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Antennas In Satellite Communication Abstract A satellite is anobjectw h i c h h a s b e e n p l a c e d i n t o orbitbyhumanendeavor.

Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them fromnatural satellites s u c h a s t h eMoon.Antennas are another part of satellite communication subsystem. In factt h e a n t e n n a s o n b o a r d t h e s a t e l l i t e s er v e a s a n i n t er f a c e b e t w e e n t h e E a r t h s t a t i o n s o n t h e g r o u n d a n d v a r i o u s s a t e l l i t e s u b - s y s t e m s d u r i n g o p er a t i o n s . A n t e n n a s r e c e i v e t h e u p l i n k signal and transmit to downlink signals. In addition they provide single link for the satellitet e l e m e t r y , c o m m a n d a n d r a n g i n g s y s t e m s w h i c h i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l subsystem provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards theEarth coverage areas. The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage.I t s h o u l d b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t a n t e n n a s a r e t h e o n e o f t h e k e y e l e m e n t s i n a s a t e l l i t e c o mmu nication s yst e m s inc e t h e i r g a i n v a l u e s d i r e c t l y d et er m i n e t h e a m o u n t o f r ec e i v e

Antennas In Satellite Communication

Abstract

A satellite is anobjectwhich has been placed intoorbitbyhuman endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial

satellites to distinguish them fromnatural satellites such as theMoon.Antenn as are another part of satellite communication

subsystem. In factthe antennas on board the satellite serve as an interface between the Earth stations on theground and

various satellite sub-systems during operations. Antennas receive the uplink signal and transmit to downlink signals.

In addition they provide single link for the satellitetelemetry , command and ranging systems which in conjunction with

attitude controlsubsyste m provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards theEarth

coverage areas. The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage.It should be remembered that

antennas are the one of the key elements in a satellitecommun ication system since their gain values directly determine the

amount of received power.

Types of antenna system use in satellite communication


Parabolic antenna Horn Antenna

Helical antennaPhased array

Applications
Broadcasting Nav el UsagesSpace probe communicationW

eather research usages 3 Antennas In Satellite CommunicationO n July 29, 1955, theWhite

Houseannounced that the U.S. intended to launchsatellites by the spring of 1958. This became known asProject

Vanguard. On July 31, theSoviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957.Following

pressure by theAmerican Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, and theInternational Geophysical

Year , military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Air Force and Navy were working onProject Orbiter , which

involved using aJupiter C rocketto launch a satellite. The project succeeded, andExplorer 1became the

United States' first satellite on January 31, 1958.In June 1961, three-anda-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the

Air Force usedresources of theUnited States Space Surveillance Network to catalog 115 Earth-

orbitingsatellites. The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the Earth is theInternational Space Station.

Antenna System
Antennas are another part of satellite communication subsystem. In fact the

antennason board the satellite serve as an interface between the Earth stations on the ground andvarious

satellite subsystems during operations. Antennas receive the uplink signal andtransmit to downlink signals. In addition they

provide single link for the satellite telemetry,comma nd and ranging systems which in conjunction with attitude control

subsystem provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards the Earth coverage

areas.The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage. It should beremembered

that antennas are the one of the key elements in a satellite communications ystem since their gain values directly determine

the amount of received power. 3 Antennas In Satellite CommunicationO n July 29, 1955, theWhite

Houseannounced that the U.S. intended to launchsatellites by the spring of 1958. This became known asProject

Vanguard. On July 31, theSoviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957.Following

pressure by theAmerican Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, and theInternational Geophysical

Year , military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Air Force and Navy were working onProject Orbiter , which

involved using aJupiter C rocketto launch a satellite. The project succeeded, andExplorer 1became the

United States' first satellite on January 31, 1958.In June 1961, three-anda-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the

Air Force usedresources of theUnited States Space Surveillance Network to catalog 115 Earth-

orbitingsatellites. The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the Earth is theInternational Space Station.

Antenna System
Antennas are another part of satellite communication subsystem. In fact the

antennason board the satellite serve as an interface between the Earth stations on the ground andvarious

satellite subsystems during operations. Antennas receive the uplink signal andtransmit to downlink signals. In addition they

provide single link for the satellite telemetry,comma nd and ranging systems which in conjunction with attitude control

subsystem provides beacon tracking signals for precise pointing of the antenna towards the Earth coverage

areas.The design of satellite antenna is conditioned by the required coverage. It should beremembered

that antennas are the one of the key elements in a satellite communications ystem since their gain values directly determine

the amount of received power.

Some Basic things


Bandwidth, Beamwidth, and Polarization

Bandwidth, beamwidth, and polarization are three important terms dealing.respectiv ely with the

operating frequency range, the degree of concentration or the radiation pattern, and the space

orientation of the radiated waves. Bandwidth The term bandwidth refers to the range of frequencies the antenna will

reflecteffectively ; i.e., the antenna will perform satisfactorily throughout is size of frequencies.Whe

n the antenna power drops to (3 dB), the upper and lower extremities of thesefrequencies have been reached and the

antenna no longer perform satisfactorily.


Antennas that operate over a wide frequency range and still m a i n t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y performance must have compensating circuits s w i t c h e d i n t o t h e s y s t e m t o m a i n t a i n impedance matching, thus ensuring no deterioration of the transmitted signals.

Beamwidth The beamwidth

of an antenna is described as the angles created by comparing thehalf-power points (3 dB) on the main radiation lobe to

its maximum power point. In anexample, the beam angle is 300, which is the sum of the two angles

created at the pointswhere the field strength drops to 0. 0 field strength is measured in u/V/m) of the maximum

voltage at thecenter of the lobe.(These points are known as the half-power points.) Polarization

Polarization of an antenna refers to the direction in space of the E field (electricvector) portion of the

electromagnetic wave being radiated by the transmitting system.Lowfrequency antennas are usually vertically

polarized because of ground effect (reflectedwaves, etc.) and physical Construction methods. High-

frequency antennas are generallyhorizont ally polarized.

Types of antenna system

1.Parabolic antenna
Govt. Poly. Amravati

Antennas In Satellite Communication


A parabolic antenna for Erdfunkstelle Raisting, the biggest facility for

satellite communication in theworld, based inRaisting,Bavaria, Germany.

A parabolic antenna is a high-gain reflector antenna

used for radio, television anddata communications, and also for radiolocation (RADAR ), on theUHFandSHFp

arts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The relatively short wavelength of electromagnetic (radio) energyat these frequencies

allows reasonably sized reflectors to exhibit the very desirable highlydirectional response for both receiving and

transmitting.With the advent of TVRO and DBS satellite television, the parabolic antenna becamea ubiquitous

feature of urban, suburban, and even rural, landscapes. Extensive terrestrialmicrow ave links, such as those between

cellphone base stations, and wireless WAN/LANappli cations have also proliferated this antenna type. Earlier

applications included groundbased and airborne radar and radio astronomy. The largest "dish" antenna in the

world is theArecibo Observatory's radio telescope at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, but, for beamsteeringreasons,

it is actually a spherical, rather than parabolic, reflector.

Design: Main types of parabolic antennas

A typical parabolic antenna consists of a parabolic reflector illumina ted by a smallfeed antenna.The

reflector is a metallic surface formed into a paraboloidof revolution and (usually)truncated in a circular rim that forms the

diameter of the antenna. This paraboloid possesses a Govt. Poly. Amravati