Antennas In Satellite Communication Abstract A satellite is anobjectw h i c h h a s b e e n p l a c e d i n t o orbitbyhumanendeavor.

Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them fromnatural satellites s u c h a s t h eMoon.Antennas are another part of satellite communication subsystem. In factt h e a n t e n n a s o n b o a r d t h e s a t e l l i t e s er v e a s a n i n t er f a c e b e t w e e n t h e E a r t h s t a t i o n s o n t h e g r o u n d a n d v a r i o u s s a t e l l i t e s u b - s y s t e m s d u r i n g o p er a t i o n s . A n t e n n a s r e c e i v e t h e u p l i n k signal and transmit to downlink signals. In addition they provide single link for the satellitet e l e m e t r y , c o m m a n d a n d r a n g i n g s y s t e m s w h i c h i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l subsystem provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards theEarth coverage areas. The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage.I t s h o u l d b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t a n t e n n a s a r e t h e o n e o f t h e k e y e l e m e n t s i n a s a t e l l i t e c o mmu nication s yst e m s inc e t h e i r g a i n v a l u e s d i r e c t l y d et er m i n e t h e a m o u n t o f r ec e i v e

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Antennas In Satellite Communication

Abstract

A satellite is anobjectwhich has been placed intoorbitbyhuman endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial

satellites to distinguish them fromnatural satellites such as theMoon.Antenn as are another part of satellite communication

In factthe antennas on board the satellite serve as an interface between the Earth stations on theground and .subsystem.

various satellite sub-systems during operations. Antennas receive the uplink signal and transmit to downlink signals. .

command and ranging systems which in conjunction with .In addition they provide single link for the satellitetelemetry .

attitude controlsubsyste m provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards theEarth .

The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage.coverage areas.It should be remembered that .

antennas are the one of the key elements in a satellitecommun ication system since their gain values directly determine the .

Types of antenna system use in satellite communication Parabolic antenna Horn Antenna .amount of received power.

Helical antennaPhased array Applications Broadcasting Nav el UsagesSpace probe communicationW .

1955.eather research usages 3 Antennas In Satellite CommunicationO n July 29. theWhite .

Houseannounced that the U. This became known asProject .S. intended to launchsatellites by the spring of 1958.

Following . theSoviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957. On July 31.Vanguard.

and theInternational Geophysical . the National Science Foundation.pressure by theAmerican Rocket Society.

Year . which . military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Air Force and Navy were working onProject Orbiter .

andExplorer 1became the .involved using aJupiter C rocketto launch a satellite. The project succeeded.

1958.United States' first satellite on January 31. three-anda-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1.In June 1961. the .

Air Force usedresources of theUnited States Space Surveillance Network to catalog 115 Earth- .

orbitingsatellites. . The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the Earth is theInternational Space Station.

In fact the .Antenna System Antennas are another part of satellite communication subsystem.

antennason board the satellite serve as an interface between the Earth stations on the ground andvarious .

Antennas receive the uplink signal andtransmit to downlink signals. In addition they .satellite subsystems during operations.

comma nd and ranging systems which in conjunction with attitude control .provide single link for the satellite telemetry.

subsystem provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards the Earth coverage .

The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage. It should beremembered .areas.

that antennas are the one of the key elements in a satellite communications ystem since their gain values directly determine .

the amount of received power. 3 Antennas In Satellite CommunicationO n July 29. 1955. theWhite .

Houseannounced that the U.S. This became known asProject . intended to launchsatellites by the spring of 1958.

On July 31. theSoviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957.Following .Vanguard.

the National Science Foundation. and theInternational Geophysical .pressure by theAmerican Rocket Society.

military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Air Force and Navy were working onProject Orbiter . which .Year .

involved using aJupiter C rocketto launch a satellite. andExplorer 1became the . The project succeeded.

United States' first satellite on January 31, 1958.In June 1961, three-anda-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the

Air Force usedresources of theUnited States Space Surveillance Network to catalog 115 Earth-

orbitingsatellites. The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the Earth is theInternational Space Station.

In fact the .Antenna System Antennas are another part of satellite communication subsystem.

antennason board the satellite serve as an interface between the Earth stations on the ground andvarious .

satellite subsystems during operations. In addition they . Antennas receive the uplink signal andtransmit to downlink signals.

comma nd and ranging systems which in conjunction with attitude control .provide single link for the satellite telemetry.

subsystem provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards the Earth coverage .

It should beremembered .The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage.areas.

that antennas are the one of the key elements in a satellite communications ystem since their gain values directly determine .

Some Basic things Bandwidth. Beamwidth.the amount of received power. and Polarization .

Bandwidth. and polarization are three important terms dealing. beamwidth.respectiv ely with the .

and the space .operating frequency range. the degree of concentration or the radiation pattern.

Bandwidth The term bandwidth refers to the range of frequencies the antenna will .orientation of the radiated waves.

Whe ..e. the antenna will perform satisfactorily throughout is size of frequencies.reflecteffectively . i.

n the antenna power drops to ½(3 dB). the upper and lower extremities of thesefrequencies have been reached and the .

thus ensuring no deterioration of the transmitted signals. Beamwidth The beamwidth .antenna no longer perform satisfactorily. Antennas that operate over a wide frequency range and still m a i n t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y performance must have compensating circuits s w i t c h e d i n t o t h e s y s t e m t o m a i n t a i n impedance matching.

of an antenna is described as the angles created by comparing thehalf-power points (3 dB) on the main radiation lobe to .

In anexample. the beam angle is 300. which is the sum of the two angles .its maximum power point.

created at the pointswhere the field strength drops to 0. 0¶ field strength is measured in u/V/m) of the maximum .

voltage at thecenter of the lobe.(These points are known as the half-power points.) Polarization .

Polarization of an antenna refers to the direction in space of the E field (electricvector) portion of the .

Lowfrequency antennas are usually vertically .electromagnetic wave being radiated by the transmitting system.

polarized because of ground effect (reflectedwaves.) and physical Construction methods. etc. High- .

frequency antennas are generallyhorizont ally polarized. Types of antenna system .

Parabolic antenna Govt.1. Amravati . Poly.

5 Antennas In Satellite Communication A parabolic antenna for Erdfunkstelle Raisting. the biggest facility for .

A parabolic antenna is a high-gain reflector antenna .Bavaria.satellite communication in theworld. based inRaisting. Germany.

television anddata communications.used for radio. on theUHFandSHFp . and also for radiolocation (RADAR ).

arts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The relatively short wavelength of electromagnetic (radio) energyat these frequencies .

allows reasonably sized reflectors to exhibit the very desirable highlydirectional response for both receiving and .

With the advent of TVRO and DBS satellite television.transmitting. the parabolic antenna becamea ubiquitous .

Extensive terrestrialmicrow ave links.feature of urban. such as those between . landscapes. and even rural. suburban.

and wireless WAN/LANappli cations have also proliferated this antenna type.cellphone base stations. Earlier .

applications included groundbased and airborne radar and radio astronomy. The largest "dish" antenna in the .

world is theArecibo Observatory's radio telescope at Arecibo. but. . for beamsteeringreasons. Puerto Rico.

rather than parabolic.it is actually a spherical. reflector. Design: Main types of parabolic antennas .

The .A typical parabolic antenna consists of a parabolic reflector illumina ted by a smallfeed antenna.

reflector is a metallic surface formed into a paraboloidof revolution and (usually)truncated in a circular rim that forms the .

This paraboloid possesses a Govt. Amravati .diameter of the antenna. Poly.