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Equipment and Software Required: Thayer School DC Motor/Tachometer board DT2801-A Data Acquisition Board and PC Oscilloscope Connectors (1 BNC-BNC, 3 BNC-Banana, 5 pairs banana-banana, 2-3 pairs of alligator clips) + 10 V power amplifier (white box) Voltmeter Signal generator +15 V DC power supply DT VEE software Breadboard and analog control component kit Note: You should complete this experiment during the first week of the lab session, and write the report during the second week of the lab session. 1. Objective The objective of this lab is to design and implement a proportional-derivative, lead, OR proportional+tachometer compensator to control motor shaft position. 2. System modeling As in Lab 2, the DC motor is driven by a voltage through a power amp. An integrated tachometer provides a voltage proportional to shaft angular velocity, and a “three turn” potentiometer provides a voltage proportional to shaft position. In Lab 2, we identified an open-loop transfer function of the motor-tach-power amp based on the open-loop system response to step input voltages. With the potentiometer in the system, we cannot “lump” the tachometer transfer function in the system gain. We will represent the motor together with the power amp by K1 θ = Vin s(Ts + 1) (1)
θ is the motor shaft position (rad), Vin is the input voltage to the power amp (volts), T is the motor time constant in seconds identified in Lab 2, and K1 the overall gain of the power amp and motor (rad/volt). K1 can be determined based on the power amp gain (which was set to 1 in Lab 2 for open-loop transfer function identification), overall gain measured in Lab 2 (the variable we called K in Lab 2), and tachometer gain ( Kt ). Kt is given in manufacturer specs as 2.4 V/1000 RPM (or 2.4/104.2 V/rad/s). The potentiometer transfer function depends on its supply voltage. For example, if the supply voltage across the potentiometer is 15 V, the gain is approximately 15/3 = 5 V/rev or 0.795 V/rad. The block diagram describing the open loop system is shown in Figure 1. It lumps the gains associated with the motor and power amp into K1 , assumes a system time constant T, and assumes gains Kt and K pot for the tachometer and potentiometers, respectively.
(Note: We will define the steady-state error here as the reference input voltage . for step input.5 In addition you may consider the following (optional) specification • closed-loop bandwidth > 5 Hz. Make sure you do not apply a voltage to the slide! Ask the lab TA for assistance. compute the portion of the motor gain attributed to the tachometer ( Kt ) and that attributed to the motor/power amp ( K1 ). make sure that you read between 0 V and +15 V from ground to the slide when you turn the potentiometer 3 full turns. To do this.15 sec (2% settling time) • steady-state error = 0.the potentiometer voltage) • closed-loop damping ratio > 0.D(s) Vin (volts) + + K1 s(Ts + 1) θ (rad) Vout (volts) Kts + Kpot Figure 1: Block diagram of the open-loop system Connect the tubing between the motor and potentiometer shafts. Verify K pot . if necessary. Position control of the DC motor using proportional control We will design a control system such that the following closed-loop specifications are met: • ts < 0. Apply +15V and 0V across the potentiometer’s positive and negative terminals. From the open-loop system parameter K determined in Lab 2. 3. K1 represents the motor gain. The slide voltage should increase by 5 V for each turn as you turn the pot by hand. Assuming that you had the power amp gain set to 1 in Lab 2. We will consider three different control laws: a) Position feedback + proportional control b) Position feedback + PD control OR position feedback + lead compensation c) Position + tachometer feedback 2 .
Come to lab prepared to implement your circuit.1 sec!) 3. output θ (rad) and transfer functions for the motor. Choose values for resistors before you get to lab. What is the difference between the PD control law or lead control law and position + tach feedback? Design a position+tach feedback control law using root locus analysis. Show that the form of the closed-loop characteristic equation for this system is identical to that of a PD compensator. (On the outside chance that specs are met using proportional control for your motor. Using a proportional control law. You may base your PD or lead circuit on Table 5. you compensator Gc ( s) = Kc 1 s+ ατ will need to define the region in the s-plane that constitutes acceptable locations for closed-loop roots. You can either choose gains for the potentiometer and tachometer signals to place the zero.which is the “best” solution?) Design a position+tach feedback circuit to implement the control law.2 Proportional-Derivative or Lead Compensation and Position Feedback K Prelab: Design a proportional-derivative control law Gc ( s) = K p ( d s + 1) OR design a lead Kp 1 s+ τ .1 Proportional control and position feedback Prelab: Draw a closed-loop system block diagram showing reference input θ d (voltage corresponding to desired shaft position). show that the specifications cannot met. If you do not implement potentiometer and tachometer gains. potentiometer. with a proportional control gain Gc ( s) = K p in the forward loop. 3. change the settling time spec to ts < 0. and root locus analysis. 3 . power amplifier. there are multiple solutions -. 0.1 < α < 1 such that the specifications are met. You will need a summing junction and PD or lead circuit. and place the zero of the compensator such that the root locus passes through this region. (Again. (There are multiple solutions for either method -which is the “best” solution?) Sketch a compensator circuit to implement the control law. or you can determine whether the existing gains for each transducer ( K pot and Kt ) are sufficient to place the zero such that specifications are met.1 given in Ogata. Gc ( s) = K p . Use motor parameters identified experimentally in Lab 2 for the motor transfer function.2). you will need to define the region in the s-plane which constitutes acceptable locations for closed-loop roots (as in section 3.3 Position+Tachometer feedback and proportional control Prelab: Draw a block diagram showing position+tachometer feedback. To do this. and choose resistor and capacitor values for the circuit. To do this. An example circuit that uses a gain for each transducer is attached. and control law Gc ( s). and fix the proportional control gain to select the closed-loop root along the root locus. remember to make sure the sign of your motor voltage signal is correct for negative feedback. and place the zero of the PD compensator or the pole-zero pair of the lead compensator such that the root locus passes through this region.3.
The summing junction is followed by your compensator op amp circuit. describe your control law design method. You may use a differential amplifier circuit as in Lab 2. show your analysis. you may also want to buffer the +15 V supply across the potentiometer. for one of your runs.3. Why did you choose the PD or lead compensator over the position+tach feedback compensator? What is the steady-state error for each input (experimental and MATLAB simulation)? What are the limitations. lead. show the closed-loop system block diagram. use the signal generator to provide a square wave at approx. An example circuit is given in this handout. PD or lead compensator: For implementation of the PD or lead circuit. record the response for a smaller amplitude input signal and for a larger amplitude input signal. You may also want to record the output of the potentiometer and the input voltage to the motor to observe possible saturation. and answer the following questions. for one of your runs. construct a summing junction to sum the potentiometer voltage and the reference input. Implement the control law. or position+tach feedback) for implementation. look at the response for a smaller amplitude input signal and for a larger amplitude input signal. Next. describe your circuit. in implementing the PD or lead control law? Can you implement any proportional and derivative control gains that you desire? How do experimental responses compare to simulated responses? Position+tach feedback: Construct a position+tach feedback circuit. you have done something wrong! Turn off the power amp immediately. See example circuits at the end of this handout. For the reference input signal. implement the circuit. To avoid loading affects. In addition. You may also want to record the output of the potentiometer and the input voltage to the motor to observe possible saturation. and test the circuit for reference input square wave (see notes below for hints on how to choose the reference input). Next. you could break the pot. 0. as usual. In addition. and use DT-VEE to record the reference input signal (the square wave) and the output of the potentiometer on A/D channels zero and one. (See the note below for hints on how to adjust your reference signal amplitude. MAKE SURE THAT YOUR CIRCUIT WORKS BEFORE YOU CLOSE THE LOOP! Otherwise. Use DT-VEE to record the reference input signal (the square wave) and the output of the potentiometer on A/D channels zero and one.) You may. and the output of your circuit is the input to the power amp. you may also want to buffer the +15 V supply across the potentiometer. you must buffer the output of the potentiometer slide BEFORE it enters the summing junction.1 Hz. 4 . if any. and correct the problem in your circuit if this happens! In your report. See example circuits at the end of this handout. you must buffer the output of the potentiometer slide BEFORE it enters the summing junction. To avoid loading affects. Note that if the motor shaft slips in the tubing when you operate the closed-loop system. use the power amplifier to adjust the overall gain.4 Compensator implementation Lab: Choose one of your compensators (either PD.
you should expect 1 full turn. describe your control law design. describe your circuit. and determine the closed-loop frequency response Vpot (amplitude only). if it exceeds 10 V. and answer the following questions. What is the closed-loop bandwidth? PLEASE TURN OFF INSTRUMENTS AND MAKE SURE ALL MATERIALS ARE RETURNED TO YOUR KIT BEFORE LEAVING THE LAB. since the A/D converter records voltages between +10V. For example. and be aware that if your system overshoots.1 Hz to 10 Hz. record the magnitude ratio for input frequencies ranging from θd 0. in implementing the position+tach feedback control law? Can you implement any position+tach feedback control law that you desire? How do experimental responses compare to simulated responses? Note on selecting reference input amplitude: Note that you cannot record position commands over the full range of the potentiometer (0 to 15V). for a 5V input.Answer the following questions: Show the closed-loop system block diagram. Bandwidth determination (optional): Change the input signal to a sinusoidal voltage. you will not “see” the overshoot recorded on the A/D channel. you will expect a fraction of a turn. for a 5V input. while for a 1V input. Why did you choose position+tach feedback over PD or lead compensation? What is the steady-state error to each input (experimental and MATLAB simulation)? What are the limitations. consider the angle that the motor will move through. PLEASE LEAVE YOUR STATION NEAT. When choosing your input amplitude. Do not choose an input amplitude outside of the 0 to 10V range. For example. 5 . if any. To do this. show your analysis. you may want to choose the minimum voltage as 2 V and the maximum voltage as 7 V.
6 . Modern Control Engineering.PD Compensation Circuit (One more capacitor is required to change this to a lead compensator – see Ogata. Prentice Hall. 270. 3rd edition. p.
Position + Tach feedback circuit 7 .
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