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PROCEEDINGS

36

th

International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering

Hotel Hutník Tatranské Matliare, Slovakia May 25 – 29, 2009

Editor: J. Markoš

ISBN 978-80-227-3072-3

This is the reason why science is recently oriented at a more effective utilization of renewable energy sources. because the amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere by combustion is compensated by the amount of CO2 consumed by plants during photosynthesis. gases.380°C. Isoconversional method was used to determine kinetic parameters such as activation energy and pre-exponential factor mainly in the stage of active pyrolysis and partially in the passive stage. From the pyrolysis of hemicellulose. at the end of the decomposition process. Slovak University of Technology. fuels and energy results in rapid depletion of fossil fuels reserves which are used as a raw material in the production of the above mentioned products. while lignin decomposition seems to be ranging from 180°C up to 900°C.pdf Kinetic study of wood chips decomposition by TGA Lukáš Gašparovič. Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology. TGA and DTG temperature dependencies were evaluated. The investigation was carried out in inert nitrogen atmosphere with temperatures ranging from 20°C to 900°C for four heating rates 2K/min. The decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose takes place in the temperature range of 200°C – 380°C and 250°C . Slovakia e Le-We-4. It is said that renewable sources are CO2 neutral [1]. thermogravimetric analysis is often used [3]. cellulose and lignin were used as main compounds of biomass. Pyrolysis as one of the thermochemical processes (without the presence of oxygen) involves many partial processes which can’t be exactly described.sk 178–1 . Reaction order does not have a significant influence on the process because of the high value of the pre-exponential factor. To investigate the pyrolysis decomposition kinetics. One of the greatest advantages of renewable sources is that they don’t contribute to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. fuels. energy or heat [2]. 812 37. Decomposition processes proceed in three main stages: water evaporation. Bratislava. the biomass seems to be a suitable raw material that can be converted to chemicals. Radlinského 13. Introduction Continuously increasing amount of the world’s consumed chemicals. 2009..jelemensky@stuba. 10K/min and 15K/min. Obtained kinetic parameters were used to calculate simulated decompositions at different heating rates. Another advantage is that. cellulose and lignin is clear that the decomposition process of wood is dependent on the composition and concentration of main compounds. Slovakia Abstract Pyrolysis of the wood chips mixture and main wood compounds such as hemicellulose cellulose and lignin was investigated by thermogravimetry. in the time of crisis. It is possible to produce the same products from biomass like from fossil fuels. active and passive pyrolysis. Thermogravimetry is used to describe 1 Corresponding Author: ludovit. 5K/min. Ľudovít Jelemenský1 Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. 1. In large scale processes of biomass conversion to valuable products via thermal treatment. the value of activation energy decreases. Hemicellulose. Tatransk´ Matliare. 178p. Zuzana Koreňová. Experimental data compared with the simulation were in good accordance at all heating rates. like biomass. the decomposition process kinetics determination is one of the key problems. It was found that.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29.

The increase of heating rates results in slight changes of the conversion curve position towards higher temperatures. 2009. Some publications dealing with this problem have demonstrated that decomposition regions of hemicellulose and cellulose are in ranges of around 220-315°C and 315-400°C. wood chips with diameter of about 50 mm were milled into smaller chips with the diameter of about 1-2 mm. Materials and Methods 2. Cellulose. moisture content etc. hemicellulose and lignin have the same characteristic range of thermal decomposition in state of pure substance or in a mixture (that means in wood). 10].Preparation of samples Samples of wood for thermogravimetric analysis were taken from the residual processing wood. Various types of biomasses from residual wood. Parameters like activation energy. 14-16] using isoconversional or optimization methods. Samples of hemicellulose. heating rate and pressure. Size and shape of particles have an influence on the heat transfer into the particle. pre-exponential factor and reaction order have been determined from experimental data for various feed stocks [7. composition. The goals of this work are to determine kinetic parameters during pyrolysis decomposition of wood chips. which are a mixture of unknown various kinds of wood. 2. Milled chips were stored in a small glass bottle to prevent the contact with air moisture. cellulose and lignin were used as well. Due to the above mentioned particle size effect of the thermogravimeter. it is not possible to extract pure substance.1 . on the rate of phase changes. The process of thermal decomposition can be influenced by operating parameters e. Tatransk´ Matliare. Because hemicellulose is only a blend of several sugar monomers. Lignin decomposition is in the range from 180°C up to 900°C with an unclear maximum weight loss. kernel) to sewage sludge were tested. the biomass decomposition proceeds through three main decomposition regions (moisture evolution not included) which belong to these components [7.g.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29. the sample should be closely in contact with the heat transfer surface [4. by an isoconversional method. Therefore the effort was to make up the overall thermal decomposition of wood chips by thermal decomposition of individual wood compounds by a superposition of them. hemicellulose and lignin [4-7]. 178–2 . Slovakia e Le-We-4. through agricultural waste (straw. 178p. respectively with maximum weight losses at 268°C and 355°C [11]. and information concerning this issue are included in the review by Colomba Di Blasi [4]. The heating rate affects the behavior of the conversion curve. The solid residue which is left after pyrolysis is dependent on the origin of the used biomass. It is common to use xylan instead of hemicellulose [9. 13]. This shift of conversion curve also affects the differential thermogravimetric curve [12]. temperature. or gas escape from particle. size and shape of particles.g. or by biomass properties e. The reaction rate constant in the form of Arrhenius equation is often used to describe the kinetic pyrolysis decomposition. 8].pdf the kinetic process of non-isothermal pyrolysis. Because of three main components of biomass: cellulose. which is always the sugar monomer with the highest representation. To ensure a good heat transfer to the particle and minimal temperature gradient.

75 24.78 FC – fixed carbon. VM-volatile matter. m is the actual sample mass and m∞ is the residual mass after pyrolysis.3. 5 K/min.1034O-0. Typical thermogravimetric behavior of the decomposition is shown in Figure 2 3. Measurement methods Pyrolysis of wood chips and the above mentioned main compounds of wood was performed using the thermogravimetric equipment STA 409 PC Luxx (Netzsch). To achieve pyrolysis conditions. This amount is enough to create a good contact area between the crucible and the sample.0211A Table 1: Characterization of wood sample composition Sample Ash(%) wood chips 5. Nitrogen was used like carrying and protective gas that protects the micro balance against possible pollutants. Thermogravimetric measurements were performed at four heating rates: 2 K/min.0151N-0.1005S-0. correction measurements were carried out. thermocouples type S were used. Channiwala et al (2002) proposed a formula for high heating value calculation [17]: HHV[MJ/kg]=0. HHV-high heating value a the rest after combustion b calculated from difference 2.29 19. During the heating.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29.1783H+0. The furnace space had to be inertized for 30 minutes to rid of all remants of oxygen. 178p.23 6.2. To measure the actual sample and furnace temperatures. Elementary analysis Elementary composition and high heating value of used wood chips are presented in Table 1. Slovakia e Le-We-4. Kinetic parameters estimation Mass loss data from the thermogravimetric analysis can be recalculated into conversion which is defined as follows: m −m α= 0 (2) m0 − m∞ where m0 is the initial mass of sample. Weight of the sample was between 11-14 mg. The conversion represents the amount of sample which was decomposed. which protected balance against pollutants. Al2O2 crucibles were used. isothermal mode was set to 10 min to ensure that the process is over. Due to the buoyancy effect. Tatransk´ Matliare. Vertical TG/DSC holder was used.78 HHV [MJ/kg] VM(%) 69. 10 K/min and 15 K/min. which swept away product gases. nitrogen atmosphere was used. and 10ml/min N2 for the protective gas.09 39.pdf 2. 178–3 . The volume flow of nitrogen was set up to 60 ml/min N2 for the carrying gas. 2009. At the end of the heating process. mass of the sample was recorded. The temperature decomposition ranged from laboratory temperature of around 20°C to 900°C.3491C+1.93 a (1) Composition wt % b C(%) H(%) O(%) FC(%) 48.

There are various possibilities how to express conversion function g (α ) . E is the activation energy and R is the gas constant. Tatransk´ Matliare. the decomposition kinetic equation is obtained: dα n −E = A exp (1 − α ) dt RT Actual temperature under non-isothermal conditions can be expressed as: (7) T = T0 + β t (8) where β is the heating rate and t is time. dα = k ( T ) g (α ) dt (4) (3) The temperature dependent function k (T ) in (4) is usually expressed by Arrhenius equation: −E k (T ) = A exp RT (5) where A is the pre-exponential factor. 18]. The isoconversional method is used for the description of more complex processes where lots of chemical reactions are running simultaneously.pdf To estimate kinetic parameters. however. 178p. their mechanisms are not exactly known. 2009. waste petroleum refinery sludge [12]. equation (7) is rewritten to: − E (α ) dα n = A (α ) exp (1 − α ) dt RT (9) 178–4 . etc. the kinetic parameters as the pre-exponential factor and activation energy are not constant for the whole decomposition process. In this equation. Combining (4). According to the isoconversional method. where the first is dependent on temperature and the second one is a function of conversion. This method has been widely utilized by several authors when describing decomposition of biomass [16. α ) dt It is possible to rewrite the right hand side of (3) by two functions. For the isoconversional method. Slovakia e Le-We-4. (5) and(6). The rate of decomposition is a function of temperature and conversion: dα = f (T . the form used was as follows: g (α ) = (1 − α ) n (6) where n is the reaction order. but they are dependent on conversion [19]. the isoconversional method was used. Results of the mathematic description of a process by the isoconversional method are Aα and Eα dependencies as functions of conversion which is related to the mechanism of reactions.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29.

β j Figure 1: Block diagram for the estimation of Aα and Eα 178–5 .. 4 Tαi . reaction order must be predetermined.. 2009. these points should lie on the same line. Because the value of the intercept is dependent on RTα both the pre-exponential factor and the reaction order..3. β j .. m and . . 178p. j =1 TGA data at heating rate β j j = j +1 defining of conversion α1 .. Aα is the apparent dt α pre-exponential factor and Eα is the apparent activation energy at the given value of conversion α . from experimental data at four heating rates.α m take from exp erimental data dα d α1 d α 2 1 1 1 .. The influence of this parameter on the decomposition process is mentioned in the results and discussion part..pdf Equation (9) is solved for the given conversion: − Eα n dα (1 − α ) = Aα exp dt α RTα (10) dα where is the decomposition rate.. The logarithm form of equation (10) is shown by equation (11) which has a pattern of linear regression: Eα dα ln = ln Aα + n ln (1 − α ) − RTα dt α (11) The isoconversional calculation principle of Aα and Eα is described in Figure 1 [20]: For predefined values of conversion. The first two terms on the right hand side of equation (11) can be expressed as an intercept of a straight E line.. β j a function of i = i +1 estimation of Aαi and Eα i from equation (10 ) at given reaction order n E = f (α ) . decomposition rate (in logarithm form) and temperature were selected.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29. α 2 . j = 1. The term − α represents a slope. Tα is the temperature in Kelvin.. According to equation (11). for the determination of the preexponential factor. dt dt dt T1 T2 Tm i =1 dα to obtain a dependence ln like dt αi .. Tatransk´ Matliare. Slovakia e Le-We-4. 2. An = g (α ) for given reaction order n 1 for α i . where each belongs to one temperature. It follows that for specified values of conversion there are four decomposition rates. .

and the initial mass of the sample was obtained m0 .6 0. 178p.4 0. Above 770 K there is only a small drop of mass (passive pyrolysis).0002 water evaporation 0. Results and discussion 4. Effect of the heating rate is shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. individual conversions are reached at higher temperatures.0000 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature [K] Figure 2: Typical □ TGA and ○ DTG dependence during the pyrolysis 4. Effect of heating rate It is known that the heating rate affects both location of the TGA curve and maximum decomposition rate. As can be seen in Figure 3.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29. Slovakia e Le-We-4. Lignin is decomposed in both stages. The moisture and adsorbed water content released up to 160°C was excluded. In this stage. These maximums are in literature assigned to the maximum of hemicellulose and cellulose decomposition. It means that temperature in the furnace space can be a little higher as the temperature of particle and the rate of devolatilization is higher than the release of volatilities. The stage of passive pyrolysis can be allocated to lignin decomposition in which thermal degradation passes through the whole temperature range with a very low decomposition rate. The mass of water was subtracted from the overall mass of the sample.0 0. This fact can be a consequence of heat and mass transfer limitations. max 1. Most of hemicellulose and cellulose in wood is decomposed in the first stage of active pyrolysis.1. there is a shift in conversion lines caused by various heating rates.The main decomposition region (active pyrolysis) is in range from approximately 450 K to 770 K. temperature 178–6 α[%] . max dα/dt [s ] -1 0.pdf 4.2. at 562 K and at 618 K.0 0. Tatransk´ Matliare.2 0. These behaviors are also presented in Figure 8. the decomposition rate reached two maximums.8 0. 0. Because of the heat transfer limitation.0008 (dα/dt)C. At higher heating rates.0004 0.0006 (dα/dt)H. The maximums of the decomposition rate are also slightly shifted towards higher temperatures. Pyrolysis of wood chips The changes of conversion and decomposition rate during wood chips pyrolysis are shown in Figure 2. 2009.

100 80 100 90 60 80 70 Shifting of conversions α[%] 60 40 α[%] 50 40 30 20 Heating rate raising 20 10 0 500 550 600 650 700 Temperature [K] 0 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature [K] Figure 3: Pyrolysis TGA dependencies of wood chips at various heating rates: □2 K/min. Tatransk´ Matliare. 0.0010 -1 Temperature [K] 0.0000 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature [K] Figure 4: Pyrolysis DTG dependencies of wood chips at various heating rates: □2 K/min.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29. 4.0015 0. homogenous sample and heat transfer surface between the sample and the crucible as large as possible. ◊10 K/min.000 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 0. Slovakia e Le-We-4. 15 K/min. This is the reason.001 0.0025 Heating Rate raising 0. 15 K/min. Temperature in the core of a particle can be a bit lower than temperature on the surface. ○5K/min. Isoconversional method 178–7 . ○5K/min. 178p.0020 dα/dt [s ] -1 0.3.0030 0. why it is necessary to have a small particle. 2009. and different devolatilization processes or releasing rates can occur.003 0.002 dα/dt [s ] 0.0005 0. ◊ 10 K/min.pdf gradients may exist in the particle.

the experimental data were processed in order to obtain parameters like the activation energy and pre-exponential factor.56E+16 1. The pre-exponential factor can be obtained from the intercept of the isoconversional line. However it depends on the reaction order (see equation (11)).16E+06 n=2 3.66E+14 9.18E+15 1.09E+08 1. From the set of data at different heating rates.31E+14 2.22E+16 1.95 10 199. the isoconversional lines were not very precise.29E+14 6.pdf According to the above mentioned determination of kinetic parameters.06E+15 5.16E+05 n=1 3.65E+15 1.56 n=0 3. which can be seen in Figure 5. and consequently.86E+13 1.16E+07 178–8 .06E+14 2.18E+16 3.94 50 204.77E+15 9.07 60 200.22E+16 1.43E+08 1.94 70 196. Dependencies of Aα and Eα as functions of conversion are shown in Table 2.53E+16 4. 2009. Because at higher temperatures no significant changes in conversion occur.73E+14 2.72 90 131. the activation energy was obtained.60 30 214.09E+16 7. 178p.16E+13 1.31E+15 5.72E+09 1. Slovakia e Le-We-4. Table 2: Calculated kinetic parameters for wood chips Conversion (%) Eα (kJ/mol) Aα (s-1) 5 204. β4 β3 β2 β1 Figure 5: Isoconversional lines for predefined conversion increasing from right to left The slope of each isoconversional line was calculated. Predefined conversions were in the range from 1% to 94% with the changing step of 0. the isoconversional lines for predefined conversion were calculated.65E+15 4.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29.49 80 144.39E+15 2.19 40 215.19E+13 5.52E+16 1.5%.35E+16 4. Tatransk´ Matliare.74E+15 7.54 20 209.

simulation data can be calculated via equation (10) with respect to the reaction order. Now. however. In order to solve this equation. first or second reaction order. At higher conversions than 80%. 2009. when kinetic parameters for each conversion are known. tend ) were used. it starts to decrease. The pre-exponential factor seems not to be varying greatly with the change of the reaction order. Comparison of TGA and DTG curves of the experimental and simulation data are shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7. ○5K/min. dot 10 K/min. new bond destructions might occur. ordinary differential equation solver ode15s which is a standard component of MATLAB was used. The term ln (1 − α ) in equation (11) is always incomparably lower than all intercepts 100 80 60 α[%] 40 20 0 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature [K] Figure 6: Pyrolysis TGA dependencies of wood chips at various heating rates: experiment: □2 K/min. Up to conversion values of 70% – 80% similar type of bonds C-H. The activation energy does not change during the process. ◊10 K/min. Kinetic parameters Aα and Eα were fitted by polynomial regression and backward calculated for actual conversion in differential equation. Tatransk´ Matliare. Due to this fact it does not depend if there is the zeroth. dashed 5 K/min.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29. nearing the end of the process when the conversion is above 80%. respectively. 15 K/min and simulation: solid 2 K/min.pdf ln Aα + n ln (1 − α ) and it has no significant influence on the value of the pre-exponential factor. C-O and C-C were destructed. initial condition (initial conversion is zero) and time interval ( t = 0. Slovakia e Le-We-4. 178–9 . dash-dot 15 K/min. Like input parameters. 178p. The solver performed a non-uniform time discretization and solved the ordinary differential equation implicitly.

cellulose and lignin are shown in Figure 8.4. ○5K/min. For optimization the minimization function (13) was used.0020 dα/dt [s ] -1 0. cellulose and lignin All wood types.0000 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature [K] Figure 7: Pyrolysis DTG dependencies of wood chips at various heating rates: experiment: □2 K/min. dm dm dm dm MF = ∑ − wC + wH + wL dt H dt L T0 dt wood dt C Tend 2 (13) 178–10 . dot 10 K/min. 2009. From this behaviors it is possible to see that hemicellulose starts to decompose first at the maximum decomposition rate of about 560 K. These three dependencies were used to describe wood decomposition. in case of no interactions between the compounds. either softwood or hardwood. Pyrolysis of wood chips vs. Pyrolysis dt decompositions of hemicellulose. 15 K/min and simulation: solid 2 K/min. Tatransk´ Matliare.pdf 0. Values of the decomposition rates at the transition area and maximums in Figure 7 are maintained as well. consist mainly from three main compounds: hemicellulose. Slovakia e Le-We-4. 4. Maximums of lignin and cellulose lie close to each other.0015 0. dashed 5 K/min. dash-dot 15 K/min.0025 0.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29. 178p. Decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose is quite sharp while decomposition of lignin goes through a wide temperature range. ◊10 K/min.0005 0. at 614 K and 620 K. that the decomposition behavior of wood is a linear combination of the main compounds and can be described by mass weighted average: dm dm dm dm = wC + wH + wL dt wood dt C dt H dt L (12) dm where and w are the mass loss in time and the weight fractions. This satisfactory accordance makes the isoconversional method an acceptable method for the pyrolysis kinetic estimation.0010 0. cellulose and lignin. It can be seen from both figures that experimental and simulation data are in good accordance. It is assumed.0030 0.

3 0. The comparison between decomposition of wood chips and weighed decompositions sum of hemicellulose. Tatransk´ Matliare. cellulose and lignin is shown in Figure 9.4 0.pdf 1. 178–11 .2 1.6 0. but overall processes are in good accordance.8 0. If the assumption of no interaction is valid. 178p.4 -dm/dt [mg/min] 0. then the pyrolysis decomposition behavior of wood biomass is dependent on the composition and concentration of the main compounds.1 0.6 0.2 0.2 0. 2009. Slovakia e Le-We-4. lignin (full line) and cellulose (dashed line) at the heating rate of 5 K/min Three weight fractions were changing to reach a minimum of minimization function.0 500 600 700 800 Temperature [K] Figure 9: Pyrolysis decomposition of wood chips (full line) and weighed decomposition sum of hemicellulose. 0.0 -dm/dt [mg/min] 0.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29.5 0.0 500 600 700 800 Temperature [K] Figure 8: Pyrolysis decomposition of hemicellulose (dots line). cellulose and lignin (dashed line) at the heating rate of 5 K/min From Figure 9 it is clear that there is only a small difference between the presented behaviors.

Tatransk´ Matliare. The last. 2009. the activation energy started decreasing rapidly as the whole process slowed down. At higher conversions. Slovakia e Le-We-4. 178p. the mass loss is a consequence of thermal decomposition of wood compounds from 160°C to 430°C.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29. In the second stage.eeagrants. hemicellulose.pdf 5. If a good accordance is achieved. third stage represents a slow and long decomposition of lignin up to 900°C. Financial Mechanism of EEA and the State Budget of the Slovak Republic (www. The presented contribution was created as a part of project SK00023 financed by the Norwegian Financial Mechanism. hemicellulose. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract LPP-0230-07. Activation energy during the main decomposition stage is in the range 190 – 217 kJ/mol depending on the conversion. List of symbols DTG MF TGA A Differential thermogravimetry Minimization function Thermogravimetry analysis Pre-exponential factor subscript for cellulose Activation energy subscript for hemicellulose Reaction rate constant subscript for lignin Weight [kg] [s-1] [J mol-1] [s-1] C E H k L m 178–12 . Conclusion In this work. Kinetic parameters of wood chips decomposition such as the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor were obtained by the isoconversional method. cellulose and lignin were studied in inert nitrogen atmosphere. cellulose and lignin DTG represents a potential for the description of the decomposition process of any biomass via decomposition characteristic of the main compounds of biomass with respect to the composition and concentration. The future intentions are to obtain kinetic data by the least square optimization method and to compare them with the data from this work. The first stage is allocated to water evaporation in the range to 160°C.com). From TGA and DTG it was found that decomposition proceeds through three stages of weight loss. thermal decomposition of wood chips. kinetic parameters could be used to describe pyrolysis process in a small laboratory reactor. Comparison of wood chips.

Tatransk´ Matliare.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29. 2009. Slovakia e Le-We-4. 178p.pdf m0 m∞ Initial weight Final weight Reaction order Gas constant Time Temperature Initial temperature Weight fraction Conversion Heating rate [kg] [kg] [1] [J mol-1 K-1] [s] [K] [K] n R t T T0 w α β [1] [K min-1] 178–13 .

et al. 2008. 965970. 1. Varhegyi. Fuel. Di Blasi.J. 58-59: p.. 1781-1788. 83(1): p. Y. Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass. 15. Thermogravimetric characterization of corn stover as gasification and pyrolysis feedstock. 2009. Is it possible to predict gas yields of any biomass after rapid pyrolysis at high temperature from its composition in cellulose.. Di Blasi. 2008. 32(5): p. Disertation Thesis. 8. 37-46. Simon. C.J. 13. 2. liquid and gaseous fuels.. C. 2009..-H.. Parikh. ed. Gronli. 100(1): p. C... Vol. Tatransk´ Matliare. 460-467. Commandré. A. 5.M. p. M. et al.. F. Steele. 2007. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 316-326. 1413-1418.. Pittman. H. Biomass and Bioenergy. P.. P. Fuel. 19. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry.L. Biagini. 55-63. Energy & fuels ISSN 0887-0624 CODEN ENFUEM 2006. Salvador. and J. 77-78: p. Fuel. D. 20. Mohan.. 117. A.U. Park.A. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of oak trees using thermogravimetric analyzer and micro-tubing reactor. 349-358. Bioresource Technology. sugar cane bagasse and shea meal under nitrogen and air atmospheres. 11. Jensen. 47-90.. 89(3): p. 2002. Techniques and Applications. et al. Introduction to Thermal Analysis. et al.. and P. Antunes. 100(3): p. and C. 2007. and S. 2001. 159-166. Dam-Johansen. S. M.36th International Conference of SSCHE May 25–29. J. 178p. 2009... 2008. Bioresource Technology. 2009. and P. Pyrolysis of Wood/Biomass for Bio-oil: A Critical review. M.H. 78(3): p. 41(17): p. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 4201-4208. J. 123132. cellulose and lignin pyrolysis. S.. Bioresource Technology. Channiwala.-M. McKendry. Optimization of thermal decomposition conditions of waste tires. 408-417.. 3. 33(8): p. Brown. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. and K. 472(1-2): p. Fuel Processing Technology. in Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. J. Lv. Couhert. Fantei. et al. 2002. 76(1): p. 2004. Effect of the heating rate on the devolatilization of biomass residues. 2002. second ed. 12. 2002. 2009. G. 6. Characteristics of hemicellulose. 81(8): p. Choudhury. 17. Kumar. 400-405. Failure of the component additivity rule to predict gas yields of biomass in flash pyrolysis at 950 °C. 16. Thermal analysis and devolatilization kinetics of cotton stalk. Šimon. P. 10. Modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis. 1874-1879. 2008. E. Orfăo. D. Commandre. Z. 34(1): p.. Figueiredo.A. 14. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric pyrolysis kinetics of waste petroleum refinery sludge by isoconversional approach.. Investigation of biomass pyrolysis by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. 33(2): p. A unified correlation for estimating HHV of solid. 178–14 . Kastanaki.. and L. Thermogravimetric Analysis and Devolatilization Kinetics of Wood. Isoconversional methods. Stenseng. Thermochimica Acta... A study on the economic efficiency of hydrogen production from biomass residues in China. 2008. Slovakia e Le-We-4. 9. J. et al. Koreňová. Munir.. Salvador. Renewable Energy. Pyrolysis kinetics of lignocellulosic materials--three independent reactions model. 7. 86(12-13): p. Tognotti. Couhert. 1999. Slovak University of Technology: Bratislava. 765-780.P. Thermogravimetric studies of the behavior of lignite-biomass blends during devolatilization... et al.G. 18. 88(3): p. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. and S. hemicellulose and lignin? Fuel. 2001.pdf References 1. A. E. C.. 4. 1051-1063. Biomass and Bioenergy.-M. Yang.E.

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- Biomass Moisture Content
- Heating values of wood pellets from different species
- Industrial-pellets-report PellCert 2012 Secured
- b i oma s s and b i o energy paper_2
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- Presentations TWECOM Symposium
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- 48
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- GARN I Love My GARN
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- Bench - Mendicino Bench.pdf
- The Aspen Simulation of a Peat Tor Ref Action
- Bike rack
- Convert a Kiln
- Biomass
- Kinetic Study of Wood Chips Decomposition by TGA

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