantal Dukdalf jaar M - De uitkeringsontvangers van 55 tm 59M - De Dukdalf 118 118 aantal uitkeringsontvangers 53 aantal uitkeringsontvangers 2009, veldacademie, jos 2009, sociale index 2010 van 60 tm 64 jaar jos jaar bron: buurtmonitor 2009, vsv minitorvan 60 tm 64bron: buurtmonitor 2009, vsv minitor 2009, veldacademie,53 2009, sociale index 2010 aantal uitkeringen n. etniciteit aantal uitkeringen n. etniciteit aantal uitkeringen Turken 203 aantal uitkeringen Turken 203 aantal uitkeringen Surinamers 138 aantal uitkeringen Surinamers 138 aantal uitkeringen Autochtonen 91 aantal uitkeringen Autochtonen 91 aantal uitkeringen overig westers 90 aantal uitkeringen overig westers 90 aantal uitkeringen Marokkanen 90 aantal uitkeringen Marokkanen 90 aantal uitkeringen Antillianen 69 aantal uitkeringen Antillianen 69

source: http://go-for-it-rotterdam.nl

samenleven
wonen zorg woonomgeving

kengetallen gezondheid kengetallen gezondheid en hulpverlening kengetallen gezondheid en gezondheid en hulpverlening kengetallen hulpverlening en hulpverlening kengetallen gezondheid en hulpverlening

werk

bewoner

recreatie

media culturele activiteiten

Allochthonous adults/parents Another characteristic group is that of the alloachthonous adults and parents. An initial problem here is also that of low education. This is often due to a tough transition from a foreign country. This group however is often more motivated to find a source of income, in that they often have to provide for their family. Education keeps playing a vital role to reach this. Ironically in some cases it is the strong social connectivity within the group that maintains the problems. Due to a culture of shame many individuals remain hesitant to enroll in an educational program.

%% dlgm. dlgm. %% Rotterdam dlgm.Rotterdam Rotterdam dlgm. % % dlgm. % % % Rotterdam % Rotterdam zorggebruik zorggebruik zorggebruik zorggebruik zorggebruik %% afgel. 2 maand.% afgel. afgel. 2 maand. contact m. huisarts afgel. 2 maand. contact m.% afgel. 2contact m. huisarts huisarts contact m. huisarts maand. contact m. % 2 huisarts maand. 41% 41% 38% 41% 41% 38% 41% 38% 38% 38% %% afgel. 12 maand. contact% huisarts contact m. huisarts huisarts afgel. 12 maand. % afgel. m. afgel. maand. contact m. huisarts contact afgel. 12 12 maand. contact m. % 12 maand. m. huisarts 80% 80% 74% 80% 80% 74% 80% 74% 74% 74% %% afgel. Jaar contactafgel. afgel.contact m. med. med. Specialist afgel. Jaar contact m. med. Specialist contact Specialist % m. med.afgel. Jaar % Jaar Jaar contact m. m. med. Specialist % Specialist 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% %% afgel. Jaar contactafgel. afgel.contact m. med. med. tandarts afgel. Jaar contact m. med. tandarts contact m. tandarts tandarts % m. med.afgel. Jaar contact m. med. % Jaar Jaar % tandarts 61% 61% 67% 61% 61% 67% 61% 67% 67% 67% kengetallen werk afgel.inkomen %m.en afgel.contact m. med. med. paramedici kengetallencontactafgel. inkomen contact paramedici %%en Jaar contact m. med.afgel. Jaar afgel. Jaar werk med. paramedici % Jaar Jaar contact m. m. med. paramedici % paramedici 23% 23% 25% 23% 23% 25% 23% 25% 25% 25% %% afgel. Jaar contactafgel. afgel.contact m. GGZ/AMW afgel. Jaar contact m. GGZ/AMW Jaar contact GGZ/AMW % m. GGZ/AMW contact m. m. GGZ/AMW % Jaar Jaar % afgel. 12% 12% 9% 12% 12% aantal wijk % wijk aantal wijk %9% wijk 12% Rotterdam dlgm. % % 9% dlgm. % 9% 9% % Rotterdam ervaren gezondheid 16+ ervaren gezondheid ervaren gezondheid 16+ ervaren gezondheid kengetallen werk en inkomenervaren gezondheid 16+ 16+16+ kengetallen werk en inkomen beroepsbevolking beroepsbevolking %% matige tot slechte matige% matige slechte25%/19%) *gze (DG/Rdam: 25%/19%) *gze matige tot slechte gezondheid slechte gezondheid (DG/Rdam: 25%/19%) *gze *gze % gezondheid (DG/Rdam:gezondheid *gze % matige tot tot slechte gezondheid tot (DG/Rdam: 25%/19%) (DG/Rdam: 25%/19%) % wijk 67% % dlgm. 67% % Rotterdam aantal wijk % wijk 67% % dlgm. 67% % Rotterdam potentielle beroepsbevolking beroepsbevolking16+ziekte of aandoening 16+16+ aantal wijk potentielleziekte ofchronische ziekte -of aandoening 16+ 15 - 64aandoening 15 64 67% 67% chronische ziekte of aandoening 16+ ziekte of aandoening chronische chronische chronische beroepsbevolkingberoepsbevolking ofof aandoening (DG/Rdam:aandoening*gze(DG/Rdam: 64%/57%) *gze 23% 57% 64% 64% 23% bevolking z. startkwalificatie z. 1 ziekte minimaal minimaalof aandoening (DG/Rdam: 64%/57%) *gze *gze bevolking 1 ziekte% aandoening (DG/Rdam: 64%/57%) *gze startkwalificatie1 ziekteziekte of 64%/57%) (DG/Rdam: 64%/57%) 64% 25% 57% 57% 25% 15% 15% %% minimaal minimaal % minimaal 1 1 ziekte of aandoening % 64% 57% 64% 57% potentielle beroepsbevolking1 1 - 64 of belemmering1dag.bezigheden potentielle beroepsbevolking 15 dag.bezigheden 67% 57% 57% 67% 67% 67% % minimaal ziekte% of % minimaal ziekte of of belemmering dag.bezigheden 75% % 1 ziekte 1 75% 67%57% 75% 75% 67% 57% 75% 57% inkomensverdeling % minimaal15ziekte minimaal minimaalof belemmering dag.bezigheden inkomensverdeling belemmering - 64 ziektebelemmering dag.bezigheden significant z.hogersignificant hoger hoger significant 24.300) significant hoger hoger significant bevolking z. startkwalificatie bevolking 23% 25% 23% 15% 25% 15% laag inkomen (onderste 40%; startkwalificatie 24.300) laag inkomen (onderste 40%; 70% 61% 70% 54% 61% 54% %% depressie depressie % depressie % depressie % depressie 17% 17% 11% 17% 17% 11% 17% 11% 11% 11% inkomensverdeling inkomensverdeling laag inkomen gestandariseerd (18.200) laag inkomen gestandariseerd (18.200) 73% 63% 73% 51% 63% 51% %% klachten aan nek/ schouderklachten schouder klachten aan nek/ schouder % % klachten aan nek/ schouder % 15% 11% 15% 11% 15% 11% 11% 11% opleidingsniveau bevolking opleidingsniveau klachten aan nek/ aan nek/ schouder % wijk 15% % dlgm. 15%% Rotterdam61% % dlgm. laag inkomen (onderste 40%; 24.300) laag inkomen (onderste 45.000) 70% 61% 70% % wijk 30% 54% 54% midden (middelste%% luchtwegklachten 40%;40%; 24.300) midden (middelste luchtwegklachten 40%; 45.000) % bevolking 30% 34% 34% luchtwegklachten % luchtwegklachten % luchtwegklachten 12% 12% 24% 9% 12% 12% 24% 9% 9% 9% 9% 12% middelbaar en hoger opgeleiden middelbaar (18.200) diabetes laag inkomen gestandariseerd en % diabetes diabetes laagdiabetes gestandariseerd (18.200) 73% 6% 45% 73% 6% 6% 6% 63% 51% 63% 51% 45% 62% midden gestandariseerd (29.100) hoger opgeleiden midden gestandariseerd (29.100) 34% 28% 34% %% inkomen diabetes % % 8% 8% 23% 6% 8% 28% 8% 23% 8% midden midden (middelste 40%; minimaal 24% 30% Rotterdam30% 24% 34% 34% thema voldoende bevolking(middelste 40%; 45.000) 20%; v.a.45.000) ADL-beperking (alg. dagelijkse activiteiten) thema voldoende opleiding ADL-beperkingdagelijkse activiteiten) % wijk hoog (bovenste 20%; v.a.45.000) minimaal45.000)1 activiteiten) dagelijkse activiteiten) hoog (bovenste minimaal 1 1 ADL-beperking (alg. dagelijkse activiteiten) minimaal ADL-beperking (alg.ADL-beperking (alg. (alg. minimaal 1 1 dagelijkse 6% 24% 6% 13% 24% 13% opleidingsniveau opleiding % dlgm. % midden gestandariseerd (29.100) midden gestandariseerd (29.100) DG/Rdam DG/Rdam DG/Rdam 16% 16% 23%14% 16% 16% 23% 14% 28%4% 34% 33% 34% 24% hoog gestandariseerd (v.a.29.100)DG/Rdam hoog gestandariseerd DG/Rdam (v.a.29.100) 4% 14% 24% 16% 14% 14% 28% 9% 15% 9% 15% moeite met Nederlands 33% 14% middelbaar en hoger opgeleiden moeite met Nederlands 45% 62% minimaal 1 1 HDA-beperking (huishoudelijke dag. activiteiten) minimaal HDA-beperking (huishoudelijke minimaal 1 HDA-beperking activiteiten) hoog (bovenste 20%; v.a.45.000) minimaal minimaal 1 HDA-beperking (huishoudelijke dag. activiteiten) hooginkomens 20%; v.a.45.000) dag.(huishoudelijke dag. dag. activiteiten) 6% 24%6% 13% 24% 13% lage inkomens nader bekeken nader bekeken 1 HDA-beperking (huishoudelijkeactiviteiten) lage (bovenste goede voldoende opleiding goede taalbeheersing DG/Rdam soc. z. zwak soc. 18% 3,7 thema taalbeheersing kengetallen werk en inkomenDG/Rdam DG/Rdam DG/Rdam 18%3,1 4%22% 18%3,7 18% 22% 22% 5 9% 18% 22% z. zwak 22% 3,1 hoog gestandariseerd (v.a.29.100) hoog gestandariseerd DG/Rdam (v.a.29.100) 9%4% 15% 15% huishoudens die moeilijk rondkomen huishoudens die rondkomen 36% 26% 36% 17% 26% 17% VSV Monitor Rotterdam 2009 (cijfers uitMonitor gehoor DG/Rdam gehoor DG/Rdam 2007/08) VSV 2007/08) moeilijk problemen met gehoor DG/Rdam problemen met Rotterdam 2009 gehoor uit problemen met problemen met problemen 12% 12% 9% 12% 12%% Rotterdam 9% 24% 12% 9% 9% 9% moeite met Nederlands inkomens nader bekeken gehoor DG/Rdam met(cijfersDG/Rdam 33% 14% aantal wijk wijk % lage lage inkomens nader bekeken tot 105% sociaal minimum sociaal problemen met zien DG/Rdam tot 105% met zienminimum 790 % 13% 27%790 dlgm. 13% 27% Rotterdam 22% % 16% 22% 16% problemen met zien DG/Rdam problemen DG/Rdam problemen zien 2008 (voor heel Rotterdam) 13% 9% met startkwalificatieberoepsbevolkingmet startkwalificatie naar etniciteit,DG/Rdam naar etniciteit,moeilijk(voor heel Rotterdam)metmet zien DG/Rdam z. zwak 2008 rondkomen problemen goede taalbeheersing soc. 3,1 36% 9% 13%3,7 13% 9% 9% 9% 5 huishoudens die moeilijkstress depressie, spanning, stress huishoudens die waarvan: eenpersoonshuishouden spanning, stress 16+16+ 26% 36% 17% 26% 17% waarvan: eenpersoonshuishouden spanning,angst,16+ 360 360 angst, depressie, spanning, rondkomen angst, depressie, angst, depressie,16+ angst, depressie, stress spanning, stress 16+ Nederlands Rotterdam 2009 (cijfers matig risico op- depressie matig risico op depressie DG/Rdam Nederlands VSV Monitor tot 105% sociaal minimumDG/Rdam op depressie DG/Rdam tot 105% sociaal minimum risico 64 790 27% 16% potentielle beroepsbevolking 15 op % matig DG/Rdam 67% 40% 61,1% 67% 790 41% 67%200 41% 41%% Rotterdam22% 27%40% 22% 16% eenoudergezinnen % risico op risico eenoudergezinnen %uit 2007/08) depressie% matig depressie DG/Rdam % matig 40% 41% 40% 40% 200 41% Antilliaans %% hoog hoog risico DG/Rdam 12% 23% 90 12% 12% 8% 8% 12% 8% 37,1% 8% 8% waarvan: z. startkwalificatieeenpersoonshuishoudenop op depressie DG/Rdam met startkwalificatiepaar met kinderenAntilliaans op depressie DG/Rdamrisico depressie DG/Rdam naar etniciteit, waarvan:risico heel Rotterdam) 2008 (voor op % % risico op 360 bevolking eenpersoonshuishoudendepressie% hoog depressie DG/Rdam 25% 15% 360 12% paar met kinderen hoog hoog risico 90 % DG/Rdam 10% 7% 7% 10% 7% 34,7% 7% 7% eenoudergezinnen 105% sociaal inkomensverdeling % 105%psychofarmaca DG/Rdam psychofarmaca DG/Rdam eenoudergezinnen gebruiktin psychofarmacagebruikt psychofarmaca DG/Rdam 200 10% 10% 200 10% kinderen in gezin met gebruiktsociaal% gebruikt psychofarmaca DG/Rdam kinderen gezin minimum Kaapverdisch Kaapverdisch met % % gebruikt minimum 19% 17% 19% 17% Nederlands 61,1% eenzaamheid 16+eenzaamheid eenzaamheid 16+ paar met kinderen paar met kindereneenzaamheid 24.300) eenzaamheid laag inkomen (onderstejaarkinderen tot 6 jaar 16+ 16+16+ 70% 90 61% 54% 90 waarvan 24% waarvan kinderenMarokkaans tot 6 40%; 24% Marokkaans Antilliaans 37,1% DG/Rdam matig DG/Rdam % % 51% 42% 51% 42% 34,0% 42% 42% %% matig eenzaam% matig matig eenzaam DG/Rdam matig eenzaam DG/Rdameenzaameenzaam DG/Rdam 51% 42% 51% 51% kinderen in gezin kinderen kinderenmet 6 met6105% sociaal tot 105% sociaal minimum laag inkomen gestandariseerd (18.200) 19% 17% 73% 63% 51% 19% 17% waarvan score emotioneel en hoge score emotioneel soc. eenzaam DG/Rdam waarvan kinderenSurinaams emotioneel%-12 soc. eenzaam DG/Rdam soc. eenzaam DG/Rdam 20% tot -12 in gezin %minimumjaar emotioneel eneenzaam DG/Rdam 26% 16% 40,4% Surinaams hoge hoge score score emotioneel en soc. 20% 16% 20% 16% 26% 16% %% hoge jaar hoge score en % eenzaam DG/Rdam en soc. 16% 20% 20% Kaapverdisch 34,7% midden (middelstetot 12jaarkinderen tot 6 jaar leefstijl 16+16+ 40%; -45.000) ervaren leefstijl 16+ 24% 24% 30% 34% waarvan kinderenwaarvan18 jaar 16+ 12 -ervaren leefstijl tot 6 24% 18 28% waarvan kinderenTurks leefstijl 16+ 28% ervaren ervaren jaar ervaren leefstijl Turks 34,0% Marokkaans bron:inkomen %tot 2009,jaar leefstijl n.gezond/ongezond/z.ongezond midden gestandariseerdBuurtmonitor 6 -12 vindt eigen leefstijl n.gezond/ongezond/z.ongezond 35% Sociale32% 35% 35% 28% 32% 32% 26% 34% waarvan kinderenwaarvaneigen leefstijlvindt eigenvsv monitor 2009, Veldacademie, JOS 2009, tot vindt jaar 26% bron -12 kinderen n.gezond/ongezond/z.ongezond bron inkomen % vindt eigen n.gezond/ongezond/z.ongezond % leefstijl 35% 23% Index 32% 35% 32% %% 6 (29.100) vindt eigen leefstijl n.gezond/ongezond/z.ongezond overige rijke landenhoog (bovenste 20%; 12 Feitenkaartzeer gezond:2007;zeer gezond: DG/Rdam overige eigen leefstijl Inkomenleefstijl leefstijl zeer gezond: 2010, rijke landen% -% vindt DG/Rdam 65,9% Surinaams 2010; -winstleefstijl tot 12 vindt jaar Veiligheidsindex DG/Rdam 6% 46% 2010. 24% 6% 46% 5% 40,4% 6% 5% 5% %% v.a.45.000) vindt 6% 18 DG/Rdam 28% 6% 5% 13% waarvan kinderenwaarvan18 jaar % vindt eigen eigen leefstijl zeer gezond: DG/Rdam Jeugdveiligheidsindex5% 6% 56% tot of eigen 28% loonvindt kinderen zeer gezond: eigen loon of winst 56% 61% 61% in Nederland geboren allochtonen in% vindt eigen leefstijlvindt eigen eigen leefstijl gezond: DG/Rdam Nederland % % vindt leefstijl gezond: gezond: DG/Rdam meis. 46,7% 56% 62% 34,0% meis. 46,7% 56% 21% 62% 56% 56% 21% 62% 20% 62% % vindt eigen leefstijl gezond: DG/Rdam DG/Rdam 56% Turks bron inkomen geboren % vindt eigen leefstijl DG/Rdam hoog inkomen bron gestandariseerd (v.a.29.100) gezond:allochtonen 4% 62% 9% 15% pension pension 23% 20% jong. 35,3% 23% % % vindt eigen leefstijl gezond/ongezond: DG/Rdam 30% 28% 28% 28% %% vindt eigen gezond/ongezond: nietniet 1e generatie-allochtonen winst nader generatie-allochtonen eigen leefstijl DG/Rdam meis. 45,1% 30% 28% 65,9% meis. 45,1% loonbekeken leefstijl niet vindt of winst lage inkomens 1evindt eigen leefstijl vindt eigen leefstijl niet DG/Rdamgezond/ongezond: DG/Rdam30% loon of overige rijke landenwerkloos/ bijstand/arbeidsongeschikt niet% gezond/ongezond:gezond/ongezond: DG/Rdam 56% 61% 46%28% 30% 30% 46% 56% 61% werkloos/ bijstand/arbeidsongeschikt 31% 22% 14% 31% 22% jong. 36,4% 14% % ongezond:leefstijl ongezond: DG/Rdam % vindt DG/Rdam % vindt eigen 4% 3% %% vindt eigen leefstijlvindt eigenDG/Rdam leefstijl ongezond: DG/Rdam vindt eigen leefstijl ongezond: eigen leefstijl ongezond: DG/Rdam 4% 3% 4% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% huishoudens die pension pension vsv-er autochtoon uitkeringen 35-55moeilijk rondkomen regieonvoldoende regie regie op eigen leven: DG/Rdam 20% 23% 36% 26% 17% 21% 20% 23% uitkeringen 35-55% 55+ op % eigen leven: DG/Rdam leven: DG/Rdam in Nederland geboren allochtonen vsv-er autochtoon % 55+55+ leven: DG/Rdam op eigen leven: DG/Rdam 25% 20% 16% 10% 20% 25% 25% 25% 21% 16% jong. 35,3% 10% meis. 46,7% 25% 25% 11,9% 25% 25% 25% 25% %% 55+ onvoldoende 55+ onvoldoende regie op onvoldoende op eigen eigen onvoldoende regie werkloos/ 16+ tot werkend werkloos/ bijstand/arbeidsongeschikt 1e generatie 31% 22% 14% 790 27% 22% 16% 31% 14% niet werkend werkzoekend niet105% sociaal minimum 16+ overgewicht 16+ 16+16+ 18% 15% 9% 18% 15% jong. 22,2% 9% vsv-er allochtoon 1e generatie werkzoekend bijstand/arbeidsongeschikt vsv-er allochtoon overgewicht 1e generatie-allochtonen overgewicht overgewicht overgewicht meis. 45,1% 36,4% uitkeringen 35-55 2e matig waarvan: eenpersoonshuishouden % DG/Rdam overgewicht: DG/Rdam uitkeringen 35-55vsv-er allochtoonmatiggeneratie DG/Rdam 16% 10% 360 37% 20%34% 37% 37% 20% 16% 34% 15,2% 10% % overgewicht: % matig overgewicht: DG/Rdam 37% 34% 37% 34%5% 34% %% matig overgewicht: DG/Rdam matig overgewicht: 10% 5% 10% vsv-er allochtoon 2e generatie werkloosheid autochtoon geregistreerde geregistreerde werkloosheid 11,9% % 18% 18%14% 18% 6,3% 8% 14% 18% 18% 18% 14% 14% 9% 14% % obesitas: 18% niet obesitas: DG/Rdam werkzoek. tov potent. ber.bev werkend tov % % obesitas: DG/Rdam eenoudergezinnen %werkzoek.werkzoekend obesitas: DG/Rdam niet werkend werkzoekend DG/Rdamobesitas: DG/Rdam 15% 9% 200 15% > 1jr niet-werkend> 1jr niet-werkend % potent. ber.bev 8% 4,3% 6,3% 4,3% afkomstig uit MBO %generatie 59,7% afkomstig uitwijk23% obesitas in wijkin wijkwijk Feijenoord MBO 23% obesitas Feijenoord vsv-er allochtoon 1e 22,2% 23% obesitas wijk Feijenoord 23% 23% obesitas ininwerkloosheid obesitas in Feijenoord Feijenoord paar met kinderenaantal uitkeringen geregistreerde werkloosheid 10% 5% 90 10% 5% aantal uitkeringen geregistreerde afkomstig uit VO 2e generatie 20,7% lichaamsbeweging minimum vsv-er allochtoon totaal aantalgezin afkomstigsociaal potent. lichaamsbeweging 16+ 15,2% kinderen in uitkeringsontvangers 16+ werkzoek. tov potent. ber.bev met 105% uit VO lichaamsbeweging % > 1jr niet-werkend>werkzoek. tovlichaamsbeweging 16+ 16+ %lichaamsbeweging 16+ 1jr niet-werkend ber.bev 19% 17% 8% 6,3%8% 4,3% 6,3% 4,3% totaal aantal uitkeringsontvangers 730 730 niet aan NedNormGezond: niet aan % voldoet niet DG/Rdam % voldoet aan Feijenoord wijk DG/Rdam niet 43% 53% 43% 59,7% 43% 43% %% voldoet jong. NedNormGezond: DG/RdamNedNormGezond: (17 t/m 22) 53% voldoet nietwijk n. voldoet 22) aan NedNormGezond: DG/Rdam aan % onderwijspositie NedNormGezond: DG/Rdam % wijk 53% 43% 53% 53%% Rotterdam aantalen jong. n. onderwijspositie Feijenoord 20 (1724 jaar van 20 tm 24 jaar aantal wijk % dlgm. aantal 24% wijk % wijk % dlgm. afkomstig uit MBO aantal uitkeringsontvangers van tm t/m aantal uitkeringenaantaljaar waarvan kinderenaantalen tot 6 uitkeringen 41 17% 41 plan om meervanbewegen: plan meer te te bewegen: DG/Rdam % bewegen: DG/Rdam plan plan om te % 17% 25% 17% 25% 25% 25% %% vanuitkeringsontvangersvan meer ombewegen: DG/Rdam van plan om meer tete % vanomDG/Rdam meerbewegen: DG/Rdam 25% 17% 17% jongeren met VO aantal aantal uitkeringsontvangersstartkwalificatie 16+16+ jaar 187 730 28% 43% 32% afkomstig uit startkwalificatie totaal uitkeringsontvangers van 16+drugs, alcohol 16+ totaal -12 met tm 29 jaar alcohol waarvan kinderenjongerenjaaruitkeringsontvangers tm 29 tot 6 uitkeringsontvangers van 25 26% 730 32% 187 20,7% 28% aantalalcohol 16+ 75 75 drugs, alcohol drugs, drugs, alcohol drugs, aantal 25 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van DG/Rdamjaar jongeren jong. n. startkwalificatie Feijenoord jaar20DG/Rdam 22) drinkers DG/Rdam aantal wijk waarvan kinderenaantal uitkeringsontvangers van 30 tot zware zonder zware % 28% 41 10% % dlgm. 48% 10%Rotterdam 51% 41 337 % wijk 10% 51% 40% 337 48% aantalen zonder onderwijspositie jongerendrinkers % startkwalificatie 24 jaar % drinkers DG/Rdam 12% 12% %% 12 - drinkers tm 24 zware zware 18 wijk tm t/mdrinkers DG/Rdam 12% 10% 10%% 12% 12% aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 30 (1734 jaarzware20 tm 34 92 92 DG/Rdam 35 % 7% 10% 10% %% overmatige 25 tm DG/Rdam overmatige drinkers 39 jaar 10% 20% 133 bron inkomen aantal uitkeringsontvangers van drinkers29 jaarovermatige drinkers DG/Rdam aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 25drinkersjaar tm % overmatige tm 29 DG/Rdam 75 75 32% aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 35 % overmatige drinkers DG/Rdam 39 vsv-ers met startkwalificatie vsv-ers 127 7% 7% 7% 10% 10% 133 127 7% 20% 17% 20% 20% jongeren 187 28% 43% % 3% 46% 92 3% 56% 4% 3% 3% 4% 4% 4% %% risico drinkers DG/Rdam% risico DG/Rdam risico 4% loon ofuitkeringsontvangers van met leerlingen uit Feijenoord aantal wijk winstFeijenoorduitkeringsontvangers van drinkers DG/Rdam aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 40 % risicojaarrisico DG/Rdam jaar aantal drinkers 30 tm 44 jaar drinkers DG/Rdam tm 34 drinkers 30 tm 34 61% 92 3% aantal 40 44 94 94 48% VO scholen met leerlingen uit scholen aantal wijk jongeren zonder startkwalificatie VO afg. Jaar canabis gebruikt DG/Rdamcanabis DG/Rdam 51% 40% % afg. Jaar canabis gebruikt DG/Rdam 9% 10% 10% %% Jaar canabis% afg. Jaar afg. Jaargebruikt gebruikt DG/Rdam 337 afg. gebruikt % canabis DG/Rdam 9% 10% 9% 9% 9% 10% 10% pension aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 35 tm 39 jaar aantal uitkeringsontvangers 21% 99 20% 23% 127 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 45 tm 49 jaar van 35 tm 39 jaar 45 99 CSG Clavijn CSGharddrugs gebruikt DG/Rdamharddrugs49 DG/Rdam 173 127 8% vsv-ers harddrugs gebruikt DG/Rdam % oit gebruikt DG/Rdam 8% 10% 20% 173 10% %% oit Clavijn gebruikt DG/Rdam oit harddrugs % oit % oit harddrugs gebruikt 10% 8% 8% 8% 10% 10% 133 20% 17% werkloos/ bijstand/arbeidsongeschikt 44 jaar aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 40 tm mantelzorg 50 aantal uitkeringsontvangers 31% 94 22% 14% 94 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 50 tm 54 jaar van 40 tm 44 jaar 54 68 68 mantelzorg College mantelzorg mantelzorg 16+ Zuiderpark College 679 679 VO scholen met leerlingen uit 35-55 Zuiderpark16+45mantelzorg 16+ 16+16+ 49 jaar aantal wijk uitkeringen Feijenoordjaar mantelzorg gegeven van mantelzorg gegeven DG/Rdam aantal uitkeringsontvangers van aantal uitkeringsontvangersmantelzorg gegeven DG/Rdam tm 49 afgl. DG/Rdam 16% 13% 13% 10% 99 12% 20%13% 12% 12% 99 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 55 % afgl. jaar afgl. jaar mantelzorg gegeven DG/Rdam tm 59 jaar DG/Rdam 55 79 12% 79 gegeven % 13% 12% 13% %% afgl. jaar mantelzorg % jaar jaar 45 tm 59 afgl. Islam Clavijn Ghaldoun uitkeringsontvangers vanmantelzorg:jaar vangeefttm 54 jaar DG/Rdam 173 Islam geeft nu50 Ghaldoun SGM mantelzorg: DG/Rdam 34 34 CSG SGM Ibn niet werkend werkzoekend nuIbn tm 64 jaarafgl. mantelzorg: DG/Rdam aantal aantal uitkeringsontvangers nu 60 nu 64 tm 54 afgl. 68 68 % DG/Rdamnu % mantelzorg: DG/Rdam 9% 18%10% 9% 15% 10% 10%9% 10% 9% 9% 10% %% afgl. geeft afgl. aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 60 % afgl. geeft geeft50 mantelzorg: 53 9% 53 Grafisch Lyceum R'dam uitkeringenGrafisch Lyceum55+ hulp 55+ hulphuishouding DG/Rdam 22 Zuiderpark College aantal uitkeringsontvangers inin huishoudingjaarin huishouding DG/Rdam % DG/Rdam % 24% 22% 24% 22% %% 55+ hulp 22% 24% 24% 22 geregistreerde werkloosheidvan 55% R'dam hulp in in huishouding DG/Rdam 679 aantal aantal hulp huishouding DG/Rdam 55 tm 59 jaar 10% 22% 22%5% 79 24% 79 n. 55+ uitkeringsontvangers van etniciteit uitkeringen tm etniciteit n. 59 55+ 55+ 55+ jaar % 55+ 11% 10% 11% %% werkzoek. 60 potent. ber.bev 11% ErasmiaansIbn GhaldounuitkeringenErasmiaans tov%Turken% 55+ hulppers.64 jaar 20 203 10% % > 1jr aantal uitkeringsontvangers 8%203 10% 10% 20 6,3% 11% 11% 4,3% 53 10% 53 Islam SGM Gymnasium uitkeringsontvangers bijbij Gymnasiumhulp bij Verzorging 34 aantal niet-werkend55+ hulp van pers. Verzorging pers. bij pers. Verzorging aantal uitkeringenVerzorging bij 60 tm Verzorging Turken hulp pers. tm 64hulp van ervaren problemen 16+ problemen 16+ ervaren ervaren problemen ervaren problemen 16+ ervaren problemen 16+16+ aantal n. Passie De Passie Rotterdam 10 138 8% 10 aantal uitkeringenaantal uitkeringen n. Surinamers Rotterdam Surinamers 138 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% Grafisch Lyceum R'dam uitkeringenDe etniciteit met relatieetniciteitmet relatierelatie partner 22 relatie partner % problemen metmet relatie partner % problemen partner 8% 8% %% problemen met % problemen problemen partner 8% totaal uitkeringen%% problemen met % problemen persoon ander aantal Turken Turken in met relatie 203 10% 203 10% 10% aantal uitkeringenbasisschoolleerlingen % problemen relatie persoon Autochtonen Autochtonen 91 91 basisschoolleerlingen in Feijenoordaantal uitkeringenrelatie anderFeijenoord relatie ander persoon 20 % 730 10% aantal wijk wijk aantal wijk 8% wijk % 8% 8% Erasmiaans Gymnasium aantal uitkeringsontvangersrelatie ander persoonmetmet ander persoon % problemen 8% 10% problemen met 8% aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 20 combinatie problemen met combinatie werk/zorg uitkeringenaantal uitkeringentm 24 jaar met met combinatie werk/zorg Surinamersmet overigproblemen 41 138 9% 9% 9% 8% 8% 8% overig westers combinatie% werk/zorg 90 90 % westers 9% 8% % problemenschool problemen werk/zorg 8% in wijk op school aantal uitkeringenin% problemen met %Surinamers combinatie werk/zorg wijk op 709 138 9% 75% 709 75% De Passie Rotterdam 10 aantal uitkeringsontvangersziekte25naaste ernstige ziekte naaste uitkeringen%% ernstigevan naaste % % ziekte naaste naaste Autochtonen Autochtonen 75 12% 91 91 12% 12% 12% 12% 12% ernstige ziekte % ernstige ernstige ziekte 12% 12% 12% aantal uitkeringen aantal uitkeringentm 29 jaar Marokkanen 90 12% 90 buiten wijk op school in Feijenoord%% overleidenop school overleiden naaste buiten wijknaaste Marokkanen 183 % wijk 13% 25% 183 25% basisschoolleerlingen aantal wijk 12% 13% 12% 12% 12% overleiden 12% 13% 13% aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 30% overleiden uitkeringen Antillianen naaste % % overleiden overig westers overig westers 92 13% 90 90 aantal uitkeringen aantal uitkeringentm 34 jaar naaste naaste Antillianen 69 69 K - Agnesschool aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 35%Marokkanenkansspelen 281 in wijk op school bron: buurtmonitor 2009,% AgnesschoolFeitenkaartmet gokken, kansspelen 709 127 2% 75% % 2% 2% % - met met uitkeringen met met 2% uitkeringenK Socialegokken, kansspelen %Index 2010,kansspelen Inkomen 2007 281 aantal gokken, 2010,tm 39gokken, Marokkanen kansspelen jaar gokken, Feitenkaart 90 90 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% bron: buurtmonitor 2009, Sociale Inkomen 2007 Index huiselijk geweld huiselijk geweld 16+ huiselijk geweld huiselijk geweld 16+ huiselijk geweld 16+16+ PC - Heemskerschool I en II 206 206 buiten wijk op school 183 25% aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 16+ tm 44 jaar II 40 uitkeringenPC - Heemskerschool I en aantal uitkeringen Antillianen Antillianen 94 69 69 % van ooit slachtoffer % huisl. geweld % inw. slachtoffer van geweld 8% 10% 10% %% inw. ooit slachtoffer vaninw. ooitooit slachtoffer van huisl. geweld inw. ooit slachtoffer inw. huisl. geweld van huisl. huisl. geweld 8% 10% 8% 8% 8% 10% 10%

onderwijs

kengetallen onderwijs kengetallen onderwijs

kengetallen onderwijs

source: http://annadegroot.sp.nl

% Rotterdam 62% 14% 5 % Rotterdam 61,1% 37,1% 34,7% 34,0% 40,4% 34,0% 65,9% jong. 35,3% jong. 36,4% 11,9% 22,2% 15,2% 59,7% 20,7% % Rotterdam 43% 40% 17%

79 bron:-buurtmonitor 2009,aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 55 2009,sociale index 2010veldacademie, jos 2009, sociale index 2010 vsv minitor bron: buurtmonitor tm 59 jaar PC Groen van Pinkesteren 2009, veldacademie, jos 2009, vsv minitor 2009, 158

PC AgnesschoolPinkesteren PC -buurtmonitor 45 Pinkesteren aantal uitkeringsontvangers van2010,tmSociale Index 2010,2007 K - - Groen van bron: buurtmonitor 2009, Sociale Index van Feitenkaart Inkomen Feitenkaart Inkomen 2007 158 bron: Groen 2009, 49 jaar 281 aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 50 tm 54 jaar M - - Heemskerschool I en II M - De Dukdalf 118 PC De Dukdalf 206

70

99 68 53

158 118

M - De Dukdalf

aantal uitkeringsontvangers van 60 tm 64 jaar aantal uitkeringen n. etniciteit

118

Thus a change in mentality is necessary from the side of the individual. Low threshhold oppertunities however also play a part. This is also the case for young parents (often mothers) that find themselves stuck in their role. Frustration within the houshold and depression often also set in. In this case it is not directly education that is a focal point, but sooner support in the domestic situation and the upbringing of the child. This is also the case for the adult allochthonous mothers. These parents often find themselves in an even tougher situation resulting in isolation, depression and even physical ailments. Initial program, summurized As stated before, the composition of the environment plays a important role in the wellbeing of the individual. Providing the oppertunity for an individual to persue his or her interests can be stated as one of the most important roles of this environment. Thus, interventions must augment the existing environment in such a way that it is better equiped to facilitate its users. One field in which the existing environment is currently lacking is that of education. This is often eduction in terms of language courses, the training of jobapplication skills and the like. Augmenting the current environment so it can provide such spaces thus becomes one of the points on the designlist. Additional programs that raise interest are sports and fitness spaces to exercise personal physical health, programs such as daycare centers that enable parents to leave their child in trusted hands whilst working on their own personal development; large spaces that can host school plays and gymclasses; spaces that can host various cultural activities; etc. As stated in the paragraph Envisioned end Product Chapter 1. Such interventions must also maintain a certain flexibility, in order to adapt to the changing needs and interests of the users, thus increasing their efficiency as a strategic intervention. We will discuss this flexibility in later paragrapgh. In terms of the earlier discussed social contacts, the environment must also be developed in such a way that these can be facilitated. Not only in terms of the chance incouters, but also in the form of spaces that are specifically developed for gathering and meeting. This not only provides an outcome for the earlier discussed groups, but it can also play an important role when in comes to the lanrger planned neighbourhood gatherings (to be discussed later). Such a space can become the livingroom for the community. A physical place for the intangible social network being created, reflecting its versitility, transparency and accessibility to all.

71

Strategic Element(s):

5 6 1 3 2

Adults / Parents

Youngsters

samenleven
wonen zorg woonomgeving zorg

samen

wo

werk

bewoner

onderwijs

werk

bewo

recreatie

media culturele activiteiten

recreatie

cultu activi

The active social network As stated in the paragraph angle of approach the m.o. in not only to facilitate all the inhabitants individually or per group, but also to link these groups. Doing so we not only maintain the thin social structures of status quo, but we solidify them and in addition stimulate the creation of even more active social crosslinks. Active in the sense that the linking of people enables them to share and utilise one anothers talents and interest, thereby not solely benefitting the individual or the groups, but also the entire neighbourhoods network in a socially sustainable way. Such links or collaborations can take place as visualised with the examples in the scheme above. An example is to provide youngsters with the possibility to exercise the abilities they already possess. For instance, these youngster often speak 1 foreign langurage or even more, plus they can navigate their way in the dutch language. Thus the possibility arises to link a group of youngsters to a group of adults for language classes or computer courses. Under guidance of a social worker one could then organise courses in the newly adapted spatial and programmatic environment.

72

Specifying SCDs

1) Oranjeboomstraat

2) Persoonshal

3) Skateland

Young Children

4
4) De Koepels / Nieuwe Kans

nleven

samenleven
wonen woonomgeving zorg woonomgeving

onen

oner

onderwijs

werk

bewoner

onderwijs

media

urele iteiten

recreatie

media culturele activiteiten

In terms of linked interests the setup is clear: interested adults are provided not only a space for study and a professional guide (social worker/teacher), but also a personal guide (youngster). For the participating youngster payment can also be included as an extra incentive. As such, the youngster are provided with work and a growing resume. For the adults the possibility to exercise their new skills can take shape in the form of cultural activities. These could be cultural activities that play into the adults expertise in terms of ethnicity and religion based culture, thus increasing the attractiveness for participation and linking. Such activities could even be linked to schoolprograms and further linking the initiatives to Creatief Beheer* creates a platform for actual direct transformation/augmentation of the physical environment. Youngsters can also link to this via application to TOS Thuis Op Straat, and organisation that often focusses on providing young children with a pleasant and save playing environment. Thus, putting in an effort not only yields direct and indirect benefit for only that individual, but as stated before, it adds to the wellfare of the entire network.
* Creatief Beheer is an organisation active in Rotterdam (and Feijenoord), that stimulates an coordinates the participation of inhabitants in the transformation of their environment.

73

Olivier vant Noortstraa

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Stimuleringsproject Goals ROC - Zadkine (culinair) ille

aa

ije n t oor

dk

u nb

ad
t

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r ke

a tra

e hav Nassau

KO NG NI
ne en br ug

t
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Nassauhaven

PC - Basisschool Groen van Prinsterer

Nassauhavenpark

ks

tr.

u - br ord - no n rd ije have e ooF ven en ha eij F t raa pst koo Heij

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source: http://maps.google.nl

rdk

e Feij

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e ad

tr gs tin

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Jeugdcentrum Feijenoord Moskeevereniging Omar Bni El Khatab

otha
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oon

Speelplaats Duimdrop Moskeevereniging El Mohinine O - Basisschool De Dukdalf

sstr

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Vrouwenstichting

n
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on rso sda m

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ans

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Feijenoord
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blo

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Mallegat

led

FunZone De Koepels

ijk
250m

Rosetunnel

schaal: 1: 500

LA

Spatial locations/nodes In the previous part we have discussed how we can adress the inherent qualities of the inhabitants and link these in an active socio-cultural network. We have have also stressed the significant role that the actual spatial environment plays in this. Thus before we start intervening in the environment it is necessary to have an understanding of how it currently functions. Such a research was conducted during subquestion 3, chapter 5. This research yielded 6 points within the current setup of the neighbourhoods environment that possess an inherent potency or quality to spark the interest of many inhabitants.

Nas

hav sau en

jeb an Or oo
Bin ne nh en av ho

Pe

kstr Pie

tra ms

rso

aat

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at
f
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on sh e av
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n
sha ven
k Pie bru g

Pe

rso

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nd uc te ur ho f

tra at

Le

eu we ns

ein

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we

Cr on js
Bloemfonteinstraat

te in

m in as tra

AN

Bo th as

str aa t

OP

source: report De Nieuwe Belanstelling, march 2011


t

Introduction: Introduction:
er
Rie

Jo ub er t-

at

at

tra at

ZU

ID

Ma

lleg

at

De la Re
Ch ris

ys tra

Sc ha lk Bu rg str aa

str aa

tia an de

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be ek str

aa

Tw

ee

bo

Overall Urban Strategy Overall Urban Strategy

sst

raa

(A)

2 5 4

(C)

(B)

(G)

(F)

6
(D)

(E)

74

Thus, in order to maximize the effectiveness, these 6 points become significant spatial nodes or crystalisation point for the network. These 6 nodes are currently known as: 1) Shoppingzone Oranjeboomstraat, 2) Sportshall Persoonshal, 3) Skateland, 4) Funzone De Koepels, 5) Nassauhavenpark, 6) Duimdrop playingfields. Introduction: Overall Urban Strategy

source: http://buurtlink.nl

The letters show the phasing of the interventions in consideration to the larger housing oriented plans of the municipality (see also subquestion 1). The phasing starts with the housingprojects of A, which yield the initial financing for the following projects. These following projects include B: the simultanious realisation of additional housing (financing) and augmentation of nodes 1 and 2, the Persoonshal and Nassauhavenpark (C). This is followed by phase D and E; a slight augmentation (accessibility) of nodes 6 and 3, skateland and de Koepels. Phase F and G then include the Oranjeboomstraat and the Playingfields which are developen in unicen with the adjacent housingprojects. For the actual design assignment the choice was made to augment node nr 2. the sportshall De Nieuwe Persoonshal into a Multifunctional Community Livingroom.

The Persoonshal Persoonshal: Current Situation The persoonshal is essentially a large sports oriented building built in 1986. However, the user flexibility that it provides with its halls has made it much more then just a sportsbuilding. In time it has grown to become a much used facility in the neighbourhood and th place for various cultural activities and special events. As such,Sportshal;looking analysis when Additional Strategic Element(s): for places with an inherent tendency to unite people, the Persoonshal ranks number 1 in Feijenoord.

SWOT Analysis; Strengths:


A) Relevance for Urban Identity

Visual and Physical continuity

Placeness / Human activity

Greenery / Vegetation

Materialization

B) Characteristics of the elements

Breakdance masterclass source: http://www.roffa5314.nl

Sportsday for the neighbourhoods four elementary schools source: http://www.agnesschool-rotterdam.nl


Physical continuity Human activity Main area Trees

Visual continuity

Physical continuity

Grass area

Stone mat. Asphalt

Bus Car Walk/Bike

W ill em g ru sb
r Pa k

g or ru o B ant k

g in on K rug b en e

ef

n Mo

ay Pl ou gr nd

o Sp rts ha ll
a Or nje om bo st ra

Wijkcollege organised by Veldacademie/author

Sportsevent Soccer AKKAdemie source: http://www.deweekkrant.nl --- Positive influence


at

---------

Monumental value Pragmatic value Industrial Recreational value

75

Public, Semi-Public, Private

A B

Public

Semi-Public

Private

Additional Analysis for the architectural assignment Viewing the schematic SWOT-map of the urban scale (Subquestion3), one can already distill some suggestions for the sportshal location. Other strong indications and hypotheses for possible developments of the location were also found, but additional data was needed in order to address this specific site. Naturally, a first step in this was the further specification of the data collected, such as the previously discussed sections (see right page). New types of data were however also collected, such as the amount of public, semi-public and private space surrounding the sportshall. This second step immediatly brings into perspective the amount of public space one has avaible for enhancement of the sportshal as a key environmental element of the neighbourhoods urban identity.
N

Visual and Physical continuity

Placeness/Human activity

1 1 3 2

Visual continuity

Physical continuity

Physical continuity N

Human activity

Main area

Greenery/Vegitation

Materialisation

1 1 2

2 1

Grass areas

Trees

Stone mat.

Asfalt

Bus

Car

Walk/Bike

76

Step three in deeping the insight into the location was to research the extent to which this immediate public space has a sense of placeness (Relph 1976). Here one finds that the square on which the sportshall is located, generally functions more like a large sidewalk. This is especially the case for the northern side of the sportshal, where virtually no activity takes palce. ConseSection AA: quently this area does present an oppertunity for development/extension of the sportshal activities and theAnalysis Mass strengthening of a place for the community. Including the greenery in such an approach, along with a redefinition through Section AA: materialisation can strengthen such a development. Mass Analysis

Section AA:
Mass Analysis

Section AA

Mass Analysis

Materialisation Materialisation
Materialisation

Materialisation

Plan
Plan

Plan

Section BB:
Plan Mass Analysis

Section BB: Section BB:


Section BB
Mass Analysis Mass Analysis
Mass Analysis

Materialisation Materialisation Materialisation

Plan Plan Plan

77

Toolkit:

Northern side of the sportshal; Status-quo

Summurized SWOT Based on the previous data we are now able to summarize the research on the persoonshal into the SWOT overview as depicted here to the right. In a nutshell this yields the following design question as the focus for the intervention: How to combine the building that has reached its maximum capacity and flexibility, with the surrounding barren and unstructured environment of the square? And how to do so in such a way that the environment obtains a clear structure, yet still has the flexibility to facilitate the interests of many inhabitants and in addition also stimulates their active interaction?

78

CONCEPTS
SOCIAL CONCEPT: The change in the halls character can also be visualised as depicted to the left. Here one can identify three fundamental changes to the original hall: 1) Interaction between outside and inside, making the building more inviting and utilizing the otherwise deserted square. 2) An interaction of the programmatic elements, also stimulating the variuos visitors to interact. (See paragraph The Active Social Network.) 3) The addition of new program, making the hall an interesting place for a wider audience.

1 3 2

Old Situation: Isolation

New Situation: Interaction

BUILDING CONCEPT:

Old: Building is a box

New: Building outside the box

In line with point nr. 1 the building concept as a mass will also change. Here the mass will be reshaped into a more open composition: The building outside the box or even more specific, the building as an transparent accessible box if you will.

MATERIAL CONCEPT:

Continuity through Contrast

Jobsveem housing block, Rotterdam source: http://www.nationalerenovatieprijs.nl

DOK library, Delft source: http://www.omroepwest.nl

Bouwkunde, Delft

BK,Details

In terms of materials the concept can be desribed as continuity through contrast. In this concept continuity stands for a preservation of the inherent urban identity of the neighbourhood (here: its shared characterising denominators). However the aim is also to bring about a great change in the social status of the neighbourhood. Thus these changes should be clearly visible in the interventions, while maintaining the old image as a basis for recognition. That is where contrastcomes into play. Seen as the most common material of the current building is brick, the new materials are to be: wood, glass and steel. This also has its additional values. Wood for instance refers to the strong harbour character of the neighbourhood. Whereas glass has a more direct social oriented intent, namely the braking down of the hard barriers as described in the social concept. Steel has a more basic use as structural support for the glass. Concrete is also used (as a secondary material), thus also creating contrast, while at the same time forming a bridge to the brick, with is stone-like essence.

79

Atrium 2

Atrium 1

Ground floor: Programmatic setup; yellow=fitness, orange=sanitary functions, purple=storage, blue=installations

Ground floor: The intersecting routes stimulate interaction through interference

80

Focus As stated befor the great strength of the Persoonshal is the flexibility it provides with its large halls. This characteristic is foccussed largely in the central hall, thus the design augmentation also foccusses on this part of the builing. Leaving the rest of the Persoonshal unrevised enables one to establish the earlier discussed contrast between old and new. Intervention and Program Thus in order to provide the inhabitants with a better suited environment, the old central part of the building is torn down. This is then replaced by larger central atrium (Atrium 1). In doing so, one is not only able to create a larger space in terms of surface and volume, but the buildings skin can also be developed in a more transparent, accessible and inviting way. In addition this new skin can also house features that boost the buildings flexibility and energyconsumption (see following paragraphs). In terms of capacity, a large expansion in the form of a second atrium (Atrium 2) and its accompanying program. Among these program components is also a fitness area, for which interest was expressed in the neighbourhood. In both atria this secondary program is setup in such a way so as to orient the two atria at one another and towards the central street that discloses them and physically connects to the rest of the neighbourhood.

Summarized Program overview, new building (PVE): Atrium 1 = 1220m2 and 10440m3 (old hall = 937m2 and 6232m3) A1; Installations = 2x 163m2 A1; Extra storage = 85m2 Atrium 2 = 542m2 and 3252m3 A2; Installations = 2x 34m2 A2; Storage (incl.) = 2x 73m2 A2; Cantines (incl.) = 2x 73m2 A2; Sanitary/Kitchen = 40m2 + 67m2

Dressing rooms (strt.) Fitness area Fitn. dressingrooms Fitn. storage Fitn. intallations = 59m2

= 8 x 26m2 4 x 13m2 = 110 m2 = 2x 67m2 = 63m2 + 10m2

See the appendix for an overview of the old building. The concrete slabs combine with the overhead boardwalk to form informal entry portals to the atria. Depending on the period and the theme of the behind lying program these portals can be dressed in such a way that they form interest sparking preludes to the activities.

81

Persoonshal:

bus 48

storically

Old Situation

Old Situation

- Thus connecting to the To view this inherent quality or sides one needs to go back streets, the two character, are connected t to eachtoher. Connected via when Feijenoord was stillthe facilitiesarea. Here one squa there use of an industrial habour on the finds that the square which is now so unstructed once posessed a strong for the various programs in the source: http://www.rotterdam010.nl This also goes organising element; a traintrack for industrial cargotransalso directly. port. Thus, as this element in the form of a track used to be a strong neighbourhood.
Historically

The square and its composition The street (orange) plays a vital role in organising the composition of the square. This street however should not be seen a mere blatant organising element. For, like the inherent quality of the hall is used to augment its design, so does the street also play into an inherent quality of the square.

Current Situation

Current Situation

- We stimulate Interaction (social conn to eachoth) through inte of the various flows on theaddition to creating structure this street, along with the existing route In
buildings, also creates a frame for new zones of program.

compositional element of the industrial program; so it now becomes a strong organising element for the social program, in the form of the street.

source: Historische Atlas van Rotterdam (2004)

82

Composition

bus 66

One of these zones is that of the School Vegetable garden (1). A program for which the elementary schools previously had to go to the neighbourhoods of Charlois and Vreewijk. Another zone (5) is reserved as an ankerppoint for Skateland that is originally located in midst of industry to the south of the neighbourhood. As stated before, the street not only links such programs to eachother, but it also connects (via diagonals) to the rest of the neighbourhood. Thus the link is also made to the other programs and the other nodes. The linking however doesnt end there. By slightly moving two nearby busstops to the streets ends, one also enables a direct/easier connection of this node to the Zuidplein shopping mall of Rotterdam Zuid and the SoZaWe bureau (Social affairs and Employement bureau) of the disctrict Greater Feijenoord.

to are, but

Thus the node not only becomes a flexible programmatic node for a erference variety of socio-cultural activities, but it also becomes a traffic node, thereby further adding to the active social network by stimulating the occurance of the chance incouter and interference.

source: http://schooltuinridderbos.weblog.nl

83

Toolkit:

Further development by toolkit; Inhabitant input

As the street and the existing buildings create a frame, the exact and materialization of the zones remains This allows for a custom made so as to better adress the various interests of the inhabitants. As stated in the paragraph The Active Social Network one can also put these zones at the disposal of the inhabitants in an active way. More joint decision making, but also active physical participation in materialization are to be the methods by which the zones are developed. In doing so the inhabitants are not only enabled to develop the environment that they are currently not fond of, but they are also stimulated to develop it as a community. A method by which to develop the zones can be that of the digital toolkit, see image above.
% wijk 56% 45% 63% 25% 24% 21% 31% % Rotterdam % wijk 36% 35% 38% 19% 17% 13% 20% 56% 45% 63% 25% 24% 21% 31% 57% 4,3 4 4,6 6,5 % Rotterdam 36% 35% 38% 19% 17% 13% 20% 73% 4,9 4,3 4,9 5,1

tallen woonomgeving kengetallen woonomgeving

en heel (score: probleem) en heel (score: probleem) schoon obleem vervuiling op straat buurtprobleem vervuiling op straat buurtprobleem hondenpoep op straat obleem hondenpoep op straat buurtprobleem vuil naast container obleem vuil naast container obleem wildplassen buurtprobleem wildplassen buurtprobleem bekladding muren obleem bekladding muren vernield kapot straatmeubiliar d kapot straatmeubiliar overlast van groepen jongeren t van groepen jongeren tevredenheid met buurt nheid met buurt n met de eigen buurt tevreden met de eigen buurt nheid openbaar groen tevredenheid openbaar groen tevredenheid recreatief groen nheid recreatief groen tevredenheid over speelplaatsen nheid over speelplaatsen thema aedequate voorzieningen aedequate voorzieningen tevredenheid over buurthuizen pleinen nheid over buurthuizen pleinen

probleem probleem probleem voldoende

57% 73% 4,3 probleem 4,9 4 probleem 4,3 4,6 probleem 4,9 6,5 voldoende 5,1

gehidsindex 2010, Jeigdveiligehidsindex 2010, Sociale Jeigdveiligehidsindex 2010, Sociale Index 2010 bron: veiligehidsindex 2010, Index 2010

Fig. - Kengetallen op het gebied van wonen.

84

1 10 8 7 6 4 9 3 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

- Dakrand, aluminium - Sandwichpaneel, aluminium afwerking - Framewerk 40x30mm alu. - 50x50x4 hoekpro el, ter bevestiging paneel - HE 200 B - Dakplaten, ComFlor 100mm - EPS dakisolatie 100mm - Bitumen - Rubberen voetstuk - Houten afwerking, Meerpalenhout (Basralocus)

6 7 4 4 9 3 5 8

Such decision making and active participation naturally needs to be coordinated form a certain point. This role can be fullfilled by the new 3 1 main atrium of the Persoonshal. Having become th physical place for the intangible social network, it 2 6 5 1 - HE 200 B can now also function as the base of operations so to speak. 2 - Aangelaste stalen plaat 300x15mm 3 - Staalplaatbetonvloer 200mm Furthermore, as the persoonshaloris augmented into a transparent and met Com 100mm vloerplaten 4 - Houten 4 accessible atrium, the nature ofsandwhichpaneel 100 mm making and participation joint decision Basralocushout (gebeitst) met 80mm EPS 5 - Houten into its design. will also have been intergrated framewerk 50x50mm Such integration can also be extended to the level of the detail. For 9 10 example in the form of the flexible wall that partially devide the atrium 11 12 itself into sub-zones for multiple programs, while at the same time pro13 11 10 viding a canvas/smartboard on which to project the toolkit.
5 9 6 7 8 - Kalzip MosSedum Dak 100mm - IPE 200 - IPE 300 steunstuk op hout afdragend - Bitumen - Houten regel 90x50mm - Steenwol 100mm - Houten afwerking 20mm - Ventilatiekanaal

13

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

- Sandwichpaneel, aluminium afwerking - 50x50x4 hoekpro el, ter bevestiging paneel - HE 200 B - Framewerk 40x30mm alu. tbv houten panelen en hwa - hemelwater afvoer bi 70x135mm - EPS isolatie 60mm - EPS dakisolatie 100mm - Aluminium kozijn Alcoa - Electromotor tbv exibele wand - TL verlichtingsarmaturen D 16mm - Perspex lichtbak en ballast voor exibele wand

11

10

In addition to such design related aspect there are naturally also organisational aspects. This relates to whom will actually lead the development of the zones and coordinate the inhabitantsefforts. As discussed in the paragraph Active Aocial Network, cuch coordinators can be found in the form of currently active social workers; Creatief Beheer and TOS Thuis op straat. In time, as work progresses and the active network grows, the inhabitants can learn to take control of their own environment, as a community.
5

12

6 10

9 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - Kalzip MosSedumdak 100mm - IPE 200 - HE 200 B - UPE 200 - Sandwichpaneel 50mm, EPS 30mm - Bitumen - Enkel glas 10mm - Houten kozijn 50x50mm - Houten gevelelementen 150x50mm - Houten frame element 50x50mm 7 6 1

2 2

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - Vloer/Ligger combinatie gewapend beton 650mm totaal vloer 220mm, ligger 430 mm - Stalen boorankers tbv IPE - IPE 400 - Houten vloerbalk 200x80mm - Houten vloer 30mm - Houten afwerking 20mm - Steenwol isolatie 50 mm , brandvertragend

2 3

4 2

7 3

85

Shellzone As descussed in the previous paragraphs the buildings role in the context of the neighbourhood is to be a physical place for the intangible social network being created, reflecting its versitility, transparency and accessibility to all. We have broken this down into programs and we have touched opun the experience of the building. As discussed in the previous paragraph we can however also zoom into the details of the building an their role. One aspect was that of the flexible wall which also serves as a smartboard/beamer canvas. This flexible wall is in actuality part of a larger building structure, the shellzone. In this shell type of zone a series of installations and other elements is incorporated. As such, the actual space of the atrium can be kept free and maximum flexibility is maintained, while the installations provide their services and a pleasant climate from their specific zone. How these installations are interlinked is discussed in the chapter Powerschematic. For now it suffices to state that the shellzone consist of: 1) an outer facade of HR++ glas with PV cells (156x156mm); 2) Intallationducts for ventilation and airconditioning; 3) radiatorpanels for heating (lighting included); 4) Flexible/retractible walls to devide the space (mood/nightlighting included in rim); 5) a steal mesh net (20x20mm) that closes of the zone and protect the installation from impact by balls and other objects.

86

3
Construction and Stability (See also Posters) The shellzone is suspended form the main construction of the atria. Taking the main atrium as an example, we can visualize this construction in a few steps. Step one naturally is the laying of the foandations. These consist of steel enfonced concrete beams 700x500mm. On top of that lies a floor of pretensioned canalplates (kanaalplaten) singlefield lxbxh 6000x1200x200mm. This is then topped of with 50mm poured concrete layer. To the sides 3 series of 8 prefab slabs (400x3100xvarying height) are errected. These will function as the columns. In step two a 3 meter high truss consisting of HE 200B profiles is liften on top of the two series of slabs of the main atrium. Eight of these trusses span 28,8m. The ends are capped with 100mm thick concrete slabs. In the third step a series of HE 200B girders links the bottom part of the trusses thus creating the structural platform for the roof and the upper part of the shellzone. In the vertical plane (the facade) UPE 200 profiles form the supports for the facade. Here the active forces are lower plus a more slender profile is desired with respect to the transparency. In step four the outer parts of the shellzone can be added and the main setup is finished.

A; The system used in atrium 1 is also aplied to atrium 2

B; UPE 200 and D16mm cables hold and stabilize the facade

C; Trusses are kept from buckling by 16mm tensionrods

D; longitudital windforces are countered by the tubular structure formed by the floor and the windtrusses in the final two fields. The forces are directed to the foundations via the cores

87

Additional: Construction to Street The large concrete slabs not only serve as structural loadbearing elements, but they also play a role is the experience of the street. Here the series of 8 slabs form an arcade, that is turn functions as the transitionzone from street to atrium. Underneath the street the slabs continue. Here slabs of atrium 1 and 2 meet in a series of walls. These walls form the loadbearing structures for the dressingrooms underneath the street. A 2 meter wide hallway provides access to the dressingrooms via the 4 cores. Of these four cores two contain a spiral staircase and a lift (shaft 2800x2400mm), the two other cores contain a staircase. Keeping the lower walls at a thickness of 400mm and spanning massive floorelements (255x1200x6000mm) over them makes it possible for occasional heavy transport to pass over the street. This can include a supply thruck and a firetruck.

88

Phasing In terms of phasing, the extension that is atrium 2 will have to be realised before atrium 1. Doing so will enable the capacity of the total middle section to rise to 200%. When this capacity is reached work can begin on one half of hall 1. This will cause capacity to drop again to 150%. When this first half of atrium 1 is completed the process can then be repeated for the second half. In applying this phasing the capacity is kept above 100% of the original capacity of the Persoonshal, throughout the augmentation/realisation.

89

Fitness As explained in the paragraph Program the atria are oriented towards eachother and the street via the setup of their secondary programs. In the expansion segment this secondary program consists of the Fitness-program. However, this program is not located here for the sole purpose of orienting the atrium. For positioning the fitness facility here, 12 meters away from the busy street, also decreases the need to stick the inner facade shut with translucent bands. In addition the people active in the fitnessfacility are provided with a view on the actuivities taking place in the secondary atrium as on those in the primary atrium. If desired, this position of the fitnessfacility even enables it to function independent from the atrium, with its own entrance. Helofiet-filters Located above the fitnessfacility one finds a large helofiet-filter basin (448m2x500mm) which purifies the rainwater that falls onto the glass roof (and the filter itself) and the used greywater from showers and sinks. This water can then be filtered for use in secondary water systems such as that of the toilets. from where it is discharged into the city sewer system.A helofiet-filter is also located to the south of atrium 1 (552m2x500mm). How both filters are interlinked with the buildingwide systems is depicted in the following paragrapgh Powerschematic and Materialization.

90

91

Local Neighbourhood Transformer Control Unit Battery Pack / Storage

Building
Roof plane: PV Cells Floor plane: Generator Stamps

Electric Current to Water & Airpumps A.C. Intake Unit + Dust Filter

Lighting Building + Square

Heat Exchanger Unit + (De)Humidifyer

Output Unit

Western Wing 1+2 Regular Radiators

Atrium A+B & Dressing Rooms - Radiator Panels - Convectors - Floor Heating

Eastern Wing 1+2

Solar boiler Solar collectors

Regular Radiators

City Network
- Electricity - Sewer - Tap Water Toilets ( ush) Showers & Taps CV Kettel (Backup)

Local Heatexchanger

CV Kettel (Backup)

Square
Solar collectors

Hylo et lter 2 / Holding Basin

Hylo et lter 1 / Holding Basin


ice-ring related program

Filter

Solar boiler

Installation Area 1 of 2
Additional Filter + Level measurement (underneath 2 southern cores)

Rainfall (onto roof 2)

Rainfall (onto roof 1)

Power schematic, Installations, summarized energy Calculations, Sustainability and Materialisation As discussed before, a wide range of installations form an interlinked system that provide the building with its necessary water supply, energy supply, heating and ventilation and airconditioning. These are all visualised in the scheme above, in respectively dark blue, yellow, light blue and green. In this scheme we now see how for example the earlier discussed helofiet-filters, form storage basins with a capacity of 1000m2 x 0,5m = 500m3 = 500.000 liters. Based on the date from Water Duurzaam in het Ontwerp (2005) we can determine that this supply can facilitate about 333 visitors, which is a respsctablenumber. In order to facilitate a larger amount of visitors during special events this watersystem is also tied into to City Network (Red). Heating of the water takes place in a specially reserved installation space. This is also where the water for the radiators is heated with the help of solar collectors and a CVheating kettel that functions as a backup. Based on the Vademecum Energiebewust Ontwerpen van Nieuwbouwwoningen (2000) we find that a normal household needs a collector of 3m2 to facilitates its hotwater supply throughout the year. In the new atrium there are two zones that hold solarcollectors. Per zone a surface of 130,48m2 is covered. 130,48m2/3m2 yields that one zone can facilitate 43,49 households (87 households with the total surface). Per household the Vademecum recommends a storagetank of 120L. 120x43,5=5220L or 5,22m3 that needs to be reserved for the tank per installation zone. In the design this is facilitated in the form of two tanks per zone, with a capacity of 1,2x2,4x1m=2,88m3 x2= 5,76m3. In terms of airconditioning and ventilation, the old hall used to be 5965m3 large and serviced by an installation space of 4,8x30,2m=144,96m2. The new atrium is 10440m3 and is serviced by two zones with a total capacity of 2x 5,65x28,8m=325,44m2. Thus the atrium zone has become 1,75 times large, but its servant space has even grown with a factor of 2,24, which puts the setup in the green. With the old ventilation speed being 10.000m3/h the old building was able to completely refresh the hall within 35minutes. With the same ventilation speed, a serving zone that is 2,24 times larger and ducts that have a total section of 4x(2,3x0,45)=4,14m2 as opposed to 12x(0,2x1)=2,4m2, the building also scores in the green here. Thus the new design also becomes a far more effective setup in terms of installations.

92

Solar collectors PV Cells 156x156mm Installation space

1 10 8 7 6 4 9 3 2

Aluminum sandwich panels Concrete slabs 400mm

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

- Dakrand, aluminium - Sandwichpaneel, aluminium afwerking - Framewerk 40x30mm alu. - 50x50x4 hoekpro el, ter bevestiging paneel - HE 200 B - Dakplaten, ComFlor 100mm - EPS dakisolatie 100mm - Bitumen - Rubberen voetstuk - Houten afwerking, Meerpalenhout (Basralocus)

HR ++ glass, double Basralocus wood


3 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

- HE 200 B - Aangelaste stalen plaat 300x15mm - Staalplaatbetonvloer 200mm met Com or 100mm vloerplaten - Houten sandwhichpaneel 100 mm Basralocushout (gebeitst) met 80mm EPS - Houten framewerk 50x50mm - Kalzip MosSedum Dak 100mm - IPE 200 - IPE 300 steunstuk op hout afdragend - Bitumen - Houten regel 90x50mm - Steenwol 100mm - Houten afwerking 20mm - Ventilatiekanaal 11 12 10

13

5 2 2 6 2 3

4 7

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - Vloer/Ligger combinatie gewapend beton 650mm totaal vloer 220mm, ligger 430 mm - Stalen boorankers tbv IPE - IPE 400 - Houten vloerbalk 200x80mm - Houten vloer 30mm - Houten afwerking 20mm - Steenwol isolatie 50 mm , brandvertragend

13 12 11 10 1

9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 2 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 3 - Betonnen vloer 250mm - Funderingsbalk 700x500mm - Bodemafsluiting 100mm betonplaten - Funderingspaal 450x450mm - Kunststof Damwand 114mm, U-vorm - EPS Bodemafdichting en dilatatie element - Funderingsbalk eindelement 700x250mm - Kanaalplaten 200/6 - Gietvloer 50mm - Onderstempelingselement tbv zwevendevloer 150mm - Framewerk tbv vloerdelen 40x30mm - Vloerdelen Betontriplex 20mm - Houten afwerking 10mm

Floorplane; Generator stamps

Generator stamps; technique source: http://www.greendiary.com

In terms of sustainability the building uses helofietfilters, but also PV-cells in its glass roof. These have a size of 156x156mm per cube. According to the data acquired from various manufacturers (among which Hermans techniek) a panel as applied in the building (2,7x1,4) generally yields 110 Wattpeak (Wp). The two atria combined count 300 panels, thus 300x110=33000Wp. With one household using about 4000Wp. The buildings roof generates the power equivalant to that needed by 8,25 households. In addition to this powersource the builings also generated power through its users. This is done via a raised floor that lies on top of a series of generator-stamps. This generate an electric current as the users produce vibrations while walking on the floor or during gymclasses.

Helofiet-filters; source: http://tuincoach.wordpress.com

All the power generated is rerouted back into the buildElements integrated into the planes ings installationpumps and fans. Another part is used of materialisation (doors) to illuminate the square via the buildings moodlights and the excess in sent out into the City Network.

In terms of materialisation the heavy loadbearing elements of the trusses are materialized in concrete and steel, covered by aluminum sandwichpanels (100mm). This enables one to materialize the zones in between the trusses with glass and wood. This yields transparency, accessibility and an enviting materialisation in between the trusses. Depending on the necessary function, the amounts of wood and glass vary. The wood used is taken from the former local Persoons-harbour where one finds large dockingposts a.ka. meerpalen and dukdalven froms durable Basralocus-wood. Thus in addition to a raised effectiveness, the installations and even some materials are also setup in a far more sustainable way.

93

Installa

Bypassers

Street Street
Interested Bypasser Active Participant

Flexible Atrium: Studyroom

Flexible Atrium: Living room

Active Partici

Segment and functioning As explained in earlier paragraphs, the installations service the atria through a shellzone. It is also from this shellzone that the space dividing flexible walls drop down. In dropping these walls, 4 for each atrium, one is able to facilitate 4 individual programs per atium. These 4 programs/zones are interlinked via 2 routes that run along the inner side of the facade; 2,32m wide in the main atrium shown above. As depicted in the paragraph Program, the various routes are setup in an intersecting fashion, so as to stimulate interaction between the active participants and bypassers. Interaction through interference if yo will. This is further strenghtened through a series of broad viewlines, that have the added effect of creating social control.

Detail 1

Detail 6

Detail 5

Detail 2

Detail 3

Detail 4

Structure of the section

94

ation Area

Passive Participants

Cantine Terrace /Balcony


Passive / Active Participants

Storage

Path

ipant Bypassers

Broad viewlines and a transparent setup spark interest, stimulate interaction and create social control

95

Introduction: Concept/Hypothesis
Bottom-up approach

SCD

Urban / Architectural Design:

Strengthenig the Shared Characterising Denominator(s) a.k.a. the horizontal links

SCD

Urban

Strength Denomi

oth the

The concept(s) are implemented on both the architectural and urban assignment Vice versa however is also true: The architectural and urban assignment are important tools/methods through which one brings about change in the socio-cultural status.

he e important gs about

Back coupling Thus, the augmentation of the Persoonshal as a Shared Characterising Denominator (gemeenschappelijke noemer) into a community livingroom, yields physical place for the intangible social network being created, reflecting its versitility, transparency and accessibility to all. This role of the building is integrated throughout the augmentation; from the concept all the way through to the structural aspects, orientation of installations and the like. In the broader setup of the strategy, the building however doesnt stand alone. This new version of the Persoonhal (Persoonhal 3.0 if you will) forms but one node in a broader neighbourhoodwide network. Together these nodes serve as the focal points for the augmentation of the neighbourhoods environment as a carrier and major player in the inhabitants wellbeing. Furthermore, by creating an environment that also stimulates the interlinking of the inhabitants desires and interest one can also stimulate the interaction between these inhabitants. This yields an intracate active socio-cultural network in which the various issues of the neighbourhood and its inhabitants are adressed via the inhabitants inherent qualities, potentials and corresponding interest. The result is a programmatic and physical network that stimulates the emergence and consolidation of a neighbourhood wide active socio-cultural network. This network functions as a net for the socially weak and unwilling, while at the same time fulfilling the role of a trampoline for those that are driven and ambitious. That is the power of the integral approach that utilizes inherent quality. That is Materializing Identity.

96

Introduction:

Overall Urban Strategy

97

98

Appendix

99

100

Old Building Setup: Floorplans, Program, Sections (P2 data)


Current Status:

Current Status: Current Status:

Current Status:

220m2 945m2

156m2

520m2

40m2

40m2

Current Status: Level 0; Specific Program


AA

Level 0; Functioning AA

BB
563m2 138m2

205m2

BB
101,7m2

Level 1 AA

Level 0; Functioning Level 0; Functioning AA AA

------ -------------------------------

Sportsfields Community Welfare Storage Dressing Rooms Canteen Rentable Workspace Installation Room

Legend:

- Sportsfields - Community Welfare - Storage - Dressing Rooms - Canteen - Rentable Workspace - Intallation Room

Spo Com Sto Dre Can Ren Inst

Sportsfields Community Welfare Storage Dressing Rooms Canteen Rentable Workspace Installation Room

BB

BB BB

101

102

103

104

105

Detail 1

Detail 3

Detail 3

Detail 1

Detail 6

Detail 5

Detail 2

Detail 3

Detail 4

106

Detail 1

Detail 2

Detail 1

107

Detail 1

108

1 10 8 7 6 4 9 3 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

- Dakrand, aluminium - Sandwichpaneel, aluminium afwerking - Framewerk 40x30mm alu. - 50x50x4 hoekpro el, ter bevestiging paneel - HE 200 B - Dakplaten, ComFlor 100mm - EPS dakisolatie 100mm - Bitumen - Rubberen voetstuk - Houten afwerking, Meerpalenhout (Basralocus)

2 3

6 7 4 4 9 3 5 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

- HE 200 B - Aangelaste stalen plaat 300x15mm - Staalplaatbetonvloer 200mm met Com or 100mm vloerplaten - Houten sandwhichpaneel 100 mm Basralocushout (gebeitst) met 80mm EPS - Houten framewerk 50x50mm - Kalzip MosSedum Dak 100mm - IPE 200 - IPE 300 steunstuk op hout afdragend - Bitumen - Houten regel 90x50mm - Steenwol 100mm - Houten afwerking 20mm - Ventilatiekanaal 11 10

13

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

- Sandwichpaneel, aluminium afwerking - 50x50x4 hoekpro el, ter bevestiging paneel - HE 200 B - Framewerk 40x30mm alu. tbv houten panelen en hwa - hemelwater afvoer bi 70x135mm - EPS isolatie 60mm - EPS dakisolatie 100mm - Aluminium kozijn Alcoa - Electromotor tbv exibele wand - TL verlichtingsarmaturen D 16mm - Perspex lichtbak en ballast voor exibele wand

5 11 10 12

6 10 5 9 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - Kalzip MosSedumdak 100mm - IPE 200 - HE 200 B - UPE 200 - Sandwichpaneel 50mm, EPS 30mm - Bitumen - Enkel glas 10mm - Houten kozijn 50x50mm - Houten gevelelementen 150x50mm - Houten frame element 50x50mm 7 6 1 3 8 4 2 2 2 2

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - Vloer/Ligger combinatie gewapend beton 650mm totaal vloer 220mm, ligger 430 mm - Stalen boorankers tbv IPE - IPE 400 - Houten vloerbalk 200x80mm - Houten vloer 30mm - Houten afwerking 20mm - Steenwol isolatie 50 mm , brandvertragend

7 3

13 12 11 10 1

9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 2 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 3 - Betonnen vloer 250mm - Funderingsbalk 700x500mm - Bodemafsluiting 100mm betonplaten - Funderingspaal 450x450mm - Kunststof Damwand 114mm, U-vorm - EPS Bodemafdichting en dilatatie element - Funderingsbalk eindelement 700x250mm - Kanaalplaten 200/6 - Gietvloer 50mm - Onderstempelingselement tbv zwevendevloer 150mm - Framewerk tbv vloerdelen 40x30mm - Vloerdelen Betontriplex 20mm - Houten afwerking 10mm

109

5 1 6 4

1 2 3 4 5 6

- HE 200 B - UPE 200 - Enkel glas 10mm - Houten kozijn 50x50mm - Houten gevelbalken 150x50mm - Houten frame element 50x50mm

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 - Gewapend Betonnen schijfconstructie 3100x400mm - UPE 200 koppelstuk (buiten het vlak) - T-vormig koppelstuk tussen UPE en Beton - Aluminium framewerk 40x30mm (U-vorm) - EPS isolatie 30mm - TL armatuur 16mm - Perspex lichtbak - Aluminium isolatiepaneel 30mm - Aluminium kozijn Alcoa 70mm - Harmonica shuifdeuren, aluminium kozijn. - Schuifrail tbv deuren - Schuifrail tbv jnmazig exibel net - Sleuven tbv gentegreerde convectorkachel - Sleuven tbv gentegreerde hemelwaterafvoer 12 7

5 6 14 15 16 17 - HE 200 B - Houten kozijn 50mm - Enkel glas 10mm - Houten gevelelem. 100x50mm (afgerond tbv onderhoud glas) 2 13 4 3 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 12

- Betonnen kolom D 450mm (gewapend) - Baksteen binnenspouwblad 100mm - Baksteen buitenspouwblad 100mm - Betonnen portaalelement 300x300mm - Trespaplaat 10mm - Houten kozijn en raam

12 10 11

14 8 8 13 4 2

16 17

15

9 11 8 10 14 7

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

- Gewapend betonnen kern 400mm en 350mm zijden - Houten sandwichpaneel Basralocushout 100mm (gebeitst) EPS 60mm - Bitumen - Houten stijlwerk 80x50mm - Steenwol isolatie 100mm - Houten afwerking 20mm - Steenwol isolatie 100mm

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

- HE 200 B - Aangelaste stalen plaat 300x15mm - Staalplaatbetonvloer 200mm met Com or 100mm vloerplaten - Aluminium sandwichpaneel 100mm - 50x50x4 hoekpro el, ter bevestiging paneel - Houten regel 80x50mm - Steenwol 80mm - Houten afwerking 20mm

6 4 4 5 3 5 2 6 7 8 7 2 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

- HE 200 B - Dakgoot, aluminium sandwich bi 115x95mm - Aluminium kozijn alcoa 100mm - Aluminium hoekkozijn alcoa 100mm - HR++ dubbel glas - Dubbel glas incl. PV cellen - Trekstang 16mm - Drager element tbv jnmazig net

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 4 1 2 3 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - IPE 400 - Houten vloerbalk 200x80mm - Steenwol isolatie 50mm tbv brandvertraging - Houten vloer 30mm - Houten afwerking 20mm - Steenwol isolatie 80-100mm - Stalen roosterwerk 13 12 6 5 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 9 2 3 11 10 17

- Sleuf tbv schuifdeuren - Rail tbv exibel jnmazig net - Convectorkachel - Kanaalplaten 200/6 - Gietvloer 50mm - Onderstempelingselement tbv zwevendevloer 100mm - Framewerk tbv vloerdelen 40x30mm - Vloerdelen Betontriplex 20mm - Houten afwerking 10mm

17

16 15 14

- Composiet vloerdelen 200x30mm - Composiet regelwerk tbv vloerdelen - Aluminium hemelwaterafvoer 400x120mm - Hemelwaterfavoer D 100mm, door Massieve plaatvloer M260 (255mm) - Houten regelwerk 60x30mm - EPS isolatie 60mm - Houten plafondafwerking 20mm - Kelderwand 400mm

110

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