Catholic University of Guayaquil


Instalation Manual about ELEVATORS

Student s name:

Ivonne Ordoñez Sáenz
Teacher s name:

Lic. Gabriela García Carreer: Architecture Level: Thesis

Electric Lifts 7. Strange Items 4.TUTORIAL II Intallation Manual about Fifts INTRODUCCIÓN 1. Maintenance 6. The Elevator Parts 3. Variety Of Finishes CONCLUSIÓN BIBLIOGRAFÍA . Engine Room 9. Definition 2. Elevator´S Types 10. History 2. Basic Rules Of Hygiene & Safety 5. Hydraulic Lifts 8.

the engine room and more. The development of modern elevator profoundly affected architecture and has been a further evolution of cities. with raising and lowering mechanisms and with a power source. In this research topic and different points of information detailing a brief history. to allow construction of multi-storey buildings.INTRODUCTION The elevators or lifts are devices for vertical transport passenger or freight to different floors or levels. as well as parts of an elevator. we dictate the main creators of these devices. hygiene and maintenance. eg a building or a mine. . The elevator comprises a table or a cabinet which moves within hollow or vertical guides.

large forklifts used to move up to the gladiators and wild beasts to track level. Otis installed the first passenger elevator in the world. where the driving force was provided even by men. William Thompson designed the first hydraulic elevator. in an abbey located on the French coast. In 1857. the car was stopped. it gives rise to the use of other energy. Otis constructed a forklift equipped with a safety device such that when cutting the traction cable.ELEVATORS OR LIFTS 1. when James Watt invented the steam engine. Otis elevator inside. Back in 1500 B. History The ancient Egyptians used different sets of ropes and ramps to move the stone blocks that would shape the pyramids. were used forklifts for use by people and supplies. . It is the principle of passenger transport. Barlaam in Greece built on mountain peaks. that caused the beginning of the industrial revolution. His invention was presented at the Crystal Palace Exhibition in New York and won public confidence by allowing intentionally cut the cable with Mr.2 m / sec. To access the Monastery of St. Which worked with ropes and pulleys. in a shop in New York. which used the current water pressure. they used the rope pulled by a donkey stepped. In 1853. In 1835 we used the elevator driven by a steam engine to lift loads in a factory in England. built the Colosseum in 80 AD. Just around 1800. Elisha G..C. Ten years later. moved by a steam engine at a speed of 0. The Chinese improved the system using containers placed on an endless rope turned by a winch which worked by hand or pedal. Nile River waters were high in buckets and dumped in irrigation canals by means of an arm poised on a pivot. When the Emperor Titus. The first lift (elevator) was developed by Archimedes in the year 236 BC. In 1203.

cab. water. Also called hole or passageway. Broadly speaking. So for the Fund states that construction must be noncombustible and within or embedded in the walls that there should be close to the elevator outside pipes such as gas pipes. boards and other implements that govern the operation of an elevator. namely: a) Cash: the room or space in a building or structure is intended to summon the elevator. c) Car: combination of the frame.2. . platform and accessory that slips over the guiding principles. Includes mounted stretchers and are cited as "Elevators". The Elevator Parts It is called the elevator mechanical device that carries (up-down) a person or persons and things. The rules for each one of parts that must be met by projecting an elevator. b) Machine Room: is the area used to house the machinery driving. we can establish three main parts.

telephone facilities. The machine room will be constructed of noncombustible materials and the minimal side not less than 2. The circuit must be independent of driving force. cable TV. etc. The ventilation is natural and permanent openings either side placed at opposite sides or side and overhead vain (skylight). a defense of non-combustible material of not less than 2. counterweight. The walls and ceilings should not form part of receptacles containing liquids (water tanks) and shall be a minimum clearance of 2. When the elevators are grouped in a box (battery) is placed between two adjacent and at the bottom of the box. . The lighting should not be less than 15 Watts per square foot and mouth should be overhead light and switch on the side of the door lock.35 m. The minimum cross section of the box is equal to the dimensions a and b of the cabin. Will be finished to smooth plaster. The lighting can be natural and / or artificial. adding 0.00 m.20 m. electricity emergency.00 m. high. guides and other elements for the operation of all equipment.heating. each and will accommodate the car. plaster boards or acoustic..

wide and the road will be non-combustible material and the room opens out on landing. high and 0. waste etc.70 m step. side door handle.70 m.90 m. Front and back of board operations. bottles. If access is by roof parapet that is not passable. Be fitted with lock and key. components and installations under pressure and needs to be controlled solely by the company in charge of service and possibly the presence of the Administrator or Manager of the building.70 m. But even though you are electrical components that sometimes spark. wide.50 m. there will be a fire extinguisher of 5 kg. plant or ducts outside the elevator. This site is exclusively for machines. The access door shall be at least 1. One of the steps allow manual operation of the machine. When ladder does not expect less than 0. shall be provided a defense of 0. . The minimum width of the steps between the different elements is 0. In that room is prohibited to place tools. minimum height in the way of such access.Access will be comfortable and easy through steps in continuity with the output required. the minimum width is 0. because both managers and boards of directors do not fulfill or enforce the regulations. carbon dioxide (C02) suitable for electric fire. are the repository of furniture and mattresses. near the front door. Strange Items It is very common (except new construction) to meet a series of irregularities in the "machine room". 3.80 m.

and are accompanied by their children.Add to this the board driving force is the temptation to supply electrical power much comes to mind as installed in the building of the terrace lighting. Should be metallic and interior height shall be not less than 2. the elevator starts to call of any floor. ventilation. etc. which is the enclosure which houses the persons or things to be transported by car. alarm bells. The requirements for elevator cab as dimensions. is complemented by the implementation of the rules or not as belonging to the cabin. The separation between facing doors and landing cabin no greater than 0.. . emergency lighting equipment and cable TV. including the cabin.00 m. neglect can occur in a serious accident. which makes security is completely invalidated. one independent of the other function button that triggers an alarm bell placed in the hallway and another button for emergency stop. and sometimes not lock the handle.. lighting. The speed limiter is the device responsible for actuating the parachute through a cable and it usually housed in the engine room.00 m. If we think that people are going to dry your clothes on the terrace. etc. Just as the engine room is the sign that we can at first glance an idea of maintenance and interest in doing things right. The violation of this policy has led to many fatal accidents due to recklessness of youth who have found this haven a suitable place to play hide and seek without measuring the consequences of closing doors.50 m each side up to 1. When defining car.. such as the sign indicating the number of people and the pounds to carry. As for the mirror glass or glass usually not exceed 0. Parachutes and speed limiter: the parachute is mandatory for use in the car used to stop acting against the guides if accidental descent accelerated. Which brings other people outside the elevator to access a place that is forbidden. The road is often easier because the front door of the machine room is not regulatory.15 m. if you have double the lighting circuit. mirrors.

Keep lifts in good condition: not to exceed the capacity limit. Sure they are clean and tidy all the commonplaces of the consortium: basement. Only licensed electricians can do. 3. 4. boiler and elevator machine room and also the well hole (passage) of the same. Electricity can kill life. damage them or obstruct them. Notices and signs are safety standards. All that is rubbish or waste shall be deposited in the receptacles provided for that purpose. Check the load of fire extinguishers and request that the company providing training and drills on an annual basis to the manager. storage spaces. verify that the doors are closed and not used in case of fire. the Empire State or other similar characteristics. . 2. and as such must be respected. Basic Rules of Hygiene & Safety 1. not destroy. 6. Do not repair or modify. The newspapers and rags increase the fire load and thus the possibility of a fire. meter rooms. 5. NOTE: Some authors assign to Leonardo Da Vinci.By creating the lift works were made possible as the Eiffel Tower. not smoking. 4. circa 1500 .as the inventor of the elevator.

and therefore the height to which the cab could climb. the cabin. 6. the length of the hoisting rope. holding the motor below. except in the case of high buildings. b. Thus the new ordinance specifies the verification and testing routines and the frequency thereof.5. This will require applying recognized standards. In his invention. operated by an electric motor spinning a rotating drum in which the hoisting rope coiled. In 1887 he built an electric elevator. was limited by the size of the drum. Electric Lifts In 1880 the German inventor Werner von Siemens introduced the electric motor in the construction of elevators. Maintenance There are three types of maintenance of lifts: a. connecting the motor with the drum. as the main requirement for the manufacture of parts that they do at all: design. climbed through the hole by rotating pinion gears that powered the brackets on the sides of the hole. . This brings a higher cost of maintenance. Over the next twelve years began to be of general use with electric elevators worm gear. Corrective: it basically consists of replacing items when they break is what is commonly done at this time. installation and maintenance. the maximum guarantee for the safety of persons and property. Preventive: that is permanently verifying and systematically all safety features to detect the expected time to wear the same supply your replacement before their total failure occur. c. but that includes the safety of users to reduce accidents and improve the quality of service. Predictive: which is the ideal to which we desire and will arrive shortly. manufacture. In the elevator drum.

which was later supplemented with an elaborate system of signals. broke or not the rope. and to resort to a mechanical safety device if the speed becomes dangerous. However. appealed to the security system when the car was moving at a dangerous speed. At first. At first. so-called regulators control a variety of devices to reduce the speed of the car if it increases even slightly. to stop the engine and use an electromagnetic brake if the car continues to accelerate. single-speed motors were the only ones that were used. The control buttons was an early discovery. The safety devices had been developed much. . In recent years have been used with automatic devices for leveling frequency cabs platforms. which were controlled by the operating switches of the cabin. The balances that created tension electrically run over pulleys solved the problem. but later devised systems for changing the speed by varying the voltage to be supplied to the motor of elevation. In subsequent security systems were used pliers who clung to the guides and the cab stopped gradually. installation costs relatively low and almost constant speed regardless of load) pushed inventors to find a way to use the electrical driving force in these buildings. Since the introduction of electric motive power in elevators made several improvements in engines and methods of control. As required a second lower speed to facilitate leveling of the cab with respect to the platforms were introduced auxiliary engines low speed. In 1878 introduced a mechanism connected to a speed governor. the ignition of the engine and brakes were operated mechanically from the cockpit by hand ropes.Space limitations and manufacturing difficulties prevented the drum mechanism used in the skyscrapers. Today. is introduced for connecting the motor and a spring brake release. the advantages of electric elevator (performance. The electromagnets.

Electrical circuits. In 1948 he set up computers or computers to automatically analyze the information. The Sears Tower in Chicago. Hydraulic Lifts In these early elevators. The effective length of the opening of the piston is multiplied with a system of ropes and pulleys. and thus. The electric lifts are used today in all types buildings. enable operation only when the doors are closed. The World Trade Center in New York. 110 floors. At low speed booths are placed Bumper lever in the bottom of the lifting means. with its two 110-story towers had 244 elevators or hoists with capacities up to 4. the hydraulic elevator generally replaced by model of a cord wound on a rotating drum. . The use of automatic programming equipment finally eliminated the need for starter motors on the ground floor of large commercial buildings. the operation of the lifts are made fully automatic.536 kg and speeds up to 488 m / min. has 109 elevators that reach speeds up to 549 m / min. Major advances in electronic systems that were made during World War II resulted in many changes in the design and installation of lifts. The plunger in this model was replaced by a short piston moving in a cylinder vertically or horizontally installed within the building.The switch terminals are independent of other mechanisms to control and stop the car at the upper and lower limits of the journey. supplemented with contact points in the various plants in the doors of the lifting means and the cab doors. Due to its smoother operation and greater efficiency. In the 1870 was introduced gear hydraulic elevator cable. which greatly improved the operating performance of the elevators in large buildings. a steam engine is connected through a belt and a gear to a rotating drum in which the hoisting rope wrapped. High speed cabins are damped by placing pistons within the cylinder bushings. 7.

called woven steel wire hoisting ropes are attached to the top .00 m in height and shall open outwards. ELEVATOR´S TYPES While there is a wide range of lifts to suit every need. with a door width of 70m and 2. Otis introduced the design would become the standard in the elevator industry. Will be constructed of noncombustible material. Be lit artificially with 15 watts per m '.In a gearless traction machine.30 fixed ventilation M2 3/4 and 114 lighting ventilation. in the gearless traction elevator. The steps next to the machines and controls should be respected as are furnished in the sketch. In 1903. These elevators typically operate at speeds greater than 500 feet per minute (2. b) Oriented traction and c) Machine-room. You will have 1 (one) of 0. 9.54 meters per second).8.20 m side (We recommend placing it next to the passage in the lower landing). Engine Room The enclosure for housing the machine must have a minimum: 2. they fall into three basic types: a) Gearless traction. a) Gearless traction elevators.

These elevators typically operate at speeds of 350 to 500 feet per minute (1.7 to 2.of the elevator car and wrapped around the drive pulley in special grooves. provide the necessary traction as the pulley turns.5 meters per second) and carry loads up to 30.600 kilograms). the electric motor in the design of a reduction gear unit-type. As its name indicates. which converts the lift sheave. holding the car at the desired floor level. .000 pounds (13. Gearless technology makes the world's tallest buildings as possible. The combined weight of the elevator cab and counterweight machines of the cable drive pulley grooves. An electrically controlled brake between the motor and reduction unit of the elevator stops. The other ends of the cables are attached to a counterweight which moves up and down in the elevator shaft on its own guideways. Although slower than a gearless elevator typical gear reduction provides the advantage of requiring a less powerful motor to turn the pulley. as Malaysia's Petronas Towers b) Oriented traction elevators.

Machine room-less elevators machines are ideal for a variety of applications. Just as unique are the flat belts polyurethane coated steel.1 inches (3 mm) thick. This revolutionary elevator system is based on the first breakthrough in lifting technology in nearly 100 years. Stories designed for buildings of two to 30. this system uses a small sheave than conventional elevators and gearless directed. woven steel cables that have been the industry standard since 1800. are as strong as woven steel cables and more durable. . allows the machine to be mounted on the shaft. as the monument to Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro. They are only 0. The reduced size of the pulley. with newly designed equipment. flexible and space saving.c) Machine lifts without machine room. eliminating the need for a bulky machine room ceiling. and more unusual. invented by Otis for Gen2 elevator system. replacing the heavy. Belt pulley making the minimum. however.

You can also leave prepared for the installation of granite or marble work. VARIETY OF FINISHES a) Finished in Skinplate Resistant and attractive finish six skinplate are PVC sheets with a rough texture which are installed on galvanized steel walls of the cabin. The front and door panels are finished in brushed stainless steel. non-slip rubber or artificial stone. The floors are available in highly durable rubber. which optionally can be ordered in stainless steel.10. b) Finished Laminates Quality laminates. The floors are available in a choice of rubber or artificial stone. In this case the curved roof is always white skinplate. The colors enhance the feeling of light in the cabin. the control panel can be finished in stainless steel. the same finish as the control panel. Its white roof (flat or curved) helps make the cabin seem more spacious. simulating wood or marble. You can also leave prepared for the installation of granite or marble work. . The front and door panels are finished in brushed stainless steel. Optionally. which give the cabin Optimum flexibility that integrates classical and modern and contemporary. and its control panel lined with white skinplate.

You can also leave prepared for the installation of granite or marble work. We put the emphasis on durability. The floors are available in a choice of rubber or artificial stone. Complementing the finish of the walls. in this case also the control panel is finished in stainless steel.a) Finished Stainless Steel The cabin finish with satin steel stainless steel is very robust. . so that all components are designed and tested for maximum strength. The front and door panels are finished in satin stainless steel also.

engine room and car 5. . 3. preventive and predictive. The first lift (elevator) was developed by Archimedes in the year 236 BC 4. The ancient Egyptians used different sets of ropes and ramps to move the stone blocks that would shape the pyramids. the latter the ideal because it allows us greater security to users and the building itself. eg a building or a mine.CONCLUSION At the end of the song "O LIFTS LIFTS" we still have the following conclusions: 1. The Elevator or lift is a device for the vertical transport of passengers or freight to different floors or levels. There are three types of maintenance: corrective. 2. Lift is forming for the following part: box.

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