sin α p = mv = 8 cos α c =e3.

00 ×e10 m/s+ bx +==mc2 ∫ xdx = x ax2 E c 0 – b ± √ b2 – 4ac 1 2π 2 ∆E = (∆m)c2 1 = c2 = A = bh xω = ω0 + αt 2aT = ω = f 2 1 2 K= rcm mv ∑mr ⁄ ∑m = 4 a V =sin πr 3 2 α sin θ = 1 8 2 unDErrEPrESEnTED GrouPS = 3 C c = 10 m/s = 2πr cos α e = TH – TC × LI 2
Nearly 40 percent of public high school students in America fail to graduate. For some c minorities, the number is even higher: nearly 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians drop out before graduating (The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, March 2006). 0

m 2π √k sin x

rcm = ∑mr ⁄ ∑m2 g know? DiD you = 9.8m/s


dp In contrast, the dropout rate in Singapore, first in the world in science scores, isF = a V v =4v πr 3at . 3 percent dt – TC = H + sin θ = tanθ 0 3 CT 2πr = TH – TC b c
(Committee on Reducing Attrition in Education, Singapore Ministry of Education, Oct. 2006)

1 A= 2

E = mc 2π 1 bh –ω = 2 =+ a2 – T = ω+=bf2 (a b) ω αt 2ab
ec =


dp F a 2007, only 32 v = ofv eighth graders and 39 percent = dt at percent all anθ = In were considered proficient+math. The same data on of fourth 0 in graders eighth b showed only 14 percent of African-Americans, 17 percent of graders
Hispanics and 17 percent of low income students were proficient in math (National Assessment of Educational Progress 2007). Some three decades ago, in 1973, 78 percent of the students attending the nation’s public schools were white and 22 percent were minorities, a category including African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and “other,” according to Education Department statistics. In 2004, the last year for which numbers were available, 57 percent of all public school students were white, while 43 percent were minorities (New York Times, Aug. 27, 2006).
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(a – b) = a – 2ab + b

“Currently, women, minorities, and people with disabilities TH represent two-thirds of2 American workforce, yet are only a small fraction of the 2 2 those working in science, engineering, and technology.”


In the Advanced Placement* world: Latino students make up 14.6 percent of the student population nationally and 13.6 percent of all students scoring 3 or higher on AP exams. African-American students make up 14 percent of the overall student population and only 3.3 percent of those scoring 3 or higher on AP exams (College Board). Passing an AP exam is correlated with much greater success in college: six-year college graduation rates go from 15 percent to over 60 percent for African-American and Hispanic students who have passed at least one AP exam (The National Center for Educational Accountability). Students from all backgrounds benefit from AP courses. At 10 Dallas schools participating in AP training and incentive programs, the number of students passing math, science, and English AP exams taken by African-Americans and Hispanics has risen more than 20 times over, from 29 in 1995 to 664 in 2007 (College Board data). Only 20 percent of students enrolled in engineering are women, and less than 13 percent are African-American or Hispanic. American undergraduates who leave science and engineering majors for other majors are often highly qualified, and they are disproportionately women and students of color. It’s not that the students don’t graduate, but not as engineers. Given the small numbers entering STEM fields, to begin with the loss is debilitating (Center for Excellence and Equity in Education, Rice University). For males in each of the three race-ethnic groups (African-Americans, Hispanics and whites), employment rates in 2005 increased steadily and strongly with their educational attainment. This was especially true for black males, for whom employment rates rose from a low of 33 percent among high school dropouts to 57 percent among high school graduates and to a high of 86 percent among four-year college graduates (Center for Labor Market Studies, Northeastern University, Boston). Currently, women, minorities, and people with disabilities represent two-thirds of the American workforce, yet are only a small fraction of those working in science, engineering, and technology. In 2000, only 4.4 percent of the science and engineering jobs were held by African-Americans and only 3.4 percent by Hispanics (Congressional Diversity in Innovation Caucus). This means that the largest portion of the workforce continues to be isolated from careers with higher-paying career potential.
*AP and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

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