School of Aerospace Engineering

Supersonic Windtunnels
• For supersonic wind tunnels, closed circuit tunnel requires less power to operate then open tunnels
– do not have to accelerate flow as much
Nozzle M<1 M>1 Test Section Diffuser M<1


• Use two CD nozzles (really nozzle and diffuser)
– need subsonic flow (compressors) – less po loss than using shock to get subsonic flow $(

Starting Problem Windtunnels -1

Copyright © 2001 by Jerry M. Seitzman. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Seitzman. $( .School of Aerospace Engineering Starting Problem • What happens during tunnel startup po M<1 Test Section pb – no initial velocity – pressure uniform throughout tunnel Compressor – start tunnel by changing po/pb using compressor • As raise po/pb. start with subsonic flow everywhere – eventually reach M=1 at 1st throat (if A t1≤A t2) p/po 1 pb↓ Mtest<1 o p*/p M<1 M=1 A t1 M<1 M<1 A t2 x Starting Problem Windtunnels -2 Copyright © 2001 by Jerry M.

(s 2-s 1 )/R • Can At2=At1? – A* increase across shock (A2*/A1* ~ po1/po2) – to get same mass flowrate through 2nd throat. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 – biggest po loss for strongest shock ⇒ shock in test section M1 $( . Seitzman. All rights reserved.4 (s2-s 1)/R 50 40 A*2 /A*1 2 30 po2/po1=ρo2/ρo1 1 20 Α∗2/A*1 10 0 • How big does At2 have to be? Starting Problem Windtunnels -3 Copyright © 2001 by Jerry M. At2>At1 3 γ=1.School of Aerospace Engineering Starting Shock • Further increase in po/pb – normal shock in diverging section of “nozzle” M<1 =1 >1 M<1 M<1 A t1 4 A t2 60 p o2 /p 01.

. enters “diffuser” A2* drops (M↓).” must pass through 2nd throat – – – – =1 M=Mtest>1 >1 >1 >1 A t1 A t2 At2=A2*@M2 after shock at Mtest increase po/pb slightly above previous case shock leaves test section. shock swallowed $( Starting Problem Windtunnels -4 Copyright © 2001 by Jerry M. All rights reserved.School of Aerospace Engineering Swallowing Shock • So raise po/pb until shock enters test section – M in test section = M2 after shock M<1 =1 >1 M2 <1 M<1 =1 <1 A t1 M1=Mtest A t2 • To have shock M<1 “disappear. shock keeps going. Seitzman.

M>1 =1 <1 A t2 $( . All rights reserved.At2=At1+∆) Starting Problem Windtunnels -5 Copyright © 2001 by Jerry M.School of Aerospace Engineering Operating Conditions • Want to run tunnel with lowest power requirements M<1 =1 Mdesign>1 M>1 >1 >1 – lowest po loss – operate with weakest shock possible A t1 A t2 • Fixed diffuser throat area – weakest shock (M lowest) when it is at diffuser throat – more stable operation (for po/pb variations) if shock just downstream of throat M>1 >1 <1 A t2 • Variable diffuser throat area – lowest po loss for no shock (M=1) – reduce At2 to At1 (stability. Seitzman.

1 m2 test section po M>1 Test Section Compressor pb • Find: 1.e. Minimum diffuser throat area to start tunnel i.School of Aerospace Engineering Example: Windtunnel Design • Given: Supersonic windtunnel designed to run on N2 (nitrogen) and operate at Mtest=3. Minimum po loss during operation for fixed area diffuser • Assume: TPG/CPG with γ=1. Seitzman.4 Starting Problem Windtunnels -6 Copyright © 2001 by Jerry M. $( .. All rights reserved. get supersonic flow in test section 2. Maximum po loss during startup 3.

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